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Sample records for sex pheromone traps

  1. Dispenser and trap design affect the effectiveness of sex pheromone on trap capture of dogwood borer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capture of dogwood borer (DWB), Synanthedon scitula Harris (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), was evaluated in field trapping studies using wing-style sticky traps baited with rubber septum or polyethylene vial dispensers containing the most effective sex pheromone ternary blend [86:6:6 v:v:v (Z,Z)-3,13-o...

  2. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    PubMed

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  3. Factors influencing capture of invasive sea lamprey in traps baited with a synthesized sex pheromone component

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10−12 M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20–40 %) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low.

  4. Factors Influencing Capture of Invasive Sea Lamprey in Traps Baited With a Synthesized Sex Pheromone Component.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C Michael; Bravener, Gale; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2015-10-01

    The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is emerging as a model organism for understanding how pheromones can be used for manipulating vertebrate behavior in an integrated pest management program. In a previous study, a synthetic sex pheromone component 7α,12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3kPZS) was applied to sea lamprey traps in eight streams at a final in-stream concentration of 10(-12) M. Application of 3kPZS increased sea lamprey catch, but where and when 3kPZS had the greatest impact was not determined. Here, by applying 3kPZS to additional streams, we determined that overall increases in yearly exploitation rate (proportion of sea lampreys that were marked, released, and subsequently recaptured) were highest (20-40%) in wide streams (~40 m) with low adult sea lamprey abundance (<1000). Wide streams with low adult abundance may be representative of low-attraction systems for adult sea lamprey and, in the absence of other attractants (larval odor, sex pheromone), sea lamprey may have been more responsive to a partial sex pheromone blend emitted from traps. Furthermore, we found that the largest and most consistent responses to 3kPZS were during nights early in the trapping season, when water temperatures were increasing. This may have occurred because, during periods of increasing water temperatures, sea lamprey become more active and males at large may not have begun to release sex pheromone. In general, our results are consistent with those for pheromones of invertebrates, which are most effective when pest density is low and when pheromone competition is low. PMID:26399432

  5. A sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) sex pheromone mixture increases trap catch relative to a single synthesized component in specific environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Tix, John A.; Hlina, Benjamin L.; Wagner, C. Michael; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wang, Huiyong; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Spermiating male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) release a sex pheromone, of which a component, 7α, 12α, 24-trihydoxy-3-one-5α-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), has been identified and shown to induce long distance preference responses in ovulated females. However, other pheromone components exist, and when 3kPZS alone was used to control invasive sea lamprey populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, trap catch increase was significant, but gains were generally marginal. We hypothesized that free-ranging sea lamprey populations discriminate between a partial and complete pheromone while migrating to spawning grounds and searching for mates at spawning grounds. As a means to test our hypothesis, and to test two possible uses of sex pheromones for sea lamprey control, we asked whether the full sex pheromone mixture released by males (spermiating male washings; SMW) is more effective than 3kPZS in capturing animals in traditional traps (1) en route to spawning grounds and (2) at spawning grounds. At locations where traps target sea lampreys en route to spawning grounds, SMW-baited traps captured significantly more sea lampreys than paired 3kPZS-baited traps (~10 % increase). At spawning grounds, no difference in trap catch was observed between 3kPZS and SMW-baited traps. The lack of an observed difference at spawning grounds may be attributed to increased pheromone competition and possible involvement of other sensory modalities to locate mates. Because fishes often rely on multiple and sometimes redundant sensory modalities for critical life history events, the addition of sex pheromones to traditionally used traps is not likely to work in all circumstances. In the case of the sea lamprey, sex pheromone application may increase catch when applied to specifically designed traps deployed in streams with low adult density and limited spawning habitat.

  6. Influence of within-orchard trap placement on catch of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-04-01

    The influence of trap placement on catches of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., was examined in a series of studies conducted in orchards treated with Isomate-C Plus sex pheromone dispensers. Mark-recapture tests with sterilized moths released along the interface of pairs of treated and untreated apple and pear plots found that significantly more male but not female moths were recaptured on interception traps placed in the treated plots. In a second test, significantly higher numbers of wild male and female moths were caught on interception traps placed in treated versus untreated plots within a heavily infested orchard. The highest numbers of male moths were caught on traps placed along the interior edge of the treated plots. Trap position had no influence on the captures of female moths. In a third test, north-south transects of sex pheromone-baited traps were placed through adjacent treated and untreated plots that received a uniform release of sterilized moths. Traps on the upwind edge of the treated plots caught similar numbers of moths as traps upwind from the treated plots. Moth catch was significantly reduced at all other locations inside versus outside of the treated plots, including traps placed on the downwind edge of the treated plot. In a fourth test, five apple orchards were monitored with groups of sex pheromone-baited traps placed either on the border or at three distances inside the orchards. The highest moth counts were in traps placed at the border, and the lowest moth counts were in traps placed 30 and 50 m from the border. In a fifth test, the proportion of traps failing to catch any moths despite the occurrence of local fruit injury was significantly higher in traps placed 50 versus 25 m from the border. The implications provided by these data for designing an effective monitoring program for codling moth in sex pheromone-treated orchards are discussed. PMID:17445378

  7. Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): trap optimization and application in IPM trials.

    PubMed

    Cork, A; Alam, S N; Rouf, F M A; Talekar, N S

    2003-04-01

    Delta and wing traps baited with synthetic female sex pheromone of Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée were found to catch and retain ten times more moths than either Spodoptera or uni-trap designs. Locally-produced water and funnel traps were as effective as delta traps, although 'windows' cut in the side panels of delta traps significantly increased trap catch from 0.4 to 2.3 moths per trap per night. Trap catch was found to be proportional to the radius of sticky disc traps in the range 5-20 cm radius, discs with a 2.5 cm radius caught no moths. Wing traps placed at crop height caught significantly more moths than traps placed 0.5 m above or below the crop canopy. Replicated integrated pest management (IPM) trials (3 x 0.5 ha per treatment) were conducted in farmers fields with young and mature eggplant crops. Farmers applied insecticides at least three times a week in all check and IPM plots. In addition pheromone traps were placed out at a density of 100 per ha and infested shoots removed weekly in the 0.5 ha IPM plots. Pheromone trap catches were reduced significantly from 2.0 to 0.4 moths per trap per night respectively in check and IPM plots in a young crop and 1.1 to 0.3 moths per trap per night in check and IPM plots respectively in a mature crop. Fruit damage was significantly reduced from an average of 41.8% and 51.2% in check plots of young and mature crops respectively to 22% and 26.4 respectively in the associated IPM plots. Significant differences in pheromone trap catches and fruit damage were attained four and two weeks respectively after IPM treatments began in the mature crop whereas in the immature crop significant differences were not observed for the first eight to nine weeks respectively. The relative impact of removing infested shoots and mass trapping on L. orbonalis larval populations was not established in these trials but in both cases there was an estimated increase of approximately 50% in marketable fruit obtained by the combination of

  8. Sex ratio and female sexual status of the coconut pest, Oryctes monoceros (Coleoptera: Dynastidae), differ in feeding galleries and pheromone-baited traps.

    PubMed

    Allou, K; Morin, J-P; Kouassi, P; Hala N'klo, F; Rochat, D

    2008-12-01

    Oryctes monoceros is a serious coconut pest, causing up to 40% damage in tropical Africa. Synthetic aggregation pheromone, ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, has been used to lure adults to traps. Traps with pheromone plus decaying palm material captured a high proportion of males. This raises the question whether individuals, which damage palms are receptive to the pheromone. We studied the sex ratio of the insects feeding on coconuts and those attracted to pheromone traps. Sixty two percent of adults from feeding galleries on living coconut palms were females. Pheromone with rotting palm material lured 43% females. To investigate the reasons for this difference, we compared the reproductive system of females lured to the odour traps or feeding in coconut galleries, or present in old rotting stems. Ninety six percent of the females trapped by pheromone had mated, and were sexually mature. In the galleries on living palms, 46% of females were immature, and 24% had not mated. In old rotting stems where eggs are laid and larvae develop, a mixture of 52% mated and 48% virgin females was found. Therefore, the pheromone together with the odour of rotting coconut stems signals a reproduction site to beetles, particularly mature females. In practice, the pheromone-baited traps will help in reducing the dissemination of gravid females, but will not affect directly the numbers of immature ones attacking palms. Our results show that when using pheromones for monitoring or controlling insects, the physiological status of the insects may have unexpected effects on the outcome. PMID:18662429

  9. Captures of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) With Sex Pheromone Traps in NE China Corn and Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Li, Lian-Bing; Klein, Michael G; Li, Qi-Yun; Li, Peng-Pei; Sheng, Cheng-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), commonly referred to as the Asian corn borer, is the most important corn pest in Asia. Although capturing males with pheromone traps has recently been the main monitoring tool and suppression technique, the best trap designs remain unclear. Commercially available Delta and funnel traps, along with laboratory-made basin and water traps, and modified Delta traps, were evaluated in corn and soybean fields during 2013-2014 in NE China. The water trap was superior for capturing first-generation O. furnacalis (1.37 times the Delta trap). However, the basin (8.3 ± 3.2 moths/trap/3 d), Delta (7.9 ± 2.5), and funnel traps (7.0 ± 2.3) were more effective than water traps (1.4 ± 0.4) during the second generation. Delta traps gave optimal captures when deployed at ca. 1.57 × the highest corn plants, 1.36× that of average soybean plants, and at the field borders. In Delta traps modified by covering 1/3 of their ends, captures increased by ca. 15.7 and 8.1% in the first and second generations, respectively. After 35 d in the field, pheromone lures were still ca. 50% as attractive as fresh lures, and retained this level of attraction for ca. 25 more days. Increased captures (first and second generation: 90.9 ± 9.5%; 78.3 ± 9.3%) were obtained by adding a lure exposed for 5 d to funnel traps baited with a 35-d lure. PMID:26362111

  10. Sex Pheromone of Anastrepha striata.

    PubMed

    Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C

    2015-05-01

    The guava fruit fly, Anastrepha striata, is a pest of several cultivated species of Myrtaceae in the American tropics and subtropics. During calling, A. striata males release numerous volatiles. This study was conducted to identify which of the male volatiles function as the A. striata sex pheromone and to investigate the effects of age and time of day on the emission of pheromone components. Analysis of the volatiles from males collected by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) showed that three volatile compounds elicited repeatable responses from the antennae of females. The EAD-active compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry as ethyl hexanoate, linalool, and ethyl octanoate. In two-choice tests using Multilure traps placed in field cages, traps baited with live males, ethyl hexanoate, or the three-component blend captured more females than unbaited traps. However, there was no difference in catches when traps baited with live males were compared against traps baited with ethyl hexanoate. Although traps baited with the three-component blend caught more females than traps baited with live males, the difference was not significant. Analyses of pheromonal components released by A. striata males 8 to 26 days old showed that there was an effect of age on pheromone production and also a significant effect of time of day on pheromone emission. Release of the volatile compounds occurred from 14.00 to 18.00 hr, although traces of linalool were detected from 08.00 hr. Peak emission of pheromone compounds occurred at 14.00 hr. PMID:25912228

  11. Determining circadian response of adult male Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to synthetic sex attractant pheromone through time-segregated trapping with a new clockwork timing trap.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Douglass E; Harris, Marvin K

    2009-12-01

    Mate finding is a key lifecycle event for the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, as it is for virtually all Lepidoptera, many of which rely on long-range, species-specific sex pheromones, regulated largely by circadian clocks. Adult male moths were trapped at discrete time intervals during the first two seasonal flights for 6 yr to determine times of peak activity associated with male response to pheromones. From 1997 to 2002, the Harris-Coble automated clockwork timing trap was used for hourly time-segregated sampling. Analysis of variance with linear contrasts determined that circadian response of A. nuxvorella males to pecan nut casebearer pheromone began at approximately 2100 hours, the first hour of total darkness, lasting for 6-7 h. It peaked from midnight to 0400 hours and ended at the onset of morning twilight, approximately 0500 hours. The hours of peak activity are hours of minimal bat predation. The study shows that pecan nut casebearer males become responsive to pheromone several hours before females start calling and remain responsive for at least 1 h after they stop. The extended response period conforms to studies of other polygamous Lepidoptera in which a selective advantage is conferred on early responding males in scramble competition for available females. PMID:20021765

  12. The optimal sex pheromone release rate for trapping the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    For successful pest management, codlemone (E, E-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol) is widely used to monitor codling moth. The pheromone release rate is essential for the lure’s attractiveness. The optimal sex pheromone release rate (V0) for trapping codling moth was evaluated during 2013–2014. The overwinter generation V0 was 6.7–33.4 μg wk−1, and moth catches (MCs) were 0.82 ± 0.11 adults/trap/week; MCs for lower (V1) and higher (V2) release rates were 52.4% and 46.3%, respectively, of that for V0. The first generation V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.45 ± 0.29 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 34.5% and 31.7%, respectively, of those for V0. Combining across generations, the final V0 was 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1, with MCs of 1.07 ± 0.06 adults/week/trap. V1 and V2 MCs were 51.4% and 41.1%, respectively, of that for V0. Overwinter generation emergence was relatively concentrated, requiring a wider V0. Maintaining the release rate at 18.4–29.6 μg wk−1 could optimize the lure’s efficacy; this resulted in the capture of nearly 1.9 and 2.4 times more moths than V1 and V2, respectively. The results also indicate that a dispenser pheromone release rate of 200–300 times that of the female moth can perfectly outcompetes females in the field. PMID:26879373

  13. Electroantennogram Responses and Field Trapping of Asian Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) with Blattellaquinone, Sex Pheromone of the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    PubMed

    Matos, Yvonne K; Schal, Coby

    2015-08-01

    The Asian cockroach, Blattella asahinai Mizukubo, first introduced to Florida in 1986, has been spreading throughout the southeastern United States. Populations can reach extremely high densities and cause damage to crops as well as become a nuisance in residential settings. Because the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., is its closest extant relative, we characterized the B. asahinai male response to blattellaquinone, the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, in an effort to develop monitoring tools for B. asahinai. Electroantennogram (EAG) analysis was conducted on B. asahinai and B. germanica males and females, and revealed that the antennae of males of both species responded significantly more to blattellaquinone than females, and in both males and females absolute EAG responses of B. asahinai were greater than in B. germanica males and females, respectively. However, normalized male EAG response curves and ED50 values (effective dose to elicit 50% of maximal response) did not differ significantly between the two species. Results of field trapping experiments demonstrated that male B. asahinai were more attracted to blattellaquinone than any other life stage, and 10 μg of blattellaquinone attracted the most males. These results suggest that blattellaquinone or a similar compound might be a component of the sex pheromone of B. asahinai females. PMID:26314061

  14. The joy of sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Benton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Sex pheromones provide an important means of communication to unite individuals for successful reproduction. Although sex pheromones are highly diverse across animals, these signals fulfil common fundamental roles in enabling identification of a mating partner of the opposite sex, the appropriate species and of optimal fecundity. In this review, we synthesize both classic and recent investigations on sex pheromones in a range of species, spanning nematode worms, insects and mammals. These studies reveal comparable strategies in how these chemical signals are produced, detected and processed in the brain to regulate sexual behaviours. Elucidation of sex pheromone communication mechanisms both defines outstanding models to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of chemosensory behaviours, and reveals how similar evolutionary selection pressures yield convergent solutions in distinct animal nervous systems. EMBO reports advance online publication 13 September 2013; doi:10.1038/embor.2013.140 PMID:24030282

  15. Sex and Aggregation-Sex Pheromones of Cerambycid Beetles: Basic Science and Practical Applications.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-07-01

    Research since 2004 has shown that the use of volatile attractants and pheromones is widespread in the large beetle family Cerambycidae, with pheromones now identified from more than 100 species, and likely pheromones for many more. The pheromones identified to date from species in the subfamilies Cerambycinae, Spondylidinae, and Lamiinae are all male-produced aggregation-sex pheromones that attract both sexes, whereas all known examples for species in the subfamilies Prioninae and Lepturinae are female-produced sex pheromones that attract only males. Here, we summarize the chemistry of the known pheromones, and the optimal methods for their collection, analysis, and synthesis. Attraction of cerambycids to host plant volatiles, interactions between their pheromones and host plant volatiles, and the implications of pheromone chemistry for invasion biology are discussed. We also describe optimized traps, lures, and operational parameters for practical applications of the pheromones in detection, sampling, and management of cerambycids. PMID:27501814

  16. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with sticky traps baited with terpinyl acetate and sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in Argentina and Chile during 2010-11 evaluated a new trap (Ajar) for monitoring the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck). The Ajar trap was delta-shaped with a jar filled with a terpinyl acetate plus brown sugar bait attached to the bottom center of the trap. The screened lid of ...

  17. Effect of Sex Pheromone and Kairomone Lures on Catches of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in apple orchards treated with sex pheromone evaluated the performance of a clear vertical interception trap coated with oil and baited with either sex pheromone, pear ester, or both attractants (combo) for adult codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Baited interception traps caught significan...

  18. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed. PMID:18284745

  19. Spotted cutworm, Xestia c-nigrum (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) responses to sex pheromone and blacklight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with the sex pheromone blend of (Z7)- and (Z5)-tetradecenyl acetate captured significant numbers of male spotted cutworm moths, Xestia c-nigrum (L.). Nearly no males were captured in traps baited with (Z7)-tetradecenyl acetate, the major pheromone component. Antennae of spotted cutworm ...

  20. A new class of mealybug pheromones: a hemiterpene ester in the sex pheromone of Crisicoccus matsumotoi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Jun; Narai, Yutaka; Sawamura, Nobuo; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Sugie, Hajime

    2012-07-01

    Mealybugs, which include several agricultural pests, are small sap feeders covered with a powdery wax. They exhibit clear sexual dimorphism; males are winged but fragile and short lived, whereas females are windless and less mobile. Thus, sex pheromones emitted by females facilitate copulation and reproduction by serving as a key navigation tool for males. Although the structures of the hitherto known mealybug pheromones vary among species, they have a common structural motif; they are carboxylic esters of monoterpene alcohols with irregular non-head-to-tail linkages. However, in the present study, we isolated from the Matsumoto mealybug, Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa), a pheromone with a completely different structure. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identified the pheromone as 3-methyl-3-butenyl 5-methylhexanoate. Its attractiveness to males was confirmed in a series of field trapping experiments involving comparison between the isolated natural product and a synthetic sample. This is the first report of a hemiterpene mealybug pheromone. In addition, the acid moiety (5-methylhexanoate) appears to be rare in insect pheromones.

  1. Development of trapping methods using a synthetic sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) threatens numerous crops of economic importance and could spread from populations in California and Florida to 33 other states. Field experiments conducted in Florida evaluated three commercially available trap designs baited with syntheti...

  2. Influence of climatic conditions on the distribution, abundance and activity of Agriotes lineatus L. adults in sex pheromone traps in Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozina, Antonela; Čačija, Maja; Igrc Barčić, Jasminka; Bažok, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The aims of this work were: (i) to determine the distribution and abundance of Agriotes lineatus, (ii) correlate the abundance with the prevailing climatic conditions to establish how temperature and rainfall are influencing the dominance, and (iii) to determine the activity characteristics of the adults. Investigations were conducted in 17 fields grouped in four regions characterized by different climatic conditions. Using sex pheromone traps the most important Agriotes species ( A. lineatus L., A. sputator L., A. obscurus L., A. brevis Cand. and A. ustulatus Schall.) were collected. The monitoring period for A. brevis, A. sputator, A. lineatus and A. obscurus was from the 18th to the 32nd, and for A. ustulatus from the 23rd to the 32nd week of the year. A total of 61,247 individuals Agriotes were captured, of which 24,916 individuals were A. lineatus. Abundance and dominance of A. lineatus were significantly higher in the region of Zagreb compared to other regions. Moving east, rainfall decreased and temperatures increased and associated with that the abundance and dominance indices were lower. It was determined that the abundance of A. lineatus was negatively correlated with average air temperature ( r = -0.5201; p < 0.0001). Compared to earlier data from the region of Zagreb the dominance index decreased. This might be a result of climate change as established average yearly temperature in these regions increased for 1.04 °C compared to the average data for the period 1961-1990. Other potentially damaging Agriotes species ( A. brevis and A. ustulatus) were also present in high abundances in some micro-regions.

  3. Evolution of Moth Sex Pheromone Desaturases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moth sex pheromone communication has evolved to make use of complex blends of relatively simple long-chain fatty acid precursors. Species specificity is derived from the unique stereochemistry of double bonds introduced into exact locations along the hydrocarbon backbone of fatty acids, which are r...

  4. Efficacy of pheromone trapping of the sweetpotato weevil (Coleoptera: Brentidae): based on dose, septum age, attractive radius, and mass trapping.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Wu, Shaohui; Mendi, Robert C; Miller, Ross H

    2014-06-01

    Pheromone dose, effective trapping distance, and longevity of the rubber septa loaded with sex pheromone of Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae) were evaluated for their impact on the efficacy of mass trapping of the insect in sweet potato fields in Guam in 2012-2013. The number of adults caught at different distances (10-100 m) was significantly different. Catches declined with increasing release distance from the trap in both downwind and upwind directions. While the maximum radius of attraction of pheromone-baited trap for C. formicarius in the field was 80 m, the effective distance for recapturing marked adults in the pheromone-baited Unitraps was 60 m. Pheromone lures were able to capture adults of C. formicarius after being stored in the laboratory for up to 98 d. The number of catches per trap per week was highest when lures were 0-14- and 15-28-d-old, and longer storage of septa led to a progressive reduction of catches. Pheromone traps baited with 100-μg lures captured significantly more adults compared with those loaded with 10-μg lures. In addition, effectiveness of pheromone trapping on damage to sweet potato was tested at two locations. Number of trapped adults, damage level at different times after trap installation, and yield production were evaluated. The number of C. formicarius adults collected in traps at both locations fluctuated dramatically among sampling dates and peaked on 13 September 2013, after which time the number of captures noticeably declined. This decrease was correlated to the increasing age and depletion of the pheromone lures. Pheromone traps significantly reduced feeding damage caused by weevils (<1 feeding hole per root in treatment; up to 38 feeding holes per root in the control) at both locations. Being consistent with damage levels, sweet potato yields in fields with traps were higher than those in untreated controls. We conclude that pheromone-baited traps are effective in reducing damage due to C. formicarius

  5. Modeling the suppression of sea lamprey populations by use of the male sex pheromone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.

  6. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed. PMID:26995936

  7. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Diaphania glauculalis males to female sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Liu, Zhi Tao; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Sun, Zhao Hui; Li, Yi Zhen; Wen, Xiu Jun; Chen, Xiao Yang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the pheromone active component of female moths, Diaphania glauculalis, an important pest of Anthocephalus chinensis in China. The sex pheromone was extracted from sex pheromone gland extracts of virgin female moth of D. glauculalis using n-hexane, and the pheromone gland extracts of females were analyzed using coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sex pheromone active components were based on the comparison the retention time and mass spectrum, with suitable synthetic compounds. (E)-11-hexadecenal (E11-16:Ald) and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10E12-16:Ald) were identified as the major sex pheromone components in the females. Their biological activities were evaluated in a series of electroantennogram (EAG) experiments and four-arm olfactometer assays using synthetic compounds. D. glauculalis males could be attracted by any single component, but a mixture of the E11-16:Ald and E10E12-16:Ald in a ratio of 5:5 elicited a substantial response, demonstrating that the binary blend is essential in male attraction. We therefore conclude that the aldehyde compounds, a mixture of E11-16:Ald and E10E12-16:Ald, comprise the sex pheromone components of D. glauculalis, which might be applied for insect field trapping. PMID:26002369

  8. Isolation and identification of sex pheromone ofSymmetrischema tangolias (Gyen) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Griepink, F C; van Beek, T A; Visser, J H; Voerman, S; de Groot, A

    1995-12-01

    The sex pheromone of the South American potato tuber mothSymmetrischema tangolias (syn.:Symmetrischema plaesiosema) was identified as a 2:1 mixture of (E,Z)-3,7-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate and (E)-3-tetradecen-1-ol acetate by means of dual-column GC, EAG, GC-EAD, GC-MS, NMR, and wind-tunnel bioassays. (Z)-5-Tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-ol acetate were also identified in the pheromone gland extract. MaleS. tangolias were able to detect these acetates (EAG), but their addition to the two-component sex pheromone did not improve attractiveness. Field trials in Cajamarca and Cusco, Peru, showed that traps baited with the synthetic sex pheromone were able to catch large numbers of maleS. tangolias. PMID:24233902

  9. Sex pheromone and trail pheromone of the sand termite Psammotermes hybostoma.

    PubMed

    Sillam-Dussès, David; Hanus, Robert; Abd El-Latif, Ashraf Oukasha; Jiroš, Pavel; Krasulová, Jana; Kalinová, Blanka; Valterová, Irena; Sobotník, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Within the complex network of chemical signals used by termites, trail pheromones and sex pheromones are among the best known. Numerous recent papers map the chemical identity and glandular origin of these pheromones in nearly all major isopteran taxa. In this study, we aimed to describe the sex pheromone and the trail pheromone of a poorly known sand termite, Psammotermes hybostoma. We identified (3Z,6Z,8E)-dodeca-3,6,8-trien-1-ol (dodecatrienol) as the sex pheromone released by tergal and sternal glands of female imagos and, at the same time, as the trail pheromone secreted from the sternal gland of workers. We conclude that chemical communication in Psammotermes does not differ from that of most other Rhinotermitidae, such as Reticulitermes, despite the presence of a diterpene as a major component of the trail pheromone of Prorhinotermes to which Psammotermes is presumed to be phylogenetically close. Our findings underline once again the conservative nature of chemical communication in termites, with dodecatrienol being a frequent component of pheromonal signals in trail following and sex attraction and, at the same time, a tight evolutionary relationship between the trail following of working castes and the sex attraction of imagos. PMID:21318399

  10. Sex pheromones in mate assessment: analysis of nutrient cost of sex pheromone production by females of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G

    2015-04-15

    It has been postulated that sex pheromones, in addition to their role in mate recognition and/or finding, may also serve a role in assessment of mate quality. For this, a sex pheromone must give honest information about a signaler's quality, with honesty ensured by a direct metabolic or indirect fitness cost to the signaler. Using a stable isotope tracer-tracee method, we characterized the nutrient pools that fuel sex pheromone production in females of the moth Heliothis virescens, as well as the relative importance of larval- and adult-acquired nutrients to this process. Females used three pools for de novo biosynthesis of sex pheromone, hemolymph trehalose, glycogen (via trehalose) and fat, and produced ca. 25% of pheromone directly from stored (previously synthesized) precursor fatty acids. Pheromone was produced roughly equally from carbohydrate and fat. Adult feeding was very important for pheromone biosynthesis, with a maximum of 65% of de novo biosynthesized pheromone produced from a single adult feed (carbohydrate). Although these nutrient pools are shared with other reproductive physiologies, notably oocyte production, it is unlikely that pheromone production imposes a significant metabolic cost on females, because (i) the amount of nutrients used for pheromone production is negligible compared with that available, (ii) the hemolymph trehalose pool is readily replaceable throughout the adult life, and (iii) in mated females, carbohydrate shortages result in reduced allocation to pheromone. PMID:25722008

  11. Controlled release of insect sex pheromones from paraffin wax and emulsions.

    PubMed

    Atterholt, C A; Delwiche, M J; Rice, R E; Krochta, J M

    1999-02-22

    Paraffin wax and aqueous paraffin emulsions can be used as controlled release carriers for insect sex pheromones for mating disruption of orchard pests. Paraffin can be applied at ambient temperature as an aqueous emulsion, adheres to tree bark or foliage, releases pheromone for an extended period of time, and will slowly erode from bark and biodegrade in soil. Pheromone emulsions can be applied with simple spray equipment. Pheromone release-rates from paraffin were measured in laboratory flow-cell experiments. Pheromone was trapped from an air stream with an adsorbent, eluted periodically, and quantified by gas chromatography. Pheromone release from paraffin was partition-controlled, providing a constant (zero-order) release rate. A typical paraffin emulsion consisted of 30% paraffin, 4% pheromone, 4% soy oil, 1% vitamin E, 2% emulsifier, and the balance water. Soy oil and vitamin E acted as volatility suppressants. A constant release of oriental fruit moth pheromone from paraffin emulsions was observed in the laboratory for more than 100 days at 27 degreesC, with release-rates ranging from 0.4 to 2 mg/day, depending on the concentration and surface area of the dried emulsion. The use of paraffin emulsions is a viable method for direct application of insect pheromones for mating disruption. Sprayable formulations can be designed to release insect pheromones to the environment at a rate necessary for insect control by mating disruption. At temperatures below 38 degreesC, zero-order release was observed. At 38 degreesC and higher, pheromone oxidation occurred. A partition-controlled release mechanism was supported by a zero-order pheromone release-rate, low air/wax partition coefficients, and pheromone solubility in paraffin. PMID:9895411

  12. Specificity Determinants of the Silkworm Moth Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Hooper, Antony M.; Pickett, John A.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect olfactory system, particularly the peripheral sensory system for sex pheromone reception in male moths, is highly selective, but specificity determinants at the receptor level are hitherto unknown. Using the Xenopus oocyte recording system, we conducted a thorough structure-activity relationship study with the sex pheromone receptor of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, BmorOR1. When co-expressed with the obligatory odorant receptor co-receptor (BmorOrco), BmorOR1 responded in a dose-dependent fashion to both bombykol and its related aldehyde, bombykal, but the threshold of the latter was about one order of magnitude higher. Solubilizing these ligands with a pheromone-binding protein (BmorPBP1) did not enhance selectivity. By contrast, both ligands were trapped by BmorPBP1 leading to dramatically reduced responses. The silkworm moth pheromone receptor was highly selective towards the stereochemistry of the conjugated diene, with robust response to the natural (10E,12Z)-isomer and very little or no response to the other three isomers. Shifting the conjugated diene towards the functional group or elongating the carbon chain rendered these molecules completely inactive. In contrast, an analogue shortened by two omega carbons elicited the same or slightly higher responses than bombykol. Flexibility of the saturated C1–C9 moiety is important for function as addition of a double or triple bond in position 4 led to reduced responses. The ligand is hypothesized to be accommodated by a large hydrophobic cavity within the helical bundle of transmembrane domains. PMID:22957053

  13. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    PubMed

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols. PMID:26453728

  14. [Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of male Apamea apameoides (Draudt) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to sex pheromone components].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Liang; Zhou, Zhang-Ting; Zhang, Ya-Bo; Zhou, Zhi-Feng; Shen, Zhi-Lian; Wang, Hao-Jie; Shu, Jin-Ping

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone gland extracts collected from calling females of Apamea apameoides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were analyzed with GC-MS, the electrophysiological and behavioral responses of the male adults to serial dilutions of sex pheromone components and their synthetic blends were investigated with Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory and in bamboo forest field. The results indicated that (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol were the functional components in the sex pheromone gland extracts. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings showed that sex pheromone gland extracts, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol all could elicit strong EAG responses, and the average EAG values increased with the increasing concentration of the sex pheromone. The blends of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 elicited a higher EAG value than each singular component did. The results of behavioral assay by Y-tube olfactometer accorded with those of EAG responses on the whole, and the mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol at the ratio of 57:43 was more attractive than each component alone. In field tests with silicone rubber as pheromone dispensers (concentration = 10(4) ng · uL(-1)), the average number of male adults captured per trap by the mixture was (48.5 ± 6.7). PMID:25796914

  15. Unusual pheromone chemistry in the navel orangeworm: novel sex attractants and a behavioral antagonist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, W. S.; Parra-Pedrazzoli, A. L.; Kaissling, K.-E.; Morgan, T. I.; Zalom, F. G.; Pesak, D. J.; Dundulis, E. A.; Burks, C. S.; Higbee, B. S.

    2005-03-01

    Using molecular- and sensory physiology-based approaches, three novel natural products, a simple ester, and a behavioral antagonist have been identified from the pheromone gland of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In addition to the previously identified (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienal, the pheromone blend is composed of (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-tricosapentaene, (Z,Z,Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9,12,15-pentacosapentaene, ethyl palmitate, ethyl-(Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadienoate, and (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate. The C23 and C25 pentaenes are not only novel sex pheromones, but also new natural products. In field tests, catches of A. transitella males in traps baited with the full mixture of pheromones were as high as those in traps with virgin females, whereas control and traps baited only with the previously known constituent did not capture any moths at all. The navel orangeworm sex pheromone is also an attractant for the meal moth, Pyralis farinalis L. (Pyralidae), but (Z,Z)-11,13-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate is a behavioral antagonist. The new pheromone blend may be highly effective in mating disruption and monitoring programs.

  16. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae). Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±)-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels), and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could currently be most effectively

  17. Mating Disruption of a Carpenter Moth, Cossus insularis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) in Apple Orchards with Synthetic Sex Pheromone, and Registration of the Pheromone as an Agrochemical.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hirotsuna; Takabe, Masanori; Nakamuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Mating disruption of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), with a synthetic version of its sex pheromone, a mixture of (E)-3-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-3-tetradecenyl acetate, was tested for three successive years in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards. Pheromone trap catches, percentage mating of tethered females and females enclosed with males in a mating cage, and tree damage were measured in both the pheromone-treated and untreated control orchards. The attraction of male moths to pheromone traps at heights of 1.5, 3, and 5 m was strongly disrupted when the pheromone dispensers were placed at 1.5 m height. Mating of tethered females placed at 1 m was completely inhibited, and the mating of tethered females at a height of 3 m was significantly reduced by the treatment in comparison to matings in an untreated control orchard. Similarly, mating of pairs of moths enclosed in mating cages was significantly reduced by the synthetic pheromone treatment in comparison to controls. The percentage of damaged trees in the pheromone-treated orchard also decreased significantly over the course of the experiment. These results suggest that mating disruption with the synthetic sex pheromone appears promising for reducing damage caused by C. insularis in apple orchards in Japan, and a commercial mating disruption product has been developed and registered. PMID:27369282

  18. Seasonal pheromone trap catches of male Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern California: asynchrony with host (olive tree) phenology?

    PubMed

    Villamil, Soledad C; Lewis, Edwin E; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-12-01

    Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) is an oligophagous species that feeds only on cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) and its close relatives. Synchrony of seasonal activity patterns of B. oleae, the olive fruit fly with its host's phenology is therefore expected. The objective of this study was to monitor the male olive fruit fly response to female sex pheromone in the field. White sticky traps were deployed year round for 3 yr in an olive orchard in Oroville, CA. They were checked periodically, and flies captured were counted and sexed. Although males were captured regularly, the numbers of females captured on pheromone traps were negligible. Food-baited traps and water-baited traps were deployed to show the presence of flies in the field. Our hypothesis that males would respond to pheromone when females were available and olive fruits were susceptible for oviposition was partially supported. There were two peaks of high male captures in pheromone traps: spring and fall. In spring, females were available and mature but few acceptable olives were available for oviposition (no new crop olives yet). In fall, females were present but many of the new crop olives were already infested. The food baited traps confirmed the presence of flies in the field even when very few were being captured in the pheromone-baited traps. Traps containing only water caught only two flies showing that water alone or the trap type in itself was not attractive to flies. PMID:24468560

  19. State-dependent responses to sex pheromones in mouse.

    PubMed

    Stowers, Lisa; Liberles, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    A single sensory cue can evoke different behaviors that vary by recipient. Responses may be influenced by sex, internal state, experience, genotype, and coincident environmental stimuli. Pheromones are powerful inducers of mouse behavior, yet pheromone responses are not always stereotyped. For example, male and female mice respond differently to sex pheromones while mothers and virgin females respond differently to pup cues. Here, we review the origins of variability in responses to reproductive pheromones. Recent advances have indicated how response variability may arise through modulation at different levels of pheromone-processing circuitry, from sensory neurons in the periphery to central neurons in the vomeronasal amygdala. Understanding mechanisms underlying conditional pheromone responses should reveal how neural circuits can be flexibly sculpted to alter behavior. PMID:27093585

  20. Pheromone detection by a pheromone emitter: a small sex pheromone-specific processing system in the female American cockroach.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Masazumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    Many animals depend on pheromone communication for successful mating. Sex pheromone in insects is usually released by females to attract males. In American cockroaches, the largest glomerulus (B-glomerulus) in the male antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) processes the major component of sex pheromone. Using intracellular recordings combined with fine neuroanatomical techniques, we provide evidence that the female homolog of the male B-glomerulus also acts as a sex pheromone-specific detector. Whereas ordinary glomeruli that process normal environmental odors are innervated by single projection neurons (PNs), the B-glomerulus in both sexes is innervated by multiple PNs, one of which possesses a thicker axon, termed here B-PN. Both soma size and axon diameter were smaller on B-PNs from females compared with B-PNs from males. The female B-PNs also produce fewer terminal arborizations in the protocerebrum than male B-PNs. Termination fields in the lateral protocerebrum of the female B-PN are mostly segregated from those formed by other uniglomerular PNs innervating ordinary glomeruli. Female B-PN activity was greatest in response to sex pheromone but lower than that in the male B-PN. This specific detection system suggests that sex pheromone affects the behavior and/or endocrine system of female cockroaches. PMID:21098584

  1. Roles of sex and gonadal steroids in mammalian pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2013-10-01

    A brain circuit (the accessory olfactory system) that originates in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and includes the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) plus additional forebrain regions mediates many of the effects of pheromones, typically comprised of a variety of non-volatile and volatile compounds, on aspects of social behavior. A second, parallel circuit (the main olfactory system) that originates in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and includes the main olfactory bulb (MOB) has also been shown to detect volatile pheromones from conspecifics. Studies are reviewed that point to specific roles of several different steroids and their water-soluble metabolites as putative pheromones. Other studies are reviewed that establish an adult, 'activational' role of circulating sex hormones along with sex differences in the detection and/or processing of non-steroidal pheromones by these two olfactory circuits. Persisting questions about the role of sex steroids in pheromonal processing are posed for future investigation. PMID:23872334

  2. Mating disruption of oriental beetle with sprayable sex pheromone formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of mating disruption in the oriental beetle (OB), Anomala orientalis, with microencapsulated sprayable formulations of the major component of its sex pheromone, was evaluated in turfgrass. The effect of the applications was measured by monitoring male OB captures in pheromone-baited ...

  3. Identification and Differential Expression of a Candidate Sex Pheromone Receptor in Natural Populations of Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinda; Zhang, Qinhui; Wu, Zhongnan; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is primarily mediated by highly specific olfactory receptors (ORs), a subfamily of which are the pheromone receptors that play a key role in sexual communication and can contribute to reproductive isolation. Here we cloned and identified an olfactory receptor, SlituOR3 (Genbank NO. JN835270), from Spodoptera litura, to be the candidate pheromone receptor. It exhibited male-biased expression in the antennae, where they were localized at the base of sensilla trichoidea. Conserved orthologues of these receptors were found amongst known pheromone receptors within the Lepidoptera, and SlituOR3 were placed amongst a clade of candidate pheromone receptors in a phylogeny tree of insect ORs. SlituOR3 is required for the EAG responses to both Z9E11-14:OAc and Z9E12-14:OAc SlituOR3 showed differential expression in S. litura populations attracted to traps baited with a series of sex pheromone blends composed of different ratios of (9Z,11E)-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E11-14:OAc) and (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E12-14:OAc). The changes in the expression level of SlitOR3 and antennal responses after SlitOR3 silencing suggested that SlitOR3 is required for the sex pheromone signaling. We infer that variation in transcription levels of olfactory receptors may modulate sex pheromone perception in male moths and could affect both of pest control and monitoring efficiency by pheromone application after long time mass trapping with one particular ratio of blend in the field. PMID:26126192

  4. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth. PMID:25533775

  5. An overlooked component: (Z)-9-tetradecenal as a sex pheromone in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ping; Salcedo, Christian; Fang, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Ruo-Jian; Zhang, Zhong-Ning

    2012-09-01

    The sex pheromone blend of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a multi-component system, as is that of many other moths, and (Z)-11-hexadecenal 90-99%+(Z)-9-hexadecenal 10-1% was recommended as a standard blend for attracting the species. However, this fails to account for the significance of other compounds that exist in the sex gland. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of other compounds present in the female sex gland of H. armigera. Extract of female sex glands were analysed by GC-MS combined with GC-EAD. Total 10 compounds were identified, which two novel were reported in female sex gland: heptanal and nonanal, and some previously identified compounds were confirmed. We developed bioassays to evaluate the potential roles of these 10 compounds. In Y-tube bioassays, the gland constituents hexadecanal, (Z)-7-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-tetradecenal increased male attractiveness when added as a three-compound admixture to the standard blend. Field trapping tests showed that (Z)-9-tetradecenal doubled trap catch in comparison with the standard blend, but that the addition of (Z)-7-hexadecenal and hexadecanal did not significantly increase trap catch. These results indicated that while (Z)-7-hexadecenal and hexadecanal function well only at short range, (Z)-9-tetradecenal plays a very important role at both short and long ranges. We suggest that that (Z)-9-tetradecenal as a previously overlooked sex pheromone component of H. armigera, it should be added to sex pheromone lure formulations to improve pheromone trap sensitivity and the efficacy of commercial mating disruption. PMID:22732233

  6. Improved Monitoring of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Pear Ester Plus Acetic Acid in Sex Pheromone-treated Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in clear delta traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE) and acetic acid (AA) in separate lures (PE+AA) was compared with catch in orange delta traps baited with a single lure containing PE and the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadie...

  7. Identification of a female-produced sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Guss, P L; Tumlinson, J H; Sonnet, P E; Proveaux, A T

    1982-02-01

    A sex pheromone has been isolated and identified from virgin females of the western corn rootworm (WCR),Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. The synthesized compound, racemic 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate, was equal in attraction to the natural pheromone when tested in the field as a trap bait against three taxa ofDiabrotica known to respond to pheromone extracts from female WCR. Five taxa (D. virgifera virgifera; D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, Mexican corn rootworm;D. longicornis barberi Smith and Lawrence, northern corn rootworm;D. longicornis longicornis (Say); andD. porracea Harold) were attracted to traps baited with 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate. The response of male northern corn rootworms (NCR) in the field peaked at a relatively low concentration of 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate and then was severely reduced at the higher concentrations tested. Conversely, the response of male WCR in the field continued to increase up to the highest dose tested. PMID:24414965

  8. Reidentification of Sex Pheromones of Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Longwa; Guo, Feng; Long, Yanhua; Wang, Yun; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-02-01

    Tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important defoliator of the tree crop Camellia sinensis L. in China. The sex pheromones of E. obliqua have not been identified, but have potential importance relative to the biological control of this predator. In this study, the female sex pheromones of E. obliqua were identified and evaluated for use in the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest. The sex pheromone extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified chemicals were synthesized and applied to wind-tunnel tests and field experiments. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene were determined to be the primary sex pheromones produced by the female E. obliqua; the latter elicits the strongest electroantennogram responses from male E. obliqua antennae. However, males did not respond to single components in the wind-tunnel tests. The results of a field-trapping experiment indicated that a 4:6 v/v blend of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene was highly effective in attracting male moths. PMID:26491188

  9. How varying pest and trap densities affect Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) capture in pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...

  10. Targeted disruption of a single sex pheromone receptor gene completely abolishes in vivo pheromone response in the silkmoth

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mitsuno, Hidefumi; Mikami, Akihisa; Uchino, Keiro; Tabuchi, Masashi; Zhang, Feng; Sezutsu, Hideki; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2015-01-01

    Male moths use species-specific sex pheromones to identify and orientate toward conspecific females. Odorant receptors (ORs) for sex pheromone substances have been identified as sex pheromone receptors in various moth species. However, direct in vivo evidence linking the functional role of these ORs with behavioural responses is lacking. In the silkmoth, Bombyx mori, female moths emit two sex pheromone components, bombykol and bombykal, but only bombykol elicits sexual behaviour in male moths. A sex pheromone receptor BmOR1 is specifically tuned to bombykol and is expressed in specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the pheromone sensitive long sensilla trichodea of male silkmoth antennae. Here, we show that disruption of the BmOR1 gene, mediated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), completely removes ORN sensitivity to bombykol and corresponding pheromone-source searching behaviour in male moths. Furthermore, transgenic rescue of BmOR1 restored normal behavioural responses to bombykol. Our results demonstrate that BmOR1 is required for the physiological and behavioural response to bombykol, demonstrating that it is the receptor that mediates sex pheromone responses in male silkmoths. This study provides the first direct evidence that a member of the sex pheromone receptor family in moth species mediates conspecific sex pheromone information for sexual behaviour. PMID:26047360

  11. Sex Pheromone of the Baldcypress Leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Allison, Jeremy D; Goyer, Richard A; Shepherd, William P

    2015-02-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater intrusion. We investigated the composition of the sex pheromone of this species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses indicated that male antennae were sensitive to four compounds [(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), and (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH)] present in female abdominal tip extracts in an approximately 100:1.5:0.6:10 ratio. In trapping trials performed in a cypress-tupelo swamp in southeastern Louisiana, moths were attracted to blends of these four components presented in approximately the female-produced ratios. Elimination of Z11-14:OH had no impact on moth response, whereas elimination of any of the three acetates strongly reduced or eliminated attraction. A blend in which the E11:Z11 ratio of 14:OAc was 5:100 was much less attractive than the same blend with the female produced ratio of 1.5:100. A. goyerana is closely related to the sympatric species Archips argyrospilus (Walker) with which it was previously synonymous. Our data revealed differences between the pheromone composition of A. goyerana and that reported for A. argyrospilus, which could account for the apparent absence of cross-attraction between these species. We conclude that a lure containing a 100:1.5:0.6 ratio of Z11-14:OAc, E11-14:OAc, and Z9-14:OAc has the potential to be used in traps to detect and measure A. goyerana populations and thereby monitor an important biotic factor contributing to the loss of coastal baldcypress forests. PMID:26470117

  12. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  13. Aphid Sex Pheromone Compounds Interfere with Attraction of Common Green Lacewings to Floral Bait.

    PubMed

    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Tóth, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Common green lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea complex) form a group of generalist predators important for biological control. Several reports show attraction of these insects to plant volatiles, and a highly attractive ternary compound floral bait has been developed. With aphids being a preferred prey of larvae, one might expect these lacewings to be attracted to aphid semiochemicals, for instance, to aphid sex pheromones, as found for several other green lacewing species. However, in a previous study, we found that traps containing aphid sex pheromone compounds (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (NEPOH), (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone (NEPONE), and a ternary floral bait attracted fewer individuals than those containing the ternary floral bait alone. In the present study, possible causes for this effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on trap capture were studied. We established that C. carnea complex catches in traps with a ternary floral lure were not influenced by the presence of Chrysopa formosa individuals in traps (attracted by NEPOH and NEPONE) or by synthetic skatole (a characteristic component of Chrysopa defense secretion). A direct negative effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on attraction of C. carnea complex was found, suggesting active avoidance of these aphid sex pheromone components. This finding is surprising as the larvae of these lacewings prey preferentially on aphids. Possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:25956798

  14. Pheromone binding proteins enhance the sensitivity of olfactory receptors to sex pheromones in Chilo suppressalis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hetan; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Pelosi, Paolo; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Sexual communication in moths offers a simplified scenario to model and investigate insect sensory perception. Both PBPs (pheromone-binding proteins) and PRs (pheromone receptors) are involved in the detection of sex pheromones, but the interplay between them still remains largely unknown. In this study, we have measured the binding affinities of the four recombinant PBPs of Chilo suppressalis (CsupPBPs) to pheromone components and analogs and characterized the six PRs using the Xenopus oocytes expression system. Interestingly, when the responses of PRs were recorded in the presence of PBPs, we measured in several combinations a dramatic increase in signals as well as in sensitivity of such combined systems. Furthermore, the discrimination ability of appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs was improved compared with the performance of PBPs or PRs alone. Besides further supporting a role of PBPs in the pheromone detection and discrimination, our data shows for the first time that appropriate combinations of PRs and PBPs improved the discrimination ability of PBPs or PRs alone. The variety of responses measured with different pairing of PBPs and PRs indicates the complexity of the olfaction system, which, even for the relatively simple task of detecting sex pheromones, utilises a highly sophisticated combinatorial approach. PMID:26310773

  15. Transcriptome comparison of the sex pheromone glands from two sibling Helicoverpa species with opposite sex pheromone components

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sex pheromone component can lead to reproductive isolation. The sibling noctuid species, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, share the same two sex pheromone components, Z9-16:Ald and Z11-16:Ald, but in opposite ratios, providing an typical example of such reproductive isolation. To investigate how the ratios of the pheromone components are differently regulated in the two species, we sequenced cDNA libraries from the pheromone glands of H. armigera and H. assulta. After assembly and annotation, we identified 108 and 93 transcripts putatively involved in pheromone biosynthesis, transport, and degradation in H. armigera and H. assulta, respectively. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, phylogenetic, and mRNA abundance analyses suggested that some of these transcripts involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathways perform. Based on these results, we postulate that the regulation of desaturases, KPSE and LPAQ, might be key factor regulating the opposite component ratios in the two sibling moths. In addition, our study has yielded large-scale sequence information for further studies and can be used to identify potential targets for the bio-control of these species by disrupting their sexual communication. PMID:25792497

  16. The use of the sex pheromone as an evolutionary solution to food source selection in caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Poivet, Erwan; Rharrabe, Kacem; Monsempes, Christelle; Glaser, Nicolas; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel; Marion-Poll, Frédéric; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    Sex pheromones are released by adults of a species to elicit a sexual interaction with the other sex of the same species. Here we report an unexpected effect of a moth sex pheromone on the caterpillars of the same species. We demonstrate that larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis are attracted by the moth sex pheromone and that this phenomenon is independent of sex determination. In addition, we show that the olfactory sensilla carried by the caterpillar antennae are sensitive to the pheromone and that the caterpillar sensilla express pheromone-binding proteins that are used by adult antennae to bind pheromone components. Finally, we demonstrate that the larvae are preferentially attracted to a food source when it contains the sex pheromone main component. A possible interpretation of these results is that the sex pheromone is used to promote food search in caterpillars, opening potential new routes for insect pest management. PMID:22948829

  17. Identification of sex pheromone components of blueberry spanworm Itame argillacearia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    De Silva, E C A; Silk, P J; Mayo, P; Hillier, N K; Magee, D; Cutler, G C

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry spanworm, Itame argillacearia (Packard), is an important defoliator of lowbush (syn. 'wild') blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton, in north-eastern North America. The goal of the present study was to identify the female I. argillacearia sex pheromone, which could be used in traps for monitoring or mass-trapping this pest. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and electroantennogram (EAG) recordings of sex pheromone gland extracts, in combination with chemical synthesis, a Y-tube olfactometer study and field experiments confirmed (2R,3S)-2-ethyl-3-((Z,Z)-tridecadi-2,5-enyl) oxirane (hereafter (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene) and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene as female-produced sex pheromone components. (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-Epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene elicited a response from male I. argillacearia antennae during EAG recording, and in the Y-tube olfactometer tests males did not discriminate between a live female and (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene. Field-trapping experiments showed that a blend of (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene and (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-heptadecatriene was more attractive to male moths than (Z,Z)-(3R,4S)-3,4-epoxy-6,9-heptadecadiene alone. PMID:23979535

  18. Novel Sex Cells and Evidence for Sex Pheromones in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Beakes, Gordon; Idei, Masahiko; Nagumo, Tamotsu; Mann, David G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Diatoms belong to the stramenopiles, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, which are primarily characterized by a presence of an anterior flagellum with tubular mastigonemes and usually a second, smooth flagellum. Based on cell wall morphology, diatoms have historically been divided into centrics and pennates, of which only the former have flagella and only on the sperm. Molecular phylogenies show the pennates to have evolved from among the centrics. However, the timing of flagellum loss – whether before the evolution of the pennate lineage or after – is unknown, because sexual reproduction has been so little studied in the ‘araphid’ basal pennate lineages, to which Pseudostaurosira belongs. Methods/Principal Finding Sexual reproduction of an araphid pennate, Pseudostaurosira trainorii, was studied with light microscopy (including time lapse observations and immunofluorescence staining observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy) and SEM. We show that the species produces motile male gametes. Motility is mostly associated with the extrusion and retrieval of microtubule-based ‘threads’, which are structures hitherto unknown in stramenopiles, their number varying from one to three per cell. We also report experimental evidence for sex pheromones that reciprocally stimulate sexualization of compatible clones and orientate motility of the male gametes after an initial ‘random walk’. Conclusions/Significance The threads superficially resemble flagella, in that both are produced by male gametes and contain microtubules. However, one striking difference is that threads cannot beat or undulate and have no motility of their own, and they do not bear mastigonemes. Threads are sticky and catch and draw objects, including eggs. The motility conferred by the threads is probably crucial for sexual reproduction of P. trainorii, because this diatom is non-motile in its vegetative stage but obligately outbreeding. Our pheromone experiments are

  19. A tale of two trapping methods: Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in pheromone and light traps in Australian cotton production systems.

    PubMed

    Baker, G H; Tann, C R; Fitt, G P

    2011-02-01

    Pheromone and light traps have often been used in ecological studies of two major noctuid pests of agriculture in Australia, Helicoverpa armigera and H. punctigera. However, results from these two methods have rarely been compared directly. We set pheromone and light traps adjacent to or amongst cotton and various other crops for 10-11 years in the Namoi Valley, in northern New South Wales, Australia. Catches in pheromone traps suggested a major peak in (male) numbers of H. punctigera in early spring, with relatively few moths caught later in the summer cropping season. In contrast, (male) H. armigera were most abundant in late summer. Similar trends were apparent for catches of both male and female H. armigera in light traps, but both sexes of H. punctigera were mostly caught in mid-summer. For both species, males were more commonly caught than females. These catch patterns differed from some previous reports. At least three generations of both species were apparent in the catches. There was some evidence that the abundance of later generations could be predicted from the size of earlier generations; but, unlike previous authors, we found no positive relationships between local winter rainfall and subsequent catches of moths, nor did we find persuasive evidence of correlations between autumn and winter rainfall in central Australia and the abundance of subsequent 1st generation H. punctigera moths. Female H. punctigera were consistently more mature (gravid) and more frequently mated than those of H. armigera. Overall, our results highlight the variability in trap catches of these two species and question the use of trap catches and weather as predictors of future abundance in cropping regions. PMID:20504387

  20. Regulatory Role of PBAN in Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Jurenka, Russell; Rafaeli, Ada

    2011-01-01

    Both males and females of heliothine moths utilize sex-pheromones during the mating process. Females produce and release a sex pheromone for the long–range attraction of males for mating. Production of sex pheromone in females is controlled by the peptide hormone (pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide, PBAN). This review will highlight what is known about the role PBAN plays in controlling pheromone production in female moths. Male moths produce compounds associated with a hairpencil structure associated with the aedaegus that are used as short-range aphrodisiacs during the mating process. We will discuss the role that PBAN plays in regulating male production of hairpencil pheromones. PMID:22654810

  1. Sex Pheromone Investigation of Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Attraction of virgin females to odor of calling males was demonstrated. This sex pheromone mediated attraction occurred during the latter half of a 13-h photophase but not during the first half of the day. Two major components of emissions of calling males, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (DMP) and 2,5-dihyd...

  2. Origin and diversification of a salamander sex pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Janssenswillen, Sunita; Vandebergh, Wim; Treer, Dag; Willaert, Bert; Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Bossuyt, Franky

    2015-02-01

    Sex pheromones form an important facet of reproductive strategies in many organisms throughout the Animal Kingdom. One of the oldest known sex pheromones in vertebrates are proteins of the Sodefrin Precursor-like Factor (SPF) system, which already had a courtship function in early salamanders. The subsequent evolution of salamanders is characterized by a diversification in courtship and reproduction, but little is known on how the SPF pheromone system diversified in relation to changing courtship strategies. Here, we combined transcriptomic, genomic, and phylogenetic analyses to investigate the evolution of the SPF pheromone system in nine salamandrid species with distinct courtship displays. First, we show that SPF originated from vertebrate three-finger proteins and diversified through multiple gene duplications in salamanders, while remaining a single copy in frogs. Next, we demonstrate that tail-fanning newts have retained a high phylogenetic diversity of SPFs, whereas loss of tail-fanning has been associated with a reduced importance or loss of SPF expression in the cloacal region. Finally, we show that the attractant decapeptide sodefrin is cleaved from larger SPF precursors that originated by a 62 bp insertion and consequent frameshift in an ancestral Cynops lineage. This led to the birth of a new decapeptide that rapidly evolved a pheromone function independently from uncleaved proteins. PMID:25415963

  3. Evidence of female-produced sex pheromone of Adelphocoris suturalis (Hemiptera: Miridae): effect of age and time of day.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhilin; Luo, Jing; Lu, Chong; Zhao, Bo; Meng, Juan; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2011-08-01

    After the reduction in the use of broad-spectrum insecticides, Adelphocoris suturalis (Hemiptera: Miridae) has become an important pest of transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in China. A. suturalis is a highly mobile insect, moving rapidly in and out of crop fields, and traps baited with sex pheromones may be useful in monitoring and controlling its numbers. However, little is currently known regarding the chemical communication based on sex pheromones by this species. To use the synthesized sex pheromone effectively as part of the integrated pest management, some fundamental biological parameters under which the pheromone is produced must be understood. In this study, attractiveness of adult females or males of A. suturalis to conspecific individuals was examined by Y-tube bioassay; we also investigated the female sexually mature age and circadian rhythm of male attraction to females of A. suturalis in the field in 2008 and 2010. Y-tube bioassay results indicated that only males were attracted to odors from sexually mature virgin females. Two-year field trapping experiments showed that 4-18-d-old virgin females effectively attracted males, and males were attracted to virgin females during the scotophase, with a peak between 1900 and 2300 hours. These results improve our understanding of the sexual communication behavior of A. suturalis and provide evidence of female-produced sex pheromone in this species. PMID:21882682

  4. cis-Vaccenyl acetate, a female-produced sex pheromone component of Ortholeptura valida, a longhorned beetle in the subfamily Lepturinae.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Zunič, Alenka; Alten, Ronald L; McElfresh, J Steven; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-02-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a female-produced sex attractant pheromone component of the cerambycid beetle Ortholeptura valida (LeConte). Headspace volatiles from females contained a female-specific compound, (Z)-11-octadecen-1-yl acetate, which elicited a strong response from antennae of adult males in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays, significant numbers of males were collected by traps baited with this compound. The pheromone represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and is the first pheromone identified for a cerambycid species in the subfamily Lepturinae. PMID:21274597

  5. Sex pheromone of the saturniid moth, Hemileuca burnsi, from the western Mojave Desert of California.

    PubMed

    McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-09-01

    The sex pheromone blend of Hemileuca burnsi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from the western Mojave Desert was determined to be a combination of (10E,12Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (E10,Z12-16:Ac), (10E,12Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (E10,Z12-16:OH), (10E,12E)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (E10,E12-16:Ac), and hexadecyl acetate (16:Ac). (10E,12Z)-Hexadecadienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald) was tentatively identified in pheromone gland extracts based on electroantennographic responses and, when added to the above blend, it enhanced trap captures at low doses. The mean ratio of the compounds in extracts of pheromone glands was 100:23:232:14:0.4 (E10,Z12-16:Ac: E10,E12-16:Ac: 16:Ac: E10,Z12-16:OH: E10,Z12-16:Ald). Field trials indicated that although E10,Z12-16:Ac and E10,Z12-16:OH were essential for attraction, the two-component blend was not attractive by itself. Addition of the three other compounds was necessary for maximum attraction, rendering this the most complicated pheromone blend described for a Hemileuca species to date. Similarities between the sex pheromone of H. burnsi and that of the allopatric Hemileuca electra electra and differences between the blends of H. burnsi and that of the sympatric H. electra mojavensis support a case for reproductive character displacement in the pheromone communication channel of H. electra. PMID:18649103

  6. Molecular and neural mechanisms of sex pheromone reception and processing in the silkmoth Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Namiki, Shigehiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Male moths locate their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. One striking feature of sex pheromone recognition in males is the high degree of specificity and sensitivity at all levels, from the primary sensory processes to behavior. The silkmoth Bombyx mori is an excellent model insect in which to decipher the underlying mechanisms of sex pheromone recognition due to its simple sex pheromone communication system, where a single pheromone component, bombykol, elicits the full sexual behavior of male moths. Various technical advancements that cover all levels of analysis from molecular to behavioral also allow the systematic analysis of pheromone recognition mechanisms. Sex pheromone signals are detected by pheromone receptors expressed in olfactory receptor neurons in the pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea on male antennae. The signals are transmitted to the first olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), and then are processed further in the higher centers (mushroom body and lateral protocerebrum) to elicit orientation behavior toward females. In recent years, significant progress has been made elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the detection of sex pheromones. In addition, extensive studies of the AL and higher centers have provided insights into the neural basis of pheromone processing in the silkmoth brain. This review describes these latest advances, and discusses what these advances have revealed about the mechanisms underlying the specific and sensitive recognition of sex pheromones in the silkmoth. PMID:24744736

  7. Sex pheromone of the winter moth, a geometrid with unusually low temperature precopulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, W L; Hill, A S; Linn, C E; Meinwald, J; Jain, S C; Herbert, H J; Smith, R F

    1982-08-13

    The sex pheromone for the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.), has been identified as the novel compound (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene. The male moths respond to the pheromone at low temperatures (4 degrees to 15 degrees C) and exhibit an upper response limit that coincides with the lower response limit for other reported moth sex pheromone systems. The pheromone attracted two other geometrid species, O. bruceata (Bruce spanworm) and O. occidentalis. PMID:17817538

  8. Molecular markers for identification of Hessian fly males caught on pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps have been widely used to monitor insect populations in nature. However, pheromone traps for the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), one of the most destructive insect pests of wheat, have been used only in recent years. Because Hessian fly male adults are small and fragile, it is d...

  9. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  10. Capture rates of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer, in pheromone traps, with special regard to effects of wind speed.

    PubMed

    Ostrand, F; Anderbrant, O; Jönsson, P; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P

    2001-08-01

    Males of the European pine sawfly, Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr., were marked and released downwind from pheromone traps, baited with 100 micrograms of the sex pheromone (2S,3S,7S)-3,7-dimethyl-2-pentadecyl acetate. Males were released 5 m downwind from one trap, or downwind from five traps, 50 m or 200 m away. The average capture rates after 24 hr were 21.5%, 17.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The capture rate was highest at moderate wind speeds (1-2 m/sec) in the 50 m experiments, whereas it decreased above wind speeds of 1.5 m/sec in the 200 m experiments. With no precipitation and > 13.5 degrees C during overcast, wind speed is presumably the most important climatic factor for N. sertifer males flying upwind to a pheromone source. Travel time, the elapsed time form take-off to landing on the trap, varied considerably, and the shortest recorded travel times were 1, 6 and 45 min for the 5, 50, and 200 m experiments, respectively. The trap efficiency i.e., number of captured males per number of males that landed on the trap, was estimated at 52% in the 5 m experiments. The sampling range after 24 hr was calculated at approximately 400 m by regression analysis. The combination of the males' flight ability during upwind progress and their longevity (12 days), suggests a potentially large seasonal sampling range of the traps used in this study. PMID:11521396

  11. Total Synthesis, Stereochemical Assignment, and Field-Testing of the Sex Pheromone of the Strepsipteran Xenos peckii.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Huimin; Hrabar, Michael; Gries, Regine; Gries, Gerhard; Britton, Robert

    2016-04-25

    The sex pheromone of the endoparasitoid insect Xenos peckii (Strepsiptera: Xenidae) was recently identified as (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyl-7,11-tridecadienal. Herein we report the asymmetric synthesis of three candidate stereostructures for this pheromone using a synthetic strategy that relies on an sp(3) -sp(2) Suzuki-Miyaura coupling to construct the correctly configured C7-alkene function. Comparison of (1) H NMR spectra derived from the candidate stereostructures to that of the natural sex pheromone indicated a relative configuration of (3R*,5S*,9R*). Chiral gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of these compounds supported an assignment of (3R,5S,9R) for the natural product. Furthermore, in a 16-replicate field experiment, traps baited with the synthetic (3R,5S,9R)-enantiomer alone or in combination with the (3S,5R,9S)-enantiomer captured 23 and 18 X. peckii males, respectively (mean±SE: 1.4±0.33 and 1.1±0.39), whereas traps baited with the synthetic (3S,5R,9S)-enantiomer or a solvent control yielded no captures of males. These strong field trapping data, in combination with spectroscopic and chiral GC data, unambiguously demonstrate that (3R,5S,9R,7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyl-7,11-tridecadienal is the X. peckii sex pheromone. PMID:27001535

  12. (R)-Desmolactone is a sex pheromone or sex attractant for the endangered valley elderberry longhorn beetle Desmocerus californicus dimorphus and several congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae).

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Arnold, Richard A; Swift, Ian; Schapker, Philip A; McCann, Sean; Marshall, Christopher J; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2014-01-01

    We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating that this compound acts as a sex-specific attractant, rather than as a signal for aggregation. In targeted field bioassays, males of the US federally threatened subspecies Desmocerus californicus dimorphus responded to the synthetic attractant in a dose dependent manner. Our results represent the first example of a "generic" sex pheromone used by multiple species in the subfamily Lepturinae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps may be a sensitive and efficient method of monitoring the threatened species Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, commonly known as the valley elderberry longhorn beetle. PMID:25521293

  13. (R)-Desmolactone Is a Sex Pheromone or Sex Attractant for the Endangered Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Desmocerus californicus dimorphus and Several Congeners (Cerambycidae: Lepturinae)

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Ann M.; Arnold, Richard A.; Swift, Ian; Schapker, Philip A.; McCann, Sean; Marshall, Christopher J.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G.

    2014-01-01

    We report here that (4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide [(R)-desmolactone] is a sex attractant or sex pheromone for multiple species and subspecies in the cerambycid genus Desmocerus. This compound was previously identified as a female-produced sex attractant pheromone of Desmocerus californicus californicus. Headspace volatiles from female Desmocerus aureipennis aureipennis contained (R)-desmolactone, and the antennae of adult males of two species responded strongly to synthetic (R)-desmolactone in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. In field bioassays in California, Oregon, and British Columbia, traps baited with synthetic (R)-desmolactone captured males of several Desmocerus species and subspecies. Only male beetles were captured, indicating that this compound acts as a sex-specific attractant, rather than as a signal for aggregation. In targeted field bioassays, males of the US federally threatened subspecies Desmocerus californicus dimorphus responded to the synthetic attractant in a dose dependent manner. Our results represent the first example of a “generic” sex pheromone used by multiple species in the subfamily Lepturinae, and demonstrate that pheromone-baited traps may be a sensitive and efficient method of monitoring the threatened species Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, commonly known as the valley elderberry longhorn beetle. PMID:25521293

  14. Sex attractants for moths of Vietnam: field attraction by synthetic lures baited with known lepidopteran pheromones.

    PubMed

    Tran, Van Hai; Pham, Kim Son; Inomata, Shin-ichi; Ando, Tetsu

    2002-07-01

    Screening tests of synthetic lepidopteran sex pheromones were carried out at orchards in the Mekong Delta over an approximately two-year period starting from December 1998. Monoenyl acetates with a C10-C14 chain attracted six species distributed mainly in Southeast Asia: Adoxophyes privatana, Archips atrolucens, and Meridemisfurtiva in the Tortricidae family, and Argyrogramma signata. Spodoptera pectinicornis, and Zonoplusia ochreata in the Noctuidae family. These were in addition to three other noctuid species that had been attracted during previous field examinations within a temperate zone. Furthermore, male moths of three species belonging to the Cosmopterigidae, Gelechiidae, or Batrachedridae family were also caught by traps baited with acetates. Trienes with a C18-C21 chain and their monoepoxides. which are stereotypes of pheromones secreted by females in the Geometridae family, failed to attract any geometrid male, but attracted three Noctuidae species and four Arctiidae species. PMID:12199508

  15. (R)-desmolactone, a female-produced sex pheromone component of the cerambycid beetle Desmocerus californicus californicus (subfamily Lepturinae).

    PubMed

    Ray, Ann M; Swift, Ian P; McElfresh, J Steven; Alten, Ronald L; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-02-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a female-produced sex attractant pheromone for the cerambycid beetle Desmocerus californicus californicus Horn. Headspace volatiles from females contained a sex-specific compound, (R)-desmolactone [(4R,9Z)-hexadec-9-en-4-olide], which elicited strong responses from the antennae of adult males in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses. Short syntheses of both enantiomers were developed from commercial chiral synthons. In field bioassays, significant numbers of males were collected in traps baited with (R)-desmolactone, whereas the (S)-enantiomer attracted no males. The racemate was less attractive than the pure (R)-enantiomer, indicating some degree of antagonism by the unnatural enantiomer. This compound is the first example of a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and is the second pheromone identified for a species in the subfamily Lepturinae. PMID:22350519

  16. (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-Tetramethyltridecadienal: Sex Pheromone of the Strepsipteran Xenos peckii.

    PubMed

    Hrabar, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Draper, Jason; Britton, Robert; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-08-01

    Xenos peckii is a strepsipteran parasitoid of the common North American paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus. Mate-seeking X. peckii males respond to a long-range sex pheromone emitted by the female, which remains permanently embedded within the abdomen of a mobile host wasp. During peak pheromone signalling, we excised the female from her host, severed the cephalothorax containing the pheromone gland, extracted it in hexane, and analyzed aliquots of combined extracts by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). These analyses revealed a candidate pheromone component (CPC) that consistently elicited strong responses from male antennae. We identified the CPC as (7E,11E)-3,5,9,11-tetramethyltridecadienal based on its retention indices (RI) on three GC-columns, RI inter-column differentials, mass and NMR spectra, and synthesis of an authentic standard that matched the GC-retention and spectrometric characteristics of the CPC. For a field experiment, we prepared (7E,11E)-3,5,9R,11-tetramethyltridecadienal and (7E,11E)-3,5,9S,11-tetramethyltridecadienal. Xenos peckii males were caught in traps baited with either compound singly or a 1:1 mixture of the two but not in unbaited control traps. The sex pheromone of X. peckii resembles that reported for the strepsipterans Stylops mellittae and S. muelleri, (R,R,R)-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal, suggesting a common biosynthetic pathway across taxonomic genera. PMID:26271674

  17. Sex Pheromones and Reproductive Isolation in Five Mirid Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chang Yeol; Kim, Se-Jin; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Taek-Jun; Ahn, Seung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Mate location in many mirid bugs (Heteroptera: Miridae) is mediated by female-released sex pheromones. To elucidate the potential role of the pheromones in prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric species, we investigated differences in the pheromone systems of five mirid species, Apolygus lucorum, Apolygus spinolae, Orthops campestris, Stenotus rubrovittatus and Taylorilygus apicalis. GC/MS analyses of metathoracic scent gland extracts of virgin females showed that all five species produced mixtures of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, but in quite different ratios. (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate was the major component of A. spinolae, while hexyl butyrate was the most abundant component in the pheromone blends of the other four species. In addition to the three compounds, a fourth component, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate, was present in the gland extracts of A. lucorum and T. apicalis females. Field tests suggest that the ternary blends of hexyl butyrate, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal as found in the extracts of the females of each species do not inhibit attraction of conspecific males but ensure species-specificity of attraction between A. lucorum, O. campestris and T. apicalis. Furthermore, (E)-2-octenyl butyrate was essential for attraction of A. lucorum and T. apicalis males, but strongly inhibited attraction of male A. spinolae, O. campestris and S. rubrovittatus. The combined results from this study and previous studies suggest that the minor component and pheromone dose in addition to the relative ratio of the major components play an important role in reproductive isolation between mirid species. PMID:25973902

  18. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    PubMed

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species. PMID:24310218

  19. Identification of the sex pheromone of Isoceras sibirica Alpheraky (Lepidoptera, Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jintong; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Wenmei; Liu, Jinlong; Zong, Shixiang

    2011-01-01

    We discovered that extracts of the female sex pheromone gland of the carpenterworm moth Isoceras sibirica Alpheraky, a pest of Asparagus officinalis Linn., contained (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-ol (Z7-14:OH), (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol (Z9-14:OH), (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and (Z)-9-hexadecadecenyl acetate (Z9-16:Ac). The average levels of the chemicals in a single sex pheromone gland of a calling moth were (0.71 +/- 0.24) ng, (1.42 +/- 0.44) ng, (4.36 +/- 0.32) ng, (8.71 +/- 0.26) ng, and (0.82 +/- 0.38) ng, respectively. The electroantennography (EAG) analysis of these chemicals and their analogues demonstrated that Z9-14:Ac triggered significantly the male EAG response. Traps with rubber septa lure impregnated with Z9-14:Ac (500 microg/septum), Z7-14:Ac (250 microg/septum), and Z9-16:Ac (50 microg/septum) were more effective in catching male moths than traps with other baits or virgin females. Addition of Z7-14:OH and Z9-14:OH to rubber septa did not enhance the efficiency of the trap. PMID:22191219

  20. The Sex Attractant Pheromone of Male Brown Rats: Identification and Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Regine; Zhai, Huimin; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-05-10

    Trapping brown rats is challenging because they avoid newly placed traps in their habitat. Herein, we report the identification of the sex pheromone produced by male brown rats and its effect on trap captures of wild female brown rats. Collecting urine- and feces-soiled bedding material of laboratory-kept rats and comparing the soiled-bedding odorants of juvenile and adult males, as well as of adult males and females, we found nine compounds that were specific to, or most prevalent in, the odor profiles of sexually mature adult males. When we added a synthetic blend of six of these compounds (2-heptanone, 4-heptanone, 3-ethyl-2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, 4-nonanone) to one of two paired food-baited trap boxes, these boxes attracted significantly more laboratory-strain female rats in laboratory experiments, and captured ten times more wild female rats in a field experiment than the corresponding control boxes. Our data show that the pheromone facilitates captures of wild female brown rats. PMID:27060700

  1. Larval sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to sex pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, M; Gehrke, P; Badeke, E; Sachse, S; Breer, H; Krieger, J

    2016-10-01

    Female-released sex pheromones orchestrate the mating behaviour of moths. Recent studies have shown that sex pheromones not only attract adult males but also caterpillars. Single sensillum recordings revealed that larval antennal sensilla of the moth Heliothis virescens respond to specific sex pheromone components. In search for the molecular basis of pheromone detection in larvae, we found that olfactory sensilla on the larval antennae are equipped with the same molecular elements that mediate sex pheromone detection in adult male moths, including the Heliothis virescens receptors 6 (HR6) and HR13, as well as sensory neurone membrane protein 1 (SNMP1). Thirty-eight olfactory sensory neurones were identified in three large sensilla basiconica; six of these are considered as candidate pheromone responsive cells based on the expression of SNMP1. The pheromone receptor HR6 was found to be expressed in two cells and the receptor HR13 in three cells. These putative pheromone responsive neurones were accompanied by cells expressing pheromone-binding protein 1 (PBP1) and PBP2. The results indicate that the responsiveness of larval sensilla to female-emitted sex pheromones is based on the same molecular machinery as in the antennae of adult males. PMID:27465144

  2. Identification of the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone of the Leafminer Holocacista capensis Infesting Grapevine in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Geertsema, Henk; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Löfstedt, Christer

    2015-08-01

    We report the first identification of a sex pheromone in a heliozelid moth, Holocacista capensis van Nieukerken & Geertsema. This leafminer recently infested grapevine in South Africa. Compared to solvent extraction of pheromone glands, solid phase microextraction (SPME) proved to be highly effective for collection of the pheromone from calling females. The volatiles collected by SPME were analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD). Three compounds eliciting electrophysiological activity from the male antenna were identified as (Z)-5-tetradecenal, (Z)-7-tetradecenal, and (Z)-9-hexadecenal by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS analysis of dimethyldisulphide (DMDS) derivatives of fatty acyl moieties in pheromone gland extracts confirmed the presence of the corresponding putative pheromone precursors with double bonds in the same position and with Z geometry. Field trapping experiments in a South African vineyard confirmed that both (Z)-5-tetradecenal and (Z)-7-tetradecenal are essential for the attraction of male H. capensis, whereas addition of (Z)-9-hexadecenal to the blend did not affect the attractiveness. The composition of the pheromone is discussed in relation to the phylogeny of this family of moths. PMID:26271672

  3. Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Kirsch, Philipp; Cork, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using species-specific behavior-modifying chemicals for the management of noxious insects in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, stored products, and for insect vectors of diseases has been a driving ambition through five decades of pheromone research. Hundreds of pheromones and other semiochemicals have been discovered that are used to monitor the presence and abundance of insects and to protect plants and animals against insects. The estimated annual production of lures for monitoring and mass trapping is on the order of tens of millions, covering at least 10 million hectares. Insect populations are controlled by air permeation and attract-and-kill techniques on at least 1 million hectares. Here, we review the most important and widespread practical applications. Pheromones are increasingly efficient at low population densities, they do not adversely affect natural enemies, and they can, therefore, bring about a long-term reduction in insect populations that cannot be accomplished with conventional insecticides. A changing climate with higher growing season temperatures and altered rainfall patterns makes control of native and invasive insects an increasingly urgent challenge. Intensified insecticide use will not provide a solution, but pheromones and other semiochemicals instead can be implemented for sustainable area-wide management and will thus improve food security for a growing population. Given the scale of the challenges we face to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the time is right to intensify goal-oriented interdisciplinary research on semiochemicals, involving chemists, entomologists, and plant protection experts, in order to provide the urgently needed, and cost-effective technical solutions for sustainable insect management worldwide. PMID:20108027

  4. First Evidence of a Volatile Sex Pheromone in Lady Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  5. First evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in lady beetles.

    PubMed

    Fassotte, Bérénice; Fischer, Christophe; Durieux, Delphine; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited "calling behavior", which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (-)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. PMID:25514321

  6. SEX PHEROMONE OF THE PLANT BUG, PHYTOCORTIS conspurcatus Knight (HETEROPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Phytocoris sp. produce a sex pheromone from metathoracic scent glands. The pheromone consists of hexyl acetate (HA; present in both sexes), with the female-specific compounds, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate (E2HA), octyl acetate (OA) and (E)-2-octenyl acetate (E2OA). HA and E2OA are key components of ...

  7. Management of oriental fruit moth with ground ULV spray applications of a microencapsulated sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromones have been widely used to manage oriental fruit moth (OFM) in stone fruits for 30 years. Microencapsulated formulations of sex pheromone have been developed and have proven to be an effective tactic. Recently, we developed the use of ultra low volume (ULV) ground applications of these ...

  8. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate. PMID:5507205

  9. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  10. Green light synergistally enhances male sweetpotato weevil response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  11. Green Light Synergistally Enhances Male Sweetpotato Weevil Response to Sex Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.

    2014-01-01

    Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727

  12. Sex-pairing pheromone of Ancistrotermes dimorphus (Isoptera: Macrotermitinae).

    PubMed

    Wen, Ping; Mo, Jianchu; Lu, Chunwen; Tan, Ken; Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2015-12-01

    Ancistrotermes dimorphus is a common Macrotermitinae representative, facultative inquiline by its life-style, occurring in South-East China. Sex pheromone is used for couple formation and maintenance, and it is produced by and released from the female sternal gland and is highly attractive to males. Based on our combined behavioral, chemical and electrophysiological analyses, we identified (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol as the female sex pheromone of A. dimorphus as it evoked the tandem behavior at short distance, and the active quantities ranged from 0.01ng to 10ng. Interestingly, GC-MS analyses of SPME extracts showed another compound specific to the female sternal gland, (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol, which showed a clear GC-EAD response. However, this compound has no behavioral function in natural concentrations (0.1ng), while higher amounts (1ng) inhibit the attraction achieved by (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol. The function of (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol is not fully understood, but might be linked to recognition from sympatric species using the same major compound, enhancing the long-distance attraction, or informing about presence of other colonies using the compound as a trail-following pheromone. The sternal gland secretion of Ancistrotermes females contains additional candidate compounds, namely (3E,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol and (6Z)-dodec-6-en-1-ol, which are not perceived by males' antennae in biologically relevant amounts. PMID:26549129

  13. Feeding regulates sex pheromone attraction and courtship in Drosophila females

    PubMed Central

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Trona, Federica; Borrero-Echeverry, Felipe; Bilz, Florian; Grabe, Veit; Becher, Paul G.; Carlsson, Mikael A.; Nässel, Dick R.; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, gender-specific behavioural responses to the male-produced sex pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) rely on sexually dimorphic, third-order neural circuits. We show that nutritional state in female flies modulates cVA perception in first-order olfactory neurons. Starvation increases, and feeding reduces attraction to food odour, in both sexes. Adding cVA to food odour, however, maintains attraction in fed females, while it has no effect in males. Upregulation of sensitivity and behavioural responsiveness to cVA in fed females is paralleled by a strong increase in receptivity to male courtship. Functional imaging of the antennal lobe (AL), the olfactory centre in the insect brain, shows that olfactory input to DA1 and VM2 glomeruli is also modulated by starvation. Knocking down insulin receptors in neurons converging onto the DA1 glomerulus suggests that insulin-signalling partly controls pheromone perception in the AL, and adjusts cVA attraction according to nutritional state and sexual receptivity in Drosophila females. PMID:26255707

  14. Feeding regulates sex pheromone attraction and courtship in Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Lebreton, Sébastien; Trona, Federica; Borrero-Echeverry, Felipe; Bilz, Florian; Grabe, Veit; Becher, Paul G; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke; Witzgall, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, gender-specific behavioural responses to the male-produced sex pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) rely on sexually dimorphic, third-order neural circuits. We show that nutritional state in female flies modulates cVA perception in first-order olfactory neurons. Starvation increases, and feeding reduces attraction to food odour, in both sexes. Adding cVA to food odour, however, maintains attraction in fed females, while it has no effect in males. Upregulation of sensitivity and behavioural responsiveness to cVA in fed females is paralleled by a strong increase in receptivity to male courtship. Functional imaging of the antennal lobe (AL), the olfactory centre in the insect brain, shows that olfactory input to DA1 and VM2 glomeruli is also modulated by starvation. Knocking down insulin receptors in neurons converging onto the DA1 glomerulus suggests that insulin-signalling partly controls pheromone perception in the AL, and adjusts cVA attraction according to nutritional state and sexual receptivity in Drosophila females. PMID:26255707

  15. A Biologically Active Analog of the Sex Pheromone of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis.

    PubMed

    Silk, P J; Ryall, K; Mayo, P; MaGee, D I; Leclair, G; Fidgen, J; Lavallee, R; Price, J; McConaghy, J

    2015-03-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) (EAB), is an invasive species causing unprecedented levels of mortality to ash trees in its introduced range. The female-produced sex pheromone of EAB has been shown to contain the macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide. This compound and its geometrical isomer, (3E)-dodecen-12-olide, have been demonstrated previously to be EAG active and, in combination with a host-derived green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol, to be attractive to male EAB in green prism traps deployed in the ash tree canopy. In the current study, we show that the saturated analog, dodecan-12-olide, is similarly active, eliciting an antennal response and significant attraction of EAB in both olfactometer and trapping bioassays in green traps with (3Z)-hexenol. Conformational modeling of the three lactones reveals that their energies and shapes are very similar, suggesting they might share a common receptor in EAB antennae. These findings provide new insight into the pheromone ecology of this species, highlighting the apparent plasticity in response of adults to the pheromone and its analog. Both of the unsaturated isomers are costly to synthesize, involving multistep, low-yielding processes. The saturated analog can be made cheaply, in high yield, and on large scale via Mitsunobu esterification of a saturated ω-hydroxy acid or more simply by Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of commercially available cyclododecanone. The analog can thus provide an inexpensive option as a lure for detection surveys as well as for possible mitigation purposes, such as mating disruption. PMID:25786893

  16. Differential Octopaminergic Modulation of Olfactory Receptor Neuron Responses to Sex Pheromones in Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Hillier, N Kirk; Kavanagh, Rhys M B

    2015-01-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator of neural function in invertebrates. Octopamine increases male moth sensitivity to female sex pheromones, however, relatively little is known as to the role of octopamine in the female olfactory system, nor its possible effects on the reception of non-pheromone odorants. The purpose of this study was to determine relative effects of octopamine on the sensitivity of the peripheral olfactory system in male and female Heliothis virescens. Single sensillum recording was conducted in both sexes following injection with octopamine or Ringer solution, and during odorant stimulation with conspecific female sex pheromone or host plant volatiles. Results indicate that octopamine plays a significant modulatory role in female sex pheromone detection in female moths; and that male and female pheromone detection neurons share distinct pharmacological and physiological similarities in H. virescens despite sexual dimorphism at the antennal level. PMID:26650832

  17. Differential Octopaminergic Modulation of Olfactory Receptor Neuron Responses to Sex Pheromones in Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Hillier, N. Kirk; Kavanagh, Rhys M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Octopamine is an important neuromodulator of neural function in invertebrates. Octopamine increases male moth sensitivity to female sex pheromones, however, relatively little is known as to the role of octopamine in the female olfactory system, nor its possible effects on the reception of non-pheromone odorants. The purpose of this study was to determine relative effects of octopamine on the sensitivity of the peripheral olfactory system in male and female Heliothis virescens. Single sensillum recording was conducted in both sexes following injection with octopamine or Ringer solution, and during odorant stimulation with conspecific female sex pheromone or host plant volatiles. Results indicate that octopamine plays a significant modulatory role in female sex pheromone detection in female moths; and that male and female pheromone detection neurons share distinct pharmacological and physiological similarities in H. virescens despite sexual dimorphism at the antennal level. PMID:26650832

  18. Effect of abundance of the navel orangeworm on sampling range and interference between pheromone traps.

    PubMed

    Burks, Charles S; Higbee, Bradley S

    2013-02-01

    The sampling range of pheromone traps for the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its association with abundance was investigated by examining mutual interference within cross-shaped arrays of nine wing traps baited with virgin females and placed at 400-m intervals in three 256-ha blocks of almonds (Prunus dulcis [Miller] D. A. Webb), and three of pistachios (Pistacia vera L.). The proportions of males captured in the different positions were compared with the mean males for all traps, used as an index for abundance. For means between zero and 50 males per trap per week, the distribution was unequal between trap positions and the greatest proportion of males were captured in the northern-most trap (i.e., the within-row direction). Between 50 and 100 males per trap per week, most males were captured in the western-most traps and fewest in the center, and proportions were equal in other trap positions. Above 100 males per trap per week, the proportion of males captured was more nearly equal for all trap positions. These results demonstrate that the sampling range of pheromone traps for navel orangeworm is density dependent and, at low densities, is >400 m. They also indicate that abundance affects the impact of direction (orientation) of trap interference. At low density, female-strength pheromone traps sample males from beyond the block in which they are placed for orchard blocks of <50 ha. PMID:23339795

  19. Sex pheromone production and perception in European corn borer moths is determined by both autosomal and sex-linked genes

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Wendell; Glover, Thomas; Tang, Xian-Han; Sreng, Isabelle; Robbins, Paul; Eckenrode, Charles; Löfstedt, Christer; Hansson, Bill S.; Bengtsson, Bengt O.

    1987-01-01

    Inheritance patterns for sex pheromone production in females, pheromone detection on male antennal olfactory receptor cells, and male pheromone behavioral responses were studied in pheromonally distinct populations of European corn borers from New York State. Gas chromatographic analyses of pheromone glands, single sensillum recordings, and flight tunnel behavioral analyses were carried out on progeny from reciprocal crosses, as well as on progeny from subsequent F2 and maternal and paternal backcrosses. The data show that the production of the female pheromone blend primarily is controlled by a single autosomal factor, that pheromone-responding olfactory cells are controlled by another autosomal factor, and that behavioral response to pheromone is controlled by a sex-linked gene. F1 males were found to possess olfactory receptor cells that give spike amplitudes to the two pheromone isomers that are intermediate to those of the high and low amplitude cells of the parent populations. Fifty-five percent of the F1 males tested responded fully to pheromone sources ranging from the hybrid (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate/(Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E/Z) molar blend of 65:35 to the E/Z molar blend of 3:97 for the Z morph parents, but very few responded to the E/Z molar blend of 99:1 for the E morph parents. Data on the inheritance patterns support speculation that the Z morph is the ancestral and that the E morph is the derived European corn borer population. PMID:16593886

  20. [The sex-trapping of Sterrha biselata (Hufn.) (Lepidoptera Geometridae, Sterrhinae) by acetoxy-1 dodecadiens-7 E, 9Z, the sex pheromone of Lobesia botrana (Schiff.) (Lepidoptera Tortricidae, Olethreutinae)].

    PubMed

    Biwer, G; Lalanne-Cassou, B; Descoins, C; Samain, D

    1975-03-24

    7E, 9Z dodecadienyl acetate, a sex-heromone for Lobesia botrana, is selectively attractive, in vineyards, for males of this species. By testing this compound in woods and orchards, we have found that it was also selectively attractive for males of a geometrid moth; Sterrha biselata. This is one of the first examples where a definite chemical substance is active for a geometrid species. PMID:807350

  1. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy. PMID:26445454

  2. Identification and Expression Profiles of Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis and Transport Related Genes in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Fang, Li-Ping; He, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Geng; Sun, Liang; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Deng, Dao-Gui; Li, Jin-Bu

    2015-01-01

    Although the general pathway of sex pheromone synthesis in moth species has been established, the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. The common cutworm Spodoptera litura is an important agricultural pest worldwide and causes huge economic losses annually. The female sex pheromone of S. litura comprises Z9,E11-14:OAc, Z9,E12-14:OAc, Z9-14:OAc, and E11-14:OAc. By sequencing and analyzing the transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands, we identified 94 candidate genes related to pheromone biosynthesis (55 genes) or chemoreception (39 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that two desaturase genes (SlitDes5 and SlitDes11) and one fatty acyl reductase gene (SlitFAR3) showed pheromone gland (PG) biased or specific expression, and clustered with genes known to be involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Furthermore, 4 chemoreception related genes (SlitOBP6, SlitOBP11, SlitCSP3, and SlitCSP14) also showed higher expression in the PG, and could be additional candidate genes involved in sex pheromone transport. This study provides the first solid background information that should facilitate further elucidation of sex pheromone biosynthesis and transport, and indicates potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. litura for a novel pest management strategy. PMID:26445454

  3. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  4. Identification of the sex pheromone of the tree infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae).

    PubMed

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Degefu, Dawit; Wingfield, Michael John; Lawson, Simon; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2015-01-01

    The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis) has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH) from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc), E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc), Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio) and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a useful

  5. Identification of the Sex Pheromone of the Tree Infesting Cossid Moth Coryphodema tristis (Lepidoptera: Cossidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bouwer, Marc Clement; Slippers, Bernard; Degefu, Dawit; Wingfield, Michael John; Lawson, Simon; Rohwer, Egmont Richard

    2015-01-01

    The cossid moth (Coryphodema tristis) has a broad range of native tree hosts in South Africa. The moth recently moved into non-native Eucalyptus plantations in South Africa, on which it now causes significant damage. Here we investigate the chemicals involved in pheromone communication between the sexes of this moth in order to better understand its ecology, and with a view to potentially develop management tools for it. In particular, we characterize female gland extracts and headspace samples through coupled gas chromatography electro-antennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS). Tentative identities of the potential pheromone compounds were confirmed by comparing both retention time and mass spectra with authentic standards. Two electrophysiologically active pheromone compounds, tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) and Z9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and an additional compound (Z9-14:OH) from headspace samples. We further determined dose response curves for the identified compounds and six other structurally similar compounds that are common to the order Cossidae. Male antennae showed superior sensitivity toward Z9-14:OAc, Z7-tetradecenyl acetate (Z7-14:OAc), E9-tetradecenyl acetate (E9-14:OAc), Z9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH) and Z9-tetradecenal (Z9-14:Ald) when compared to female antennae. While we could show electrophysiological responses to single pheromone compounds, behavioral attraction of males was dependent on the synergistic effect of at least two of these compounds. Signal specificity is shown to be gained through pheromone blends. A field trial showed that a significant number of males were caught only in traps baited with a combination of Z9-14:OAc (circa 95% of the ratio) and Z9-14:OH. Addition of 14:OAc to this mixture also improved the number of males caught, although not significantly. This study represents a major step towards developing a useful

  6. Identification of a sex pheromone from male yellow mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Bryning, Gareth P; Chambers, John; Wakefield, Maureen E

    2005-11-01

    The sex pheromone released by the adult female Tenebrio molitor, 4-methyl-1-nonanol, is well known. In addition, there is evidence that adult males release a pheromone that attracts females. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify male-released pheromone(s). Emissions from virgin adult males and females were collected on filter paper and extracted with pentane. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One male-specific compound was detected and identified as (Z)-3-dodecenyl acetate (Z3-12:Ac). In arena bioassays, E3-12:Ac was attractive to females only, at 1 and 10 microg doses. E3-12:Ac was also attractive to females at a 10-microg dose. The presence of both male and female pheromones, each attracting the opposite sex, may contribute to maintaining a high-density population of both sexes. PMID:16273437

  7. Effect of abundance of the navel orangeworm on sampling range and interference between pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sampling range of pheromone traps for the navel orangeworm Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) and its association with abundance was investigated by examining mutual interference within cross-shaped arrays of nine wing traps baited with virgin females and placed at 400 m interva...

  8. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the ...

  9. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  10. Geometric isomers of sex pheromone components do not affect attractancy of Conopomorpha cramerella in cocoa plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella, has previously been identified as a blend of (E,Z,Z)- and (E,E,Z)-4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetates and the corresponding alcohols. These pheromone components have been synthesized with modification of the existing method and relative at...

  11. Chemo-anemotaxis: a behavioral response to sex pheromone in nonflying insects.

    PubMed Central

    Rust, M K; Bell, W J

    1976-01-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, running on a Y-ring globe, moves downwind if an air current is directed toward the head. However, if the air current carries sex pheromone, then upwind movement is elicited. This orientation behavior is apparently a mechanism to facilitate the orientation of males searching for pheromone-secreting females. Images PMID:1065906

  12. Aggression and Courtship in Drosophila: Pheromonal Communication and Sex Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María Paz; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Upon encountering a conspecific in the wild, males have to rapidly detect, integrate and process the most relevant signals to evoke an appropriate behavioral response. Courtship and aggression are the most important social behaviors in nature for procreation and survival: for males, making the right choice between the two depends on the ability to identify the sex of the other individual. In flies as in most species, males court females and attack other males. Although many sensory modalities are involved in sex recognition, chemosensory communication mediated by specific molecules that serve as pheromones plays a key role in helping males distinguish between courtship and aggression targets. The chemosensory signals used by flies include volatile and non-volatile compounds, detected by the olfactory and gustatory systems. Recently, several putative olfactory and gustatory receptors have been identified that play key roles in sex recognition, allowing investigators to begin to map the neuronal circuits that convey this sensory information to higher processing centers in the brain. Here, we describe how Drosophila melanogaster males use taste and smell to make correct behavioral choices. PMID:24043358

  13. Aggression and courtship in Drosophila: pheromonal communication and sex recognition.

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Paz; Kravitz, Edward A

    2013-11-01

    Upon encountering a conspecific in the wild, males have to rapidly detect, integrate and process the most relevant signals to evoke an appropriate behavioral response. Courtship and aggression are the most important social behaviors in nature for procreation and survival: for males, making the right choice between the two depends on the ability to identify the sex of the other individual. In flies as in most species, males court females and attack other males. Although many sensory modalities are involved in sex recognition, chemosensory communication mediated by specific molecules that serve as pheromones plays a key role in helping males distinguish between courtship and aggression targets. The chemosensory signals used by flies include volatile and non-volatile compounds, detected by the olfactory and gustatory systems. Recently, several putative olfactory and gustatory receptors have been identified that play key roles in sex recognition, allowing investigators to begin to map the neuronal circuits that convey this sensory information to higher processing centers in the brain. Here, we describe how Drosophila melanogaster males use taste and smell to make correct behavioral choices. PMID:24043358

  14. Mating-induced differential coding of plant odour and sex pheromone in a male moth.

    PubMed

    Barrozo, Romina B; Jarriault, David; Deisig, Nina; Gemeno, Cesar; Monsempes, Christelle; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-05-01

    Innate behaviours in animals can be influenced by several factors, such as the environment, experience, or physiological status. This behavioural plasticity originates from changes in the underlying neuronal substrate. A well-described form of plasticity is induced by mating. In both vertebrates and invertebrates, males experience a post-ejaculatory refractory period, during which they avoid new females. In the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, mating induces a transient inhibition of responses to the female-produced sex pheromone. To understand the neural bases of this inhibition and its possible odour specificity, we carried out a detailed analysis of the response characteristics of the different neuron types from the periphery to the central level. We examined the response patterns of pheromone-sensitive and plant volatile-sensitive neurons in virgin and mated male moths. By using intracellular recordings, we showed that mating changes the response characteristics of pheromone-sensitive antennal lobe (AL) neurons, and thus decreases their sensitivity to sex pheromone. Individual olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) recordings and calcium imaging experiments indicated that pheromone sensory input remains constant. On the other hand, calcium responses to non-pheromonal odours (plant volatiles) increased after mating, as reflected by increased firing frequencies of plant-sensitive AL neurons, although ORN responses to heptanal remained unchanged. We suggest that differential processing of pheromone and plant odours allows mated males to transiently block their central pheromone detection system, and increase non-pheromonal odour detection in order to efficiently locate food sources. PMID:21488987

  15. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  16. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  17. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication

    PubMed Central

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C.; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load—key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research. PMID:26180067

  18. Beyond species recognition: somatic state affects long-distance sex pheromone communication.

    PubMed

    Chemnitz, Johanna; Jentschke, Petra C; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    Long-range sex pheromones have been subjected to substantial research with a particular focus on their biosynthesis, peripheral perception, central processing and the resulting orientation behaviour of perceivers. Fundamental to the research on sex attractants was the assumption that they primarily coordinate species recognition. However, especially when they are produced by the less limiting sex (usually males), the evolution of heightened condition dependence might be expected and long-range sex pheromones might, therefore, also inform about a signaller's quality. Here we provide, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive study of the role of a male's long-range pheromone in mate choice that combines chemical analyses, video observations and field experiments with a multifactorial manipulation of males' condition. We show that the emission of the long-distance sex pheromone of the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides is highly condition-dependent and reliably reflects nutritional state, age, body size and parasite load--key components of an individual's somatic state. Both, the quantity and ratio of the pheromone components were affected but the time invested in pheromone emission was largely unaffected by a male's condition. Moreover, the variation in pheromone emission caused by the variation in condition had a strong effect on the attractiveness of males in the field, with males in better nutritional condition, of older age, larger body size and bearing less parasites being more attractive. That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male's attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research. PMID:26180067

  19. Identification and field bioassay of the sex pheromone of Trichophysetis cretacea (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-Lin; Gu, Ping; Li, Juan; Chen, Qi-Yu; Feng, Chuang-Hong; Luo, Huai-Hai; Du, Yong-Jun

    2012-10-01

    The jasmine bud borer Trichophysetis cretacea (Butler) (Lepidoptera Crambidae) is an important agricultural pest of jasmine flowers Jasminum sambac in China. The extract from the pheromone gland of the female moth was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald),and (Z)-11-hexadecenol (Z11-16:OH) were identified as the probable sex pheromone components. The electroantennogram (EAG) bioassay confirmed the results from the chemical analysis. Field bioassays conducted in the late summer and fall in Quanwei, Sichuan, China, showed that the synthetic chemical blend of Z11-16:Ac, Z11-16:Ald, and Z11-16:OH was highly attractive to male T. cretacea moths, and none of the three components was attractive by itself. All three components were necessary and the ratio of the three was critical. The highest number of male moths was captured when the ratio of Z11-16:Ac: Z11-16:Ald:Z11-16:OH was 10:10:1 at a dosage per lure of 200 microg Z11-16:Ac. The binary mixture of 200 microg Z11-16:Ac and 25 microg Z11-16:OH captured a number of Nymphicula mesorphna (10.3 +/- 4.4). The results indicate that traps with synthetic pheromone lures can be used to monitor jasmine bud borer populations in the field and potentially to control this pest. PMID:23156151

  20. Multiple Sex Pheromones and Receptors of a Mushroom-producing Fungus Elicit Mating in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Thomas J.; DeSimone, Susan M.; Mitton, Michael F.; Kurjan, Janet; Raper, Carlene A.

    1999-01-01

    The mushroom-producing fungus Schizophyllum commune has thousands of mating types defined, in part, by numerous lipopeptide pheromones and their G protein-linked receptors. Compatible combinations of pheromones and receptors encoded by different mating types regulate a pathway of sexual development leading to mushroom formation and meiosis. A complex set of pheromone–receptor interactions maximizes the likelihood of outbreeding; for example, a single pheromone can activate more than one receptor and a single receptor can be activated by more than one pheromone. The current study demonstrates that the sex pheromones and receptors of Schizophyllum, when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, can substitute for endogenous pheromone and receptor and induce the yeast pheromone response pathway through the yeast G protein. Secretion of active Schizophyllum pheromone requires some, but not all, of the biosynthetic machinery used by the yeast lipopeptide pheromone a-factor. The specificity of interaction among pheromone–receptor pairs in Schizophyllum was reproduced in yeast, thus providing a powerful system for exploring molecular aspects of pheromone–receptor interactions for a class of seven-transmembrane-domain receptors common to a wide range of organisms. PMID:10436012

  1. Identification and synthesis of a female-produced sex pheromone for the cerambycid beetle Prionus californicus.

    PubMed

    Rodstein, Joshua; McElfresh, J Steven; Barbour, James D; Ray, Ann M; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2009-05-01

    Females of the large cerambycid beetle Prionus californicus produce a powerful sex pheromone that attracts males. The pheromone was adsorbed on solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers inserted into the ovipositor sheath and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection and GC-mass spectrometry. The pheromone was identified as an isomer of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid by a combination of retention index comparisons and mass spectral interpretation. The mass spectrum was misleading because it exhibited enlarged fragment ions that were not representative of branch points or other obvious stabilizing structural elements. The structure was verified by synthesis of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid as a mixture of all four possible isomers, and this mixture was highly attractive to male beetles in field bioassays. The SPME extracts also contained several other compounds that were tentatively identified as chain-extended homologs of the main pheromone component. This pheromone should prove useful for sampling and management of the beetle, which is an important pest of hops, and an occasional pest in a variety of orchard crops. Although this is the first female-produced pheromone to be identified from the Cerambycidae, there is considerable evidence for pheromone production by females of other species in the subfamily Prioninae. Thus, this pheromone and the associated methodology used in its identification should be useful in the identification of female-produced attractant pheromones from other members of the subfamily. PMID:19396491

  2. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with Pheromone Baited Multiple-Funnel Traps to Reduce Tree Mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Douglas fir beetle (Dendroctonuspseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the ability of pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps to protect small, high-value stands of trees, such as ...

  3. Sex-pairing pheromone in the Asian termite pest species Odontotermes formosanus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Liu, Shu-Wen; Liu, Cong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2012-05-01

    The sex-pairing pheromone of the black winged subterranean termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera, Termitidae), was investigated using headspace-SPME, GC-MS, GC-EAD, and attraction bioassays. Females secrete the pheromone from their sternal gland to attract males. The sex-pairing pheromone is composed of (Z,Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol and (Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol, estimated at 9 to 16.64 ng and 0.2 to 0.54 ng, respectively. Both short- and long-distance sex attraction bioassays were employed to show that these compounds act in synergy at long distance, but only (Z,Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol is active at short distance. The pheromone may be useful in efforts to control this pest, which is considered one of the most harmful termite species in Southeast Asia. PMID:22527053

  4. Sex pheromone biosynthesis in the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa by delta-13 desaturation.

    PubMed

    Arsequell, G; Fabriàs, G; Camps, F

    1990-01-01

    In vivo treatments of female sex pheromone glands of the processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, with mass-labeled fatty acids showed that (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, the main sex pheromone component, is biosynthesized from palmitic acid by the combined action of delta-11 and delta-13 desaturases. The involvement of this unusual delta-13 has been proven by application of [16,16,16-2H3] [1,2-13C2]-hexadecanoic acid to the glands with a resultant incorporation of all labeled atoms into the pheromone and each one of the corresponding intermediates. These results seem to exclude alternative biosynthetic pathways, such as chain shortening and elongation combined with delta-11 desaturation. The delta-11 desaturase responsible for the formation of the triple bond in both the 11-hexadecynoyl and (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynoyl intermediates is also an unusual enzyme not previously reported in lepidopteran sex pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:2134170

  5. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, John A.; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (<1 ng/h). We used slow-rotating pairs of traps to test the attraction of species to blends of the volatiles with a subtractive method to detect synergism. Each species' major butyrate ester was released at 3 μg/h, the minor butyrate according to its ratio, and ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal at 2 μg/h. The resulting catches of only Lygus males suggest that ( E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal is an essential sex pheromone component for all three species, ( E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an

  6. Sex pheromone component ratios and mating isolation among three Lygus plant bug species of North America.

    PubMed

    Byers, John A; Fefer, Daniela; Levi-Zada, Anat

    2013-12-01

    The plant bugs Lygus hesperus, Lygus lineolaris, and Lygus elisus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests of many agricultural crops in North America. Previous studies suggested that females release a sex pheromone attractive to males. Other studies showed that males and females contain microgram amounts of (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal, hexyl butyrate, and (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that are emitted as a defense against predators. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that female L. lineolaris and L. elisus have a 4:10 ratio of hexyl butyrate to (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate that is reversed from the 10:1 ratio in female L. hesperus (males of the three species have ~10:1 ratio). These reversed ratios among females of the species suggest a behavioral role. Because both sexes have nearly equal amounts of the major volatiles, females should release more to attract males. This expectation was supported because L. hesperus females released more hexyl butyrate (mean of 86 ng/h) during the night (1800-0700 hours) than did males (<1 ng/h). We used slow-rotating pairs of traps to test the attraction of species to blends of the volatiles with a subtractive method to detect synergism. Each species' major butyrate ester was released at 3 μg/h, the minor butyrate according to its ratio, and (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal at 2 μg/h. The resulting catches of only Lygus males suggest that (E)-4-oxo-2-hexenal is an essential sex pheromone component for all three species, (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate is essential for L. elisus and L. lineolaris, and hexyl butyrate is essential for L. hesperus. However, all three components are recognized by each species since ratios of the butyrate esters are critical for conspecific attraction and heterospecific avoidance by males and thus play a role in reproductive isolation among the three species. Because L. hesperus males and females are known to emit these major volatiles for repelling ant predators, our study links defensive allomones in Lygus bugs with an

  7. Pheromone Lure and Trap Color Affects Bycatch in Agricultural Landscapes of Utah.

    PubMed

    Spears, Lori R; Looney, Chris; Ikerd, Harold; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Strange, James P; Ramirez, Ricardo A

    2016-08-01

    Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of nontarget species ("bycatch") plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectiveness by reducing the available space for target species and increasing trap screening time, especially in areas where thousands of insects are captured as bycatch in a given season. Additionally, bycatch may negatively impact local nontarget insect populations, including beneficial predators and pollinators. Here, we tested the effect of pheromone lures on bycatch rates of Coccinellidae (Coleoptera), Apoidea (Hymenoptera), and nontarget Lepidoptera. Multicolored (primarily yellow and white) bucket traps containing a pheromone lure for capturing one of three survey target species, Spodoptera litura (F.), S. littoralis (Boisduval), or Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), were placed in alfalfa and corn fields, and compared to multicolored traps without a pheromone lure. All-green traps with and without H. armigera lures were employed in a parallel study investigating the effect of lure and trap color on bycatch. Over 2,600 Coccinellidae representing seven species, nearly 6,400 bees in 57 species, and >9,000 nontarget moths in 17 genera were captured across 180 traps and seven temporal sampling events. Significant effects of lure and color were observed for multiple taxa. In general, nontarget insects were attracted to the H. armigera lure and multicolored trap, but further studies of trap color and pheromone lure specificity are needed to better understand these interactions and to minimize nontarget captures. PMID:27412193

  8. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Johnson, Nicholas S; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species. PMID:23735501

  9. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p < 0.05) and cause increases in activity during several daytime hours in preovulated and ovulated females. These results are one of the first examples of how sex pheromones modulate a locomotor rhythm in a vertebrate, and they suggest that the interaction between maturity stage and sex pheromone exposure contributes to the differential locomotor rhythms found in adult female sea lamprey. This phenomenon may contribute to the reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  10. Identification of conjugated pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components of the sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; van Vang, Le; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Homologs of bombykal, (10E,12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal, have been reported to be sex pheromones or sexual attractants of several species of sphingid moths. In this study, we identified novel bombykal analogs as sex pheromone components from a Japanese sphingid moth, Dolbina tancrei. Staudinger (Sphingidae: Lepidoptera). Sex pheromone gland extracts from calling female moths were subjected to gas chromatography/electroantennograhic detection (GC/EAD), gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and gas chromatography (GC) analyses. GC/EAD analyses showed two active components in the crude pheromone extracts. GC/MS analysis determined these two components to be pentadecadienals. GC/MS of their MTAD derivatives showed conjugated double bonds at the 9- and 11-positions, indicating 9,11-pentadecadienals. The isomeric configurations of these candidates were determined by comparison of their Kováts retention indices with those of synthetic compounds. Field bioassays with the four isomers of 9,11-pentadecadienal and their mixtures confirmed that the two sex pheromone components of D. tancrei are (9E,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal and (9Z,11Z)-9,11-pentadecadienal, with the highest male catches observed for a 90:10 blend. This is the first report of 9,11-pentadecadienals as sex pheromone components in lepidopteran species. PMID:24190021

  11. Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of Tischeria ekebladella, an oak leafmining moth.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Béla Péter; Tröger, Armin; Toshova, Theodora B; Subchev, Mitko; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Koster, J C Sjaak; Szőcs, Gábor; Tóth, Miklós; Francke, Wittko

    2012-10-01

    The native leafmining moth Tischeria ekebladella (Lepidoptera: Tischeriidae) feeds on oaks and recently has become a pest of silviculture and urban green areas in central Europe. The behavioral responses of male moths to hexane extracts of whole bodies of calling females or males were tested under laboratory conditions. Only extracts of females elicited responses from males. Analysis of extracts by coupled gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection revealed the presence of two electroantennogram-active peaks. Structure elucidation of these compounds, by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and independent synthesis revealed them to be (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene and (3Z,6Z,9Z,19Z)-tricosa-3,6,9,19-tetraene. While the triene was present in both sexes, the tetraene was female-specific. The latter is a new structure for a pheromone component of Lepidoptera and a novel natural product. Field trapping tests, carried out in a mixed oak forest near Budapest (Hungary), using synthetic compounds applied to rubber dispensers, showed that the tetraene per se elicited catches of males in large numbers. When the triene was added to the tetraene in a ratio of 1:1, there was no increase in trap catch; the triene alone did not elicit catches of males. For monitoring this insect, the tetraene, applied to rubber dispensers at a dose of 300 μg, is a potent sex attractant. PMID:23053915

  12. Putative pathway of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation by expression patterns of genes identified from female pheromone gland and adult antenna of Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhu, Jia-Yao; Li, Sheng-Yun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-05-01

    The general pathway of biosynthesis and degradation for Type-I sex pheromones in moths is well established, but some genes involved in this pathway remain to be characterized. The purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens, employs a pheromone blend containing components with three different terminal functional groups (Z11-16:OAc, Z11-16:OH, and Z11-16:Ald) of Type-I sex pheromones. Thus, it provides a good model to study the diversity of genes involved in pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways. By analyzing previously obtained transcriptomic data of the sex pheromone glands and antennae, we identified 73 novel genes that are possibly related to pheromone biosynthesis (46 genes) or degradation (27 genes). Gene expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis revealed that one desaturase (SinfDes4), one fatty acid reductase (SinfFAR2), and one fatty acid xtransport protein (SinfFATP1) genes were predominantly expressed in pheromone glands, and clustered with genes involved in pheromone synthesis in other moth species. Ten genes including five carboxylesterases (SinfCXE10, 13, 14, 18, and 20), three aldehyde oxidases (SinfAOX1, 2 and 3), and two alcohol dehydrogenases (SinfAD1 and 3) were expressed specifically or predominantly in antennae, and could be candidate genes involved in pheromone degradation. SinfAD1 and 3 are the first reported alcohol dehydrogenase genes with antennae-biased expression. Based on these results we propose a pathway involving these potential enzyme-encoding gene candidates in sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation in S. inferens. This study provides robust background information for further elucidation of the genetic basis of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation, and ultimately provides potential targets to disrupt sexual communication in S. inferens for control purposes. PMID:24817326

  13. Pheromones, male lures and trapping of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dipteran family of Tephritidae consists of many genera, of which several namely, Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Dacus, Rhagoletis and Toxotrypana possess species of high economic importance as major pests of fruits and vegetables. Hitherto, pheromones isolated and identified for possible use...

  14. Pheromone-food-bait trap and acoustic surveys of Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)in Curacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone-food-bait trap and acoustic surveys were conducted in Curacao to monitor a recently discovered invasion of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus L. (RPW). This pest of economic importance in regions of Asia, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean was not observed in the Americas until 2009. Due to its...

  15. Effects of Pheromone Release Rate and Trap Placement on Trapping of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Silk, Peter J; Fidgen, Jeff; Mayo, Peter; Lavallée, Robert; Guertin, Claude; Scarr, Taylor

    2015-06-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a devastating insect pest in its introduced range. A trapping system that increases trap catches or detection rates in low-density populations would be beneficial for survey programs. Five trapping experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing capture rates of male beetles on dark green traps baited with the A. planipennis pheromone, (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide ((3Z)-lactone), plus the green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol. Low doses (0.001-1.0 mg) of (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol did not consistently increase captures of male A. planipennis. In other experiments, mean captures of males were significantly higher on traps baited with a moderate dose (3.0 mg/septum) of (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol, compared with lower doses (0.001, 0.1, and 1.0 mg) or (3Z)-hexenol alone. Next, we demonstrated that addition of (3Z)-lactone to traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol resulted in significantly greater increases in male captures when pairs of traps were placed on the same tree, than when traps were placed on adjacent trees. Moreover, significantly more A. planipennis were captured on pheromone-baited traps placed in the southern versus northern aspect of the crown. These results highlight the importance of experimental set-up for elucidating lure treatment effects and also suggests the (3Z)-lactone may be more active at close range. Our findings increase our understanding of the pheromone ecology of this species and lend support toward the use of dark green traps baited with 3.0 mg (3Z)-lactone + (3Z)-hexenol deployed in the south aspect of the canopy for detection programs for this insect. PMID:26313980

  16. Plant odorants interfere with detection of sex pheromone signals by male Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    Pregitzer, Pablo; Schubert, Marco; Breer, Heinz; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke; Krieger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable, or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe (AL), we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN) to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein (PBP) HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor (PR) HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization. PMID:23060749

  17. Field electroantennogram and trap assessments of aerosol pheromone dispensers for disrupting mating in Epiphyas postvittana.

    PubMed

    Suckling, David M; Daly, John M; Chen, Xiong; Karg, Gerhard

    2007-02-01

    An electronically controlled aerosol system for mating disruption was evaluated against Epiphyas postvittana Walker in apple orchards in New Zealand. The area in which male moths were affected by the aerosol system was examined using catches in traps radiating from a central single-point source of either one aerosol can dispenser or 100 polyethylene tubing dispensers, compared with catches in orchard plots without pheromone dispensers. Both pheromone dispensing systems decreased moth catch to similar levels at 5-10 m from the central release point, but there was 5.5-fold more pheromone released from aerosol cans than from polyethylene dispensers over a 24 h period. Trap catches were reduced by about 90% in plots treated with either five aerosol cans per hectare or uniform deployment of polyethylene dispensers. Recordings of electroantennograms in open grassed plots and orchards indicated that the treated cotton pad of an aerosol dispenser and a point source of 100 polyethylene tubing dispensers produced similar electroantennogram recordings. Electroantennogram recordings provided evidence that pheromone plume detection from a single-point source was maintained over a range of 5-40 m downwind in the orchard. On present evidence, aerosol pheromone dispensers could not be recommended for further testing towards control of E. postvittana under New Zealand conditions owing to their higher cost of purchase and operation. PMID:17167824

  18. Identification of the Sex Pheromone of a Protected Species, the Spanish Moon Moth Graellsia isabellae

    PubMed Central

    McElfresh, J. Steven; Romero, Carmen; Vila, Marta; Marí-Mena, Neus; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Sex attractant pheromones are highly sensitive and selective tools for detecting and monitoring populations of insects, yet there has been only one reported case of pheromones being used to monitor protected species. Here, we report the identification and synthesis of the sex pheromone of a protected European moth species, Graellsia isabellae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), as the single component, (4E,6E,11Z)-hexadecatrienal. In preliminary field trials, lures loaded with this compound attracted male moths from populations of this species at a number of widely separated field sites in France, Switzerland, and Spain, clearly demonstrating the utility of pheromones in sampling potentially endangered insect species. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9831-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20658260

  19. Oryctes monoceros trapping with synthetic pheromone and palm material in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Allou, Kouassi; Morin, Jean-Paul; Kouassi, Philippe; N'klo, François Hala; Rochat, Didier

    2006-08-01

    Oryctes monoceros is the most serious pest in coconut plantations, causing up to 40% damage in tropical Africa, especially in Ivory Coast. With a view to reducing pest populations by olfactory trapping, field trials were carried out to assess the efficiency of a synthetic aggregation pheromone: ethyl 4-methyloctanoate (1), 4-methyloctanoic acid (2), a related volatile produced by males, and decaying palm material, either oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) or pieces of coconut wood (CW) of various ages. Vertical polyvinyl chloride tube traps (2 x 0.16 m with two openings in the upper half), embedded in the soil, were more efficient than 30-L pail traps 1.5 m above ground. EFB, which were inactive alone, synergized captures with synthetic pheromone. CW was more effective than EFB in comparative trials. Compound 2 did not catch any beetles when assessed with EFB, and reduced catches by 1 + EFB when tested at >10% with the pheromone. Trapping over 6 mo in 2002 and 2003 in a 19-ha coconut plot inside a 4,000-ha oil palm estate reduced damage from 3.8% in 2001 to 0.5% in 2002, then to 0.2% in 2003. Damage was 0.0% in 2004 with routine trapping using 32 traps, which caught 3369 beetles in 9 mo. The results are discussed in relation to other Dynastid palm pests and coconut protection in Ivory Coast. PMID:16900429

  20. Stylopsal: the first identified female-produced sex pheromone of strepsiptera.

    PubMed

    Cvačka, Josef; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Straka, Jakub; Cerná, Kateřina; Šebesta, Petr; Tomčala, Aleš; Vašíčková, Soňa; Jahn, Ullrich; Šobotník, Jan

    2012-12-01

    A female-produced sex pheromone of Stylops muelleri was identified as an unusually branched saturated aldehyde (9R)-3,5-syn-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal. We named it stylopsal. Its structure was established by using mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and organic synthesis of candidate compounds. The synthetic standard of (9R)-3,5-syn-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal gave identical chromatographic and mass spectrometric data as the natural pheromone and also was active in electroantennographic and behavioral assays. The female fat body lipids contained the corresponding fatty acid, indicating a possible link between lipid metabolism and the pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:23143664

  1. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less. PMID:16813335

  2. Olfactory receptor responses of the nymphal American cockroach to sex pheromones and their mimics.

    PubMed

    Nishino, C; Kimura, R

    1982-01-01

    1. EAG responses to highly purified sex pheromones (periplanone-A and -B), sex pheromone mimics [germacrene-D, (+)-verbanyl acetate and (+)-trans-verbenyl acetate] and general odor (camphor) were recorded from both sexes of adult and three nymphal stages (7, 10 and 11th instars) of the American cockroach. 2. The M/F ratios were evaluated for each stage by stimulation with the above chemicals. 3. The ratio values indicated undeveloped sex pheromone receptor on the antennae of 7th male instar and females of all the stages. On the other hand, precursory development of the receptor was expected on the antennae of males of the old-aged nymphal instars and full development on the adult male antennae. PMID:6124360

  3. Identification of Critical Secondary Components of the Sex Pheromone of the Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We identified a four-component sex pheromone blend that is as attractive to male navel orangeworm (NOW), Amyelois transitella, as hexane extracts from female pheromone glands. This blend contains Z11,Z13-16:Ald, Z11,Z13-16:OH, Z11,E13-16:OH and (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z-23:H)-tricosapentaene (C23 pentaene)....

  4. Sticky Traps Baited with Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Predict Fruit Orchard Infestations of Plautia stali (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Toyama, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Hidenari; Mishiro, Koji; Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio

    2015-10-01

    The brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, mainly reproduces on Japanese cedar or cypress cones in Japanese plantation forests during summer and autumn. It often depletes its food sources in forest habitats and moves to cultivated crops in large numbers. To establish an easy method for assessing the risk of fruit orchard infestation by P. stali, we conducted a 3-yr field survey that monitored the attraction of bugs to the synthetic P. stali aggregation pheromone using a sticky trap. We used a morphological indicator, variable body size depending on food intake, to estimate the nutritional status in nymphs, which showed that nymphs attracted to the synthetic pheromone were starving. Comparisons between increasing changes in the number of stylet sheaths left on the cones by P. stali and the number of trapped nymphs show that monitoring nymphs with the pheromone-baited sticky trap is useful for inferring conditions regarding food resources in forest habitats. The trend toward trapping second instars can provide a timely overview of resource competition for cones. Trapping middle-to-late (third-fifth) instars is a warning that the cones are finally depleted and that there is a high probability that adults will leave the forests and invade the orchards. In addition, trends in trapping adults suggest that there is a potential risk of orchard infestation by the pest and predict the intensity and period of the invasion. The pheromone-baited sticky trap is an easy but useful survey tool for predicting P. stali orchard infestations. PMID:26453725

  5. A synthesized mating pheromone component increases adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) trap capture in management scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Wagner, C. Michael; Dawson, Heather; Wang, Huiyong; Steeves, Todd; Twohey, Michael; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Application of chemical cues to manipulate adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) behavior is among the options considered for new sea lamprey control techniques in the Laurentian Great Lakes. A male mating pheromone component, 7a,12a,24-trihydroxy-3-one-5a-cholan-24-sulfate (3kPZS), lures ovulated female sea lamprey upstream into baited traps in experimental contexts with no odorant competition. A critical knowledge gap is whether this single pheromone component influences adult sea lamprey behavior in management contexts containing free-ranging sea lampreys. A solution of 3kPZS to reach a final in-stream concentration of 10-12 mol·L-1 was applied to eight Michigan streams at existing sea lamprey traps over 3 years, and catch rates were compared between paired 3kPZS-baited and unbaited traps. 3kPZS-baited traps captured significantly more sexually immature and mature sea lampreys, and overall yearly trapping efficiency within a stream averaged 10% higher during years when 3kPZS was applied. Video analysis of a trap funnel showed that the likelihood of sea lamprey trap entry after trap encounter was higher when the trap was 3kPZS baited. Our approach serves as a model for the development of similar control tools for sea lamprey and other aquatic invaders.

  6. A new approach to determine the capture conditions of bark beetles in pheromone-baited traps

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Gonca Ece; Cicek, Osman; Enez, Korhan; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Forests form an organic unity with a great number of organic and inorganic components and tend to maintain the sustainability of their existing balance. However, some factors which adversely affect the balance of nature may interrupt this sustainability. The epidemic which is formed by bark beetles in their spreading region, due to various factors, changes the stability so much that interference is required. One of the most common methods used to monitor these beetles is pheromone-baited traps. The recognition of parameters, such as date (day/month/year), temperature and humidity, when bark beetles are captured in pheromone-baited traps, especially those used for monitoring will help to increase the trap efficiency on land and to develop an effective strategy for combating pests. In this study, an electronic control unit was added to pheromone-baited traps in order to obtain all of the above mentioned parameters. This unit operates with microcontrollers and data related to the parameters is saved in a storage unit. This is triggered by the beetle at the moment it is captured in the trap. A photovoltaic system was used to meet the energy needed for the system functioning and to complete the counting process in due time. PMID:26019592

  7. Sex Pheromone Evolution Is Associated with Differential Regulation of the Same Desaturase Gene in Two Genera of Leafroller Moths

    PubMed Central

    Albre, Jérôme; Liénard, Marjorie A.; Sirey, Tamara M.; Schmidt, Silvia; Tooman, Leah K.; Carraher, Colm; Greenwood, David R.; Löfstedt, Christer; Newcomb, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical signals are prevalent in sexual communication systems. Mate recognition has been extensively studied within the Lepidoptera, where the production and recognition of species-specific sex pheromone signals are typically the defining character. While the specific blend of compounds that makes up the sex pheromones of many species has been characterized, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the evolution of pheromone-based mate recognition systems remain largely unknown. We have focused on two sets of sibling species within the leafroller moth genera Ctenopseustis and Planotortrix that have rapidly evolved the use of distinct sex pheromone blends. The compounds within these blends differ almost exclusively in the relative position of double bonds that are introduced by desaturase enzymes. Of the six desaturase orthologs isolated from all four species, functional analyses in yeast and gene expression in pheromone glands implicate three in pheromone biosynthesis, two Δ9-desaturases, and a Δ10-desaturase, while the remaining three desaturases include a Δ6-desaturase, a terminal desaturase, and a non-functional desaturase. Comparative quantitative real-time PCR reveals that the Δ10-desaturase is differentially expressed in the pheromone glands of the two sets of sibling species, consistent with differences in the pheromone blend in both species pairs. In the pheromone glands of species that utilize (Z)-8-tetradecenyl acetate as sex pheromone component (Ctenopseustis obliquana and Planotortrix octo), the expression levels of the Δ10-desaturase are significantly higher than in the pheromone glands of their respective sibling species (C. herana and P. excessana). Our results demonstrate that interspecific sex pheromone differences are associated with differential regulation of the same desaturase gene in two genera of moths. We suggest that differential gene regulation among members of a multigene family may be an important mechanism of molecular innovation in

  8. Novel sex pheromone desaturases in the genomes of corn borers generated through gene duplication and retroposon fusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biosynthesis of female moth sex pheromone blends is controlled by a number of different enzymes, many of which are encoded by members of multigene families. One such multigene family, the acyl-CoA desaturases, is comprised of certain genes that function as key players in moth sex pheromone bios...

  9. Similar worldwide patterns in the sex pheromone signal and response in the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The response of Grapholita molesta (Busck) males to three-component sex pheromone blends containing a 100% ratio of the major sex pheromone component, (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate and a 10% ratio of (Z)-8-dodecenol, but with varying ratios of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate (0.4%, 5.4%, 10.4%, 30.4%, and 100.1% ...

  10. Female sex pheromone and male behavioral responses of the bombycid moth Trilocha varians: comparison with those of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of ( E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths.

  11. Sex pheromone desaturase functioning in a primitive Ostrinia moth is cryptically conserved in congeners’ genomes

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takeshi; Ito, Katsuhiko; Tatematsu, Mitsuko; Shimada, Toru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate are the most common female sex pheromone components in Ostrinia moths. The Δ11-desaturase expressed in the pheromone gland (PG) of female moths is a key enzyme that introduces a double bond into pheromone molecules. A single Δ11-desaturase of Ostrinia nubilalis, OnubZ/E11, has been shown to produce an ∼7:3 mixture of (E)-11- and (Z)-11-tetradecenoate from the substrate tetradecanoate. In contrast, the sex pheromone of Ostrinia latipennis, a primitive species of Ostrinia, is (E)-11-tetradecenol. This pheromone is unique in that it is not acetylated, and includes no Z isomer. In the present study, through the cloning and functional analysis of a PG-specific Δ11-desaturase in O. latipennis, we showed that the absence of the Z isomer in the pheromone is attributable to the strict product specificity of the Δ11-desaturase in this species, LATPG1. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LATPG1 was not closely related to OnubZ/E11. Rather, it was closely related to retroposon-linked cryptic Δ11-desaturases (ezi-Δ11) found in the genomes of O. nubilalis and Ostrinia furnacalis. Taken together, the results showed that an unusual Δ11-desaturase is functionally expressed in O. latipennis, although the genes encoding this enzyme appear to be cryptic in congeners. PMID:21444802

  12. Discrimination of cis-trans sex pheromone components in two sympatric Lepidopteran species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sufang; Kong, Xiangbo; Ze, Sangzi; Wang, Hongbin; Lin, Aizhu; Liu, Fu; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) play an important role in the recognition of pheromones by insects. However, the abilities of these PBPs to discriminate pheromone components and recognize the isomers are unclear. Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii are two sympatric coniferous pests whose pheromones have cis-trans isomers. We used these insect species to detect the precise recognition abilities of PBPs. The four PBPs examined showed male-biased antenna-intensive expression patterns, whereas PBP1 showed higher expression than PBP2 in the antenna. DhouPBP1 only bound to a minor interspecific pheromone component, whereas DhouPBP2 bound to all three intraspecific components and another minor interspecific component. DkikPBP1 and DkikPBP2 could recognize all three intraspecific components with affinities negatively correlated with their ratios, and they bound to interspecific pheromones with affinity that was positively correlated with the ratios. The four PBPs have different cis-trans isomer discrimination abilities, i.e., DhouPBP1 and DkikPBP1 could not discriminate the two cis-trans isomer pairs of pheromones from the two species, whereas DhouPBP2 could discriminate between both pairs, and DkikPBP2 could only discriminate one pair. Overall, PBPs from D. houi and D. kikuchii use different strategies to help the moths to discriminate the intra- and interspecific pheromone components. Our work will contribute to better understanding of the sex pheromone recognition mechanism in these two sister species of moths and provide insights into more effective management practices of these pest species. PMID:27107681

  13. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

    1988-03-15

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-(/sup 3/H)hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant.

  14. Trifluoromethyl ketones as inhibitors of the processionary moth sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, A; Guerrero, A

    1994-02-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic trifluoromethyl ketones have been evaluated in the laboratory and in the field as inhibitors of the pheromone response of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa males. Among them, two compounds, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one and (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one, are closely related analogs of the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate. In the laboratory experiments, carried out by pre-exposure of males to vapors of the chemicals, alpha-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, beta-naphthyl trifluoromethyl ketone, 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one and (Z)-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one displayed notable blockage of the pheromone detection on EAG. The activity of 1,1,1-trifluorotetradecan-2-one is postulated to be due to the inhibition of the pheromone-degrading esterase. In general, the compounds have shown low specificity for the substrate and exhibited only a modest or null EAG intrinsic activity. In the field, benzyl trifluoromethyl ketone, trifluoroacetophenone, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-15-octadecen-13-yn-2-one, (Z)-1,1,1-trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one and beta-naphthyl trifluoroacetate showed a remarkable disruptant effect when mixed with the pheromone in 1:0.1, 1:1 and 1:10 ratio. (Z)-16-Nonadecen-14-yn-2-one has been found to be a modest agonist of the natural pheromone, exhibiting an attractant activity threefold lower than the parent molecule. PMID:8055254

  15. Functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in the purple stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-N; Zhang, J; Yan, S-W; Chang, H-T; Liu, Y; Wang, G-R; Dong, S-L

    2014-10-01

    The sex pheromone communication system in moths is highly species-specific and extremely sensitive, and pheromone receptors (PRs) are thought to be the most important factors in males. In the present study, three full-length cDNAs encoding PRs were characterized from Sesamia inferens antennae. These three PRs were all male-specific in expression, but their relative expression levels were very different; SinfOR29 was 17- to 23-fold higher than the other two PRs. Phylogenetic and motif pattern analyses showed that these three PRs were allocated to different PR subfamilies with different motif patterns. Functional analysis using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that SinfOR29 specifically and sensitively responded to the major pheromone component, Z11-16:OAc [concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50 ) = 3.431 × 10(-7) M], while SinfOR21 responded robustly to a minor pheromone component Z11-16:OH (EC50  = 1.087 × 10(-6) M). SinfOR27, however, displayed no response to any of the three pheromone components, but, interestingly, it was sensitive to a non-sex pheromone component Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50  = 1.522 × 10(-6) M). Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of specificity and sensitivity of the sex pheromone communication system in moths. PMID:25039606

  16. Sex- and Gonad-Affecting Scent Compounds and 3 Male Pheromones in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-β-farnesene and E-α-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones. PMID:18515819

  17. Sex- and gonad-affecting scent compounds and 3 male pheromones in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong

    2008-09-01

    This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-beta-farnesene and E-alpha-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones. PMID:18515819

  18. Detection and monitoring of pink bollworm moths and invasive insects using pheromone traps and encounter rate models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one of the most destructive pests in agriculture. An ongoing eradication program using a combination of sex pheromone monitoring and mating disruption, irradiated sterile moth releases, genetically-modified Bt...

  19. Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecules involved in pheromone biosynthesis may represent alternative targets for insect population control. This may be particularly useful in managing the reproduction of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum in Latin America. Besides the chemical identity of the major components of the L. longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential. Methods In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to explore the pheromone gland and adjacent abdominal tergites in order to obtain substantial general sequence information. We used a laboratory-reared L. longipalpis (one spot, 9-Methyl GermacreneB) population, captured in Lapinha Cave, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil for this analysis. Results From a total of 3,547 cDNA clones, 2,502 high quality sequences from the pheromone gland and adjacent tissues were obtained and assembled into 1,387 contigs. Through blast searches of public databases, a group of transcripts encoding proteins potentially involved in the production of terpenoid precursors were identified in the 4th abdominal tergite, the segment containing the pheromone gland. Among them, protein-coding transcripts for four enzymes of the mevalonate pathway such as 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate descarboxylase, and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase were identified. Moreover, transcripts coding for farnesyl diphosphate synthase and NADP+ dependent farnesol dehydrogenase were also found in the same tergite. Additionally, genes potentially involved in pheromone transportation were identified from the three abdominal tergites analyzed. Conclusion This study constitutes the first transcriptomic analysis exploring the repertoire of genes expressed in the tissue containing the L

  20. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  1. Sex-specific mating pheromones in the nematode Panagrellus redivivus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in medicine and crop genetics, nematodes remain significant human pathogens and agricultural pests. This warrants investigation of alternative strategies for pest control, such as interference with pheromone-mediated reproduction. Because only two nematode species have had their phe...

  2. Synthesis of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, the male sex pheromone and trail-following pheromone of two species of the termite Zootermopsis.

    PubMed

    Ghostin, J; Bordereau, C; Braekman, J C

    2011-03-01

    Recently, we reported that syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal is the male sex pheromone and the trail-following pheromone of the Termopsidae Zootermopsis nevadensis and Zootermopsis angusticollis. In this article, we describe the syntheses of the mixture of the four stereoisomers of 4,6-dimethyldodecanal using a synthetic pathway where the key step is a Wittig reaction between methyl 4-methyl-5-oxo-pentanoate and 1-methylheptyl-triphenylphosphonium iodide, and of (±)-syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal starting from 3,5-dimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one. Direct GC-MS comparison of these synthetic samples with the natural pheromone allowed its unambiguous identification. PMID:21391118

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the sex pheromone gland of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The chemical components of sex pheromones have been determined for more than a thousand moth species, but so far only a handful of genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds have been identified. For understanding the evolution of moth sexual communication, it is essential to know which genes are involved in the production of specific pheromone components and what controls the variation in their relative frequencies in the pheromone blend. We used a transcriptomic approach to characterize the pheromone gland of the Noctuid moth Heliothis virescens, an important agricultural pest, in order to obtain substantial general sequence information and to identify a range of candidate genes involved in the pheromone biosynthetic pathway. Results To facilitate identifying sets of genes involved in a broad range of processes and to capture rare transcripts, we developed our majority of ESTs from a normalized cDNA library of Heliothis virescens pheromone glands (PG). Combining these with a non-normalized library yielded a total of 17,233 ESTs, which assembled into 2,082 contigs and 6,228 singletons. Using BLAST searches of the NR and Swissprot databases we were able to identify a large number of putative unique gene elements (unigenes), which we compared to those derived from previous transcriptomic surveys of the larval stage of Heliothis virescens. The distribution of unigenes among GO Biological Process functional groups shows an overall similarity between PG and larval transcriptomes, but with distinct enrichment of specific pathways in the PG. In addition, we identified a large number of candidate genes in the pheromone biosynthetic pathways. Conclusion These data constitute one of the first large-scale EST-projects for Noctuidae, a much-needed resource for exploring these pest species. Our analysis shows a surprisingly complex transcriptome and we identified a large number of potential pheromone biosynthetic pathway and immune

  4. Identification of a Sex Attractant Pheromone for Male Winterform Pear Psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, have been shown to use a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females, with...

  5. Sex Pheromone Receptor Specificity in the European Corn Borer Moth, Ostrinia nubilalis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis, exists as two separate sex pheromone races. ECB(Z) females produce a 97:3 blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc whereas ECB(E) females produce an opposite 1:99 ratio of the Z and E isomers. Males of each race respond specifically to their conspecific female...

  6. Identification and Biosynthetic Studies of the Hydrocarbon Sex Pheromone in Utetheisa Ornatrix.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The type II class of sex pheromones found in moths is composed of polyene hydrocarbons and their epoxides. Analysis of Utetheisa ornatrix females by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and measurement of responses of male moths by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection confirmed t...

  7. Field Evaluations of Concentrated Spray Applications of Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone for Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (Checkmate® CM-F) for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), in low volume, concentrated sprays was evaluated in a series of small plot and grower trials in apple and pear. Preliminary tests found that MEC sprays applied at 172-207 ...

  8. Sex pheromone of queens of the slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Les; Aliabadi, Ali; McElfresh, J Stephen; Topoff, Howard; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2004-06-01

    The sex attractant pheromone produced in mandibular glands of queens of the slave-making ant Polyergus breviceps has been identified as a blend of methyl 6-methylsalicylate and 3-ethyl-4-methylpentanol. In field trials, each compound alone was completely unattractive to males, whereas blends of the two compounds attracted hundreds of males within a couple of hours. PMID:15303331

  9. Tales of conjugation and sex pheromones: A plasmid and enterococcal odyssey.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Don B

    2011-05-01

    This review covers highlights of the author's experience becoming and working as a plasmid biologist. The account chronicles a progression from studies of ColE1 DNA in Escherichia coli to Gram-positive bacteria with an emphasis on conjugation in enterococci. It deals with gene amplification, conjugative transposons and sex pheromones in the context of bacterial antibiotic resistance. PMID:22016844

  10. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in orchards treated with pear ester and sex pheromone combo dispensers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lures for monitoring codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), were tested in apple and walnut blocks treated with Cidetrak CM-DA Combo dispensers loaded with pear ester, ethyl (E, Z)-2,4-decadienoate (PE), and sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Total and female moth catches with combin...

  11. Phenyl propionate and sex pheromone for monitoring navel orangeworm in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent availability of sex pheromone lures for the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), improves options for monitoring this key pest in conventionally-managed almonds. These lures are, however, minimally effective in the presence of mating disruption. Experi...

  12. Combined approaches using sex pheromone and pear ester for behavioral disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies utilized the attractive properties of pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., for behavioural disruption. Standard dispensers loaded with codlemone alone or in combination with pear ester (c...

  13. Flying faster: Flight height affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male Grapholita molesta (Busck) were allowed to fly upwind along horizontal sex pheromone plumes in laboratory flight tunnels. Flying males experienced tunnel-width stripes perpendicular to the wind line, or pseudo randomly distributed dots (5cm diameter, equal to stripe width), and their flights we...

  14. Pellet Formulations of Sex Pheromone Components for Mating Disruption of Oriental Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Turfgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study showed that sprayable sex pheromone formulations for mating disruption to control the oriental beetle, Anomala orientalis Waterhouse, had limited persistence and contaminated shoes worn in the treated areas. Contamination of shoes created a nuisance by attracting male beetles when ...

  15. Identification of a sex attractant pheromone for male winterform pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola.

    PubMed

    Guédot, Christelle; Millar, Jocelyn G; Horton, David R; Landolt, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a major economic pest of pears, uses a female-produced sex attractant pheromone. We compared the chemical profiles obtained from cuticular extracts of diapausing and post-diapause winterform males and females to isolate and identify the pheromone. Post-diapause females produced significantly more of the cuticular hydrocarbon, 13-methylheptacosane, than post-diapause males and diapausing females. In olfactometer assays, conspecific males were attracted to synthetic racemic 13-methylheptacosane, whereas females were not, indicating that the behavioral response to this chemical is sex-specific. Furthermore, 13-methylheptacosane was as attractive to males as a cuticular extract of females, suggesting that this chemical was largely responsible for the female attractiveness. A field study showed that males but not females were attracted to 13-methylheptacosane, confirming the olfactometer results. This study provides evidence that 13-methylheptacosane is a sex attractant pheromone for C. pyricola winterform males. This is the first identification of a sex pheromone in the Psylloidea. Our results open the path to developing monitoring tools and possibly new strategies for integrated pest management of this insect. PMID:20063206

  16. Combined Sprays of Sex Pheromone and Insecticides to Attract and Kill Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials were conducted to evaluate the potential of an "attract-and-kill" approach for control of codling moth by adding half-rates of microencapsulated (MEC) lambda-cyhalothrin or acetamiprid to a sex pheromone formulation in Turkey and the USA in 2006. Two apple orchards were divided into six...

  17. Sex Pheromone of the Pine False Webworm Acantholyda erythrocephala (Hymenoptera Pamphiliidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Females of the pine false webworm Acantholyda erythrocephala (L) produce the sex pheromone (Z)-6,14-pentadecadienal, which attracts flying males in the field. Using gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), we detected (Z)-6,14-pentadeca...

  18. Comparison of three types of traps baited with sexual pheromones for ambrosia beetle Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) in poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Funes, Hernán; Zerba, Eduardo; González Audino, Paola

    2009-08-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (Coleoptera: Platypodinae) is an ambrosia beetle native to South America that only attacks standing live trees and is a serious problem for commercial poplar (Populus L.; Salicaceae) plantations in Argentina. The development of traps baited with synthetic pheromones that can be used for monitoring M. mutatus in infested poplar plantations is an important goal in preventive programs. Pioneer male M. mutatus emit a pheromone composed mainly by (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. In the current study, we tested their release rates from several polymeric reservoir systems, to develop and manufacture a pheromone-releasing device. The efficacy of three different types of traps was evaluated in the field. Single funnel traps equipped with cross-vanes (CIPEIN-CV) captured significantly more insects than multiple funnel traps (LINDGREN) and simple funnel traps (CIPEIN-F). PMID:19736767

  19. Differential Interactions of Sex Pheromone and Plant Odour in the Olfactory Pathway of a Male Moth

    PubMed Central

    Deisig, Nina; Kropf, Jan; Vitecek, Simon; Pevergne, Delphine; Rouyar, Angela; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Gadenne, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants), mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a) recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b) in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c) intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization. PMID:22427979

  20. Potential of synthetic sex pheromone blend for mating disruption of the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii.

    PubMed

    Samietz, Jörg; Baur, Robert; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-09-01

    The potential for pheromone-based mating disruption of the Brassica pest Contarinia nasturtii was tested, both in small-scale plots with Brussels sprouts and in commercial-scale fields with either broccoli or cauliflower. Experiments in the small-scale plots used laboratory-reared insects released into a previously uninfested area, whereas large-scale experiments used a high natural population of C. nasturtii. Effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by the reduction of male captures in pheromone traps, and by reduction of crop damage caused by C. nasturtii. Dental cotton rolls (small-scale experiment) and polyethylene caps (large-scale experiment), containing 50 μg (2S, 9S)-diacetoxyundecane, 100 μg (2S,10S)-diacetoxyundecane, and 1 μg (2S)-acetoxyundecane, spaced 2 m apart, served as dispensers in the test plots. In both experiments, mean catches of C. nasturtii males in pheromone traps were reduced to near zero in treated plots, with control plots averaging 71 males/trap. In the large-scale experiments, no males were caught in pheromone traps over a period of 41 days after mating disruption was applied; one male was caught from days 42-60. In the small-scale trials, crop damage was reduced by 59 %, compared to the untreated control plot. In the large-scale experiments, damage was reduced on average by 91 %. This study shows successful field application of the mating disruption technique for control of a member of the dipteran family Cecidomyiidae, and demonstrates that pheromone-based mating disruption has potential for management of C. nasturtii populations. PMID:22914960

  1. Identification of sex pheromone produced by female sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers).

    PubMed

    Heath, R R; Coffelt, J A; Sonnet, P E; Proshold, F I; Dueben, B; Tumlinson, J H

    1986-06-01

    A sex pheromone of the sweetpotato weevil,Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers), was obtained from collections of volatiles from virgin females, and pheromone was isolated by means of liquid and gas chromatography. The purification procedure was monitored by quantitative laboratory and field bioassays and the compound was identified as (Z)-3-dodecen-1-ol (E)-2-butenoate by means of spectroscopic and microchemical methods. Synthesis, followed by laboratory and field bioassays, showed that the biological activity of the synthetic material was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from that of the purified natural product. PMID:24307127

  2. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  3. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  4. A nonspecific defensive compound evolves into a competition avoidance cue and a female sex pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ingmar; Rössler, Thomas; Hofferberth, John; Brummer, Michael; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of chemical communication and the origin of pheromones are among the most challenging issues in chemical ecology. Current theory predicts that chemical communication can arise from compounds primarily evolved for non-communicative purposes but experimental evidence showing a gradual evolution of non-informative compounds into cues and true signals is scarce. Here we report that females of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma use the defensive compound (−)-iridomyrmecin as a semiochemical cue to avoid interference with con- and heterospecific competitors and as the main component of a species-specific sex pheromone. Although competition avoidance is mediated by (−)-iridomyrmecin alone, several structurally related minor compounds are necessary for reliable mate attraction and recognition. Our findings provide insights into the evolution of insect pheromones by demonstrating that the increasing specificity of chemical information is accompanied by an increasing complexity of the chemical messengers involved and the evolution of the chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation. PMID:24231727

  5. Female sex pheromone of the pickleworm,Diaphania nitidalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Klun, J A; Leonhardt, B A; Schwarz, M; Day, A; Raina, A K

    1986-01-01

    Heptane extracts of the ovipositors from pickleworm adults (Diaphania nitidalis) were found to contain (E)-11-hexadecenal along with proportionally smaller amounts of (Z)-11-hexadecenal, (E)- and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol, hexadecanol, hexadecanal, and a trace amount of (E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal. Assays conducted in a flight tunnel and in the field showed that a synthetic mixture of the five unsaturated compounds elicited behavioral responses from pickleworm males that were indistinguishable from those elicited by extracts of the female or by mate-calling females. When any component was deleted from the set of five unsaturated compounds, the intensity and extent of male responses to the resulting mixtures were significantly attenuated. The female sex pheromone of the pickleworm resembles the pheromone of a congeneric species,D. hyalinata, but bioassays indicated that (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal, produced byD. hyalinata but not by the pickleworm, plays a role in pheromonal specificity. PMID:24306413

  6. A nonspecific defensive compound evolves into a competition avoidance cue and a female sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ingmar; Rössler, Thomas; Hofferberth, John; Brummer, Michael; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of chemical communication and the origin of pheromones are among the most challenging issues in chemical ecology. Current theory predicts that chemical communication can arise from compounds primarily evolved for non-communicative purposes but experimental evidence showing a gradual evolution of non-informative compounds into cues and true signals is scarce. Here we report that females of the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma use the defensive compound (-)-iridomyrmecin as a semiochemical cue to avoid interference with con- and heterospecific competitors and as the main component of a species-specific sex pheromone. Although competition avoidance is mediated by (-)-iridomyrmecin alone, several structurally related minor compounds are necessary for reliable mate attraction and recognition. Our findings provide insights into the evolution of insect pheromones by demonstrating that the increasing specificity of chemical information is accompanied by an increasing complexity of the chemical messengers involved and the evolution of the chemosensory adaptations for their exploitation. PMID:24231727

  7. A study of the female produced sex pheromone of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangat, Jaswinder

    regulation of pheromone biosynthesis in mature mated and virgin beetles. Further work is required to elucidate the biochemical basis for the inhibition of pheromone biosynthesis. Understanding the regulation of sex pheromone biosynthesis in this model organism will enhance our understanding of the process in beetles in general, and may (in the long term) lead to new pest control strategies.

  8. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  9. Response of Tortricid Moths and Non-Target Insects to Pheromone Trap Color in Commercial Apple Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps are a widely used tool for monitoring pest activity in commercial apple orchards. Studies were conducted to evaluate delta-style traps painted with different colors (orange, red, yellow, green, blue, and white) for capture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris...

  10. Impact of trap design and density on effectiveness of a commercial pheromone lure for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The navel orangeworm is an important pest of almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. A commercial pheromone lure for this pest became publicly available in 2013. We compared effectiveness of this synthetic lure (NOW Biolure) between common commercial trap designs, and with unmated females in wing traps. O...

  11. Enterococcal Sex Pheromones: Evolutionary Pathways to Complex, Two-Signal Systems.

    PubMed

    Dunny, Gary M; Berntsson, Ronnie Per-Arne

    2016-06-01

    Gram-positive bacteria carry out intercellular communication using secreted peptides. Important examples of this type of communication are the enterococcal sex pheromone systems, in which the transfer of conjugative plasmids is controlled by intercellular signaling among populations of donors and recipients. This review focuses on the pheromone response system of the conjugative plasmid pCF10. The peptide pheromones regulating pCF10 transfer act by modulating the ability of the PrgX transcription factor to repress the transcription of an operon encoding conjugation functions. Many Gram-positive bacteria regulate important processes, including the production of virulence factors, biofilm formation, sporulation, and genetic exchange using peptide-mediated signaling systems. The key master regulators of these systems comprise the RRNPP (RggRap/NprR/PlcR/PrgX) family of intracellular peptide receptors; these regulators show conserved structures. While many RRNPP systems include a core module of two linked genes encoding the regulatory protein and its cognate signaling peptide, the enterococcal sex pheromone plasmids have evolved to a complex system that also recognizes a second host-encoded signaling peptide. Additional regulatory genes not found in most RRNPP systems also modulate signal production and signal import in the enterococcal pheromone plasmids. This review summarizes several structural studies that cumulatively demonstrate that the ability of three pCF10 regulatory proteins to recognize the same 7-amino-acid pheromone peptide arose by convergent evolution of unrelated proteins from different families. We also focus on the selective pressures and structure/function constraints that have driven the evolution of pCF10 from a simple, single-peptide system resembling current RRNPPs in other bacteria to the current complex inducible plasmid transfer system. PMID:27021562

  12. Photoremovable protecting groups as controlled-release device for sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Boda, Nishitha; Gauri, Samiran S; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2013-02-01

    Photoremovable protecting groups (PRPGs) were demonstrated as a delivery device for controlled release of pheromone under both UV light (≥350 nm) and direct sunlight irradiation. In the present work, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (sex pheromone of Chilo infuscatellus Snellen) was chemically caged by four different photoremovable protecting groups (7-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethylcoumarin, 1-pyrenemethanol, 9-anthracenemethanol and 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone) individually. Photophysical studies showed that the caged pheromone with coumarin, pyrene and anthracene derivatives exhibited strong fluorescence. Controlled release of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was achieved by irradiating the caged compounds in aqueous ethanol both under UV and sunlight. Further, to mimic the environmental conditions, controlled release of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol was also studied in soil medium under direct sunlight. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that caging of (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol by PRPGs significantly reduced its volatility. Bioassay experiments indicated that PRPGs are harmless to soil bacteria (Azotobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro cytotoxicity studies on eukaryotic L929 cells showed that PRPGs are also non-toxic. Field bioassays were performed using caged pheromone against maize stalk borer (Chilo partellus) and the results showed that the caged alcohol is effective in a number of moths catches instead of free alcohol in a blend for a longer period of time. Our studies indicated that use of PRPGs as delivery device for controlled release of pheromone by sunlight holds great interest for field applications. PMID:23108352

  13. Effects of deltamethrin on the specific discrimination of sex pheromones in two sympatric Trichogramma species.

    PubMed

    Delpuech, Jean-Marie; Dupont, Carole; Allemand, Roland

    2012-10-01

    The large amounts of insecticides used for crop protection lead to widespread environmental pollution. Determination of the potential impacts induced by this contamination on key species involved in the equilibrium of ecosystems is therefore a necessity. In this study, we tested the effects of a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, on the capacity of males from two sympatric Trichogramma species to discriminate the sex pheromones emitted by females of their own species (Trichogramma are parasitoids of Lepidopterous). The impact of an acute exposure as could occur at field edges was evaluated using a dose inducing 20% mortality (LD 20). The impact of a low exposure corresponding to diffuse environmental pollution was evaluated by applying an LD 0.1 (a dose inducing no apparent mortality). For T. semblidis, deltamethrin decreased the specific recognition of sexual pheromones at the higher dose (LD 20) but had no effect on this recognition at the lower dose (LD 0.1). However, deltamethrin decreased the saturation of pheromone receptors at both doses. For T. evanescens, deltamethrin increased the recognition of sexual pheromones at both doses, though not during the same period of observation (at the beginning for the LD 20, at the end for the LD 0.1), but it did not decrease the saturation of the pheromone receptors. These differing results were analyzed considering the behavior of the insects, their level of sensitivity to the insecticide and its mode of action. They provide new insights regarding possible consequences of environmental pollution by insecticides on functional biodiversity. PMID:22885055

  14. Sex-pairing pheromones and reproductive isolation in three sympatric Cornitermes species (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae).

    PubMed

    Bordereau, Christian; Cancello, Eliana M; Sillam-Dussès, David; Sémon, Etienne

    2011-04-01

    The species-specificity of pairing has been studied in three sympatric Neotropical termites: Cornitermes bequaerti, Cornitermes cumulans and Cornitermes silvestrii (Termitidae, Syntermitinae). Bioassays showed that sex attraction was highly species-specific between C. bequaerti and C. cumulans but not between C. cumulans and C. silvestrii. The sex-pairing pheromone of the three species is secreted by the tergal glands of female alates. It consists of a common compound (3Z,6Z,8E)-dodeca-3,6,8-trien-1-ol. In C. bequaerti, this polyunsaturated alcohol is the only compound of the sex-pairing pheromone, whereas it is associated with the oxygenated sesquiterpene (E)-nerolidol in C. cumulans, and with (E)-nerolidol and (Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol in C. silvestrii. (3Z,6Z,8E)-Dodeca-3,6,8-trien-1-ol is responsible for sexual attraction, whereas (E)-nerolidol, which is inactive in eliciting attraction of male alates, is responsible for the species-specificity of the attraction. This is the first time that a multicomponent sex-pairing pheromone has been identified in termites. The role of (Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol present on the surface of the tergal glands of the female alates of C. silvestrii could not be definitively determined, but it is suggested that this compound could be involved in the species-specificity of sex attraction with other sympatric species of Cornitermes. Our study shows that the reproductive isolation in termites is due to a succession of factors, as the chronology of dispersal flights, the species-specificity of sex-pairing pheromones and the species-specific recognition. PMID:21277310

  15. Sodefrin: a novel sex pheromone in a newt.

    PubMed

    Kikuyama, S; Toyoda, F

    1999-01-01

    The abdominal gland in the male red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, is the source of a female-attracting pheromone. An attempt was made to isolate and characterize the female-attracting pheromone in the abdominal glands of male newts. The active substance, named sodefrin (from the Japanese 'sodefuri' which means 'soliciting') has been isolated and shown to be a novel decapeptide with the sequence, Ser-Ile-Pro-Ser-Lys-Asp-Ala-Leu-Leu-Lys. Its minimum effective concentration in water is 0.1-1.0 pmol 1-1. Synthetic sodefrin shows a female-attracting activity similar to that of the native peptide, and acts through the olfactory organ of female newts. Electrophysiological studies reveal that sodefrin evokes a marked electroolfactogram response in the vomeronasal epithelium in sexually mature females and in ovariectomized females treated with prolactin and oestrogen. The pheromonal activity of sodefrin appears to be species-specific since it does not attract females of a congeneric species, the sword-tailed newt C. ensicauda. However, C. ensicauda has a variant of sodefrin differing from that in C. pyrrhogaster by substitutions of Leu for Pro at position 3 and Gln for Leu at position 8. The C. ensicauda variant sodefrin does not attract C. pyrrhogaster females. Genes encoding the sodefrin precursor protein have been cloned in both C. pyrrhogaster and C. ensicauda. Immunostaining of the abdominal gland using the antiserum against sodefrin shows that sodefrin occurs in the epithelial cells, predominantly within the secretory granules. Sodefrin content, detected by immunoassay, in C. pyrrhogaster males decreases after castration and hypophysectomy and increases markedly in the castrated and hypophysectomized newts after treatment with androgen and prolactin. This combination of hormones also enhances sodefrin mRNA content in the abdominal gland as assessed by northern blot analysis using sodefrin cDNA. PMID:10051096

  16. Modulation of the temporal pattern of calling behavior of female Spodoptera littoralis by exposure to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Medhat M; von Wowern, Germund; Löfstedt, Christer; Rosén, Wen-Qi; Anderson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the timing of calling behavior in the female Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis and its modification by exposure to sex pheromone. The calling rhythm of the female moth was found to be circadian, persistent for at least 4 days once it has been entrained, and could be phase shifted by altering the light:dark regime. We also found that female exposure to pheromone affected the rate and duration of calling. A brief exposure to pheromone gland extract increased the proportion of females calling in a constant dim light and this effect persisted for at least 2 days. In response to pheromone exposure, significantly more females also called late into scotophase when most unexposed control females had ceased calling. The adaptive significance of responding to conspecific sex pheromone is discussed. PMID:22001286

  17. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

    PubMed Central

    Duménil, Claire; Judd, Gary J. R.; Bosch, Dolors; Baldessari, Mario; Gemeno, César; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption. PMID:26462935

  18. Identification of sex pheromone of calendula plume mothPlatyptilia williamsii.

    PubMed

    Haynes, K F

    1987-04-01

    The sex pheromone of the calendula plume moth,Platyptilia williamsii was identified as (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16∶Aid). Extracts of female sex pheromone glands contained several compounds when analyzed by capillary and packed-column GLC. However, airborne collections of volatiles from glands contained only one of these compounds, having the same retention time asZ11-16∶Ald. GC-MS and microozonolysis analyses of the natural product were consistent with those of syntheticZ11-16∶Ald. In a flight tunnel, males oriented upwind and touched sources ofZ11-16∶Ald and gland extract with equal frequency. Field tests of syntheticZ11-16∶Ald already have shown it to be a potent sex attractant for males of this species. This study further supports the hypothesis thatP. williamsii and a sympatric species,Platyptilia carduidactyla, are not reproductively isolated by chemical differences in the composition of the sex pheromone, but rather by temporal differences in sexual activities. PMID:24302055

  19. l-Kynurenine, an amino acid identified as a sex pheromone in the urine of ovulated female masu salmon

    PubMed Central

    Yambe, Hidenobu; Kitamura, Shoji; Kamio, Michiya; Yamada, Miho; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Yamazaki, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Many animals employ sex pheromones to find mating partners during their reproductive seasons. However, most sex pheromones of vertebrates remain to be identified. Over the past 20 years, steroids and prostaglandins have been identified as sex pheromones in several fishes. These pheromones are broadly termed “hormonal pheromones” because they or their precursors act as hormones in these fishes. Hitherto, no other type of sex pheromone has been unambiguously identified in teleost fish. Here we report the identification of a “nonhormonal pheromone” in teleost fish. The urine of the reproductively mature female masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) contains a male-attracting pheromone. Bioassay-guided fractionation yielded an active compound that was identical to l-kynurenine in spectral and chromatographic properties. l-Kynurenine is a major metabolite of l-tryptophan in vertebrates. This pheromone elicits a male-specific behavior at even picomolar concentrations; its electrophysiological threshold is 10−14 M. l-Kynurenine is a reasonable substance for female masu salmon to advertise their readiness for mating. PMID:17030810

  20. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  1. Female sex pheromone of oriental tobacco budworm,Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): Identification and field testing.

    PubMed

    Cork, A; Boo, K S; Dunkelblum, E; Hall, D R; Jee-Rajunga, K; Kehat, M; Kong Jie, E; Park, K C; Tepgidagarn, P; Xun, L

    1992-03-01

    Analysis of ovipositor washings from virgin femaleHelicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptere: Noctuidae) from Korea by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography and GC linked to mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of nine compounds, hexadecanal, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, hexadecyl acetate, (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, hexadecan-l-ol, (Z)-9-hexadecen-l-ol, and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol. However, ovipositor washings from females from Thailand contained mainly the 16-carbon aldehydes with very small amounts of (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate. Field tests conducted in Korea, China, and Thailand indicated that a binary blend of (Z)-9-hexadecenal and (Z)-11-hexadecenal was sufficient for attraction, although the most attractive ratio of compounds varied with location. In Korea a 20∶1 blend of compounds was the most attractive, while in Thailand a 7.5∶1 blend was most attractive. In China both blends of hexadecenal isomers were equally attractive. Addition of the hexadecenyl acetates to the 20∶1 blend of hexadecenals in the ratio of 1∶3.3 increased the trap catch of maleH. assulta compared to lures containing the aldehydes alone in Korea but reduced trap catch in China. Addition of the hexadecenyl acetates to the 7.5∶1 blend of hexadecenals had no significant effect on trap catch in Thailand or China compared to the aldehydes alone. The addition of the 16-carbon alcohols to the aldehydes had a significantly inhibitory effect in all three countries, suggesting they are not pheromone components. Taken together these results indicate thatH. assulta is polymorphic with at least two populations responding to different sex pheromones. PMID:24254945

  2. Selection on male sex pheromone composition contributes to butterfly reproductive isolation

    PubMed Central

    Bacquet, P. M. B.; Brattström, O.; Wang, H.-L.; Allen, C. E.; Löfstedt, C.; Brakefield, P. M.; Nieberding, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection can facilitate diversification by inducing character displacement in mate choice traits that reduce the probability of maladaptive mating between lineages. Although reproductive character displacement (RCD) has been demonstrated in two-taxa case studies, the frequency of this process in nature is still debated. Moreover, studies have focused primarily on visual and acoustic traits, despite the fact that chemical communication is probably the most common means of species recognition. Here, we showed in a large, mostly sympatric, butterfly genus, a strong pattern of recurrent RCD for predicted male sex pheromone composition, but not for visual mate choice traits. Our results suggest that RCD is not anecdotal, and that selection for divergence in male sex pheromone composition contributed to reproductive isolation within the Bicyclus genus. We propose that selection may target olfactory mate choice traits as a more common sensory modality to ensure reproductive isolation among diverging lineages than previously envisaged. PMID:25740889

  3. Morganella morganii bacteria produces phenol as the sex pheromone of the New Zealand grass grub from tyrosine in the colleterial gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, D. G.; Jackson, T. A.; Unelius, C. R.; Wee, S. L.; Young, S. D.; Townsend, R. J.; Suckling, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) is a univoltine endemic species that has colonised and become a major pest of introduced clover and ryegrass pastures that form about half of the land area of New Zealand. Female beetles were previously shown to use phenol as their sex pheromone produced by symbiotic bacteria in the accessory or colleterial gland. In this study, production of phenol was confirmed from the female beetles, while bacteria were isolated from the gland and tested for attractiveness towards grass grub males in traps in the field. The phenol-producing bacterial taxon was identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene, as Morganella morganii. We then tested the hypothesis that the phenol sex pheromone is biosynthesized from the amino acid tyrosine by the bacteria. This was shown to be correct, by addition of isotopically labelled tyrosine (13C) to the bacterial broth, followed by detection of the labelled phenol by SPME-GCMS. Elucidation of this pathway provides specific evidence how the phenol is produced as an insect sex pheromone by a mutualistic bacteria.

  4. Morganella morganii bacteria produces phenol as the sex pheromone of the New Zealand grass grub from tyrosine in the colleterial gland.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D G; Jackson, T A; Unelius, C R; Wee, S L; Young, S D; Townsend, R J; Suckling, D M

    2016-08-01

    Costelytra zealandica (Coleoptera: Scarabeidae) is a univoltine endemic species that has colonised and become a major pest of introduced clover and ryegrass pastures that form about half of the land area of New Zealand. Female beetles were previously shown to use phenol as their sex pheromone produced by symbiotic bacteria in the accessory or colleterial gland. In this study, production of phenol was confirmed from the female beetles, while bacteria were isolated from the gland and tested for attractiveness towards grass grub males in traps in the field. The phenol-producing bacterial taxon was identified by partial sequencing of the 16SrRNA gene, as Morganella morganii. We then tested the hypothesis that the phenol sex pheromone is biosynthesized from the amino acid tyrosine by the bacteria. This was shown to be correct, by addition of isotopically labelled tyrosine ((13)C) to the bacterial broth, followed by detection of the labelled phenol by SPME-GCMS. Elucidation of this pathway provides specific evidence how the phenol is produced as an insect sex pheromone by a mutualistic bacteria. PMID:27352077

  5. Deciphering the signature of cuticular lipids with contact sex pheromone function in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Kühbandner, Stephan; Sperling, Sergej; Mori, Kenji; Ruther, Joachim

    2012-07-15

    The surface of insects is covered by a complex mixture of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) to prevent desiccation. In many species these lipids also have communicative functions, but often it is unknown which components are crucial for the behavioural response. Furthermore, it is often ignored that polar lipids also occur on the insects' cuticle and might interact with CHCs. In the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus, CHCs function as a contact sex pheromone eliciting wing-fanning in males. Interestingly, not only females but also newly emerged males have the pheromone, resulting regularly in homosexual courtship. However, males deactivate the pheromone within the first two days after emergence. This deactivation is accompanied by the disappearance of 3-methylheptacosane (3-MeC27) and some minor components from the CHC profile of males. Here we show that 3-MeC27 is a key component of the contact sex pheromone which, however, triggers courtship behaviour only if an olfactory background of other cuticular lipids is present. Males responded to (S)-3-MeC27 enantioselectively when applied to filter paper but on three-dimensional dummies both enantiomers were behaviourally active, suggesting that physical stimuli also play a role in sexual communication of the wasps. Finally, we report that triacylglycerides (TAGs) are also essential components of the pheromone, and present evidence that TAGs actually occur on the cuticle of L. distinguendus. Our data provide novel insights into the semiochemical function of cuticular lipids by showing that the bioactivity of CHCs may be influenced by the stereochemistry and a synergetic interaction with long time ignored TAGs. PMID:22723487

  6. Specificity of the receptor for the major sex pheromone component in Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, Gissella M; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Estes, Patricia A; Leal, Walter S; Gould, Fred

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, the Drosophila melanogaster OR67d(GAL4);UAS system was used to functionally characterize the receptor for the major component of the sex pheromone in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), HvOR13. Electrophysiological and behavioral assays showed that transgenic flies expressing HvOR13 responded to (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald). However, tests were not performed to determine whether these flies would also respond to secondary components of the H. virescens sex pheromone. Thus, in this study the response spectrum of HvOR13 expressed in this system was examined by performing single cell recordings from odor receptor neuron in trichoid T1 sensilla on antennae of two Or67d(GAL4 [1]); UAS-HvOR13 lines stimulated with Z11-16:Ald and six H. virescens secondary pheromone components. Fly courtship assays were also performed to examine the behavioral response of the Or67d(GAL4[1]); UAS-HvOR13 flies to Z11-16:Ald and the secondary component Z9-14:Ald. Our combined electrophysiological and behavioral studies indicated high specificity and sensitivity of HvOR13 to Z11-16:Ald. Interestingly, a mutation leading to truncation in the HvOR13 C-terminal region affected but did not abolish pheromone receptor response to Z11-16:Ald. The findings are assessed in relationship to other HvOR13 heterologous expression studies, and the role of the C-terminal domain in receptor function is discussed. A third line expressing HvOR15 was also tested but did not respond to any of the seven pheromone components. PMID:24773407

  7. Response of Aphidius colemani to aphid sex pheromone varies depending on plant synergy and prior experience.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Grandon, G M; Poppy, G M

    2015-08-01

    A critical stage in the success of a parasitoid is the ability to locate a host within its habitat. It is hypothesized that a series of olfactory cues may be involved in altering the parasitoid's movement patterns at this stage of foraging. This paper focuses specifically on host habitat location and host location and the olfactory stimuli necessary to mediate the transition between these stages. Firstly, we confirm the ability of the parasitoid Aphidius colemani to detect the aphid sex pheromone at an electrophysiological level. Following this we investigate the effect of the sex pheromone component (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone on the movement patterns of A. colemani and its retention within an area. The key findings of this work are that A. colemani is able to detect the sex pheromone components, that parasitoid retention is increased by a synergy of nepetalactone and other host-associated cues and that foraging patterns are augmented by the presence of nepetalactone or experience associated with nepetalactone. PMID:25991073

  8. Behavioral and electroantennographic responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora, to female sex pheromones.

    PubMed

    Sachin, James P; Selvasundaram, R; Babu, A; Muraleedharan, N

    2008-12-01

    Responses of the tea mosquito, Helopeltis theivora (Waterhouse) (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of tea, to female sex pheromone compounds were measured using wind tunnel and electroantennogram (EAG) bioassays. In the wind tunnel, male tea mosquitoes were found to be most attracted to a dichloromethane extract of the female thorax. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of female thoracic extracts and dynamic head space samples of virgin females showed the presence of five compounds: (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate, (Z)-3 hexenyl butanoate, (E)-2 hexenyl pentanoate, 2,4 dimethyl pentanal, and (E)-2-hexenol. Male tea mosquitoes were attracted to blends of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol in the wind tunnel with a 1:5 ratio eliciting the greatest response. EAG recordings of male antenna confirmed the ability of this blend to evoke antennal responses in male insects. Similarly active EAG responses were recorded toward female thoracic extract and a blend of (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol. Behavioral responses of adult males are mediated by a blend of volatile female sex pheromone compounds, (Z)-3 hexenyl acetate and (E)-2-hexenol, at a ratio of 1:5. This female sex pheromone blend may be useful for tea mosquito control and management programs. PMID:19161684

  9. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus. PMID:27184908

  10. Lobesia botrana IPM: electrospun polyester microfibers serve as biodegradable sex pheromone dispensers.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Langner, S S

    2013-01-01

    Modern insect pest management is faced with an increasingly sophisticated set of requirements. Control agent/dispenser combinations must be at the same time safe, nontoxic, inexpensive, reproducibly efficacious, environmentally compatible, biodegradable, and sustainable, and should be based on renewable resources. The methods employed preferably should be suitable for the growing and tightly controlled organic growing sector as well. All this calls for a level of sophistication and reproducibility previously unknown. Only very few systems can offer this kind of performance, but fortunately can be found in the area of suitable pheromone/dispenser combinations. This report is an attempt to adapt electrospun Ecoflex polyester micro fibers of the Greiner-Wendorff type to the very specific needs of the grape growing industry. Specifically required are "semi-intelligent" dispenser materials. On a weight basis, the electrospun product should achieve as high a proportion as possible of "retainable" sex pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate of Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) and should release it as uniformly as possible into the surrounding airspace. Using the Doye bioassay, some progress indeed has recently been achieved with electrospun Ecoflex microfibers of 0.5-3.5 microm diameter. They were employed as dispensers for programmed sex pheromone release with an effective mating disruption duration of up to seven weeks. With one microfiber/pheromone treatment, this covers one entire flight period of the trivoltine L. botrana. Mechanical application of this microfiber/pheromone preparation (with the option of automation) is possible. Disruption effects are comparable with those of commercially available dispensers of the Isonet type. Exposed under vineyard conditions, Ecoflex polyester fibers are a spider silk like material which is biodegradable within half a year. Thus, after releasing its pheromone load, it does not need removal, which saves one cultivation step

  11. COWPEA WEEVIL (CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS) FLIGHTS TO A POINT SOURCE OF FEMALE SEX PHEROMONE: ANALYSES OF FLIGHT TRACKS AT THREE WIND SPEEDS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-day-old male cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus, were released individually and flew upwind to a point source of female sex pheromone at three wind speeds. All beetles initiating flight along the pheromone plumes made contact with the pheromone source. Analysis of digitized flight tracks i...

  12. Olfactory perception and behavioral effects of sex pheromone gland components in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Guo, Hao; Hou, Chao; Wu, Han; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Two sympatric species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components in reverse ratio. They also share several other pheromone gland components (PGCs). We present a comparative study on the olfactory coding mechanism and behavioral effects of these additional PGCs in pheromone communication of the two species using single sensillum recording, in situ hybridization, calcium imaging, and wind tunnel. We classify antennal sensilla types A, B and C into A, B1, B2, C1, C2 and C3 based on the response profiles, and identify the glomeruli responsible for antagonist detection in both species. The abundance of these sensilla types when compared with the number of OSNs expressing each of six pheromone receptors suggests that HarmOR13 and HassOR13 are expressed in OSNs housed within A type sensilla, HarmOR14b within B and C type sensilla, while HassOR6 and HassOR16 within some of C type sensilla. We find that for H. armigera, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists. For H. assulta, instead, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate acts as an agonist, while (Z)-9-hexadecenol, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate are antagonists. The results provide an overall picture of intra- and interspecific olfactory and behavioral responses to all PGCs in two sister species. PMID:26975244

  13. Olfactory perception and behavioral effects of sex pheromone gland components in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Guo, Hao; Hou, Chao; Wu, Han; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Two sympatric species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta use (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal as sex pheromone components in reverse ratio. They also share several other pheromone gland components (PGCs). We present a comparative study on the olfactory coding mechanism and behavioral effects of these additional PGCs in pheromone communication of the two species using single sensillum recording, in situ hybridization, calcium imaging, and wind tunnel. We classify antennal sensilla types A, B and C into A, B1, B2, C1, C2 and C3 based on the response profiles, and identify the glomeruli responsible for antagonist detection in both species. The abundance of these sensilla types when compared with the number of OSNs expressing each of six pheromone receptors suggests that HarmOR13 and HassOR13 are expressed in OSNs housed within A type sensilla, HarmOR14b within B and C type sensilla, while HassOR6 and HassOR16 within some of C type sensilla. We find that for H. armigera, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists. For H. assulta, instead, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate acts as an agonist, while (Z)-9-hexadecenol, (Z)-11-hexadecenol and (Z)-9-hexadecenyl acetate are antagonists. The results provide an overall picture of intra- and interspecific olfactory and behavioral responses to all PGCs in two sister species. PMID:26975244

  14. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J; Vermeulen, Cornelis J; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W

    2016-01-01

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL). Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2), 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3), and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences. PMID:27172207

  15. The fatty acid elongase Bond is essential for Drosophila sex pheromone synthesis and male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wan Chin; Chin, Jacqueline S. R.; Tan, Kah Junn; Yew, Joanne Y.

    2015-01-01

    Insects use a spectacular variety of chemical signals to guide their social behaviours. How such chemical diversity arises is a long-standing problem in evolutionary biology. Here we describe the contribution of the fatty acid elongase Bond to both pheromone diversity and male fertility in Drosophila. Genetic manipulation and mass spectrometry analysis reveal that the loss of bond eliminates the male sex pheromone (3R,11Z,19Z)-3-acetoxy-11,19-octacosadien-1-ol (CH503). Unexpectedly, silencing bond expression severely suppresses male fertility and the fertility of conspecific rivals. These deficits are rescued on ectopic expression of bond in the male reproductive system. A comparative analysis across six Drosophila species shows that the gain of a novel transcription initiation site is correlated with bond expression in the ejaculatory bulb, a primary site of male pheromone production. Taken together, these results indicate that modification of cis-regulatory elements and subsequent changes in gene expression pattern is one mechanism by which pheromone diversity arises. PMID:26369287

  16. Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Mating Behavior and Male Sex Pheromones in Nasonia Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL). Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2), 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3), and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences. PMID:27172207

  17. Suitability of commercially available insect traps and pheromones for monitoring dusky sap beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) and related insects in Bt sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Patrick F

    2005-06-01

    Two trap types and pheromone sources for the dusky sap beetle, Carpophilus lugubris Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), were compared in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and non-Bt sweet corn fields over a 3-yr period. Overall, commercial traps and pheromones were equally effective as experimental traps and pheromones used previously for capturing C. lugubris and other sap beetle species. The commercial trap often caught significantly more Glischrochilus quadrisignatus Say than the experimental trap that had been used in previous studies. Bt corn significantly reduced caterpillar damage to ears compared with the non-Bt isoline and did not adversely affect levels of Orius sp., the most common insect predator. Sap beetle damage was the most common insect damage to Bt sweet corn ears. Sap beetles were detected by traps at population levels below that which are likely to cause economic concern, indicating commercially available traps and pheromone lures for monitoring sap beetles should be suitable for detecting them under commercial growing conditions. PMID:16022314

  18. Reproduction and the pheromonal regulation of sex type in fern gametophytes

    PubMed Central

    Atallah, Nadia M.; Banks, Jo Ann

    2015-01-01

    The fern life cycle includes a haploid gametophyte that is independent of the sporophyte and functions to produce the gametes. In homosporous ferns, the sex of the gametophyte is not fixed but can vary depending on its social environment. In many species, the sexual phenotype of the gametophyte is determined by the pheromone antheridiogen. Antheridiogen induces male development and is secreted by hermaphrodites once they become insensitive to its male-inducing effect. Recent genetic and biochemical studies of the antheridiogen response and sex-determination pathway in ferns, which are highlighted here, reveal many similarities and interesting differences to GA signaling and biosynthetic pathways in angiosperms. PMID:25798139

  19. Mammalian pheromones.

    PubMed

    Liberles, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  20. Mammalian Pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Liberles, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian pheromones control a myriad of innate social behaviors and acutely regulate hormone levels. Responses to pheromones are highly robust, reproducible, and stereotyped and likely involve developmentally predetermined neural circuits. Here, I review several facets of pheromone transduction in mammals, including (a) chemosensory receptors and signaling components of the main olfactory epithelium and vomeronasal organ involved in pheromone detection; (b) pheromone-activated neural circuits subject to sex-specific and state-dependent modulation; and (c) the striking chemical diversity of mammalian pheromones, which range from small, volatile molecules and sulfated steroids to large families of proteins. Finally, I review (d ) molecular mechanisms underlying various behavioral and endocrine responses, including modulation of puberty and estrous; control of reproduction, aggression, suckling, and parental behaviors; individual recognition; and distinguishing of own species from predators, competitors, and prey. Deconstruction of pheromone transduction mechanisms provides a critical foundation for understanding how odor response pathways generate instinctive behaviors. PMID:23988175

  1. (2S,12Z)-2-Acetoxy-12-heptadecene: major sex pheromone component of pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Khaskin, Grigori; Daroogheh, Hassan; Mart, Cafer; Karadag, Serpil; Er, M Kubilay; Britton, Robert; Gries, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    The sex pheromone of the pistachio twig borer, Kermania pistaciella (Lepidoptera: Oinophilidae), one of the most important insect pests of pistachio, Pistacia vera, in Turkey and Iran, was identified. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometric analyses of pheromone gland extracts of female K. pistaciella from Turkey, (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene was identified as the major candidate pheromone component. In field experiments in Turkey, lures containing synthetic (2S,12Z)-2-acetoxy-12-heptadecene attracted large numbers of male moths. Its attractiveness was significantly reduced by the presence of the R-enantiomer or of either enantiomer of the corresponding alcohol. (2S,12Z)-2-Acetoxy-12-heptadecene is the first pheromone component identified in the Oinophilidae and the first secondary acetate pheromone component identified in the Lepidoptera. PMID:17123172

  2. A sex-inducing pheromone triggers cell cycle arrest and mate attraction in the diatom Seminavis robusta

    PubMed Central

    Moeys, Sara; Frenkel, Johannes; Lembke, Christine; Gillard, Jeroen T. F.; Devos, Valerie; Van den Berge, Koen; Bouillon, Barbara; Huysman, Marie J. J.; De Decker, Sam; Scharf, Julia; Bones, Atle; Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Sabbe, Koen; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Clement, Lieven; De Veylder, Lieven; Pohnert, Georg; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although sexual reproduction is believed to play a major role in the high diversification rates and species richness of diatoms, a mechanistic understanding of diatom life cycle control is virtually lacking. Diatom sexual signalling is controlled by a complex, yet largely unknown, pheromone system. Here, a sex-inducing pheromone (SIP+) of the benthic pennate diatom Seminavis robusta was identified by comparative metabolomics, subsequently purified, and physicochemically characterized. Transcriptome analysis revealed that SIP+ triggers the switch from mitosis-to-meiosis in the opposing mating type, coupled with the transcriptional induction of proline biosynthesis genes, and the release of the proline-derived attraction pheromone. The induction of cell cycle arrest by a pheromone, chemically distinct from the one used to attract the opposite mating type, highlights the existence of a sophisticated mechanism to increase chances of mate finding, while keeping the metabolic losses associated with the release of an attraction pheromone to a minimum. PMID:26786712

  3. A sex-inducing pheromone triggers cell cycle arrest and mate attraction in the diatom Seminavis robusta.

    PubMed

    Moeys, Sara; Frenkel, Johannes; Lembke, Christine; Gillard, Jeroen T F; Devos, Valerie; Van den Berge, Koen; Bouillon, Barbara; Huysman, Marie J J; De Decker, Sam; Scharf, Julia; Bones, Atle; Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Sabbe, Koen; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Clement, Lieven; De Veylder, Lieven; Pohnert, Georg; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although sexual reproduction is believed to play a major role in the high diversification rates and species richness of diatoms, a mechanistic understanding of diatom life cycle control is virtually lacking. Diatom sexual signalling is controlled by a complex, yet largely unknown, pheromone system. Here, a sex-inducing pheromone (SIP(+)) of the benthic pennate diatom Seminavis robusta was identified by comparative metabolomics, subsequently purified, and physicochemically characterized. Transcriptome analysis revealed that SIP(+) triggers the switch from mitosis-to-meiosis in the opposing mating type, coupled with the transcriptional induction of proline biosynthesis genes, and the release of the proline-derived attraction pheromone. The induction of cell cycle arrest by a pheromone, chemically distinct from the one used to attract the opposite mating type, highlights the existence of a sophisticated mechanism to increase chances of mate finding, while keeping the metabolic losses associated with the release of an attraction pheromone to a minimum. PMID:26786712

  4. General odorant-binding proteins and sex pheromone guide larvae of Plutella xylostella to better food.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao; Ban, Liping; Song, Li-Mei; Liu, Yang; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Guirong

    2016-05-01

    Olfaction of Lepidopteran larvae has received little attention, compared to the damage to crops done by insects at this stage. We report that larvae of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella are attracted to their natural sex pheromone and to their major component (Z)-11-hexadecenal, but only in a food context. For such task they use two general odorant-binding proteins (GOBPs), abundantly expressed in the three major sensilla basiconica of the larval antenna, as shown by whole-mount immunostaining and immunocytochemistry experiments. None of the three genes encoding pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are expressed at this stage. Both recombinant GOBPs bind (Z)-11-hexadecenal and the corresponding alcohol, but not the acetate. Binding experiments performed with five mutants of GOBP2, where aromatic residues in the binding pocket were replaced with leucine showed that only one or two amino acid substitutions can completely abolish binding to the pheromone shifting the affinity to plant-derived compounds. We hypothesise that detection of their species-specific pheromone may direct larvae to the sites of foraging chosen by their mother when laying eggs, to find better food, as well as to reduce competition with individuals of the same or other species sharing the same host plant. We also provide evidence that GOBP2 is a narrowly tuned binding protein, whose affinity can be easily switched from linear pheromones to branched plants terpenoids, representing a tool better suited for the simple olfactory system of larvae, as compared to the more sophisticated organ of adults. PMID:27001069

  5. A tetraene aldehyde as the major sex pheromone component of the promethea moth (Callosamia promethea (Drury)).

    PubMed

    Gago, Rafael; Allison, Jeremy D; McElfresh, J Steven; Haynes, Kenneth F; McKenney, Jessica; Guerrero, Angel; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2013-10-01

    The promethea moth Callosamia promethea is one of three species of silkmoths from the genus Callosamia that occur in North America. Cross attraction of males to heterospecific calling females has been observed in the field, and hybrid progeny have been produced by pairing heterospecifics in captivity. These observations suggest that all three species share or have considerable overlap in the sex attractant pheromones produced by females, so that other prezygotic isolating mechanisms, such as diel differences in reproductive activity, limit hybridization in the field. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection and gas chromatography- mass-spectrometry analyses of extracts of volatiles collected from female promethea moths supported the identification of (4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-hexadeca-4,6,11,13-tetraenal [(4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-16:Ald] as the compound in extracts that elicited the largest responses from antennae of males. The identification was confirmed by non-selective synthesis of several isomers as analytical standards, and stereoselective synthesis of (4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-16:Ald for testing in field trials. Male moths were strongly attracted to synthetic (4E,6E,11Z,13Z)-16:Ald, suggesting that this compound is the major and possibly the only component of the sex pheromone of these large saturniid moths. Based on the cross-attraction of heterospecifics, it is likely that this is also a major pheromone component of the other two North American Callosamia species as well. PMID:24091710

  6. A multifunctional desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of the processionary moth sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Serra, Montserrat; Piña, Benjamin; Abad, José Luis; Camps, Francisco; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2007-10-16

    The sex pheromone of the female processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is a unique C16 enyne acetate that is biosynthesized from palmitic acid. Three consecutive desaturation reactions transform this saturated precursor into the triunsaturated fatty acyl intermediate: formation of (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, acetylenation to 11-hexadecynoic acid, and final Delta(13) desaturation to (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynoic acid. By using degenerate primers common to all reported insect desaturases, a single cDNA sequence was isolated from total RNA of T. pityocampa female pheromone glands. The full-length transcript of this putative desaturase was expressed in elo1Delta/ole1Delta yeast mutants (both elongase 1 and Delta(9) desaturase-deficient) for functional assays. The construct fully rescued the Deltaole1 yeast phenotype, confirming its desaturase activity. Analysis of the unsaturated products from transformed yeast extracts demonstrated that the cloned enzyme showed Delta(11) desaturase, Delta(11) acetylenase, and Delta(13) desaturase activities. Therefore, this single desaturase may account for the three desaturation steps involved in the sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway of the processionary moth. PMID:17921252

  7. A multifunctional desaturase involved in the biosynthesis of the processionary moth sex pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Montserrat; Piña, Benjamin; Abad, José Luis; Camps, Francisco; Fabriàs, Gemma

    2007-01-01

    The sex pheromone of the female processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, is a unique C16 enyne acetate that is biosynthesized from palmitic acid. Three consecutive desaturation reactions transform this saturated precursor into the triunsaturated fatty acyl intermediate: formation of (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, acetylenation to 11-hexadecynoic acid, and final Δ13 desaturation to (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynoic acid. By using degenerate primers common to all reported insect desaturases, a single cDNA sequence was isolated from total RNA of T. pityocampa female pheromone glands. The full-length transcript of this putative desaturase was expressed in elo1Δ/ole1Δ yeast mutants (both elongase 1 and Δ9 desaturase-deficient) for functional assays. The construct fully rescued the Δole1 yeast phenotype, confirming its desaturase activity. Analysis of the unsaturated products from transformed yeast extracts demonstrated that the cloned enzyme showed Δ11 desaturase, Δ11 acetylenase, and Δ13 desaturase activities. Therefore, this single desaturase may account for the three desaturation steps involved in the sex pheromone biosynthetic pathway of the processionary moth. PMID:17921252

  8. Effect of mating disruption and lure load on the number of Plodia interpunctella males captured in pheromone traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) males released under controlled conditions, we found that, in either the presence or absence of a commercial mating disruption dispensers, the number of males captured in traps baited with synthetic pheromone lures increased with doses of up to 30...

  9. Failure of pheromone traps in detecting incipient populations of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Investigation of two potential contributing factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Progress towards complete eradication of the boll weevil has been delayed in some areas of Texas due to the inconsistent performance of pheromone traps in detecting incipient weevil populations. In 2008 substantial infestations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were detected in several c...

  10. Queen sex pheromone of the slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Les; Tröger, Armin G; Francke, Wittko; McElfresh, J Steven; Topoff, Howard; Aliabadi, Ali; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2007-05-01

    Workers of the slave-making ant, Polyergus breviceps, raid nests of Formica ants and return with Formica pupae that mature into worker ants in the slave-makers' colony. These Formica workers then tend the Polyergus brood, workers, and reproductives. During raids in the mating season, winged virgin Polyergus queens accompany the workers in the raiding columns. During the raid, the virgin queens release a pheromone that attracts males that quickly mate with the queens. We report the identification, synthesis, and bioassay of the sex attractant pheromone of the queens as an approximately 1:6 ratio of (R)-3-ethyl-4-methylpentan-1-ol and methyl 6-methylsalicylate. The ants produce exclusively the (R)-enantiomer of the alcohol, and the (S)-enantiomer has no biological activity, neither inhibiting nor increasing attraction to blends of methyl 6-methylsalicylate with the (R)-enantiomer. PMID:17393281

  11. Sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, contains an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aijun; Amalin, Divina; Shirali, Shyam; Serrano, Miguel S.; Franqui, Rosa A.; Oliver, James E.; Klun, Jerome A.; Aldrich, Jeffrey R.; Meyerdirk, Dale E.; Lapointe, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Two compounds that together constitute the female sex pheromone of the pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus, were isolated, identified, and synthesized. They are (R)-2-isopropenyl-5-methyl-4-hexenyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [common name is (R)-lavandulyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate] and [(R)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)cyclobutyl]methyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate [which we refer to as (R)-maconelliyl (S)-2-methylbutanoate]. Maconelliol is an unusual cyclobutanoid monoterpene, and its structure has been established by enantioselective synthesis from precursors of known structure and configuration. A 1:5 synthetic mixture of the two RS esters (1 μg per rubber septum) proved to be a potent attractant of males in field bioassays. The pheromone component, maconelliyl 2-methylbutanoate, represents a heretofore undescribed natural product. PMID:15197282

  12. Identification of the Female Sex Pheromone of the Leafroller Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Bergmann, J; Reyes-Garcia, L; Ballesteros, C; Cuevas, Y; Flores, M F; Curkovic, T

    2016-08-01

    Proeulia triquetra Obraztsov (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an occasional pest in fruit orchards in central-southern Chile. In order to develop species-specific lures for detection and monitoring of this species, we identified the female-produced sex pheromone. (Z)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-9-dodecenyl acetate (E9-12:OAc), and (E)-11-Tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc) were identified as biologically active compounds present in female pheromone glands by solvent extraction of the gland and analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In field tests, lures baited with synthetic Z11-14:OAc and E9-12:OAc in a 10:1 ratio were highly attractive to males of the species. PMID:26868654

  13. Analogs of sex pheromone of processionary moth,Thaumetopoea pityocampa: Synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Camps, F; Fabriàs, G; Gasol, V; Guerrero, A; Hernández, R; Montoya, R

    1988-05-01

    The synthesis and biological activity of some analogs of (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate1, the major component of the sex pheromone of the processionary mothThaumetopoea pityocampa is described. The analogs have been formally derived by structural modification of the enyne and acetate functions of the parent compound1. In field tests, trifluoroacetate ester16 and the analog,11, with fluorine substitution at the olefin site, decreased the pheromone action, whereas epoxy derivative,10, from epoxidation of the olefin moiety in1, and propionate ester15 gave synergistic activity. The formate14 had a variable effect according to the composition of the lure. Formal reduction of the enyne to give the acetylene2 was found to retain activity. Alcohols12 and13, resulting from hydrolysis of the enyne1 and acetylene2, respectively, inhibited the action of their parent compounds. PMID:24276283

  14. Sex pheromone-induced chemolocation in the male American cockroach,Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, W A; Gorton, R E

    1982-01-01

    Males of the American cockroach,Periplaneta americana, have evolved an efficient search strategy enabling them to locate a source of sex pheromone in the absence of directional information derived from wind. Since these animals are able to utilize chemotaxis to orient almost directly to the source from 45-50 cm away, it is only necessary that they maximize their chances of getting within that range once they perceive the pheromone. They accomplish this by: (1) increasing their overall levels of activity and (2) initiating local search. In this way, they are able to cover a rather large area in a short period of time, i.e., before the source female changes location. If their paths take them to within 45 cm of the source, they are able to locate it soon thereafter. It is probable that very similar strategies are utilized by many other nonflying insects to locate sources of airborne odors. PMID:24414597

  15. Differential Effects of Sex Pheromone Compounds on Adult Female Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) Locomotor Patterns.

    PubMed

    Walaszczyk, Erin J; Goheen, Benjamin B; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2016-06-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor activity plays a critical role in ensuring reproductive success, especially in semelparous species. The goal of this study was to elucidate the effects of individual chemical signals, or pheromones, on the locomotor activity in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). In their native habitat, adult preovulated females (POF) and ovulated females (OF) are exposed to sex pheromone compounds that are released from spermiated males and attract females to nests during their migration and spawning periods. In this study, locomotor activity of individual POF and OF was measured hourly in controlled laboratory conditions using an automated video-tracking system. Differences in the activity between a baseline day (no treatment exposure) and a treatment day (sex pheromone compound or control exposure) were examined for daytime and nighttime periods. Results showed that different pheromone compound treatments affected both POF and OF sea lamprey (p < 0.05) but in different ways. Spermiated male washings (SMW) and one of its main components, 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24 sulfate (3kPZS), decreased activity of POF during the nighttime. SMW also reduced activity in POF during the daytime. In contrast, SMW increased activity of OF during the daytime, and an additional compound found in SMW, petromyzonol sulfate (PZS), decreased the activity during the nighttime. In addition, we examined factors that allowed us to infer the overall locomotor patterns. SMW increased the maximum hourly activity during the daytime, decreased the maximum hourly activity during the nighttime, and reduced the percentage of nocturnal activity in OF. Our findings suggest that adult females have evolved to respond to different male compounds in regards to their locomotor activity before and after final maturation. This is a rare example of how species-wide chemosensory stimuli can affect not only the amounts of activity but also the overall locomotor

  16. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant.

    PubMed

    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl α-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer. PMID:24369389

  17. Identification and Behavioral Evaluation of Sex Pheromone Components of the Chinese Pine Caterpillar Moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang-Bo; Liu, Kui-Wei; Wang, Hong-Bin; Zhang, Su-Fang; Zhang, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Background The Chinese pine caterpillar moth, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis Tsai and Liu (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) is the most important defoliator of coniferous trees in northern China. Outbreaks occur over enormous areas and often lead to the death of forests during 2–3 successive years of defoliation. The sex pheromone of D. tabulaeformis was investigated to define its chemistry and behavioral activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Sex pheromone was collected from calling female D. tabulaeformis by headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and by solvent extraction of pheromone glands. Extracts were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and coupled GC-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), using antennae from male moths. Five components from the extracts elicited antennal responses. These compounds were identified by a combination of retention indices, electron impact mass spectral matches, and derivatization as (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate (Z5-12:OAc), (Z)-5-dodecenyl alcohol (Z5-12:OH), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl acetate (Z5,E7-12:OAc), (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-yl propionate (Z5,E7-12:OPr), and (5Z,7E)-5,7-dodecadien-1-ol (Z5,E7-12:OH). Behavioral assays showed that male D. tabulaeformis strongly discriminated against incomplete and aberrant blend ratios. The correct ratio of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,E7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr was essential for optimal upwind flight and source contact. The two monoenes, Z5-12:OAc and Z5-12:OH, alone or binary mixtures, had no effect on behavioral responses when added to the optimal three-component blend. Conclusions/Significance The fact that deviations from the optimal ratio of 100∶100∶4.5 of Z5,E7-12:OAc, Z5,EZ7-12:OH, and Z5,E7-12:OPr resulted in marked decreases in male responses suggests that biosynthesis of the pheromone components is precisely controlled. The optimal blend of the sex pheromone components of D. tabulaeformis worked out in this study should find immediate use in monitoring this

  18. Lipid analysis of the sex pheromone gland of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, S P

    2005-06-01

    The sex pheromone gland of female Heliothis virescens was analyzed for fatty acid and lipid content. Base methanolysis of the gland showed a large amount of methyl (Z)-11-hexadecenoate (Z11-16:Acyl), the fatty acyl analog of the major pheromone component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, as well as a small amount of methyl (Z)-11-octadecenoate. Methyl esters of various common fatty acids were also observed. HPTLC analysis of the glandular lipids revealed large quantities of triacylglycerols (TGs), and lesser amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerols (1,2-DGs), 2-monoacylglycerols (2-MGs), phosphatidyl ethanolamines, and phosphatidyl cholines. The greatest amount of Z11-16:Acyl in these lipids was in the TGs, with lesser amounts in the two phospholipid classes and only trace amounts in the other neutral lipids. The glands of females at various ages and photoperiodic times were extracted, fractionated into neutral and polar fractions by silica SPE, and fatty acid titers in these fractions determined. All fatty acids, but notably Z11-16:Acyl, showed significant total and neutral lipid fraction peaks at mid scotophase for 2-day-old females; a less dramatic, but significant, Z11-16:Acyl peak in the polar fraction was also observed. However, only a relatively small proportion (<50%) of this acid was recovered from the silica at all times. This "non-recoverable" Z11-16:Acyl showed a dramatic and significant peak at mid scotophase for 2-day females, corresponding roughly with maximal pheromone titer. All other acids in the gland were recovered in high proportions, and their respective "non-recoverable" titers were not different at any of the times analyzed. Based on previous work, this non-recoverable Z11-16:Acyl is likely the CoA ester. Therefore, it appears that the pheromone gland of H. virescens maintains pools of Z11-16:Acyl in both CoA ester and TG forms, which are available for biosynthesis of pheromone. These pools are greatest during maximal pheromone production when the biosynthetic

  19. Responses of protocerebral neurons in Manduca sexta to sex-pheromone mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hong; Chiu, Hong-Yan; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Male Manduca sexta moths are attracted to a mixture of two components of the female's sex pheromone at the natural concentration ratio. Deviation from this ratio results in reduced attraction. Projection neurons innervating prominent male-specific glomeruli in the male's antennal lobe produce maximal synchronized spiking activity in response to synthetic mixtures of the two components centering around the natural ratio, suggesting that behaviorally effective mixture ratios are encoded by synchronous neuronal activity. We investigated the physiological activity and morphology of downstream protocerebral neurons that responded to antennal stimulation with single pheromone components and their mixtures at various concentration ratios. Among the tested neurons, only a few gave stronger responses to the mixture at the natural ratio whereas most did not distinguish among the mixtures that were tested. We also found that the population response distinguished among the two pheromone components and their mixtures, prior to the peak population response. This observation is consistent with our previous finding that synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons reaches its maximum before the firing rate reaches its peak. Moreover, the response patterns of protocerebral neurons are diverse, suggesting that the representation of olfactory stimuli at the level of protocerebrum is complex. PMID:23974854

  20. 1-Tridecene—male-produced sex pheromone of the tenebrionid beetle Parastizopus transgariepinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiselhardt, Sven; Ockenfels, Peter; Peschke, Klaus

    2008-03-01

    Males of the genus Parastizopus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exhibit a special pheromone-emitting behaviour. They do a headstand, expose the aedeagus and remain in this posture for a few seconds. The pheromone emitted by P. transgariepinus was collected by solid-phase micro-extraction (100 μm polydimethylsiloxane fibre) and identified as 1-tridecene by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Presumably, this compound originates from the aedeagal gland, a special feature in Parastizopus, as 1-tridecene is the main compound in the gland reservoirs (23.6 ± 3.8%), accompanied by various less volatile fatty acid esters (25.2 ± 2.0%) and hydrocarbons (51.2 ± 5.7%). 1-Tridecene is also part of the pygidial defensive secretion of both sexes, together with other 1-alkenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons and 1,4-benzoquinones, but as none of these other compounds was detected during calling, the pygidial gland could be ruled out as pheromone source. Extracts of the aedeagal gland reservoirs and the pygidial defensive secretion contained comparable amounts of 1-tridecene, 1.24 ± 0.41 and 1.88 ± 0.54 μg/male, respectively. Chemo-orientation experiments using a servosphere showed that 1 μg of 1-tridecene was attractive to females but not to males.

  1. Amino Acid Change in an Orchid Desaturase Enables Mimicry of the Pollinator's Sex Pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sedeek, Khalid E M; Whittle, Edward; Guthörl, Daniela; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Shanklin, John; Schlüter, Philipp M

    2016-06-01

    Mimicry illustrates the power of selection to produce phenotypic convergence in biology [1]. A striking example is the imitation of female insects by plants that are pollinated by sexual deception of males of the same insect species [2-4]. This involves mimicry of visual, tactile, and chemical signals of females [2-7], especially their sex pheromones [8-11]. The Mediterranean orchid Ophrys exaltata employs chemical mimicry of cuticular hydrocarbons, particularly the 7-alkenes, in an insect sex pheromone to attract and elicit mating behavior in its pollinators, males of the cellophane bee Colletes cunicularius [11-13]. A difference in alkene double-bond positions is responsible for reproductive isolation between O. exaltata and closely related species, such as O. sphegodes [13-16]. We show that these 7-alkenes are likely determined by the action of the stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SAD) homolog SAD5. After gene duplication, changes in subcellular localization relative to the ancestral housekeeping desaturase may have allowed proto-SAD5's reaction products to undergo further biosynthesis to both 7- and 9-alkenes. Such ancestral coproduction of two alkene classes may have led to pollinator-mediated deleterious pleiotropy. Despite possible evolutionary intermediates with reduced activity, amino acid changes at the bottom of the substrate-binding cavity have conferred enzyme specificity for 7-alkene biosynthesis by preventing the binding of longer-chained fatty acid (FA) precursors by the enzyme. This change in desaturase function enabled the orchid to perfect its chemical mimicry of pollinator sex pheromones by escape from deleterious pleiotropy, supporting a role of pleiotropy in determining the possible trajectories of adaptive evolution. PMID:27212404

  2. Seasonal patterns of capture of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis phloxiphaga (Grote and Robinson)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in pheromone traps in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In each of the 6 years of this study in south central Washington state, male corn earworm moths, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), first appeared in pheromone traps in late May to early June, and were present continuously until mid to late October. Maximum numbers of corn earworm moths captured in pheromon...

  3. Signal honesty through differential quantity in the female-produced sex pheromone of the moth Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephen P; Johnson, Chris P

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, female-produced sex pheromones of moths have been subjected to intensive study. Most work has focused on their role in mate recognition, and little on any role they may have in mate assessment. This is largely because it has been assumed that female, rather than male, moths are "choosy", and invest larger amounts of carbon in eggs than in pheromone. Recently, we found that pheromone production in the moth Heliothis virescens depended on hemolymph trehalose concentration, and that sugar-stressed females produced less pheromone than unstressed ones. In this paper, we demonstrate, for the first time in moths, that a female-produced pheromone signal can allow H. virescens males to assess sugar resources (quality) of a female. This signal honesty is based on quantitative, rather than qualitative (component ratio), differences in pheromone, produced and released by sugar-stressed and unstressed females. Increasing marginal cost of pheromone production, as sugar resources are depleted, may ensure signal honesty. PMID:21681664

  4. Attraction of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to a volatile pheromone: effects of release rate, host volatile, and trap placement.

    PubMed

    Ryall, Krista L; Silk, Peter J; Mayo, Peter; Crook, Damon; Khrimian, Ashot; Cossé, Allard A; Sweeney, Jon; Scarr, Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Attraction of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, to a volatile pheromone was demonstrated in three field experiments using baited green sticky traps. A dose-response curve was generated for male A. planipennis to increasing release rates of (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide ((3Z)-lactone) in combination with the green leaf volatile, (3Z)-hexenol. Only the lowest release rate (<2.50 μg/d) of (3Z)-lactone significantly increased captures of male A. planipennis, as compared with traps baited with (3Z)-hexenol alone. Effect of trap height, (3Z)-lactone, and (3Z)-hexenol and their interactions on the trap capture of A. planipennis was determined in a factorial experiment. Number of males per trap was significantly and positively affected by (3Z)-lactone, (3Z)-hexenol, and trap height whereas number of females per trap was affected by trap height only; none of the interactions were significant. As predicted, the greatest mean catch of males was in traps baited with (3Z)-lactone and (3Z)-hexenol placed high in the canopy. Electroantennogram tests on the bark volatile, 7-epi-sesquithujene, demonstrated the ability of male and female A. planipennis antennae to detect and respond to this compound, particularly the (+)-7-epi-sesquithujene isomer. Results from an olfactometer bioassay and field testing did not demonstrate attraction of either males or females to (+)-7-epi-sesquithujene. These data increase our understanding of the pheromone ecology of the invasive emerald ash borer, provide further confirmation of the behavioral activity of the female-produced lactone pheromone, and should increase the ability to detect A. planipennis infestations where they are present. PMID:22732623

  5. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  6. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  7. Aphid pheromones.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Pickett, John A; Hardie, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are the main insect pests of agricultural crops in temperate regions causing major economic losses. Although broad-spectrum insecticides are available for control, alternative and more targeted methods are needed due to insecticide resistance and increasing environmental pressures. An alternative control method for aphids is to exploit their pheromones, which have been extensively studied in recent years. For example, aphids release alarm pheromones in response to natural enemy attack and these could be used to deter aphids from the crops. Sex pheromones have also been identified which could be used to interfere males locating conspecific females (oviparae), as well as for manipulating natural enemies. Several hypotheses relating to how species integrity is maintained via the aphid sex pheromone have been proposed. The composition and behavioral activity of these pheromones, and how their use could be implemented in integrated pest management systems to control aphids, is discussed. PMID:20831961

  8. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps. PMID:21510204

  9. A contact sex pheromone component of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Peter J.; Ryall, Krista; Barry Lyons, D.; Sweeney, Jon; Wu, Junping

    2009-05-01

    Analyses of the elytral hydrocarbons from male and female emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, that were freshly emerged vs. sexually mature (>10 days old) revealed a female-specific compound, 9-methyl-pentacosane (9-Me-C25), only present in sexually mature females. This material was synthesized by the Wittig reaction of 2-decanone with ( n-hexadecyl)-triphenylphosphonium bromide followed by catalytic reduction to yield racemic 9-Me C25, which matched the natural compound by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (retention time and EI mass spectrum). In field bioassays with freeze-killed sexually mature A. planipennis females, feral males spent significantly more time in contact and attempting copulation with unwashed females than with females that had been washed in n-hexane to remove the cuticular lipids. Hexane-washed females to which 9-Me-C25 had been reapplied elicited similar contact time and percentage of time attempting copulation as unwashed females, indicating that 9-methyl-pentacosane is a contact sex pheromone component of A. planipennis. This is the first contact sex pheromone identified in the Buprestidae.

  10. Peripheral coding of sex pheromone blends with reverse ratios in two helicoverpa species.

    PubMed

    Wu, Han; Hou, Chao; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Yan, Fu-Shun; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The relative proportions of components in a pheromone blend play a major role in sexual recognition in moths. Two sympatric species, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, use (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16: Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16: Ald) as essential sex pheromone components but in very different ratios, 97∶3 and 7∶93 respectively. Using wind tunnel tests, single sensillum recording and in vivo calcium imaging, we comparatively studied behavioral responses and physiological activities at the level of antennal sensilla and antennal lobe (AL) in males of the two species to blends of the two pheromone components in different ratios (100∶0, 97∶3, 50∶50, 7∶93, 0∶100). Z11-16: Ald and Z9-16: Ald were recognized by two populations of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in different trichoid sensilla on antennae of both species. The ratios of OSNs responding to Z11-16:Ald and Z9-16:Ald OSNs were 100∶28.9 and 21.9∶100 in H. armigera and H. assulta, respectively. The Z11-16:Ald OSNs in H. armigera exhibited higher sensitivity and efficacy than those in H. assulta, while the Z9-16:Ald OSNs in H. armigera had the same sensitivity but lower efficacy than those in H. assulta. At the dosage of 10 µg, Z11-16: Ald and Z9-16: Ald evoked calcium activity in 8.5% and 3.0% of the AL surface in H. armigera, while 5.4% and 8.6% of AL in H. assulta, respectively. The calcium activities in the AL reflected the peripheral input signals of the binary pheromone mixtures and correlated with the behavioral output. These results demonstrate that the binary pheromone blends were precisely coded by the firing frequency of individual OSNs tuned to Z11-16: Ald or Z9-16: Ald, as well as their population sizes. Such information was then accurately reported to ALs of H. armigera and H. assulta, eventually producing different behaviors. PMID:23894593

  11. Peripheral Coding of Sex Pheromone Blends with Reverse Ratios in Two Helicoverpa Species

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ling-Qiao; Yan, Fu-Shun; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The relative proportions of components in a pheromone blend play a major role in sexual recognition in moths. Two sympatric species, Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta, use (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16: Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16: Ald) as essential sex pheromone components but in very different ratios, 97∶3 and 7∶93 respectively. Using wind tunnel tests, single sensillum recording and in vivo calcium imaging, we comparatively studied behavioral responses and physiological activities at the level of antennal sensilla and antennal lobe (AL) in males of the two species to blends of the two pheromone components in different ratios (100∶0, 97∶3, 50∶50, 7∶93, 0∶100). Z11–16: Ald and Z9–16: Ald were recognized by two populations of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in different trichoid sensilla on antennae of both species. The ratios of OSNs responding to Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald OSNs were 100∶28.9 and 21.9∶100 in H. armigera and H. assulta, respectively. The Z11–16:Ald OSNs in H. armigera exhibited higher sensitivity and efficacy than those in H. assulta, while the Z9–16:Ald OSNs in H. armigera had the same sensitivity but lower efficacy than those in H. assulta. At the dosage of 10 µg, Z11–16: Ald and Z9–16: Ald evoked calcium activity in 8.5% and 3.0% of the AL surface in H. armigera, while 5.4% and 8.6% of AL in H. assulta, respectively. The calcium activities in the AL reflected the peripheral input signals of the binary pheromone mixtures and correlated with the behavioral output. These results demonstrate that the binary pheromone blends were precisely coded by the firing frequency of individual OSNs tuned to Z11–16: Ald or Z9–16: Ald, as well as their population sizes. Such information was then accurately reported to ALs of H. armigera and H. assulta, eventually producing different behaviors. PMID:23894593

  12. Impact of Trap Design and Density on Effectiveness of a Commercial Pheromone Lure for Monitoring Navel Orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Burks, Charles S; Higbee, Bradley S

    2015-04-01

    The navel orangeworm is an important pest of almonds, pistachios, and walnuts. A commercial pheromone lure for this pest became publicly available in 2013. We compared effectiveness of this synthetic lure (NOW Biolure) between common commercial trap designs, and with unmated females in wing traps. Orange wing traps and delta traps captured similar numbers of males when each was baited with females, although there was a significantly greater density of captured males on the smaller glue area of the delta traps. In contrast, lure-baited wing traps captured about half the males captured in female-baited wing traps in single-night tests. In these single-night tests, wing traps baited with NOW Biolure captured significantly more males than delta traps baited with NOW Biolure, and bucket traps and delta traps baited with NOW Biolure captured similar numbers of males. When the sampling interval was extended to a week, the performance of lure-baited and female-baited wing traps was more similar. Delta and bucket traps baited with NOW Biolure generally performed more poorly than wing traps baited with NOW Biolure in these weekly monitoring tests. However, the bucket traps occasionally outperformed the other trap types during periods of peak abundance. Navel orangeworm traps at a density of one per 4 ha detected differences in abundance between adjacent walnut varieties, whereas such differences were not detected with one trap per 20 ha. The implications of these findings for monitoring for navel orangeworm in these different host crops are discussed. PMID:26470171

  13. Age and sex selectivity in trapping mule deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garrott, R.A.; White, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    A mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) trapping experiment is described using modified Clover traps in which changes in the placement of bait and height of the trap door modified the ratio of adult does to male and female fawns captured. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in age-sex capture ratios are discussed and indicate that modified Clover traps selectivity capture mule deer, thus introducing bias into population sampling. (JMT)

  14. Relative abundance and flight phenology of two pheromone types of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Hartfield, E A; Harris, M K; Medina, R F

    2011-08-01

    Two synthetic sex pheromones have been developed and are currently used to detect the flight of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig, the most damaging pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. One pheromone (referred to as standard) is attractive to moths in the southern United States, but not in Mexico. The other pheromone (referred to as Mexican) is attractive to moths in the southern United States and in Mexico. These two pheromones have been implemented by producers as an important tool in monitoring the activity of this pest and have allowed for more efficient pesticide use. In the future, these pheromones could be used as a means of population reduction through pheromone based control methods. Trapping data taken over a 3-yr period were used to determine if phenological differences exist between pheromone types of pecan nut casebearer. The relative abundance of each pheromone type at several locations in the United States also was evaluated. Results of this study indicate that no phenological differences exist between the two pheromone types studied in the United States and that significantly more males are attracted to field-deployed pheromone traps baited with the standard pheromone than to traps baited with the Mexican pheromone. PMID:22251690

  15. Female sex pheromone of brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis blend optimization.

    PubMed

    Cork, A; Alam, S N; Das, A; Das, C S; Ghosh, G C; Farman, D I; Hall, D R; Maslen, N R; Vedham, K; Phythian, S J; Rouf, F M; Srinivasan, K

    2001-09-01

    The brinjal fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis is the major pest of eggplant in South Asia. Analysis of female pheromone gland extracts prepared from insects of Indian and Taiwanese origin confirmed (E)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (E11-16:Ac) as the major pheromone component with 0.8 to 2.8% of the related (E)-11-hexadecen-1-ol (E11-16:OH), as previously reported from Sri Lanka. The average quantity of E11-16:Ac extracted per female was estimated to be 33 ng, with a range of 18.9 to 46.4 ng when collected 2 to 3 hr into the scotophase. In field trials conducted in India, blends containing between 1 and 10% E11-16:OH caught more male L. orbonalis than E11-16:Ac alone. At the 1,000 microg dose, on white rubber septa, addition of 1% E11-16:OH to E11-16:Ac was found to be more attractive to male L. orbonalis than either 0.1 or 10% E11-16:OH. Trap catch was found to be positively correlated with pheromone release rate, with the highest dose tested, 3,000 microg, on white rubber septa catching more male moths than lower doses. Field and wind tunnel release rate studies confirmed that E11-16:OH released from white rubber septa and polyethylene vials at approximately twice the rate of E11-16:Ac and that the release rate of both compounds was doubled in polyethylene vials compared to white rubber septa. This difference in release rate was reflected in field trials conducted in Bangladesh where polyethylene vial dispensers caught more male moths than either black or white rubber septa, each loaded with the same 100:1 blend of E11-16:Ac and E11-16:OH in a 3,000 microg loading. PMID:11545376

  16. Evaluation of novel semiochemical dispensers simultaneously releasing pear ester and sex pheromone for mating disruption of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of polyvinyl chloride polymer (pvc) dispensers loaded with two rates of ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) plus the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was compared with similar dispensers and two commercial dispensers l...

  17. EAG and behavioral responses of Helicoverpa armigera males to volatiles from poplar leaves and their combinations with sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian-Yu; Huang, Yong-Ping; Wei, Hong-Yi; Du, Jia-Wei

    2004-12-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves of black poplar, Populus nigra, showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%, 50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles should modify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field. PMID:15547967

  18. Creating Point Sources for Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with Low-Volume Sprays of a Microencapsulated Sex Pheromone Formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the depositioin of microcapsules and the attractiveness of treated apple leaves for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), following low volume concentrated sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone formulation (CheckMate CM-F). Nearly 30% of leaves collected f...

  19. Determination of HPLC fluorescence analysis of the natural enantiomers of sex pheromones in the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassays of 6 racemic synthesized candidate sex pheromone compounds against male New World Screwworm flies showed that the most potent bioactivity was found with 6-acetoxy-19-methylnonacosane and 7-acetoxy-15-methylnonacosane compared to 4 other isomeric acetoxy nonacosanes. Since all these methyl-...

  20. Female sex pheromones of two Japanese saturniid species, Rhodinia fugax and Loepa sakaei: identification, synthesis, and field evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi; Kanegae, Akiko; Miyachi, Takashi; Naka, Hideshi; Tatsuta, Haruki; Ando, Tetsu

    2015-01-01

    While 11 species in the family Saturniidae are found in Japan, no sex pheromones of the native species had been investigated previously. We collected larvae of Rhodinia fugax in Nagano and Tottori Prefecture, and of Loepa sakaei in Okinawa Prefecture, and extracted sex pheromones of these two species from virgin female moths. In gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analyses, male antennae of each species responded to one component in the respective pheromone extracts of conspecific females. Chemical analyses of the extracts by GC/mass spectrometry revealed that the EAD-active compounds of R. fugax and L. sakaei were a hexadecadienal and a tetradecadienyl acetate, respectively. The two species belong to the subfamily Saturniinae, and the mass spectra of both were similar to that of the 6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate identified from Antheraea polyphemus, classified in the same subfamily, suggesting the same 6,11-dienyl structure for the C16 aldehyde and a 4,9-dienyl structure for the C14 acetate. Based on this assumption, four geometrical isomers of each dienyl compound were stereoselectively synthesized via acetylene intermediates, compared to the natural products, and tested in the field. Male catches confirmed the pheromone structures of the two Japanese saturniid species as (6E,11Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal for R. fugax and (4E,9Z)-4,9-tetradecadienyl acetate for L. sakaei. The compounds have a characteristic 1,6-dienyl motif common to the pheromones of Saturniinae species. PMID:25533776

  1. Interspecific Sex in Grass Smuts and the Genetic Diversity of Their Pheromone-Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Kellner, Ronny; Vollmeister, Evelyn; Feldbrügge, Michael; Begerow, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    The grass smuts comprise a speciose group of biotrophic plant parasites, so-called Ustilaginaceae, which are specifically adapted to hosts of sweet grasses, the Poaceae family. Mating takes a central role in their life cycle, as it initiates parasitism by a morphological and physiological transition from saprobic yeast cells to pathogenic filaments. As in other fungi, sexual identity is determined by specific genomic regions encoding allelic variants of a pheromone-receptor (PR) system and heterodimerising transcription factors. Both operate in a biphasic mating process that starts with PR–triggered recognition, directed growth of conjugation hyphae, and plasmogamy of compatible mating partners. So far, studies on the PR system of grass smuts revealed diverse interspecific compatibility and mating type determination. However, many questions concerning the specificity and evolutionary origin of the PR system remain unanswered. Combining comparative genetics and biological approaches, we report on the specificity of the PR system and its genetic diversity in 10 species spanning about 100 million years of mating type evolution. We show that three highly syntenic PR alleles are prevalent among members of the Ustilaginaceae, favouring a triallelic determination as the plesiomorphic characteristic of this group. Furthermore, the analysis of PR loci revealed increased genetic diversity of single PR locus genes compared to genes of flanking regions. Performing interspecies sex tests, we detected a high potential for hybridisation that is directly linked to pheromone signalling as known from intraspecies sex. Although the PR system seems to be optimised for intraspecific compatibility, the observed functional plasticity of the PR system increases the potential for interspecific sex, which might allow the hybrid-based genesis of newly combined host specificities. PMID:22242007

  2. Fungal pathogen uses sex pheromone receptor for chemotropic sensing of host plant signals.

    PubMed

    Turrà, David; El Ghalid, Mennat; Rossi, Federico; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2015-11-26

    For more than a century, fungal pathogens and symbionts have been known to orient hyphal growth towards chemical stimuli from the host plant. However, the nature of the plant signals as well as the mechanisms underlying the chemotropic response have remained elusive. Here we show that directed growth of the soil-inhabiting plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum towards the roots of the host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is triggered by the catalytic activity of secreted class III peroxidases, a family of haem-containing enzymes present in all land plants. The chemotropic response requires conserved elements of the fungal cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and the seven-pass transmembrane protein Ste2, a functional homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sex pheromone α receptor. We further show that directed hyphal growth of F. oxysporum towards nutrient sources such as sugars and amino acids is governed by a functionally distinct MAPK cascade. These results reveal a potentially conserved chemotropic mechanism in root-colonizing fungi, and suggest a new function for the fungal pheromone-sensing machinery in locating plant hosts in a complex environment such as the soil. PMID:26503056

  3. Hybrid Sex Pheromones of the Hibiscus Flower-bud Borer, Rehimena surusalis.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Ryokuhei; Sumiuchi, Yoko; Uehara, Takuya; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Naka, Hideshi

    2015-11-01

    The sex pheromone of the hibiscus flower borer Rehimena surusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was analyzed by gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Three EAD-active components were found in crude pheromone gland extracts of calling females. GC/MS and GC analyses using synthetic chemicals and derivatization of the extracts identified three components as (10E,12Z)-hexadeca-10,12-dienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald,), (10E,12E)-hexadeca-10,12-dienyl acetate (E10,Z12-16:OAc), and (3Z,6Z,9Z)-tricosa-3,6,9-triene (Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC). In field tests, male moths were strongly attracted to a ternary blend of E10,Z12-16:Ald, E10,Z12-16:OAc, and Z3,Z6,Z9-23:HC at a ratio of 1:5:14, but single and binary blends showed only weak or no attraction. PMID:26493050

  4. Sensory adaptation of antennae and sex pheromone-mediated flight behavior in male oriental fruit moths (Leptidoptera: Tortricidae) after prolonged exposure to single and tertiary blends of synthetic sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, G; Faraone, N; Rotundo, G; De Cristofaro, A; Trimble, R M

    2013-06-01

    Sensory adaptation has been measured in the antennae of male Grapholita molesta (Busck) after 15 min of exposure to its main pheromone compound (Z)-8-dodecen-1-yl acetate (Z8-12:OAc) at the aerial concentration of 1 ng/m(3) measured in orchards treated with pheromone for mating disruption. Exposing males to this aerial concentration of Z8-12:OAc for 15 min, however, had only a small effect on their ability to orientate by flight to virgin calling females in a flight tunnel. Experiments were undertaken to determine if exposure to the main pheromone compound in combination with the two biologically active minor compounds of this species, (E)-8-dodecen-1-yl acetate (E8-12:OAc) and (Z)-8-dodecen-1-ol (Z8-12:OH) would induce greater levels of sensory adaptation and have a greater effect on male sexual behavior. The exposure of male antennae to 0.5 g/m(3) air of one of the three pheromone compounds induced sensory adaptation to this compound and to the other two pheromone compounds demonstrating cross adaptation. Average percentage sensory adaptation to a pheromone compound was similar after 15 min of exposure to 1 ng/m(3) air of Z8-12:OAc, or to 1 ng/m(3) air of a 1:1:1 or 93:6:1 blend of Z8-12:OAc, E8-12:OAc, and Z8-12:OH. The exposure of males to 1 ng/m(3) air of Z8-12:OAc or the two ratios of Z8-12:OAc, E8-12:OAc, and Z8-12:OH for 15 min had no effect on their ability to orientate to a virgin calling female. The implications of these results for the operative mechanisms of sex pheromone-mediated mating disruption of this species are discussed. PMID:23726064

  5. Changes of sex pheromone communication systems associated with tebufenozide and abamectin resistance in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Cao, Guang-Chun; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Many insect pests have evolved resistance to insecticides. Along with this evolution, the sex pheromone communication system of insects also may change, and subsequently reproductive isolation may occur between resistant and susceptible populations. In this study of the diamondback moth, we found that resistant females (especially Abamectin resistant females) produced less sex pheromone and displayed a lower level of calling behavior. Resistant males showed higher EAG responsiveness to the sex pheromone mixture of females, and responded to a broader range of ratios between the two major components compared to the responses of susceptible moths. In addition, wind tunnel experiments indicated that changes associated with insecticide resistance in the Abamectin resistant strain (Aba-R) significantly reduced female attractiveness to susceptible males. Furthermore, mating choice experiments confirmed that non-random mating occurred between the two different strains. Aba-R females with an abnormal pheromone production and blend ratio exhibited significantly lower mating percentages with males from either their own strain or other strains, which corroborates the results obtained by the wind tunnel experiments. The implications of this non-random mating for insect speciation and insecticide resistance management are discussed. PMID:20407810

  6. A Sex Attractant for Trapping Crambus cypridalis (Lepidoptera: crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps in eastern Washington wheat fields, baited with a sex attractant for the moth of the wheat head armyworm Dargida diffusa (Walker), also captured numbers of males of a type of sod webworm, Crambus cypridalis. When the two components of the sex attractant were tested singly versus together in a ...

  7. Genetic basis of sex pheromone blend difference between Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) and Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Ming, Qing-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2008-05-01

    The two closely related moth species, Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta, are sympatric in China. Both species use a mixture of (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and (Z)-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) as their sex pheromones but in widely different ratios. Hybridization and backcrossing experiments between H. armigera and H. assulta were conducted and sex pheromone compositions of the parent species, their F(1) hybrids and backcrosses were compared to study the genetic basis of the production of their sex pheromone blend composition. Results show that the difference in sex pheromone blend ratios of these Helicoverpa species is mainly controlled by an autosomal locus with two alleles, with the allele from H. armigera being almost completely dominant over that derived from H. assulta. PMID:18405915

  8. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects. PMID:24813002

  9. Intracellular signal transduction of PBAN action in lepidopteran insects: inhibition of sex pheromone production by compactin, an HMG CoA reductase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, R; Matsumoto, S; Kim, G H; Uchiumi, K; Kurihara, M; Shono, T; Mitsui, T

    1995-06-27

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) regulates sex pheromone production in the pheromone glands of many species of female moths. In order to probe the biochemical steps as well as underlying mechanisms regulated by PBAN, we have tested the effect of chemicals on sex pheromone production by using an in vitro assay. Among the chemicals we tested here, compactin, a specific 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase inhibitor, clearly inhibited the pheromone biosynthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura. Since the activation of HMG CoA reductase occurs by dephosphorylation mediated by a specific phosphatase and the biochemical step regulated by PBAN in bombykol biosynthesis is similar to the one catalyzed by HMG-CoA reductase in cholesterol biosynthesis, the present results support the idea that phosphoprotein phosphatase has a significant role to regulate bombykol production in the intracellular transduction of PBAN action in B. mori. PMID:7480881

  10. Components of female sex pheromone of cocoa pod borer moth,Conopomorpha cramerella.

    PubMed

    Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; Nesbitt, B F; Day, R K; Mumford, J D

    1986-01-01

    The cocoa pod borer,Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is the most serious pest of cocoa in Southeast Asia. Analyses of ovipositor washings and entrained volatiles from virgin female moths by gas chromatography (GC) linked to electroantennography (EAG), and comparison of EAG responses from the male moth to synthetic compounds indicated the presence of theE,Z,Z andE,E,Z isomers of 4,6,10-hexadecatrienyl acetate and the corresponding alcohols, and of hexadecyl alcohol. Amounts of pheromone produced were less than 0.1 ng/female, and no peaks for the unsaturated components were observed on GC analysis. Extensive field testing of synthetic mixtures in Sabah, East Malaysia, showed that traps baited with a polyethylene vial impregnated with 1.2 mg of a mixture of the above five components in 40∶60∶4∶6∶10 ratio caught more maleC. cramerella moths than traps baited with a virgin female moth. PMID:24306393

  11. Sex pheromones and amino acids evoke distinctly different spatial patterns of electrical activity in the goldfish olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Hanson, L R; Sorensen, P W; Cohen, Y

    1998-11-30

    Until now, electrophysiological studies of the vertebrate olfactory bulb have tested only 'generalist' cues. These studies suggest that odorants are discriminated by a broadly distributed spatial map. In this study, we tested for the first time in a vertebrate the hypothesis that 'specialist' cues (pheromones) are discriminated by a more restricted component of the olfactory bulb. Our model is the male goldfish, Carassius auratus, for which five sex pheromones with both behavioral and physiological activity have now been identified. Electrical activity (electroencephalography: EEG) was recorded over a 12-point grid from the surface of the olfactory bulb, while fish were exposed to one of ten stimuli including: five sex pheromones, two amino acids, two bile steroids and a control. Evoked activity was evaluated by time series analysis. Power ratios were calculated by dividing the power of the dominant frequency in the power spectrum before stimulation by the power of the dominant frequency during stimulation. Next, the average magnitudes of odorant responses were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The spatial patterning of these responses was also described using cluster analysis, which grouped odorants based on the similarity of their spatial patterns of activity. Although all odorants elicited EEG responses with similar dominant frequencies, odorant-specific differences were evident in the size and distribution of these responses. Sex pheromones and bile steroids elicited relatively small responses that were spatially restricted in distinctive manners, although some overlap was evident. In contrast, amino acids consistently produced large responses at all positions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vertebrate pheromones are discriminated by a distinctive subcomponent of the vertebrate olfactory system comprised of a relatively small number of olfactory neurons. PMID:10049233

  12. The Trapping Of Laser-Generated Biradicals With Molecular Oxygen: The Synthesis Of Peroxides Related To Vitamin K, Insect Pheromones And Prostaglandins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1984-05-01

    The theoretical and experimental considerations involved in laser-generated biradical trapping with molecular oxygen are discussed. This method has been applied in the elucidation of the mechanism of the photodegradation of Vitamin K via oxygen trapping of a preoxe-tane biradical. The trapping of biradicals derived from azoalkanes has been applied to the syntheses of pine beetle pheromone mimics and prostaglandin endoperoxide analogues.

  13. Construction of an in vivo system for functional analysis of the genes involved in sex pheromone production in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Moto, Ken-Ichi; Matsumoto, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Moths produce species-specific sex pheromones to attract conspecific mates. The biochemical processes that comprise sex pheromone biosynthesis are precisely regulated and a number of gene products are involved in this biosynthesis and regulation. In recent years, at least 300 EST clones have been isolated from Bombyx mori pheromone gland (PG) specific cDNA libraries with some of those clones [i.e., B. mori PG-specific desaturase 1 (Bmpgdesat1), PG-specific fatty acyl reductase, PG-specific acyl-CoA-binding protein, B. mori fatty acid transport protein, B. mori lipid storage droplet protein-1] characterized and demonstrated to play a role in sex pheromone production. However, most of the EST clones have yet to be fully characterized and identified. To develop an efficient system for analyzing sex pheromone production-related genes, we investigated the feasibility of a novel gene analysis system using the upstream region of Bmpgdesat1 that should contain a PG-specific gene promoter in conjunction with piggyBac vector-mediated germ line transformation. As a result, we have been able to obtain expression of our reporter gene (enhanced green fluorescent protein) in the PG but not in other tissues of transgenic B. mori. Current results indicate that we have successfully constructed a novel in vivo gene analysis system for sex pheromone production in B. mori. PMID:22649415

  14. Sex pheromones of three citrus leafrollers, Archips atrolucens, Adoxophyes privatana, and Homona sp., inhabiting the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Vang, Le; Thuy, Ho Nhu; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Son, Pham Kim; Yan, Qi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Jinbo, Utsugi; Ando, Tetsu

    2013-06-01

    Archips atrolucens, Adoxophyes privatana, and Homona sp. are serious defoliators of citrus trees in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. In order to establish a sustainable pest-management program for the three species, their female-produced sex pheromones were investigated by GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses, and the following multi-component pheromones were identified: (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), and tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) in a ratio of 64:32:4 for A. atrolucens; Z11-14:OAc and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) in a ratio of 92:8 for A. privatana; and Z11-14:OAc and (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12:OAc) in a ratio of 96:4 for Homona sp. Each lure baited with synthetic components as a mimic of the natural pheromone attracted males of the target species specifically, indicating that each monounsaturated minor component plays a significant role for mating communication and reproductive isolation of the three species inhabiting the same citrus orchards. In an extract of the pheromone glands of A. atrolucens females, the content of 14:OAc was very low, but a synergistic effect was observed clearly when the saturated compound was mixed at the same level as the E11-14:OAc. The synthetic lures will provide useful tools for monitoring flights of adults of the three species. PMID:23674124

  15. Sex pheromone blend discrimination by male moths fromE andZ strains of European corn borer.

    PubMed

    Glover, T J; Tang, X H; Roelofs, W L

    1987-01-01

    Sex pheromone behavioral responses were analyzed in a flight tunnel with European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), males from three distinct populations. Males from a bivoltine and a univoltine biotype using a 97.8∶2.2 blend (Z strains) of (Z)- and (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate were assayed with treatments containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 3% of theE isomer. Males from neither population oriented in the plume to the 100%Z treatment, but bivoltine males oriented and flew to the source to the other three treatments, whereas univoltine males oriented and flew to the source only to the 1 % and 3 %E treatments. Males from a bivoltine biotype using a 1∶99 blend ofZ/E isomers (E strain) were assayed with sources containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 3% of theZ isomer. Males did not orient to the 0%Z source, but oriented and flew to the source to the other three treatments. In addition to using opposite geometric isomers for the main pheromone component, the bivoltineE strain differed from the bivoltineZ strain by producing and responding better to 1 % of the minor component and by storing 3 times more pheromone in the female glands. Contrary to previous reports, the blend of two pheromone components is significantly better than the main component alone in eliciting oriented flight and close-range behavior with males from all three populations of European corn borer. PMID:24301366

  16. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    PubMed

    Silva, Weliton D; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Bento, José Maurício S

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini. PMID:27512985

  17. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Jocelyn G.; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Bento, José Maurício S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard), a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini. PMID:27512985

  18. Expression of a desaturase gene, desat1, in neural and nonneural tissues separately affects perception and emission of sex pheromones in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, François; Nojima, Tetsuya; Houot, Benjamin; Chauvel, Isabelle; Chaudy, Sylvie; Dupas, Stéphane; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Animals often use sex pheromones for mate choice and reproduction. As for other signals, the genetic control of the emission and perception of sex pheromones must be tightly coadapted, and yet we still have no worked-out example of how these two aspects interact. Most models suggest that emission and perception rely on separate genetic control. We have identified a Drosophila melanogaster gene, desat1, that is involved in both the emission and the perception of sex pheromones. To explore the mechanism whereby these two aspects of communication interact, we investigated the relationship between the molecular structure, tissue-specific expression, and pheromonal phenotypes of desat1. We characterized the five desat1 transcripts—all of which yielded the same desaturase protein—and constructed transgenes with the different desat1 putative regulatory regions. Each region was used to target reporter transgenes with either (i) the fluorescent GFP marker to reveal desat1 tissue expression, or (ii) the desat1 RNAi sequence to determine the effects of genetic down-regulation on pheromonal phenotypes. We found that desat1 is expressed in a variety of neural and nonneural tissues, most of which are involved in reproductive functions. Our results suggest that distinct desat1 putative regulatory regions independently drive the expression in nonneural and in neural cells, such that the emission and perception of sex pheromones are precisely coordinated in this species. PMID:22114190

  19. The attraction of virgin female hide beetles (Dermestes maculatus) to cadavers by a combination of decomposition odour and male sex pheromones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C), being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9)-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1) Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2) During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex pheromone is perceived as

  20. Total synthesis, proof of absolute configuration, and biosynthetic origin of stylopsal, the first isolated sex pheromone of strepsiptera.

    PubMed

    Lagoutte, Roman; Šebesta, Petr; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Jirošová, Anna; Straka, Jakub; Černá, Kateřina; Šobotník, Jan; Cvačka, Josef; Jahn, Ullrich

    2013-06-24

    The asymmetric total synthesis of the diastereomers of stylopsal establishes the absolute configuration of the first reported sex pheromone of the twisted-wing parasite Stylops muelleri as (3R,5R,9R)-trimethyldodecanal. The key steps for the diastereo- and enantiodivergent introduction of the methyl groups are two different types of asymmetric conjugate addition reactions of organocopper reagents to α,β-unsaturated esters, whereas the dodecanal skeleton is assembled by Wittig reactions. The structure of the natural product was confirmed by chiral gas chromatography (GC) techniques, GC/MS and GC/electroantennography (EAD) as well as field tests. An investigation into the biosynthesis of the pheromone revealed that it is likely to be produced by decarboxylation of a 4,6,10-trimethyltridecanoic acid derivative, which was found in substantial amounts in the fat body of the female, but not in the host bee Andrena vaga. This triple-branched fatty acid precursor thus seems to be biosynthesized de novo through a polyketide pathway with two consecutive propionate-propionate-acetate assemblies to form the complete skeleton. The simplified, motionless and fully host-dependent female exploits a remarkable strategy to maximize its reproductive success by employing a relatively complex and potent sex pheromone. PMID:23630024

  1. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  2. Isolation of a Female-Emitted Sex Pheromone Component of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, Attractive to Males.

    PubMed

    Andreadis, Stefanos S; Cloonan, Kevin R; Myrick, Andrew J; Chen, Haibin; Baker, Thomas C

    2015-12-01

    Lycoriella ingenua Dufour (Diptera: Sciaridae) is acknowledged as the major pest species of the white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, throughout the world. Components of the female-produced sex pheromone of this species were identified previously as C15-C18 n-alkanes, with the major component n-heptadecane, and shown to be attractive to L. mali. However, a subsequent report could not repeat this work. We reinvestigated the sex pheromone of this species by confirming that virgin females were attractive to males in a Y-tube bioassay and by collection of extracts from virgin females. Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection, and by the less widely-used technique of gas chromatography coupled to a behavioral bioassay to detect compounds causing wing-fanning and copulatory abdomen curling in males. A single, behaviorally-active pheromone component was isolated and characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. This component was definitively not n-heptadecane or any of the other C15-C19 n-alkanes reported previously, but is proposed to be a sesquiterpene alcohol having analytical characteristics that closely matched those of reference germacradienols. PMID:26585193

  3. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  4. Sites of release of Putative Sex Pheromone and Sexual Behaviour in Female Carcinus maenas(Crustacea: Decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, S. D.; Naylor, E.

    1997-02-01

    Pre-moult female Carcinus maenasurine was confirmed as a source of putative sex pheromone. The sexual and temporal specificity of bioactivity in pre-moult female urine was demonstrated when urine samples taken from inter-moult and pre-moult male crabs, and inter-moult females, failed to generate a sexual response from receptive males. Detection sensitivity of male crabs to pre-moult female urine was established at a dilution factor of 1 μl of urine in 10 ml of seawater. Experimental blockage of the site of urine release (the antennal gland opercula) failed to diminish the chemical attractiveness of pre-moult female crabs to test males, implicating at least one further site of putative pheromone release. Observations of female sexual behaviour demonstrated an active role by pre-moult and post-moult female crabs when introduced to male crabs whose locomotor movement had been temporarily restricted.

  5. The pheromone emergency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female moths utilize sex pheromones to attract mates across a potentially long geographic distance. The biochemical basis of how moth female sex pheromones are synthesized has been elucidated in a number of species, and a particularly large amount of effort has been expended on the agricultural pes...

  6. Synthesis of sex pheromone components of the forest tent caterpillar,Malacosoma disstria (Hübner) and of the western tent caterpillar,Malacosoma californicum (Packard).

    PubMed

    Chisholm, M D; Steck, W F; Bailey, B K; Underbill, E W

    1981-01-01

    All four geometrical isomers of 5,7-dodecadien-1-ol have been stereoselectively synthesized by using Wittig condensation reactions. (5 Z,7E)-5,7-Dodecadien-1-ol and its corresponding aldehyde are components of the sex pheromone of the forest tent caterpillar. (5 E,7 Z)-5,7-Dodecadienal is a component of the pheromone of the western tent caterpillar. These compounds have been successfully tested in the field. PMID:24420435

  7. Temporal and spatial distribution of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) moths in pheromone traps across agricultural landscapes in Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone trap captures of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.) from 2002-2005 were used to examine the distribution of these species across a multiple crop environment in southeast Arkansas. The greatest number of H. virescens moths was collected during 2003, but densities were lo...

  8. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2013-08-01

    In moths, males can detect a distinct blend of several pheromone components by specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae. Four candidate pheromone receptors (PR) with seven transmembrane domains were identified by homology cloning from the antennae of Spodoptera exigua (Sexi). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that all four odorant receptors (OR) belong to pheromone receptor subtypes. Expression patterns revealed that PRs were male-specific in the antenna except for SexiOR11, which was female antenna-biased. Functional analyses of these PRs were conducted using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. SexiOR13 and SexiOR16 were all broadly activated by multiple pheromone components. SexiOR13 responded robustly to the critical pheromone component, Z9, E12-14:OAc and the minor pheromone component, Z9-14:OAc at a concentration of 10(-4) M. Dose-response studies indicate that SexiOR13 was approximately 4 times more sensitive to Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50 = 3.158 × 10(-6) M) compared to Z9-14:OAc (EC50 = 1.203 × 10(-5) M). While, SexiOR16 responded robustly to the secondary pheromone component Z9-14:OH with high sensitivity (EC50 = 9.690 × 10(-7) M). However, similar tests of the five pheromones with SexiOR6 and SexiOR11 failed to elicit any response. These results provide basic knowledge to further advance research on the molecular mechanisms of pheromone reception. PMID:23751753

  9. The effects of mating status and time since mating on female sex pheromone levels in the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Takashi; Yasuda, Tetsuya

    2014-02-01

    Although mating status affects future mating opportunities, the biochemical changes that occur in response to mating are not well understood. This study investigated the effects of mating status on the quantities of sex pheromone components found in whole-body extracts and volatile emissions of females of the rice leaf bug, Trigonotylus caelestialium. When sampled at one of four time points within a 4-day postmating period, females that had copulated with a male had greater whole-body quantities of sex pheromone components than those of virgin females sampled at the same times. The quantities of sex pheromone components emitted by virgin females over a 24-h period were initially high but then steadily decreased, whereas 24-h emissions were persistently low among mated females when measured at three time points within the 4 days after mating. As a result, soon after mating, the mated females emitted less sex pheromones than virgin females, but there were no significant differences between mated and virgin females at the end of the experiment. Thus, postmating reduction in the rate of emission of sex pheromones could explain previously observed changes in female attractiveness to male T. caelestialium.

  10. Inhibition of the responses to sex pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Malo, Edi A; Rojas, Julio C; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 μg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  11. Inhibition of the Responses to Sex Pheromone of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Edi A.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 ìg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  12. Pheromone production, male abundance, body size, and the evolution of elaborate antennae in moths

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Matthew RE; Johnson, Tamara L; Elgar, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    The males of some species of moths possess elaborate feathery antennae. It is widely assumed that these striking morphological features have evolved through selection for males with greater sensitivity to the female sex pheromone, which is typically released in minute quantities. Accordingly, females of species in which males have elaborate (i.e., pectinate, bipectinate, or quadripectinate) antennae should produce the smallest quantities of pheromone. Alternatively, antennal morphology may be associated with the chemical properties of the pheromone components, with elaborate antennae being associated with pheromones that diffuse more quickly (i.e., have lower molecular weights). Finally, antennal morphology may reflect population structure, with low population abundance selecting for higher sensitivity and hence more elaborate antennae. We conducted a phylogenetic comparative analysis to test these explanations using pheromone chemical data and trapping data for 152 moth species. Elaborate antennae are associated with larger body size (longer forewing length), which suggests a biological cost that smaller moth species cannot bear. Body size is also positively correlated with pheromone titre and negatively correlated with population abundance (estimated by male abundance). Removing the effects of body size revealed no association between the shape of antennae and either pheromone titre, male abundance, or mean molecular weight of the pheromone components. However, among species with elaborate antennae, longer antennae were typically associated with lower male abundances and pheromone compounds with lower molecular weight, suggesting that male distribution and a more rapidly diffusing female sex pheromone may influence the size but not the general shape of male antennae. PMID:22408739

  13. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Aprison, Erin Z; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-12-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay. PMID:26645097

  14. Sex Pheromones of C. elegans Males Prime the Female Reproductive System and Ameliorate the Effects of Heat Stress

    PubMed Central

    Aprison, Erin Z.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay. PMID:26645097

  15. Influence of host fruit and conspecifics on the release of the sex pheromone By Toxotrypana curvicauda males (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Robledo, Norma; Arzuffi, René

    2012-04-01

    The release of tephritid sex pheromones depends significantly on the age of the male, the social context (presence of conspecifics) and chemical context (host volatiles). In this study, the influence of host fruit and conspecific (males and females) on the emission of the pheromonal compound 2-methyl-6-vinylpyrazine (2,6 mvp) by Toxotrypana curvicauda (Gerstaecker) males was investigated under laboratory conditions. Males were divided into one control group (nonexposed to treatment) and five experimental groups were placed 1 hr before volatile collection with: 1) host fruit (unripe papaya), 2) two females, 3) two males, 4) host fruit plus two females, and 5) host fruit plus two males. The volatiles were sampled by means of solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with a focus on 2,6 mvp. Males emitted volatiles from the first day after adult emergence. The maximum peak and the temporal pattern of 2,6 mvp release were modified by the presence of host fruit and conspecific males or females. On day 5, males in the presence of fruit maintained a constant release of 2,6 mvp while the presence of conspecific caused a decrease of pheromone release. The release of 2,6 mvp was increased significantly in males exposed to both types of stimuli simultaneously. The stimuli (fruit and conspecifics) modified the release of 2,6 mvp, however the effect depended on male age. PMID:22507013

  16. Identification of a female-produced sex pheromone from the southern corn rootworm,Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber.

    PubMed

    Guss, P L; Tumlinson, J H; Sonnet, P E; McLaughlin, J R

    1983-09-01

    A sex pheromone has been isolated and identified from virgin females of the southern corn rootworm (SCR),Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber. The synthesized compound, 10-methyl-2-tridecanone was shown to be attractive to males of the SCR, and also to males ofD. u. undecimpunctata Mannerheim, the western spotted cucumber beetle (WSCB), and ofD. u. duodecimnotata in Mexico. Males of both the SCR and the WSCB strongly preferred theR over theS enantiomer. The resolved enantiomers were not tested againstD. u. duodecimnotata. PMID:24407866

  17. Use of pheromone timed insecticide applications integrated with mating disruption or mass trapping against Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Zhao; Klein, Michael G; Sheng, Cheng-Fa; Li, Yu; Shao, Dong-Xiang; Li, Qi-Yun

    2013-12-01

    Mating disruption and mass trapping of Ostrinia furnacalis (Génuéé), often called the Asian corn borer, were incorporated with insecticides to reduce pesticide use. Pesticides alone are often ineffective owing to problems in timing applications before the larvae enter the protection of corn stalks. In addition, overuse of insecticides has caused environmental contamination and concerns about consumer health. In 2010, 15 insecticides were compared with mating disruption or mass trapping at various dispenser (disp.) densities for reducing egg masses, trap captures, and ear damage. Mass trapping with 30 and 40 disp./ha, mating disruption with 300 disp./ha, or endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, and monosultap (0.55, 0.35, and 0.55 kg/ha, respectively) gave ≍50% ear protection. In 2011, an insecticide alone, no treatments, pheromone alone, and pheromone + insecticide were examined. The same insecticides in combination with mating disruption or mass trapping at ≧200 or≧20 disp./ha gave >90% ear protection even when chemical applications were reduced to 1 from 3, and the rates were reduced 50-75%. Pheromone dispensers contained >50% of their initial load 30 d after exposure. PMID:24280487

  18. The female sex pheromone of sugarcane stalk borer,Chilo auricilius identification of four components and field tests.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, B F; Beevor, P S; Cork, A; Hall, D R; David, H; Nandagopal, V

    1986-06-01

    Four pheromonal components have been detected in ovipositor washings and volatiles from female sugarcane stalk borers,Chilo auricilius Dudgeon (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), using combined gas chromatography-electroantennography. The components have been identified as (I) (Z)-7-do-decenyl acetate, (II) (Z)-8-tridecenyl acetate, (III) (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, and (IV) (Z)-10-pentadecenyl acetate by comparison of their gas chromatographic behavior with that of synthetic standards. In field tests carried out in northern India during 1982-1984, a combination of II, III, and IV in their naturally occurring ratio (8∶4∶1) was shown to provide a highly attractive synthetic source for trap use. (Z)-7-Dodecenyl acetate was found to reduce catches of maleC. auricilius, both when dispensed with the other three components and when released from dispensers surrounding a trap baited with the other three components. PMID:24307117

  19. Individuality and Transgenerational Inheritance of Social Dominance and Sex Pheromones in Isogenic Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Shi, Yao-Long; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-06-01

    Phenotypic variation and its epigenetic regulations within the inbred isogenic mice have long intrigued biologists. Here, we used inbred C57BL/6 mice to examine the individual differences and the inheritance of social dominance and male pheromones, expecting to create a model for studying the underlying epigenetic mechanisms for the evolution of these traits. We used a repeated male-male contest paradigm to form stable dominance-submission relationships between paired males and make superior or inferior quality manifest. Females showed olfactory preferences for the urine of dominant males to that of subordinate opponents. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis revealed that dominance-related or superior quality related pheromones were actually exaggerated male pheromone components (e.g., E-β-farnesene, hexadecanol, and 1-hexadecanol acetate) of preputial gland origin. Although the socially naïve sons of both dominant and subordinate males elicited the same female attraction when reaching adulthood, the former could dominated over the latter during undergoing the male-male competition and then gained more attraction of females. Our results demonstrated that social dominance or superior quality and the related pheromones were heritable and could be expressed through the interaction between aggression-related epigenotypes and male-male contests. It suggested that the evolution of sexually selected traits could be epigenetically determined and promoted through female mate choice. The epigenetic mechanisms driving the individual differences in behavior and male pheromones deserve further studies. PMID:27283352

  20. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  1. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  2. Identification of the sex pheromone components secreted by female moths of Peridroma saucia (Noctuidae: Noctuinae).

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shin-ichi; Tsuchiya, Satoshi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Saito, Osamu; Ando, Tetsu

    2002-11-01

    The variegated cutworm, Peridroma saucia Hübner, is a lepidopteran pest to a large number of crops in Canada, the United States, and Europe. It was probably naturalized in Japan in the 1970s. The pheromone glands of the female moth include two components with electroantennographic activity in a ratio of 3:1. GC-MS analyses of pheromone extracts untreated and treated with dimethyl disulfide revealed the major component to be (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the minor component to be (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate. The synthetic pheromone was used to attract a large number of males in a vegetable field in Tokyo, which suggests that this species has already become a harmful pest in Japan. PMID:12506988

  3. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying sex- and maturation-related variation in pheromone responses in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Villar, Gabriel; Baker, Thomas C; Patch, Harland M; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-07-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), social organization is primarily mediated by pheromones. Queen-produced 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) functions as both a social and sex pheromone, eliciting attraction in both female workers and male drones, but also affecting other critical aspects of worker physiology and behavior. These effects are also maturation related, as younger workers and sexually mature drones are most receptive to 9-ODA. While changes in the peripheral nervous system drive sex-related differences in sensitivity to 9-ODA, the mechanisms driving maturation-related shifts in receptivity to 9-ODA remain unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that changes at the peripheral nervous system may be mediating plastic responses to 9-ODA by characterizing expression levels of AmOR11 (the olfactory receptor tuned to 9-ODA) and electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA. We find that receptor expression correlates significantly with behavioral receptivity to 9-ODA, with nurses and sexually mature drones exhibiting higher levels of expression than foragers and immature drones, respectively. Electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA were not found to correlate with behavioral receptivity or receptor expression, however. Thus, while receptor expression at the periphery exhibits a level of plasticity that correlates with behavior, the mechanisms driving maturation-dependent responsiveness to 9-ODA appear to function primarily in the central nervous system. PMID:25840687

  4. Effect of Larvae Treated with Mixed Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis - Abamectin on Sex Pheromone Communication System in Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis - abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of “orientation” than control males but lower percentages of “approaching” and “landing” in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11–16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9–16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11–16:Ald and Z9–16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H.armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  5. Spatial variability of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone trap captures in sprinkler irrigated corn in eastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Hoeting, Jennifer A

    2011-06-01

    Strategies for controlling pests are an integral part of any agricultural management plan. Most field crops, such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and corn (Zea mays L.) are managed as if they are homogeneous units. However, pests within fields are rarely homogenous. Development of plans that use targeted pest control tactics requires knowledge of the ecological drivers of the pest species. That is, by understanding the spatio-temporal factors influencing pest populations, we can develop management strategy to prevent or reduce pest damage. This study was conducted to quantify variables influencing the spatial variability of adult male western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith). Striacosta albicosta moths were collected in pheromone traps in two center pivot, irrigated corn fields near Wiggins, CO. We hypothesized that moth abundance would be influenced by the distance from the edge of the field, distance to nearest alternative corn crop and affected by anisotropic effects, such as prevailing wind direction. Greater trap catches of S. albicosta in each of the fields were found with increased proximity to the edge of the field, if the nearest neighboring crop was corn. Prevailing wind direction and directional effects were found to influence abundance. Results serve as a first step toward building a precision pest management system for controlling S. albicosta. PMID:22251644

  6. Laboratory Syntheses of Insect Pheromones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Russell A.; Hoban, James N.

    1984-01-01

    Provides background information and procedures for the multi-step synthesis of tiger moth and boll weevil pheromones (sex attractants). These syntheses require several laboratory periods. The tiger moth pheromone synthesis is suitable for introductory organic chemistry while the boll weevil pheromone is recommended for an advanced laboratory…

  7. Pheromone lure and trap color affects bycatch in agricultural landscapes of Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial traps, using combinations of color and attractive lures, are a critical tool for detecting and managing insect pest populations. Yet, despite improvements in trap efficacy, collection of non-target species (“bycatch”) plagues many insect pest surveys. Bycatch can influence survey effectivenes...

  8. Spraying Codling Moth Sex Pheromone with and without Insecticides: 'Allowing Growers to Concentrate'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in replicated small plots of apple comparing the efficacy of ULV sprays of Checkmate CM-F alone and in combination with Asana, Assail, or Imidan. A five-spray program of pheromone + insecticides using half rates of Assail or Asana were significantly more effective than sprayin...

  9. [Relationship between sex hormones, pheromones, interleukine production and risk of drug dependence].

    PubMed

    Bokhan, N A; Nevidimova, T I

    2015-01-01

    Serum steroid hormones and production of proinflammatory cytokines in 109 individuals with substance dependence, 34 occasional users and 78 control subjects were examined. Immaturity of gender as a risk factor for the formation of drug dependence associated with infectious and inflammatory processes was estimated by olfactory pheromone tests. PMID:26852595

  10. Flying slower: Floor pattern object size affects orthokinetic responses during moth flight to sex pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies with Oriental Fruit Moth (OFM, Grapholita molesta) and Heliothis virescens males flying upwind along a pheromone plume showed that they increased their upwind flight speed as they flew higher above striped floor patterns and, for OFM, to a similar degree over dotted floor patterns. ...

  11. Behavior of processionary males (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) induced by sex pheromone and analogs in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Quero, C; Camps, F; Guerrero, A

    1995-12-01

    The behavioral response of processionary males (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) to the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate (1) and structurally related analogs in a wind tunnel is presented. Stereomerically pureZ-1 and a mixture with theE isomer in 80:20 ratio elicited similar attraction responses at 1 µg and higher. The activity was dose-dependent, being optimum at 1 µg with 90% and 80% of males contacting with the source in the presence of theZ-1 andZ/E-1, respectively. 11-Hexadecynyl acetate (2) functioned as a pheromone mimic, being able to induce the complete mate-finding behavioral sequence, although its activity was much lower than that of the pheromone. (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-ynyl alcohol (3) and, particularly, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynal (4) were potent inhibitors of the upwind flight response in mixtures withZ-1 in 99:1, 95:5, and 91:9 ratios. (Z)-1,1,1-Trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (5) also inhibited the response of males to pheromone, particularly in the source contact behavior. Comparison with activity displayed by analogs in field tests is also reported. PMID:24233899

  12. Sex Pheromone Response, Clumping, and Slime Production in Enterococcal Strains Isolated from Occluded Biliary Stents

    PubMed Central

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Paoletti, Claudia; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Guaglianone, Emilio; Di Rosa, Roberta; Magi, Gloria; Spinaci, Cinzia; Facinelli, Bruna

    2004-01-01

    Bile-resistant bacteria, particularly gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, play an important role in biliary stent occlusion, because their sessile mode of growth protects them against host defenses and antimicrobial agents. Twelve E. faecalis and seven E. faecium strains isolated from occluded biliary stents have been investigated for slime production, presence of aggregation substance genes, and ability to adhere to Caco-2 cells. Ten isolates were strong producers of slime, and seven isolates produced clumps when exposed to pheromones of E. faecalis JH2-2 and/or OG1RF. The small E. faecium clumps differed from the large clumps of E. faecalis and were similar to those of E. faecium LS10(pBRG1) carrying a pheromone response plasmid. After induction with pheromones, the adhesion to Caco-2 cells of clumping-positive strains was found to increase from two- to fourfold. Amplicons of the expected size were detected in three clumping-positive and three clumping-negative E. faecalis isolates by using primers (agg) internal to a highly conserved region of the E. faecalis pheromone response plasmids pAD1, pPD1, and pCF10 and primers internal to prgB of the E. faecalis plasmid pCF10. The agg/prgB-positive E. faecalis strains were also positive in Southern hybridization experiments with a prgB-specific probe. No PCR products were obtained with the same primers from four clumping-positive isolates (one E. faecalis and three E. faecium strains), which were also Southern hybridization negative. Our results demonstrate that slime production and pheromone response are both present in isolated enterococci, suggesting that clinical strains with these features might have a selective advantage in colonizing biliary stents. PMID:15297477

  13. Targeting Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Adults with Low Volume Applications of Insecticides Alone and in Combination with Sex Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies examined the effectiveness of adding insecticides to low volume sprays of a microencapsulated (MEC) sex pheromone to manage codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L). The activities of fifteen insecticides against the adult stage were first evaluated with a plastic cup assay. In general, moth longev...

  14. Pheromone-Regulated Expression of Sex Pheromone Plasmid pAD1-Encoded Aggregation Substance Depends on at Least Six Upstream Genes and a cis-Acting, Orientation-Dependent Factor

    PubMed Central

    Muscholl-Silberhorn, Albrecht B.

    2000-01-01

    Conjugative transfer of Enterococcus faecalis-specific sex pheromone plasmids relies on an adhesin, called aggregation substance, to confer a tight cell-to-cell contact between the mating partners. To analyze the dependence of pAD1-encoded aggregation substance, Asa1, on pheromone induction, a variety of upstream fragments were fused to an α-amylase reporter gene, amyL, by use of a novel promoter probe vector, pAMY-em1. For pheromone-regulated α-amylase activity, a total of at least six genes, traB, traC, traA, traE1, orfY, and orf1, are required: TraB efficiently represses asa1 (by a mechanism unrelated to its presumptive function in pheromone shutdown, since a complete shutdown is observed exclusively in the presence of traC); only traC can relieve traB-mediated repression in a pheromone-dependent manner. In addition to traB, traA is required but not sufficient for negative control. Mutational inactivation of traE1, orfY, or orf1, respectively, results in a total loss of α-amylase activity for constructs normally mediating constitutive expression. Inversion of a fragment covering traA, P0, and traE1 without disrupting any gene or control element switches off amyL or asa1 expression, indicating the involvement of a cis-acting, orientation-dependent factor (as had been shown for plasmid pCF10). Unexpectedly, pAD1 represses all pAMY-em1 derivatives in trans, while its own pheromone-dependent functions are unaffected. The discrepancy between the new data and those of former studies defining TraE1 as a trans-acting positive regulator is discussed. PMID:10850999

  15. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase

    PubMed Central

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Vogel, Heiko; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-01-01

    For sexual communication, moths primarily use blends of fatty acid derivatives containing one or more double bonds in various positions and configurations, called sex pheromones (SPs). To study the molecular basis of novel SP component (SPC) acquisition, we used the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), which uses a blend of mono-, di-, and uncommon triunsaturated fatty acid (3UFA) derivatives as SP. We identified pheromone-biosynthetic fatty acid desaturases (FADs) MsexD3, MsexD5, and MsexD6 abundantly expressed in the M. sexta female pheromone gland. Their functional characterization and in vivo application of FAD substrates indicated that MsexD3 and MsexD5 biosynthesize 3UFAs via E/Z14 desaturation from diunsaturated fatty acids produced by previously characterized Z11-desaturase/conjugase MsexD2. Site-directed mutagenesis of sequentially highly similar MsexD3 and MsexD2 demonstrated that swapping of a single amino acid in the fatty acyl substrate binding tunnel introduces E/Z14-desaturase specificity to mutated MsexD2. Reconstruction of FAD gene phylogeny indicates that MsexD3 was recruited for biosynthesis of 3UFA SPCs in M. sexta lineage via gene duplication and neofunctionalization, whereas MsexD5 representing an alternative 3UFA-producing FAD has been acquired via activation of a presumably inactive ancestral MsexD5. Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. PMID:26417103

  16. Evolution of moth sex pheromone composition by a single amino acid substitution in a fatty acid desaturase.

    PubMed

    Buček, Aleš; Matoušková, Petra; Vogel, Heiko; Šebesta, Petr; Jahn, Ullrich; Weißflog, Jerrit; Svatoš, Aleš; Pichová, Iva

    2015-10-13

    For sexual communication, moths primarily use blends of fatty acid derivatives containing one or more double bonds in various positions and configurations, called sex pheromones (SPs). To study the molecular basis of novel SP component (SPC) acquisition, we used the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), which uses a blend of mono-, di-, and uncommon triunsaturated fatty acid (3UFA) derivatives as SP. We identified pheromone-biosynthetic fatty acid desaturases (FADs) MsexD3, MsexD5, and MsexD6 abundantly expressed in the M. sexta female pheromone gland. Their functional characterization and in vivo application of FAD substrates indicated that MsexD3 and MsexD5 biosynthesize 3UFAs via E/Z14 desaturation from diunsaturated fatty acids produced by previously characterized Z11-desaturase/conjugase MsexD2. Site-directed mutagenesis of sequentially highly similar MsexD3 and MsexD2 demonstrated that swapping of a single amino acid in the fatty acyl substrate binding tunnel introduces E/Z14-desaturase specificity to mutated MsexD2. Reconstruction of FAD gene phylogeny indicates that MsexD3 was recruited for biosynthesis of 3UFA SPCs in M. sexta lineage via gene duplication and neofunctionalization, whereas MsexD5 representing an alternative 3UFA-producing FAD has been acquired via activation of a presumably inactive ancestral MsexD5. Our results demonstrate that a change as small as a single amino acid substitution in a FAD enzyme might result in the acquisition of new SP compounds. PMID:26417103

  17. Sex pheromone monitoring as a versatile tool for determining presence and abundance of Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae) in German apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Czyrt, T; Schmid, S; Leithold, G; Vilcinskas, A

    2012-01-01

    Cydia pomonella (Lep.: Tortricidae), the codling moth, is an apple, pear, quince and walnut pest with considerable impact on horticultural production systems in many parts of the world. In commercial apple production, it is responsible for a yearly damage level of 40 billion dollars. In response to the need of tight codling moth control there are several options for intervention by pest managers in commercially operated orchards. Spray and count methods have been used for decades with success, but at considerable external costs for the integrity of ecological cycles. Also, problems with pesticide residues and with resistant strains are an issue of concern. For environmental reasons, toxicological means are discounted here. Instead, flight curves based on sex pheromone trapping and monitoring are preferred means towards determining the optimal timing of interventions by biotechnical and biological control methods. Finally, ecological reasons are discussed for vastly different population levels of C. pomonella developing in closely neighboring field sections which operated under different environmental management. PMID:23885432

  18. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  19. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  20. Pheromone Autodetection: Evidence and Implications.

    PubMed

    Holdcraft, Robert; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory communication research with insects utilizing sex pheromones has focused on the effects of pheromones on signal receivers. Early pheromone detection studies using the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori L., and Saturniids led to the assumption that emitters, especially females, are unable to detect their own pheromone. Pheromone anosmia, i.e., the inability of females to detect their conspecific sex pheromone, was often assumed, and initially little attention was paid to female behaviors that may result from autodetection, i.e., the ability of females to detect their sex pheromone. Detection of conspecific pheromone plumes from nearby females may provide information to improve chances of mating success and progeny survival. Since the first documented example in 1972, numerous occurrences of autodetection have been observed and verified in field and laboratory studies. We summarize here a significant portion of research relating to autodetection. Electrophysiological and behavioral investigations, as well as expression patterns of proteins involved in pheromone autodetection are included. We discuss problems inherent in defining a boundary between sex and aggregation pheromones considering the occurrence of autodetection, and summarize hypothesized selection pressures favoring autodetection. Importance of including autodetection studies in future work is emphasized by complications arising from a lack of knowledge combined with expanding the use of pheromones in agriculture. PMID:27120623

  1. Pheromone Autodetection: Evidence and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Holdcraft, Robert; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory communication research with insects utilizing sex pheromones has focused on the effects of pheromones on signal receivers. Early pheromone detection studies using the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori L., and Saturniids led to the assumption that emitters, especially females, are unable to detect their own pheromone. Pheromone anosmia, i.e., the inability of females to detect their conspecific sex pheromone, was often assumed, and initially little attention was paid to female behaviors that may result from autodetection, i.e., the ability of females to detect their sex pheromone. Detection of conspecific pheromone plumes from nearby females may provide information to improve chances of mating success and progeny survival. Since the first documented example in 1972, numerous occurrences of autodetection have been observed and verified in field and laboratory studies. We summarize here a significant portion of research relating to autodetection. Electrophysiological and behavioral investigations, as well as expression patterns of proteins involved in pheromone autodetection are included. We discuss problems inherent in defining a boundary between sex and aggregation pheromones considering the occurrence of autodetection, and summarize hypothesized selection pressures favoring autodetection. Importance of including autodetection studies in future work is emphasized by complications arising from a lack of knowledge combined with expanding the use of pheromones in agriculture. PMID:27120623

  2. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  3. Control and monitoring of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in walnut orchards treated with novel high-load, low-density “meso” dispensers of sex pheromone and pear ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel low-density per ha “meso” dispensers loaded with both pear ester, ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate, kairomone and codlemone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol, the sex pheromone of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L)., were evaluated versus meso dispensers loaded with pheromone-alone for their mating disru...

  4. Antenna-predominant and male-biased CSP19 of Sesamia inferens is able to bind the female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Yang, Ke; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2014-02-25

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors (ORs), but this has not been clarified in moths. In this study, we built on our previously reported segment sequence work and cloned the full length CSP19 gene (SinfCSP19) from the antennae of Sesamia inferens by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR) assays indicated that the gene was expressed in a unique profile, i.e. predominant in antennae and significantly higher in male than in female. To explore the function, recombinant SinfCSP19 was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified by Ni-ion affinity chromatography. Binding affinities of the recombinant SinfCSP19 with 39 plant volatiles, 3 sex pheromone components and 10 pheromone analogs were measured using fluorescent competitive binding assays. The results showed that 6 plant volatiles displayed high binding affinities to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 2.12-8.75 μM), and more interesting, the 3 sex pheromone components and analogs showed even higher binding to SinfCSP19 (Ki = 0.49-1.78 μM). Those results suggest that SinfCSP19 plays a role in reception of female sex pheromones of S. inferens and host plant volatiles. PMID:24361960

  5. Unusual mechanism of hydrocarbon formation in the housefly: cytochrome P450 converts aldehyde to the sex pheromone component (Z)-9-tricosene and CO2.

    PubMed

    Reed, J R; Vanderwel, D; Choi, S; Pomonis, J G; Reitz, R C; Blomquist, G J

    1994-10-11

    An unusual mechanism for hydrocarbon biosynthesis is proposed from work examining the formation of (Z)-9-tricosene (Z9-23:Hy), the major sex pheromone component of the female housefly, Musca domestica. Incubation of (Z)-15-[1-14C]- and (Z)-15-[15,16-3H2]tetracosenoic acid (24:1 fatty acid) with microsomes from houseflies gave equal amounts of [3H]Z9-23:Hy and 14CO2. The formation of CO2 and not CO, as reported for hydrocarbon formation in plants, animals, and microorganisms [Dennis, M. & Kolattukudy, P. E. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 5306-5310], was verified by trapping agents and by radio-GLC analysis. Incubation of (Z)-15-[15,16-3H2]tetracosenoyl-CoA with microsomal preparations in the presence of NADPH and O2 gave almost equal amounts of (Z)-15-3H2]tetrasosenal (24:1 aldehyde) and Z9-23:Hy. Addition of increasing amounts of hydroxylamine (aldehyde trapping agent) caused a decrease in hydrocarbon formation with a concomitant increase in oxime (aldehyde derivative) formation. The 24:1 aldehyde was efficiently converted to (Z)-9-tricosene only in the presence of both NADPH and O2. Bubbling carbon monoxide (20:80 CO/O2) or including an antibody against housefly cytochrome P450 reductase inhibited the formation Z9-23:Hy from 24:1 aldehyde. These data demonstrate an unusual mechanism for hydrocarbon formation in insects in which the acyl-CoA is reduced to the corresponding aldehyde and then carbon-1 is removed as CO2. The requirement for NADPH and O2 and the inhibition by CO and the antibody to cytochrome P450 reductase strongly implicate the participation of a cytochrome P450 in this reaction. PMID:7937826

  6. Pheromone traps for monitoring Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-dose pheromone lures have proved useful for monitoring some lepidopteran pests in the presence of mating disruption, but not others. We performed experiments in commercial and pilot scale facilities to examine the effect of pheromone dose on detection of Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (...

  7. The GPCR membrane receptor, DopEcR, mediates the actions of both dopamine and ecdysone to control sex pheromone perception in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Abrieux, Antoine; Duportets, Line; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory information mediating sexual behavior is crucial for reproduction in many animals, including insects. In male moths, the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL) is specialized in the treatment of information on the female-emitted sex pheromone. Evidence is accumulating that modulation of behavioral pheromone responses occurs through neuronal plasticity via the action of hormones and/or catecholamines. We recently showed that a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), AipsDopEcR, with its homologue known in Drosophila for its double affinity to the main insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), and dopamine (DA), present in the ALs, is involved in the behavioral response to pheromone in the moth, Agrotis ipsilon. Here we tested the role of AipsDopEcR as compared to nuclear 20E receptors in central pheromone processing combining receptor inhibition with intracellular recordings of AL neurons. We show that the sensitivity of AL neurons for the pheromone in males decreases strongly after AipsDopEcR-dsRNA injection but also after inhibition of nuclear 20E receptors. Moreover we tested the involvement of 20E and DA in the receptor-mediated behavioral modulation in wind tunnel experiments, using ligand applications and receptor inhibition treatments. We show that both ligands are necessary and act on AipsDopEcR-mediated behavior. Altogether these results indicate that the GPCR membrane receptor, AipsDopEcR, controls sex pheromone perception through the action of both 20E and DA in the central nervous system, probably in concert with 20E action through nuclear receptors. PMID:25309365

  8. Production and release of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal by sex pheromone glands of females ofPlodia interpunctella (lepidoptera: pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Teal, P E; Heath, R R; Dueben, B D; Coffelt, J A; Vick, K W

    1995-06-01

    Extracts of sex pheromone glands obtained from females ofPloida interpunctella contained detectable amounts of (Z,E,)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (Z9,E12-14:Ac) and (Z,E.)-9,12-tetradecadien-1-ol (Z9,E12-14:OH) 4 hr prior to the first scotophase after adult emergence. The amount of pheromone increased during the first 4 hr of the scotophase and then declined to low levels during the subsequent photophase. Decapitation of females immediately after emergence, prior to expansion of the wings, inhibited production of pheromone during the subsequent 48 hr. Injection of extracts of the heads of 1-day-old females ofP. interpunctella of partially purified extracts of the cephalic ganglia of females of the corn earworm moth into decapitated females stimulated production of bothZ9,E12-14:Ac andZ9,E12-14:OH as well as production of (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienal (Z9,E12-14:Al). This aldehyde was subsequently identified from extracts of pheromone glands obtained from naturally calling females as well as from volatiles emitted by calling females. Studies on the terminal steps in biosynthesis of the pheromone showed thatZ9,E12-14:OH was produced from the corresponding acetate and thatZ9,E12-14:Al was produced from the alcohol via the action of an oxidase(s). PMID:24234318

  9. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae).

    PubMed

    Lacey, Michael J; Sémon, Etienne; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Robert, Alain; Cornette, Richard; Hoskovec, Michal; Záček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The trail-following pheromone and sex pheromones were investigated in the Indomalayan termite Hodotermopsis sjoestedti belonging to the new family Archotermopsidae. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid phase microextraction (SPME) of the sternal gland secretion of pseudergates and trail-following bioassays demonstrated that the trail-following pheromone of H. sjoestedti was syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol, a new chemical structure for termite pheromones. GC-MS after SPME of the sternal gland secretion of alates also allowed the identification of sex-specific compounds. In female alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal, a compound previously identified as the female sex pheromone of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. In male alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal, a homolog of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, which has previously been confirmed as the male sex pheromone of Z. nevadensis. The presence of sex-specific compounds in alates of H. sjoestedti strongly suggests for this termite the presence of sex-specific pairing pheromones which were only known until now in Z. nevadensis. Our results showed therefore a close chemical relationship between the pheromones of the taxa Hodotermopsis and Zootermopsis and, in contrast, a clear difference with the taxa Stolotermes and Porotermes, which is in total agreement with the recent creation of the families Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae as a substitute for the former family Termopsidae. PMID:21839084

  10. Structure of Peptide Sex Pheromone Receptor PrgX and PrgX/Pheromone Complexes and Regulation of Conjugation in Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Shi,K.; Brown, C.; Gu, Z.; Kozlowicz, B.; Dunny, G.; Ohlendorf, D.; Earhart, C.

    2005-01-01

    Many bacterial activities, including expression of virulence factors, horizontal genetic transfer, and production of antibiotics, are controlled by intercellular signaling using small molecules. To date, understanding of the molecular mechanisms of peptide-mediated cell-cell signaling has been limited by a dearth of published information about the molecular structures of the signaling components. Here, we present the molecular structure of PrgX, a DNA- and peptide-binding protein that regulates expression of the conjugative transfer genes of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 in response to an intercellular peptide pheromone signal. Comparison of the structures of PrgX and the PrgX/pheromone complex suggests that pheromone binding destabilizes PrgX tetramers, opening a 70-bp pCF10 DNA loop required for conjugation repression.

  11. Purification, stereoisomeric analysis and quantification of sex pheromone precursors in female whole body extracts from pine sawfly species.

    PubMed

    Bång, Joakim; Hedenström, Erik; Sjödin, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    A GC-MS method to analyze the stereoisomeric composition of chiral secondary alcohols found in whole body extracts of pine sawfly females was developed. The tested alcohols were derivatized with optically pure (S)-2-acetoxypropionyl chloride prior to GC-MS analysis. Baseline separation was obtained for all sixteen stereoisomers of 3,7,9-trimethyltridecan-2-ol and for the four 3-methylpentadecan-2-ol stereoisomers. For 3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol, 3,7-dimethyltetradecan-2-ol and 3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol baseline separation was obtained for 6 of the possible 8 stereoisomers. When a mixture of 16 stereoisomers of 3,7,11-trimethyltridecan-2-ol was tested, baseline separation of 7 peaks out of 16 possible was obtained. The investigated alcohols are pheromone precursors for some pine sawfly species that are severe defoliators of pine. Females from several Diprion, Neodiprion, Macrodiprion, Microdiprion, and Gilpinia species emit esters of such secondary alcohols as sex pheromones that attract males for mating. To quantify the small amounts of the precursor alcohol and its stereoisomeric composition found in whole body extracts from female pine sawflies, a purification method was optimized. An extract of 20 females of D. pini contained about 8 ng of (2S,3R,7R)-3,7-dimethyltridecan-2-ol per female, and three extracts of 18, 20, and 90 females of N. sertifer contained between 5 and 13 ng of (2S,3S,7S)-3,7-dimethylpentadecan-2-ol per female. PMID:21110221

  12. A degree-day model initiated by pheromone trap captures for managing pecan nut casebearer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in pecans.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Allen E; Muegge, Mark A

    2010-06-01

    Field observations from pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) Koch, orchards in Texas were used to develop and validate a degree-day model of cumulative proportional adult flight and oviposition and date of first observed nut entry by larvae of the first summer generation of the pecan nut casebearer, Acrobasis nuxvorella Nuenzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The model was initiated on the date of first sustained capture of adults in pheromone traps. Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used to determine the sum of degree-days from onset to 99% moth flight and oviposition and the date on which first summer generation larvae were first observed penetrating pecan nuts. Cumulative proportional oviposition (y) was described by a modified Gompertz equation, y = 106.05 x exp(-(exp(3.11 - 0.00669 x (x - 1), with x = cumulative degree-days at a base temperature of 3.33 degrees C. Cumulative proportional moth flight (y) was modeled as y = 102.62 x exp(- (exp(1.49 - 0.00571 x (x - 1). Model prediction error for dates of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% cumulative oviposition was 1.3 d and 83% of the predicted dates were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. Prediction error for date of first observed nut entry was 2.2 d and 77% of model predictions were within +/- 2 d of the observed event. The model provides ample lead time for producers to implement orchard scouting to assess pecan nut casebearer infestations and to apply an insecticide if needed to prevent economic loss. PMID:20568619

  13. Sticky traps saturate with navel orangeworm in a non-linear fashion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate saturation thresholds as well as differences among wing-trap types, we used unmated female navel orangeworm (NOW) as sex pheromone baits in wing-traps that varied by color and glue/trapping surface. These results were compared to male capture in red delta and simple water cup tr...

  14. Dual Activation of a Sex Pheromone-Dependent Ion Channel from Insect Olfactory Dendrites by Protein Kinase C Activators and Cyclic GMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zufall, Frank; Hatt, Hanns

    1991-10-01

    Olfactory transduction is thought to take place in the outer dendritic membrane of insect olfactory receptor neurons. Here we show that the outer dendritic plasma membrane of silkmoth olfactory receptor neurons seems to be exclusively equipped with a specific ion channel activated by low concentrations of the species-specific sex pheromone component. This so-called AC_1 channel has a conductance of 56 pS and is nonselectively permeable to cations. The AC_1 channel can be activated from the intracellular side by protein kinase C activators such as diacylglycerol and phorbolester and by cGMP but not by Ca2+, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, or cAMP. Our results imply that phosphorylation of this ion channel by protein kinase C could be the crucial step in channel opening by sex pheromones.

  15. How much is a pheromone worth?

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Jose Mauricio S.; Parra, Jose Roberto P.; de Miranda, Silvia H. G.; Adami, Andrea C. O.; Vilela, Evaldo F.; Leal, Walter S.

    2016-01-01

    Pheromone-baited traps have been widely used in integrated pest management programs, but their economic value for growers has never been reported.  We analyzed the economic benefits of long-term use of traps baited with the citrus fruit borer Gymnandrosoma aurantianum sex pheromone in Central-Southern Brazil. Our analysis show that from 2001 to 2013 citrus growers avoided accumulated pest losses of 132.7 million to 1.32 billion USD in gross revenues, considering potential crop losses in the range of 5 to 50%. The area analyzed, 56,600 to 79,100 hectares of citrus (20.4 to 29.4 million trees), corresponds to 9.7 to 13.5% of the total area planted with citrus in the state of São Paulo. The data show a benefit-to-cost ratio of US$ 2,655 to US$ 26,548 per dollar spent on research with estimated yield loss prevented in the range of 5-50%, respectively. This study demonstrates that, in addition to the priceless benefits for the environment, sex pheromones are invaluable tools for growers as their use for monitoring populations allows rational and reduced use of insecticides, a win-win situation. PMID:27583133

  16. Pheromone Signalling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Adam G.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are chemicals used to communicate with members of the same species. First described in insects, pheromones are often used to attract mates but in social insects, such as ants and bees, pheromone use is much more sophisticated. For example, ants use pheromones to make foraging trails and the chemical and physical properties of the…

  17. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  18. Sequence variation determining stereochemistry of a Δ11 desaturase active in moth sex pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Carraher, Colm; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-07-01

    A Δ11 desaturase from the oblique banded leaf roller moth Choristoneura rosaceana takes the saturated myristic acid and produces a mixture of (E)-11-tetradecenoate and (Z)-11-tetradecenoate with an excess of the Z isomer (35:65). A desaturase from the spotted fireworm moth Choristoneura parallela also operates on myristic acid substrate but produces almost pure (E)-11-tetradecenoate. The two desaturases share 92% amino acid identity and 97% amino acid similarity. There are 24 amino acids differing between these two desaturases. We constructed mutations at all of these positions to pinpoint the sites that determine the product stereochemistry. We demonstrated with a yeast functional assay that one amino acid at the cytosolic carboxyl terminus of the protein (258E) is critical for the Z activity of the C. rosaceana desaturase. Mutating the glutamic acid (E) into aspartic acid (D) transforms the C. rosaceana enzyme into a desaturase with C. parallela-like activity, whereas the reciprocal mutation of the C. parallela desaturase transformed it into an enzyme producing an intermediate 64:36 E/Z product ratio. We discuss the causal link between this amino acid change and the stereochemical properties of the desaturase and the role of desaturase mutations in pheromone evolution. PMID:27163509

  19. Discovery of pyrazines as pollinator sex pheromones and orchid semiochemicals: implications for the evolution of sexual deception.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Björn; Phillips, Ryan D; Menz, Myles H M; Berntsson, Ben W; Flematti, Gavin R; Barrow, Russell A; Dixon, Kingsley W; Peakall, Rod

    2014-08-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids employ floral volatiles to sexually lure their specific pollinators. How and why this pollination system has evolved independently on multiple continents remains unknown, although preadaptation is considered to have been important. Understanding the chemistry of sexual deception is a crucial first step towards solving this mystery. The combination of gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), GC-MS, synthesis and field bioassays allowed us to identify the volatiles involved in the interaction between the orchid Drakaea glyptodon and its sexually attracted male thynnine wasp pollinator, Zaspilothynnus trilobatus. Three alkylpyrazines and one novel hydroxymethyl pyrazine were identified as the sex pheromone of Z. trilobatus and are also used by D. glyptodon for pollinator attraction. Given that our findings revealed a new chemical system for plants, we surveyed widely across representative orchid taxa for the presence of these compounds. With one exception, our chemical survey failed to detect pyrazines in related genera. Collectively, no evidence for preadaptation was found. The chemistry of sexual deception is more diverse than previously known. Our results suggest that evolutionary novelty may have played a key role in the evolution of sexual deception and highlight the value of investigating unusual pollination systems for advancing our understanding of the role of chemistry in evolution. PMID:24697806

  20. Selective MS screening reveals a sex pheromone in Caenorhabditis briggsae and species-specificity in indole ascaroside signalling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chuanfu; Dolke, Franziska; von Reuss, Stephan H

    2016-08-14

    The indole ascarosides (icas) represent a highly potent class of nematode-derived modular signalling components that integrate structural inputs from amino acid, carbohydrate, and fatty acid metabolism. Comparative analysis of the crude exo-metabolome of hermaphroditic Caenorhabditis briggsae using a highly sensitive mass spectrometric screen reveals an indole ascaroside blend dominated by two new components. The structures of isolated icas#2 and icas#6.2 were determined by NMR spectroscopy and confirmed by total synthesis and chemical correlation. Low atto- to femtomolar amounts of icas#2 and icas#6.2 act in synergism to attract males indicating a function as sex pheromone. Comparative analysis of 14 Caenorhabditis species further demonstrates that species-specific indole ascaroside biosynthesis is highly conserved in the Elegans group. Functional characterization of the dominating indole ascarosides icas#2, icas#3, and icas#9 reveals a high degree of species-specificity and considerable variability with respect to gender-specificity, thus, confirming that indole ascarosides modulate different biological functions within the Elegans group. Although the nematode response was usually most pronounced towards conspecific signals, Caenorhabditis brenneri, the only species of the Elegans group that does not produce any indole ascarosides, exhibits a robust response to icas#2 suggesting the potential for interspecies interactions. PMID:27381649

  1. A Challenge for a Male Noctuid Moth? Discerning the Female Sex Pheromone against the Background of Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Badeke, Elisa; Haverkamp, Alexander; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Finding a partner is an essential task for members of all species. Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific pheromone blend to attract conspecific males. While tracking these blends, male moths are also continuously confronted with a wide range of other odor molecules, many of which are plant volatiles. Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic a natural situation, we tracked pheromone-guided behavior when males were presented with the headspaces of each of two host plants in addition to the female pheromone blend. Since volatile emissions are also dependent on the physiological state of the plant, we compared pheromone attraction in the background of both damaged and intact plants. Surprisingly, our results show that a natural odor bouquet does not influence flight behavior at all, although previous studies had shown a suppressive effect at the sensory level. We also chose different concentrations of single plant-emitted volatiles, which have previously been shown to be neurophysiologically relevant, and compared their influence on pheromone attraction. We observed that pheromone attraction in male moths was significantly impaired in a concentration-dependent manner when single plant volatiles were added. Finally, we quantified the amounts of volatile emission in our experiments using gas chromatography. Notably, when the natural emissions of host plants were compared with those of the tested single plant compounds, we found that host plants do not release volatiles at concentrations that impact pheromone-guided flight behavior of the moth. Hence, our results lead to the conclusion that pheromone-plant interactions in Heliothis virescens might be an effect of stimulation with supra-natural plant odor concentrations, whereas under more natural conditions the olfactory system of the male moth appears

  2. A Challenge for a Male Noctuid Moth? Discerning the Female Sex Pheromone against the Background of Plant Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Badeke, Elisa; Haverkamp, Alexander; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Finding a partner is an essential task for members of all species. Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific pheromone blend to attract conspecific males. While tracking these blends, male moths are also continuously confronted with a wide range of other odor molecules, many of which are plant volatiles. Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic a natural situation, we tracked pheromone-guided behavior when males were presented with the headspaces of each of two host plants in addition to the female pheromone blend. Since volatile emissions are also dependent on the physiological state of the plant, we compared pheromone attraction in the background of both damaged and intact plants. Surprisingly, our results show that a natural odor bouquet does not influence flight behavior at all, although previous studies had shown a suppressive effect at the sensory level. We also chose different concentrations of single plant-emitted volatiles, which have previously been shown to be neurophysiologically relevant, and compared their influence on pheromone attraction. We observed that pheromone attraction in male moths was significantly impaired in a concentration-dependent manner when single plant volatiles were added. Finally, we quantified the amounts of volatile emission in our experiments using gas chromatography. Notably, when the natural emissions of host plants were compared with those of the tested single plant compounds, we found that host plants do not release volatiles at concentrations that impact pheromone-guided flight behavior of the moth. Hence, our results lead to the conclusion that pheromone-plant interactions in Heliothis virescens might be an effect of stimulation with supra-natural plant odor concentrations, whereas under more natural conditions the olfactory system of the male moth appears

  3. Improved synthesis of (3E,7Z)-3,7-tetradecadienyl acetate, the major sex pheromone constituent of the potato pest Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen).

    PubMed

    Ragoussis, Valentine; Perdikaris, Stamatis; Karamolegkos, Antonis; Magkiosi, Konstantina

    2008-12-24

    An efficient six-step synthesis of (3E,7Z)-3,7-tetradecadienyl acetate, the major component of the sex pheromone of the potato pest Symmetrischema tangolias (Gyen), is described, starting from the commercially available dihydropyran. The stereoselective formation of the 7Z double bond is accomplished by a Wittig reaction, while the 3E double bond is formed by a modified Knoevenagel condensation. The overall yield of the synthesis is 28%, giving the final product in high stereochemical purity (95%). The simplicity and the low cost of the herein reported synthesis suggest the potential practical use of the above pheromone in integrated management programs, for this serious insect pest. PMID:19053388

  4. Cuelure but not zingerone make the sex pheromone of male Bactrocera tryoni (Tephritidae: Diptera) more attractive to females.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R

    2014-09-01

    In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more

  5. Mating Type Gene Homologues and Putative Sex Pheromone-Sensing Pathway in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, a Presumably Asexual Plant Root Symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Halary, Sébastien; Daubois, Laurence; Terrat, Yves; Ellenberger, Sabrina; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Hijri, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The fungal kingdom displays a fascinating diversity of sex-determination systems. Recent advances in genomics provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of sex, mating type determination, and evolution of sexual reproduction in many fungal species in both ancient and modern phylogenetic lineages. All major fungal groups have evolved sexual differentiation and recombination pathways. However, sexuality is unknown in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of the phylum Glomeromycota, an ecologically vital group of obligate plant root symbionts. AMF are commonly considered an ancient asexual lineage dating back to the Ordovician, approximately 460 M years ago. In this study, we used genomic and transcriptomic surveys of several AMF species to demonstrate the presence of conserved putative sex pheromone-sensing mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, comparable to those described in Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We also find genes for high mobility group (HMG) transcription factors, homologous to SexM and SexP genes in the Mucorales. The SexM genes show a remarkable sequence diversity among multiple copies in the genome, while only a single SexP sequence was detected in some isolates of Rhizophagus irregularis. In the Mucorales and Microsporidia, the sexM gene is flanked by genes for a triosephosphate transporter (TPT) and a RNA helicase, but we find no evidence for synteny in the vicinity of the Sex locus in AMF. Nonetheless, our results, together with previous observations on meiotic machinery, suggest that AMF could undergo a complete sexual reproduction cycle. PMID:24260466

  6. Attraction of spathius agrili yang (Hymenoptera: eulophidae) to male-produced "aggregation-sex pheromone:" differences between the sexes and mating status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...

  7. Pheromone Transduction in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Stengl, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Calling female moths attract their mates late at night with intermittent release of a species-specific sex-pheromone blend. Mean frequency of pheromone filaments encodes distance to the calling female. In their zig-zagging upwind search male moths encounter turbulent pheromone blend filaments at highly variable concentrations and frequencies. The male moth antennae are delicately designed to detect and distinguish even traces of these sex pheromones amongst the abundance of other odors. Its olfactory receptor neurons sense even single pheromone molecules and track intermittent pheromone filaments of highly variable frequencies up to about 30 Hz over a wide concentration range. In the hawkmoth Manduca sexta brief, weak pheromone stimuli as encountered during flight are detected via a metabotropic PLCβ-dependent signal transduction cascade which leads to transient changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Strong or long pheromone stimuli, which are possibly perceived in direct contact with the female, activate receptor-guanylyl cyclases causing long-term adaptation. In addition, depending on endogenous rhythms of the moth's physiological state, hormones such as the stress hormone octopamine modulate second messenger levels in sensory neurons. High octopamine levels during the activity phase maximize temporal resolution cAMP-dependently as a prerequisite to mate location. Thus, I suggest that sliding adjustment of odor response threshold and kinetics is based upon relative concentration ratios of intracellular Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotide levels which gate different ion channels synergistically. In addition, I propose a new hypothesis for the cyclic nucleotide-dependent ion channel formed by insect olfactory receptor/coreceptor complexes. Instead of being employed for an ionotropic mechanism of odor detection it is proposed to control subthreshold membrane potential oscillation of sensory neurons, as a basis for temporal encoding of odors. PMID:21228914

  8. Evaluation of pheromone-based management strategies for dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in commercial apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Leskey, Tracy C; Bergh, J Christopher; Walgenbach, James F; Zhang, Aijun

    2009-06-01

    The dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious wood-boring pest of apple in eastern North America. The recent identification of its sex pheromone and systematic documentation of the effect of a potent behavioral antagonist affords the opportunity to develop pheromone-based management strategies for this important pest. Here we evaluated the potential of pheromone-based mass trapping of males to reduce dogwood borer infestations and conducted preliminary evaluations of an antagonist-based pheromone blend for disruption of dogwood borer mate finding in commercial apple orchards in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. In the mass trapping study, treatments included a conventional trunk-drench application of chlorpyrifos, a low-density mass trapping regime of 5 traps/ha, a higher-density mass trapping regime of 20 traps/ha, and an untreated control. We removed large numbers of males from orchards at all locations, with 27,155, 8,418, and 7,281 removed from high-density trapping plots in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia, respectively, over 2 yr. After 2 yr under each of these treatment regimes, infestation in high- and low-density mass trapping plots was not reduced to the level of chlorpyrifos-treated plots. An antagonist-based dispenser deployed at a rate of 250/ha effectively disrupted mate-finding by male dogwood borer. In plots with mating disruption dispensers, captures in pheromone-baited traps were virtually eliminated, and no males were captured in traps baited with virgin females. PMID:19610423

  9. Is the rapid post-mating inhibition of pheromone response triggered by ecdysteroids or other factors from the sex accessory glands in the male moth Agrotis ipsilon?

    PubMed

    Vitecek, Simon; Maria, Annick; Blais, Catherine; Duportets, Line; Gaertner, Cyril; Dufour, Marie-Cécile; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Gadenne, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    In many animals, male copulation is dependent on the detection and processing of female-produced sex pheromones, which is generally followed by a sexual refractory post-ejaculatory interval (PEI). In the male moth, Agrotis ipsilon, this PEI is characterized by a transient post-mating inhibition of behavioral and central nervous responses to sex pheromone, which prevents males from re-mating until they have refilled their reproductive tracts for a potential new ejaculate. However, the timing and possible factors inducing this rapid olfactory switch-off are still unknown. Here, we determined the initial time delay and duration of the PEI. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the brain, the testis and/or the sex accessory glands (SAGs) could produce a factor inducing the PEI. Lastly, we investigated the possible involvement of ecdysteroids, hormones essential for development and reproduction in insects, in this olfactory plasticity. Using brain and SAG cross-injections in virgin and newly-mated males, surgical treatments, wind tunnel behavioral experiments and EIA quantifications of ecdysteroids, we show that the PEI starts very shortly after the onset of copulation, and that SAGs contain a factor, which is produced/accumulated after copulation to induce the PEI. Moreover, SAGs were found to be the main source of ecdysteroids, whose concentration decreased after mating, whereas it increased in the haemolymph. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) was identified as the major ecdysteroid in SAGs of A. ipsilon males. Finally, 20E injections did not reduce the behavioral pheromone response of virgin males. Altogether our data indicate that 20E is probably not involved in the PEI. PMID:23562716

  10. (2,3,4,4-Tetramethylcyclopentyl)methyl acetate, a sex pheromone from the obscure mealybug: first example of a new structural class of monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Millar, Jocelyn G; Midland, Sharon L; McElfresh, J Steven; Daane, Kent M

    2005-12-01

    The sex pheromone of the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni, consists of (1R*,2R*,3S*)-(2,3,4,4-tetramethylcyclopentyl)methyl acetate, the first example of a new monoterpenoid structural motif in which the two isoprene units forming the carbon skeleton are joined by 2'-2 and 3'-4 connections rather than the usual 1'-4, head-to-tail connections. This highly irregular terpenoid structure, and the irregular terpenoid structures of related mealybug species, suggest that these insects may have unique terpenoid biosynthetic pathways. PMID:16283090

  11. Attraction of a native Florida leafminer, Phyllocnistis insignis, to pheromone of an invasive citrus Leafminer, P. citrella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected a native North American species, Phyllocnistis insignis (Frey & Boll) (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), in traps baited with a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal (triene) and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal (diene), 2 components of the sex pheromone of the invasive citrus leafminer, P....

  12. Increased Catch of Female Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Kairomone-baited Clear Delta Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative performance of a clear delta trap baited with individual or combination sex pheromone and kairomone lures for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), was evaluated against three vertical pane and colored delta traps in one or more field trials in apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen). The cle...

  13. Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Melon Thrips, Thrips palmi

    PubMed Central

    Akella, Sudhakar V. S.; Kirk, William D. J.; Lu, Yao-bin; Murai, Tamotsu; Walters, Keith F. A.; Hamilton, James G. C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the aggregation pheromone of the melon thrips Thrips palmi, a major pest of vegetable and ornamental plants around the world. The species causes damage both through feeding activities and as a vector of tospoviruses, and is a threat to world trade and European horticulture. Improved methods of detecting and controlling this species are needed and the identification of an aggregation pheromone will contribute to this requirement. Bioassays with a Y-tube olfactometer showed that virgin female T. palmi were attracted to the odour of live males, but not to that of live females, and that mixed-age adults of both sexes were attracted to the odour of live males, indicating the presence of a male-produced aggregation pheromone. Examination of the headspace volatiles of adult male T. palmi revealed only one compound that was not found in adult females. It was identified by comparison of its mass spectrum and chromatographic details with those of similar compounds. This compound had a structure like that of the previously identified male-produced aggregation pheromone of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. The compound was synthesised and tested in eggplant crops infested with T. palmi in Japan. Significantly greater numbers of both males and females were attracted to traps baited with the putative aggregation pheromone compared to unbaited traps. The aggregation pheromone of T. palmi is thus identified as (R)-lavandulyl 3-methyl-3-butenoate by spectroscopic, chromatographic and behavioural analysis. PMID:25101871

  14. Different growth patterns of two adjacent glomeruli responsible for sex-pheromone processing during postembryonic development of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Hiroshi; Yoritsune, Atsushi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2009-10-25

    In many insect species, sex pheromone is processed by specific, enlarged glomeruli in the antennal lobes of males. In the male American cockroach, two closely located glomeruli (A and B) are responsible for processing the major pheromone components (periplanone-A and -B, respectively), and these collectively form the macroglomerular complex. Afferents originating from the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the antenna tend to project to the anterior and posterior regions of the macroglomerular complex via the dorsal and ventral antennal nerves, respectively. This topographic segregation of afferents is seen only in the macroglomerular complex, and not in other glomeruli that process normal environmental odors. Using differential, anterograde dye injection into the two antennal sensory nerves, we show that the macroglomerular complex is not formed by fusion of several glomeruli, as suggested in previous studies, but that the precursors of the A- and B-glomeruli already exist in the first larval instar. The volume of afferents in the macroglomerular complex precursor increases nearly exponentially with molting times, 430-fold from the first instar to the adult. The A- and B-glomeruli both undergo continuous growth during postembryonic development, but peak growth rates occur in different larval stages. The growth rate of the B-glomerulus peaked in the mid-developmental stage then declined, while growth of A-glomerulus was maintained at low level in early- to mid-developmental stages but increased greatly in later stages. These results suggest perception of sex pheromone occurs in early instars, and that PA and PB have distinct roles in different developmental stages. PMID:19595740

  15. Effect of larvae treated with mixed biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectin on sex pheromone communication system in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-Ze; Chen, Peng-Zhou; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Deng, Jian-Yu; Harris, Marvin-K; Wanna, Ruchuon; Wang, Fu-Min; Zhou, Guo-Xin; Yao, Zhang-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Third instar larvae of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) were reared with artificial diet containing a Bacillus thuringiensis-abamectin (BtA) biopesticide mixture that resulted in 20% mortality (LD20). The adult male survivors from larvae treated with BtA exhibited a higher percentage of "orientation" than control males but lower percentages of "approaching" and "landing" in wind tunnel bioassays. Adult female survivors from larvae treated with BtA produced higher sex pheromone titers and displayed a lower calling percentage than control females. The ratio of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z9-16:Ald) in BtA-treated females changed and coefficients of variation (CV) of Z11-16:Ald and Z9-16:Ald were expanded compared to control females. The peak circadian calling time of BtA-treated females occurred later than that of control females. In mating choice experiment, both control males and BtA-treated males preferred to mate with control females and a portion of the Bt-A treated males did not mate whereas all control males did. Our Data support that treatment of larvae with BtA had an effect on the sex pheromone communication system in surviving H. armigera moths that may contribute to assortative mating. PMID:23874751

  16. Characterisation of Acetyl-CoA Thiolase: The First Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of Terpenic Sex Pheromone Components in the Labial Gland of Bombus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Brabcová, Jana; Demianová, Zuzana; Kindl, Jiří; Pichová, Iva; Valterová, Irena; Zarevúcka, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Buff-tailed bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, use a male sex pheromone for premating communication. Its main component is a sesquiterpene, 2,3-dihydrofarnesol. This paper reports the isolation of a thiolase (acetyl-CoA thiolase, AACT_BT), the first enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway leading to formation of isoprenoids in the B. terrestris male sex pheromone. Characterisation of AACT_BT might contribute to a better understanding of pheromonogenesis in the labial gland of B. terrestris males. The protein was purified to apparent homogeneity by column chromatography with subsequent stepwise treatment. AACT_BT showed optimum acetyltransferase activity at pH 7.1 and was strongly inhibited by iodoacetamide. The enzyme migrated as a band with an apparent mass of 42.9 kDa on SDS-PAGE. MS analysis of an AACT_BT tryptic digest revealed high homology to representatives of the thiolase family. AACT_BT has 96 % amino acid sequence identity with the previously reported Bombus impatiens thiolase. PMID:25801592

  17. Diel periodicity of pheromone release by females of Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus and the temporal flight activity of their conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi-Zada, Anat; Fefer, Daniela; David, Maayan; Eliyahu, Miriam; Franco, José Carlos; Protasov, Alex; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-08-01

    The diel periodicity of sex pheromone release was monitored in two mealybug species, Planococcus citri and Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae), using sequential SPME/GCMS analysis. A maximal release of 2 ng/h pheromone by 9-12-day-old P. citri females occurred 1-2 h before the beginning of photophase. The highest release of pheromone by P. ficus females was 1-2 ng/2 h of 10-20-day-old females, approximately 2 h after the beginning of photophase. Mating resulted in termination of the pheromone release in both mealybug species. The temporal flight activity of the males was monitored in rearing chambers using pheromone baited delta traps. Males of both P. citri and P. ficus displayed the same flight pattern and began flying at 06:00 hours when the light was turned on, reaching a peak during the first and second hour of the photophase. Our results suggest that other biparental mealybug species display also diel periodicities of maximal pheromone release and response. Direct evaluation of the diel periodicity of the pheromone release by the automatic sequential analysis is convenient and will be very helpful in optimizing the airborne collection and identification of other unknown mealybug pheromones and to study the calling behavior of females. Considering this behavior pattern may help to develop more effective pheromone-based management strategies against mealybugs.

  18. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  19. Genetic Variation in the Strongly Canalized Sex Pheromone Communication System of the European Corn Borer, Ostrinia Nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera; Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, J.; Lofstedt, C.; Bengtsson, B. O.

    1996-01-01

    The major difference in pheromone production between the so-called E and Z strains of the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis is controlled by two alleles at a single autosomal locus. E-strain females produce an (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate pheromone with 1-3% of the Z isomer, whereas Z-strain females produce the opposite blend. In laboratory-reared insects we found that F(1) females produced, on average, a 71:29 E/Z ratio, but the distribution was clearly bimodal. The variability in pheromone blend produced by heterozygous females could be explained by the existence of two different alleles in the Z strain which in combination with the E-strain allele for the major production locus cause the production of a component mixture either high or low in the E isomer. In addition, evidence was found for an independently inherited factor, existing in the E strain, with a dominant effect on the amount of E isomer produced by females homozygous for Z-alleles at the major production locus. Thus, the low variability normally found in the pheromone mixture produced by O. nubilalis and other moth females may, by canalization, hide a considerable amount of underlying genetic variation. PMID:8889536

  20. Synthesis of (6R,12R)-6,12-Dimethylpentadecan-2-one, the Female-Produced Sex Pheromone from Banded Cucumber Beetle Diabrotica balteata, Based on a Chiron Approach.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Hao, Xiang; Shi, Yong; Tian, Wei-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Herein we describe a synthesis of (6R,12R)-6,12-dimethylpentadecan-2-one (5), the female produced sex pheromone of banded cucumber beetle Diabrotica balteata Le Conte, from (R)-4-methyl-5-valerolactone, a methyl-branched chiron. PMID:26882689

  1. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Naidu, R A; Daane, K M; Millar, J G; Walsh, D B

    2013-02-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in Washington's Concord grape vineyards (Vitis labrusca L.). It is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Using traps baited with the sex pheromone of Ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring Ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for Ps. maritimus than visual surveys. Varying densities of pheromone-baited traps (one, four, and eight traps per 12.14 ha) were deployed in Concord vineyards to monitor Ps. maritimus seasonal phenology in 2010 and 2011. In both years, flights of adult males were detected in early May and captures peaked twice per season in mid-June and mid-August, indicating two generations each year. Trap data were analyzed using Taylor's Power Law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and the K parameter of the negative binomial model to determine optimal sample size. The formula using the K parameter provided the lowest required sample size, showing that four to eight traps per 12.14 ha were needed to provide 30% sampling precision efficiency throughout the entire season. Fewer traps were needed during flight peaks when trap capture numbers were great. Only one pheromone-baited trap per 12.14 ha was sufficient to provide Ps. maritimus flight phenology data to make informed management decisions. Species-specific pheromone-baited traps deployed for Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) did not detect any of these species in the vineyards sampled. PMID:23448065

  2. Morphology and ultrastructure of the allomone and sex-pheromone producing mandibular gland of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Figitidae).

    PubMed

    Stökl, Johannes; Herzner, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    Chemical communication by the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma is based largely on (-)-iridomyrmecin. The female wasps use (-)-iridomyrmecin as a defensive allomone, a chemical cue to avoid competition with con- and heterospecific females, and as a major component of their sex pheromone to attract males. Males of L. heterotoma produce (+)-isoiridomyrmecin, which is also used for chemical defense. In this study we show that females and males of L. heterotoma produce the iridomyrmecins in a pair of mandibular glands. Each gland consists of a secretory part composed of class 3 gland cells and their accompanying duct cells, as well as a reservoir bordered by a thin intima. The gland discharges between the mandible base and the clypeus. Males have considerably smaller glands than females, which corresponds to the lower amount of iridomyrmecins produced by males. Chemical analyses of the mandibular gland contents showed that the gland of females contained mainly (-)-iridomyrmecin, as well as low amounts of the other previously described iridoid pheromone compounds, while the glands of males contained only (+)-isoiridomyrmecin. The morphology and sizes of the mandibular glands of males and females of L. heterotoma have evolved to the multi-functional use of iridomyrmecin. PMID:27349419

  3. Synchronous firing of antennal-lobe projection neurons encodes the behaviorally effective ratio of sex-pheromone components in male Manduca sexta

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Joshua P.; Lei, Hong; Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli that are essential to an animal's survival and reproduction are often complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in characteristic proportions. Here, we investigated how these proportions are encoded in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe (AL), of male Manduca sexta moths. Two key components of the female's sex pheromone, present in an approximately 2:1 ratio, are processed in each of two neighboring glomeruli in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of males of this species. In wind-tunnel flight experiments, males exhibited behavioral selectivity for ratios approximating the ratio released by conspecific females. The ratio between components was poorly represented, however, in the firing-rate output of uniglomerular MGC projection neurons (PNs). PN firing rate was mostly insensitive to the ratio between components, and individual PNs did not exhibit a preference for a particular ratio. Recording simultaneously from pairs of PNs in the same glomerulus, we found that the natural ratio between components elicited the most synchronous spikes, and altering the proportion of either component decreased the proportion of synchronous spikes. The degree of synchronous firing between PNs in the same glomerulus thus selectively encodes the natural ratio that most effectively evokes the natural behavioral response to pheromone. PMID:24002682

  4. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of oriental fruit moth to the monoterpenoid citral alone and in combination with sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Faraone, N; D'Errico, G; Caleca, V; Cristofaro, A De; Trimble, R M

    2013-04-01

    The monoterpenoid citral synergized the electroantennogram (EAG) response of male Grapholita molesta (Busck) antennae to its main pheromone compound Z8-12:OAc. The response to a 10-μg pheromone stimulus increased by 32, 45, 54, 71 and 94% with the addition of 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 1,000 μg of citral, respectively. There was no detectable response to 0.1, 1, or 10 μg of citral; the response to 100 and 1,000 μg of citral was 31 and 79% of the response to 10 μg of Z8-12:OAc. In a flight tunnel, citral affected the mate-seeking behavior of males. There was a 66% reduction in the number of males orientating by flight to a virgin calling female when citral was emitted at 1,000 ng/min ≍1 cm downwind from a female. Pheromone and citral induced sensory adaptation in male antennae, but citral did not synergize the effect of pheromone. The exposure of antennae to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc/m(3) air, 1 ng citral/m3 air, 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 1 ng citral/m3 air, or to 1 ng Z8-12:OAc + 100 ng citral/m3 air for 15 min resulted in a similar reduction in EAG response of 47-63%. The exposure of males to these same treatments for 15 min had no effect on their ability to orientate to a virgin calling female in a flight tunnel. The potential for using citral to control G. molesta by mating disruption is discussed. PMID:23575022

  5. Attraction of a native Florida leafminer, Phyllocnistis insignis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), to pheromone of invasive citrus leafminer, P. citrella: Evidence for mating disruption of a native nontarget species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We collected a native North American species, Phyllocnistis insignis (Frey & Boll), in traps baited with a 3:1 blend of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal (triene) and (Z,Z)-7,11-hexadecadienal (diene), two components of the sex pheromone of the exotic citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton....

  6. The attractivity of the female sex pheromone ofPeriplaneta americana and its components for conspecific males and males ofPeriplaneta australasiae in the field.

    PubMed

    Waldow, U; Sass, H

    1984-07-01

    The attractivity of virgin female odors of the American cockroach was examined in field experiments. Crude extracts of the female odor, the isolated sex pheromone fractions, periplanone-A and periplanone-B, and other compounds obtained during the isolation served as stimulants. An extract of male odors, obtained by identical collection methods, was used as a control. Males ofPeriplaneta americana were attracted by the crude extract and periplanone-B; males of the sympatric species,P. Australasiae, by periplanone-A. Experiments in which these components were presented subsequently and as mixtures indicate that, under certain conditions, periplanone-A may also function as an attracting substance forP. americana males and that periplanone-B and possibly some other components act as an inhibitor for males ofP. australasiae. PMID:24318844

  7. Monitoring oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae) with the ajar bait trap in pome and stone fruit orchards under mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in Oregon, California, Pennsylvania, and Italy evaluated the relative performance of the Ajar trap for Grapholita molesta (Busck), in pome and stone fruit orchards treated with sex pheromone dispensers for mating disruption. The Ajar is a delta-shaped trap with a screened jar filled with a t...

  8. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

    PubMed

    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. PMID:20831960

  9. Aggregation pheromone of the cereal leaf beetle: field evaluation and emission from males in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sujaya; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J

    2003-09-01

    The previously identified, male-specific compound of the cereal leaf beetle (CLB, Chrysomelidae; Oulema melanopus), (E)-8-hydroxy-6-methyl-6-octen-3-one, was studied further with respect to field activity and emission rate from male beetles. In a 5-week field experiment in Oregon, the compound was shown to function as an aggregation pheromone in attracting male and female CLBs migrating from overwintering sites in spring. Traps baited with the synthetic compound (500 microg per rubber septum) caught 3.3 times more CLBs than control traps. Lower doses of the pheromone (50 and 150 microg) were less attractive than the 500 microg dose. One relatively abundant, volatile compound from the host plant (oats), (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, that elicited responses from beetle antennae was not attractive, either by itself or as a synergist of the pheromone. Both sexes were captured about equally for all treatments. We also measured daily pheromone emission by male beetles in the laboratory. Individual males feeding on oat seedlings under greenhouse conditions emitted as much as 6 microg per day, which is about 500 times higher than had been previously observed under incubator conditions. The pheromone emission rate was at least five times higher during the day than at night, and in one male, emission spanned a period of 28 d. The release rate of synthetic pheromone from the 500 microg septa was very similar to the maximum from single males; thus, future experiments should evaluate even higher doses. The field results indicate that the pheromone has potential as a monitoring tool for early detection of CLBs as they move from their overwintering sites into newly planted cereal crops in spring. PMID:14584683

  10. Identification of the sex pheromone secreted by a nettle moth, Monema flavescens, using gas chromatography/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yan, Qi; Naka, Hideshi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Ando, Tetsu

    2013-03-01

    The nettle moth Monema flavescens (Limacodidae) is a defoliator of fruit trees, such as Chinese plum and persimmon. The larvae of this species have spines containing a poison that causes serious irritation and inflammation in humans. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of a crude pheromone extract, combined with derivatization, indicated that female moths produced 8-decen-1-ol and 7,9-decadien-1-ol at a ratio of approximately 9:1. The E configuration of the double bonds was assigned for both components from infrared spectra, recorded on a gas chromatograph/Fourier transform-infrared spectrophotometer equipped with a zinc selenide disk cooled to -30 °C. The monoenyl and dienyl alcohols had absorptions characteristic of E geometry at 966 and 951 cm(-1), respectively. A band chromatogram at 951 cm(-1) was useful for distinguishing geometric isomers, because terminal conjugated diene are difficult to resolve, even on high polarity columns. Furthermore, we identified the Z configuration of the same 7,9-dienyl alcohol secreted by another nettle moth, Parasa lepida lepida, through the absence of this absorption. In field trials, lures baited with a 9:1 mixture of (E)-8-decen-1-ol and (E)-7,9-decadien-1-ol attracted M. flavescens males. Furthermore, the field trials indicated that contamination with the (Z)-diene reduced catches to the pheromone mixture more than did contamination with the (Z)-monoene. PMID:23400496

  11. Efficient association between PGF2α and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sex pheromone prior to electroejaculation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Santos, I P; Ramos, C L F G; Ramos, J L G; Oliveira, R F; Cunha, I C N

    2013-02-01

    Electroejaculation is a technique that can be used to collect semen from canines, but its use with this group of animals is restricted by low success rate and low semen quality. Here, we evaluated whether pharmacological and sexual sensory stimuli, which may affect ejaculation, can increase electroejaculation efficiency and improve ejaculate quality. We worked with 20 dogs of mixed breed weighing between 5.3 and 22.2 kg, divided into two groups. Both groups were exposed to a spayed female for 10 min, but in the second group, the same spayed female had her vagina impregnated with methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate synthetic pheromone for 10 min and after receiving dinoprost tromethamine IM, 0.1 mg/kg. After stimulation, all dogs were chemically restrained with ketamine, 8 mg/kg, IM; and xylazine, 1 mg/kg, IM, and subjected to electroejaculation protocol. We obtained 100% of antegrade ejaculate in treatments when the spayed female had her vagina impregnated with pheromone and 80% when she did not. Sperm motility was significantly different (p < 0.05) between controls and the test group (10.1 ± 4.5 and 43.0 ± 8.3, respectively). We concluded that the adopted electroejaculation protocol was efficient and that the PGF2α associated with sexual sensory stimulation can improve semen quality in dogs undergoing the procedure. PMID:22734461

  12. Evidence of female sex pheromones and characterization of the cuticular lipids of unfed, adult male versus female blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Ann L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Strider, John B; Roe, R Michael

    2016-04-01

    Copulation in Ixodes scapularis involves physical contact between the male and female (on or off the host), male mounting of the female, insertion/maintenance of the male chelicerae in the female genital pore (initiates spermatophore production), and the transfer of the spermatophore by the male into the female genital pore. Bioassays determined that male mounting behavior/chelicerae insertion required direct contact with the female likely requiring non-volatile chemical cues with no evidence of a female volatile sex pheromone to attract males. Unfed virgin adult females and replete mated adult females elicited the highest rates of male chelicerae insertion with part fed virgin adult females exhibiting a much lower response. Whole body surface hexane extracts of unfed virgin adult females and males, separately analyzed by GC-MS, identified a number of novel tick surface associated compounds: fatty alcohols (1-hexadecanol and 1-heptanol), a fatty amide (erucylamid), aromatic hydrocarbons, a short chain alkene (1-heptene), and a carboxylic acid ester (5β-androstane). These compounds are discussed in terms of their potential role in female-male communication. The two most abundant fatty acid esters found were butyl palmitate and butyl stearate present in ratios that were sex specific. Only 6 n-saturated hydrocarbons were identified in I. scapularis ranging from 10 to 18 carbons. PMID:26864785

  13. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle.

    PubMed

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  14. Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Najihah; Andersson, Klas; Burman, Joseph; Andersson, Fredrik; Hedenström, Erik; Jansson, Nicklas; Paltto, Heidi; Westerberg, Lars; Winde, Inis; Larsson, Mattias C.; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Milberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management. PMID:23840415

  15. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Emma; Pickavance, Lucy; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa; Beynon, Robert J; Hurst, Jane L

    2015-01-01

    The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20), a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for 7 days to male urine containing at least 0.5 μg/μl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over 7 days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While 7 days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially-relevant context. PMID

  16. The male sex pheromone darcin stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis and cell proliferation in the subventricular zone in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Emma; Pickavance, Lucy; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa; Beynon, Robert J.; Hurst, Jane L.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of newly generated neurons persists throughout life in the mammalian olfactory bulb and hippocampus, regions involved in olfactory and spatial learning. Social cues can be potent stimuli for increasing adult neurogenesis; for example, odors from dominant but not subordinate male mice increase neurogenesis in both brain regions of adult females. However, little is known about the role of neurogenesis in social recognition or the assessment of potential mates. Dominant male mice scent-mark territories using urine that contains a number of pheromones including darcin (MUP20), a male-specific major urinary protein that stimulates rapid learned attraction to the spatial location and individual odor signature of the scent owner. Here we investigate whether exposure to darcin stimulates neurogenesis in the female brain. Hippocampal neurons and cellular proliferation in the lateral ventricles that supply neurons to the olfactory bulbs increased in females exposed for 7 days to male urine containing at least 0.5 μg/μl darcin. Darcin was effective whether presented alone or in the context of male urine, but other information in male urine appeared to modulate the proliferative response. When exposed to urine from wild male mice, hippocampal proliferation increased only if urine was from the same individual over 7 days, suggesting that consistency of individual scent signatures is important. While 7 days exposure to male scent initiated the first stages of increased neurogenesis, this caused no immediate increase in female attraction to the scent or in the strength or robustness of spatial learning in short-term conditioned place preference tests. The reliable and consistent stimulation of neurogenesis by a pheromone important in rapid social learning suggests that this may provide an excellent model to explore the relationship between the integration of new neurons and plasticity in spatial and olfactory learning in a socially-relevant context. PMID

  17. A new C12 alcohol identified as a sex pheromone and a trail-following pheromone in termites: the diene (Z,Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol.

    PubMed

    Robert, Alain; Peppuy, Alexis; Sémon, Etienne; Boyer, François D; Lacey, Michael J; Bordereau, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The diunsaturated C12 alcohol (Z,Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol (dodecadienol) has been characterized by GC-MS and FTIR as a novel releaser pheromone in termites. This alcohol identified in Ancistrotermes pakistanicus (Termitidae, Macrotermitinae) possesses a double pheromonal function which again illustrates the chemical parsimony of termites compared with other social insects. In workers, dodecadienol elicits trail-following at a very low concentration (activity threshold at 0.1 pg/cm of trail); in male alates it induces trail-following at a low concentration (1-10 pg/cm) and sexual attraction at a higher concentration (about 1 ng). Traces of the monounsaturated C12 alcohol (Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol (dodecenol), known as a trail pheromone of several Macrotermitinae, were also found in the sternal gland extracts of A. pakistanicus, although only dodecadienol was present at the surface of the sternal gland. Workers of A. pakistanicus are not sensitive to dodecenol, but they are as sensitive to dodecatrienol as to dodecadienol. However, in the study area (Vietnam), A. pakistanicus is living in sympatry only with those Macrotermitinae using dodecenol as a trail pheromone, the foraging populations therefore being well isolated through their respective trail pheromones. The presence of three types of unsaturated C12 alcohols as releaser pheromones in the only Macrotermitinae subfamily is discussed, and a possible biosynthetic pathway from linoleic acid is proposed for dodecadienol. PMID:14740102

  18. Identification and Characterization of Pheromone Receptors and Interplay between Receptors and Pheromone Binding Proteins in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xyllostella

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mengjing; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B.; Liu, Chengcheng; Lin, Kejian; Gu, Shaohua; Zhang, Yongjun; Zhou, Jingjiang; Wang, Guirong

    2013-01-01

    Moths depend on olfactory cues such as sex pheromones to find and recognize mating partners. Pheromone receptors (PRs) and Pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to be associated with olfactory signal transduction of pheromonal compounds in peripheral olfactory reception. Here six candidate pheromone receptor genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xyllostella were identified and cloned. All of the six candidate PR genes display male-biased expression, which is a typical characteristic of pheromone receptors. In the Xenopus-based functional study and in situ hybridization, PxylOR4 is defined as another pheromone receptor in addition to the previously characterized PxylOR1. In the study of interaction between PRs and PBPs, PxylPBPs could increase the sensitivity of the complex expressing oocyte cells to the ligand pheromone component while decreasing the sensitivity to pheromone analogs. We deduce that activating pheromone receptors in olfactory receptor neurons requires some role of PBPs to pheromone/PBP complex. If the chemical signal is not the pheromone component, but instead, a pheromone analog with a similar structure, the complex would have a decreased ability to activate downstream pheromone receptors. PMID:23626773

  19. Genetic isolation between two sympatric host-plant races of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner. I. Sex pheromone, moth emergence timing, and parasitism.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Yan; Bethenod, Marie-Thérèse; Pelozuelo, Laurent; Frérot, Brigitte; Bourguet, Denis

    2003-02-01

    Adaptation to different environments may be a powerful source of genetic differentiation between populations. The biological traits selected in each environment can pleiotropically induce assortative mating between individuals of these genetically differentiated populations. This situation may facilitate sympatric speciation. Successful host shifts in phytophagous insects provide some of the best evidence for the ecological speciation that occurs, or has occurred, in sympatry. The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), colonized maize after its introduction into Europe by humans about 500 years ago. In northern France, two sympatric host races feed on maize (Zea mays) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris), respectively. We investigated the factors involved in the genetic isolation of these two races at a field site near Paris, France. We identified two biological differences that might make a significant contribution to the genetic divergence between sympatric populations feeding on the two host plants. First, assortative mating may be due to differences in the moth emergence pattern between the two races: mugwort-race moths emerged on average 10 days earlier than maize-race moths. In addition, the males emerged earlier than females in both races. Hence, the likelihood of mating between maize-race males and mugwort-race females was higher than that of mating between mugwort-race males and maize-race females. Second, the females feeding on mugwort and maize produced sex pheromones with different E/Z isomeric ratios of delta-11-tetradecenyl acetate. This difference in mate recognition systems reinforces the potential for assortative mating in the two races. During the experiment, overwintering mortality was much lower on maize than on mugwort. This difference was due to a braconid parasitoid wasp, Macrocentrus cingulum, that killed more than 50% of the larvae overwintering on mugwort but did not infest larvae diapausing on maize. Hence, by

  20. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G; Teale, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest. PMID:26241651

  1. Identification of a Male-Produced Pheromone Component of the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura; Xu, Tian; Wickham, Jacob; Chen, Yi; Hao, Dejun; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Teale, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The Asian wood-boring beetle Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of hardwood trees in its native range, and has serious potential to invade other areas of the world through worldwide commerce in woody plants and wood products. This species already has been intercepted in North America, and is the subject of ongoing eradication efforts in several countries in Europe. Attractants such as pheromones would be immediately useful as baits in traps for its detection. Because long-range pheromones are frequently conserved among closely related species of cerambycids, we evaluated two components of the volatile pheromone produced by males of the congener A. glabripennis (Motschulsky), 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal, as potential pheromones of A. chinensis. Both compounds subsequently were detected in headspace volatiles from male A. chinensis, but not in volatiles from females. Only 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanol elicited responses from beetle antennae in coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses, and this compound attracted adult A. chinensis of both sexes in field bioassays. These data suggest that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol is an important component of the male-produced attractant pheromone of A. chinensis, which should find immediate use in quarantine monitoring for this pest. PMID:26241651

  2. Ant trail pheromone biosynthesis is triggered by a neuropeptide hormone.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  3. Ant Trail Pheromone Biosynthesis Is Triggered by a Neuropeptide Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Man-Yeon; Vander Meer, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of insect chemical communication including pheromone identification, synthesis, and their role in behavior has advanced tremendously over the last half-century. However, endocrine regulation of pheromone biosynthesis has progressed slowly due to the complexity of direct and/or indirect hormonal activation of the biosynthetic cascades resulting in insect pheromones. Over 20 years ago, a neurohormone, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) was identified that stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis in a lepidopteran moth. Since then, the physiological role, target site, and signal transduction of PBAN has become well understood for sex pheromone biosynthesis in moths. Despite that PBAN-like peptides (∼200) have been identified from various insect Orders, their role in pheromone regulation had not expanded to the other insect groups except for Lepidoptera. Here, we report that trail pheromone biosynthesis in the Dufour's gland (DG) of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is regulated by PBAN. RNAi knock down of PBAN gene (in subesophageal ganglia) or PBAN receptor gene (in DG) expression inhibited trail pheromone biosynthesis. Reduced trail pheromone was documented analytically and through a behavioral bioassay. Extension of PBAN's role in pheromone biosynthesis to a new target insect, mode of action, and behavioral function will renew research efforts on the involvement of PBAN in pheromone biosynthesis in Insecta. PMID:23226278

  4. Identifying the C. cactorum Pheromone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  5. First sex pheromone of the order strepsiptera: (3R,5R,9R)-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal in Stylops melittae KIRBY, 1802.

    PubMed

    Tolasch, Till; Kehl, Siegfried; Dötterl, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    The twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera) are an unusual and small order of insects with about 600 known species. As obligate endoparasitoids, they develop and spend most of their lives living in other insects. Adults show an extreme sexual dimorphism: The free-living males have large eyes, branched antennae, reduced forewings, and well developed hind wings, while the neotenic females of most species lack all external characters that normally define an insect, remain endoparasitic, and only extrude the cephalothorax from the host. Due to the males' short life span of only a few hours, there must be an efficient means of mate finding. This is believed to be mediated by chemical cues released by virgin females. Here, we report the first identification and synthesis of a female-produced strepsipteran sex pheromone, (3R,5R,9R)-3,5,9-trimethyldodecanal, from Stylops melittae, a species parasitizing andrenid bees. We found this highly EAD-active compound to be present in cephalothoraxes of and released from unmated females, and synthetic samples proved to be extremely attractive when offered in the field during the swarming period of the males. The structural features of this new natural compound may further support the re-establishment of the Strepsiptera as the closest living relatives of the Coleoptera. PMID:23224569

  6. Elucidating Structure-Bioactivity Relationships of Methyl-Branched Alkanes in the Contact Sex Pheromone of the Parasitic Wasp Lariophagus distinguendus

    PubMed Central

    Kühbandner, Stephan; Bello, Jan E.; Mori, Kenji; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Ruther, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The exoskeletons of insects are covered by complex mixtures of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) which are involved in social and sexual communication. However, little is known about the relationship between the structures of CHCs and their behavioral activity. The key component of the contact sex pheromone of the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus is 3-methylheptacosane (3-MeC27), which is present in CHC profiles of both females and newly emerged males. The CHCs of females and young males elicit wing-fanning behavior in older males. However, as young males age, 3-MeC27 disappears from their CHC profiles and they no longer elicit wing-fanning responses from other males. We applied enantiopure 3-MeC27 and structurally related CHCs (with respect to chain length or methyl-branch position) to the cuticle of aged male dummies and recorded the wing-fanning behavior of responding males. Only the two enantiomers of 3-MeC27 restored the dummies’ attractiveness. The addition of structurally related CHCs or various n-alkanes to bioactive dummies of young males and females significantly decreased wing-fanning by test males. Hence, L. distinguendus males respond specifically but not enantioselectively to 3-MeC27, and perceive the CHC profiles as a whole. Both removal (as is the case with 3-MeC27 in aging males) and addition of individual compounds may disrupt the behavioral response. PMID:26462534

  7. First Record of the Scarab Beetle, Phyllophaga lissopyge from South America, with Descriptions of Adult Seasonal Activity and Male Response to Sex Attractants

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Rodriguez, Anuar; Peck, Daniel C.; Robbins, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Phyllophaga lissopyge (Bates) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) is reported for the first time from South America. Male sex pheromone response is described for P. lissopyge and two other co-occurring Phyllophaga species. Adults of P. lissopyge and P. menetriesi (Blanchard) flew to traps baited with methyl 2-(methylthio) benzoate whereas adults of P. obsoleta (Blanchard) flew irregularly to four different pheromone compounds. Adult seasonal activity is described from males captures in Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. PMID:21529153

  8. Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptors (PBANRs) in moths: New developments regarding alternative splice variants and the potential for targeted disruption of PBANR in pest control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most moths, the ability of conspecific males to locate receptive females is governed by the detection of a blend of semiochemicals known as sex pheromones. Sex pheromone components are de novo synthesized in the female pheromone gland in response to pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptid...

  9. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. PMID:25529634

  10. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  11. Effect of tyramine and stress on sex-pheromone production in the pre- and post-mating silkworm moth, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Yamaji, Hideomi; Yoshizawa, Takaki; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2007-12-01

    Tyramine (TA) increased significantly after mating, whereas there were no significant differences in octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the brain-suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) complexes between virgin and mated females. The effects of various biogenic amines were tested on pheromone production of virgin and mated females of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori. After 8h a significant reduction by TA (46%) was observed. Meanwhile, when OA or DA was injected, a significant increase of pheromone titer was observed in both virgin and mated females. This study also presents evidence for an increase in levels of OA and DA in the brain-SOG complexes in response to mechanical stress in B. mori female. TA suppressed pheromone production in an in vitro pheromone gland (PG) homogenate preparation, thus suggesting that the target of TA is the PG. TA inhibited pheromone production in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and DA had a lower inhibitory activity than TA, whereas OA had no effect, suggesting that TA is a candidate for regulating pheromone production in the PG, although other factors could be responsible for the pheromonostatic function. PMID:17681526

  12. Pheromone orientation: role of internal control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tobin, T R

    1981-12-01

    Male American cockroaches walk a zigzag path upwind toward a source of female sex pheromone. Although the maximum width of the pathway is regulated by the width of an odor plume, many turns are made before the edge of a wide plume is encountered. In addition to the pheromone regulation of the insect's orientation movements, an internal mechanism appears to influence the zigzag turning pattern. PMID:17755899

  13. Flight Tunnel Response of Male European Corn Borer Moths to Cross-Specific Mixtures of European and Asian Corn Borer Sex Pheromones: Evidence Supporting a Critical Stage in Evolution of a New Communication System.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nathan; Moore, Kevin; Musto, Callie J; Linn, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Previous flight tunnel studies showed that 3-5 % of male European corn borer (ECB) moths, Ostrinia nubilalis, could fly upwind and make contact with sources releasing the sex pheromone of the closely related Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrina furnacalis, [2:1 (Z)-12-tetradecenyl acetate (Z12-14:OAc) : (E)-12-teradecenyl acetate (E12-14:OAc)] and that 2-4 % of ACB males could similarly fly upwind to the sex pheromone blends of the ECB Z- [97:3 (Z)-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc) : (E)-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:Ac)] and E-strains (1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc) pheromones. The results supported the hypothesis that the evolution of the ACB pheromone system from an ECB-like ancestor included a stage in which males could be attracted to the unusual females emitting Z12- and E12-14:OAc while retaining their responsiveness to the ancestral pheromone blend of Z11- and E11-14:OAc. Here, we showed further that ECB E-strain males exhibited upwind oriented flight and source contacts to sources containing all combinations of ECB and ACB components. Maximal response levels were observed with the E-strain 99:1 E11/Z11-14:OAc blend, and high response levels also were observed with two other blends containing E11-14:OAc as the major component (E11:E12 and E11:Z12). Upwind flight and source contact also occurred at lower levels with the remaining blend combinations in which Z11-, E12-, or Z12-14:OAc was the major component. Our current results support the hypothesis concerning the evolution of ACB from an ECB-like ancester by showing that males were able to respond to females producing either the 12-14:Ac isomers, 11-14:Ac isomers, or even mixtures of all four components. PMID:26631407

  14. Aerial application of pheromones for mating disruption of an invasive moth as a potential eradication tool.

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, Eckehard G; Suckling, David M; Kimberley, Mark; Richardson, Brian; Coker, Graham; Gous, Stefan; Kerr, Jessica L; Cowan, David M; Lance, David R; Strand, Tara; Zhang, Aijun

    2012-01-01

    Biological invasions can cause major ecological and economic impacts. During the early stages of invasions, eradication is desirable but tactics are lacking that are both effective and have minimal non-target effects. Mating disruption, which may meet these criteria, was initially chosen to respond to the incursion of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (LBAM; Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in California. The large size and limited accessibility of the infested area favored aerial application. Moth sex pheromone formulations for potential use in California or elsewhere were tested in a pine forest in New Zealand where LBAM is abundant. Formulations were applied by helicopter at a target rate of 40 g pheromone per ha. Trap catch before and after application was used to assess the efficacy and longevity of formulations, in comparison with plots treated with ground-applied pheromone dispensers and untreated control plots. Traps placed at different heights showed LBAM was abundant in the upper canopy of tall trees, which complicates control attempts. A wax formulation and polyethylene dispensers were most effective and provided trap shut-down near ground level for 10 weeks. Only the wax formulation was effective in the upper canopy. As the pheromone blend contained a behavioral antagonist for LBAM, 'false trail following' could be ruled out as a mechanism explaining trap shutdown. Therefore, 'sensory impairment' and 'masking of females' are the main modes of operation. Mating disruption enhances Allee effects which contribute to negative growth of small populations and, therefore, it is highly suitable for area-wide control and eradication of biological invaders. PMID:22937092

  15. Evidence of natural hybridization between two sympatric sibling species of Bactrocera dorsalis complex based on pheromone analysis.

    PubMed

    Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2005-04-01

    Bactrocera carambolae and B. papayae are major fruit fly pests and sympatric sibling species of the B. dorsalis complex. They possess distinct differences in male pheromonal components. In the 1990's, wild Bactrocera fruit flies with morphological traits intermediate between those of B. carambolae and B. papayae were often captured in traps baited with methyl eugenol (ME). Chemical analyses of rectal glands of ME-fed males revealed that the laboratory Fl, F2, and backcross hybrids possessed ME-derived sex pheromonal components ranging from that typical of B. papayae to that of B. carambolae without any specific trend, which included a combination of pheromonal components from both parental species within an individual hybrid. ME-fed hybrids without any ME-derived pheromonal components were also detected. Further chemical analysis of rectal glands from wild Bactrocera males, after ME feeding in the laboratory, showed a combination of pheromonal components similar to that found in the ME-fed, laboratory-bred hybrids. These findings present circumstantial evidence for the occurrence of a natural hybrid of the two Bactrocera species. PMID:16124255

  16. Identification of a male-produced aggregation pheromone for Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus and an attractant for the congener Monochamus notatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Fierke, M K; Skabeikis, D D; Millar, J G; Teale, S A; McElfresh, J S; Hanks, L M

    2012-12-01

    We report identification and field testing of 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (monochamol) as a sex-specific, aggregation pheromone component produced by males of Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle native to North America. A congener, Monochamus notatus (Drury), which uses the same hosts as M. s. scutellatus, also was attracted to this compound in field trials, suggesting it may be a pheromone component for this species as well. Panel traps were deployed along transects at each of five field sites in May 2010 to test attraction of native beetle species to a suite of cerambycid pheromone components, including monochamol, 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one, (2R*,3R*)- and (2R*, 3S*)-2,3-hexanediol, racemic (E/Z)-fuscumol, and (E/Z)-fuscumol acetate. In total, 209 adult M. s. scutellatus (136 females, 73 males) and 20 M. notatus (16 females, four males) were captured, of which 86 and 70%, respectively, were captured in traps baited with monochamol (means significantly different). Analysis of headspace volatiles from adult M. s. scutellatus by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection confirmed that monochamol was produced only by males. Monochamol was not found in headspace extracts from adult M. notatus. This study provides further evidence that monochamol is a pheromone component common to several species in the genus Monochamus. The pheromone component should prove useful for monitoring native species for management purposes or conservation efforts, and for quarantine monitoring for exotic species. PMID:23356067

  17. Expression of the mevalonate pathway enzymes in the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sex pheromone gland demonstrated by an integrated proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    González-Caballero, Natalia; Rodríguez-Vega, Andrés; Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Valente, Richard H.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Cuervo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America, Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. This insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition. Elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulation may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, the vector's population management. Motivated by our recent results of the transcriptomic characterization of the L. longipalpis pheromone gland, we performed a proteomic analysis of this tissue combining SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry followed by an integrative data analysis. Considering that annotated genome sequences of this sand fly are not available, we designed an alternative workflow searching MS/MS data against two customized databases using three search engines: Mascot, OMSSA and ProLuCID. A total of 542 proteins were confidently characterized, 445 of them using a Uniref100-insect protein database, and 97 using a transcript translated database. In addition, use of PEAKS for de novo peptide sequencing of MS/MS data confirmed ∼90% identifications made with the combination of the three search engines. Our results include the identification of six of the seven enzymes of the mevalonate-pathway, plus the enzymes involved in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, all of which are proposed to be involved in pheromone production in L. longipalpis. Biological significance L. longipalpis is the main vector of the protozoan parasite L. infantum, which is the causal agent of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. One of the control measures of such disease is focused on vector population control. As this insect uses male-produced pheromones for mate recognition, the elucidation of pheromone biogenesis or its regulating process may enable molecular strategies for mating disruption and, consequently, this vector's population management. On this regard, in this manuscript we report expression evidence, at the protein level, of

  18. Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

  19. The trap of sex in social insects: from the female to the male perspective.

    PubMed

    Beani, Laura; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Cappa, Federico; Toth, Amy

    2014-10-01

    The phenotype of male Hymenoptera and the peculiar role of males has been neglected and greatly understudied, given the spectacular cooperative behavior of female social insects. In social insects there has been considerable progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms behind haplodiploid sex determination but, beyond that, very little is known concerning the neural, endocrine, and genetic correlates of sexual selection in males. An opportunity is being missed: the male phenotype in Hymenoptera is a natural experiment to compare the drives of natural versus sexual selection. In contrast to females, males do not work, they usually display far from the nest to gain mates, compete among rivals in nuptial flights or for a symbolic territory at leks, and engage in direct or ritualized conflicts. By comparing the available data on male paper wasps with studies on other social Hymenoptera, we summarize what we currently know about the physical, hormonal, neural and behavioral traits in a model system appropriate to examine current paradigms on sexual selection. Here we review male behavior in social Hymenoptera beyond sex stereotypes: the subtle role of "drones" in the colony, the lack of armaments and ornaments, the explosive mating crowds, the "endurance" race, the cognitive bases of the "choosy" male and his immune defense. Social insect males are not just simple-minded mating machines, they are shaped, constrained and perhaps trapped by sexual selection. PMID:25280909

  20. Evidence that (+)-endo-brevicomin is a male-produced component of the Southern pine beetle aggregation pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian T; Shepherd, William P; Pureswaran, Deepa S; Tashiro, Takuya; Mori, Kenji

    2007-08-01

    Previous research indicated that the aggregation pheromone of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is produced only by females, the sex that initiates attacks. We provide evidence indicating that secondarily arriving males augment mass aggregation by releasing the attractive synergist (+)-endo-brevicomin. Healthy pines artificially infested with both sexes of D. frontalis were significantly more attractive to conspecifics than trees infested solely with females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of volatiles isolated from male beetles revealed substantially greater olfactory sensitivity by D. frontalis to endo-brevicomin than to any other component. The threshold of detection of both sexes for (+)-endo-brevicomin was four orders of magnitude lower than for its antipode and at least one order of magnitude lower than for either enantiomer of frontalin, the major female-produced aggregation pheromone component. Pairing with a female in a gallery stimulated individual male beetles to produce hundreds of nanograms of (+)-endo-brevicomin. (+)-endo-Brevicomin was detected in a small percentage of female D. frontalis, whereas (-)-endo-brevicomin was never detected in either sex. In field trapping bioassays, we confirmed that (+)-endo-brevicomin is a potent synergist for attractive combinations of frontalin and pine turpentine. However, (+)-endo-brevicomin failed to attract D. frontalis either when presented alone or in combination with turpentine. We postulate that mass colonization of host trees by D. frontalis is mediated by distinct semiochemicals from both sexes rather than females alone. Our discovery of a key aggregation pheromone component in such an apparently well-studied species implies that the pheromone models of other bark beetles could benefit from systematic reexamination using newer technologies. Additionally, baits fortified with (+)-endo-brevicomin may enhance pest management strategies that exploit

  1. Influence of landscape pattern in flour residue amount and distribution on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) response to traps baited with pheromone and kairomone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, is a major pest of food facilities and is typically monitored using traps that capture walking individuals. In flour mills the accumulation of residues of flour on surfaces has the potential to influence beetle movement and response to trap attract...

  2. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  3. Monitoring codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex phermone-treated orchards with (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene or pear ester in combination with codlemone and acetic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) or (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) in two- or three-way combinations with the sex pheromone (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone) and acetic acid (AA) were evaluated for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). All studies were conduct...

  4. Western Pine Beetle Populations in Arizona and California Differ in the Composition of Their Aggregation Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Hofstetter, Richard W; Sullivan, Brian T; Grady, Amanda M; Brownie, Cavell

    2016-05-01

    We compared pheromone production and response for populations of western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, from sites in northern Arizona and northern California. Volatiles were collected from individuals of both sexes that had mined as a pair in a Pinus ponderosa log for 1 d, and they were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry. Principal component analysis of quantities of Dendroctonus pheromone components indicated strong site-associated clustering of blend composition for females but not males. Much of the clustering in females evidently was due to differences in the production of endo- and exo-brevicomin, which occurred in average ratios of 0.1:1 and 19:1 for populations in the California and Arizona sites, respectively. In the California site, exo- was better than endo-brevicomin in enhancing trap catches of both sexes to lures containing the host-tree odor α-pinene and the male-produced aggregation pheromone component frontalin. In an identical test in the Arizona site, endo- was a better adjuvant than exo-brevicomin for male attraction, whereas females did not show a significant preference. At neither location were the isomers antagonistic to one another in activity. Thus, one aggregation pheromone has apparently diverged between these populations, concurrent with published evidence that D. brevicomis on either side of the Great Basin are genetically distinct and are possibly different species. Furthermore, production of and response to the isomers of brevicomin by flying Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann in the Arizona site were similar to those of sympatric D. brevicomis. This interspecific signal overlap is likely sustainable since joint species mass-attacks may assist both species in overcoming host defenses, thereby increasing host availability. PMID:27125814

  5. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females. PMID:21661306

  6. Re-evaluation of the PBAN receptor molecule: characterization of PBANR variants expressed in the pheromone glands of moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone production in most moths is initiated following pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide receptor (PBANR) activation. PBANR was initially cloned from pheromone glands (PGs) of Helicoverpa zea and Bombyx mori. The B. mori PBANR is characterized by a relatively long C-terminus that...

  7. Impact of pheromone trap color on capture of pests and non-target insects in eastern U.S. apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were designed to evaluate capture of obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) as well as non-target muscoid flies and honeybees, Apis mellifera L. in delta-style traps of different colors (orange, red, yellow, green, blue,...

  8. Analysis of Tea Geometrid (Ectropis grisescens) Pheromone Gland Extracts Using GC-EAD and GC×GC/TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Xiao, Qiang; Yu, Yu-Geng; Wang, Cai; Zhu, Cheng-Qi; Sun, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Wen, Xiu-Jun

    2016-04-27

    The tea geometrid, Ectropis grisescens Warren, is one of the most severe defoliator insect pests in tea plantations, China. The use of insecticides, etc., is forbidden on organic tea plantations. No female-produced sex pheromones of E. grisescens had been previously identified. In the present study, female gland extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a time-of-flight mass spectrometric detector (TOFMS). Two components, (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene (Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy) and (Z,Z)-3,9-6,7-epoxyoctadecadiene (Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy), were identified from pheromone gland extracts, and their electrophysiological and behavioral activity evaluated. Under laboratory conditions, Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy elicited a stronger electrophysiological response than Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy. In the field, traps baited with Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy alone showed better results than traps baited with Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy, and the binary mixture of Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy and Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy in a ratio of 4:1 (approximate ratio of females emitting pheromone) caught more males than the single components or any other blends. This study showed that Z3Z6Z9-18:Hy and Z3Z9-6,7-epo-18:Hy are the sex pheromone components of E. grisescens and that they prove useful in developing alternative management tools for the pest. PMID:27040982

  9. Palm Weevil Pheromones - Discovery and Use.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, A C

    2016-07-01

    Male-produced aggregation pheromones of seven major pest species of weevils in the subfamily Rhynchophorinae have been identified as a closely related set of methyl-branched secondary alcohols. Although the weevils produce only one stereoisomer of these alcohols, no instances of isomeric inhibition have been observed, enabling stereoisomeric mixtures to be used in traps. Addition of fermenting plant material to traps synergizes attraction of weevils to the pheromones. The weevils are large, have long life cycles, and are strong fliers. These characteristics make mass trapping a suitable tactic to add to existing management strategies. When coupled with good phytosanitary practices, mass trapping of Rhynchophorus palmarum at 1 trap/5-ha significantly lowered the incidence of red ring nematode infection vectored by the weevil in commercial oil palm plantations in the Americas. Similarly, trap densities of 1-10 traps/ha have significantly lowered R. ferrugineus infestation of date palm throughout the Middle East. Although management of R. ferrugineus in urban areas is more problematic, trapping is an integral part of most programs aimed at protection of ornamental Canary palms in Europe. Overall, semiochemically-based management of these large weevils is now a mature and usually economically feasible control technology. PMID:27430563

  10. Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Alex, Lena; Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman; Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit

    2012-01-01

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus. PMID:22827730

  11. A flux capacitor for moth pheromones.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2012-05-01

    In this issue of Chemical Senses, Baker et al. propose a provocative and intriguing explanation for a commonly observed phenomenon in moth chemocommunication. Sex pheromones in moths typically consist of mixtures of long-chain unsaturated compounds in specific ratios. These ratios are correspondingly detected by male moths using separate olfactory sensory neurons for each pheromone component housed singly or multiply in long trichoid sensilla on the antennal surface. These neurons are often present in different proportions, typically with the neuron responding to the highest ratio component present in greatest abundance or with the largest dendritic diameter. In their article, Baker et al. postulate that these physical differences in neuron magnitudes arise to compensate for the higher molecular flux present with the most abundant pheromone components. Such a suggestion raises several questions concerning the physiological and behavioral nature of pheromone communication. Specifically, is the flux in a natural pheromone plume high enough to warrant increased flux detection for the most abundant components? Second, how can changes in neuronal number or size lead to increased flux detection? And finally, how would this increased flux detection be accomplished at molecular, cellular, and ultimately network scales? We address each of these questions and propose future experiments that could offer insight into the stimulating proposition raised by Baker et al. PMID:22334600

  12. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Higbee, Bradley S; Burks, Charles S; Larsen, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  13. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Burks, Charles S.; Larsen, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  14. Stereochemical studies on pheromonal communications

    PubMed Central

    MORI, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Pheromonal communications are heavily dependent on the stereochemistry of pheromones. Their enantioselective syntheses could establish the absolute configuration of the naturally occurring pheromones, and clarified the unique relationships between absolute configuration and bioactivity. For example, neither the (R)- nor (S)-enantiomer of sulcatol, the aggregation pheromone of an ambrosia beetle, is behaviorally active, while their mixture is bioactive. Recent results as summarized in the present review further illustrate the unique and diverse relationships between stereochemistry and bioactivity of pheromones. PMID:25504227

  15. DIEL PATTERNS OF PHEROMONE PRODUCTION IN THE BOLL WEEVIL (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed knowledge of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, chemical ecology on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., is needed to improve pheromone trapping methods. Recent studies using headspace collections have indicated that most pheromone is not in the feces as previously assumed. We used headsp...

  16. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area. PMID:24331616

  17. Reduced mating success of female tortricid moths following intense pheromone auto-exposure varies with sophistication of mating system.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Emily H; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2012-02-01

    Mating disruption is a valuable tool for the management of pest lepidopteran species in many agricultural crops. Many studies have addressed the effect of female pheromone on the ability of males to find calling females but, so far, fewer have addressed the effect of pheromone on the mating behavior of females. We hypothesized that mating of female moth species may be adversely affected following sex pheromone auto-exposure, due to abnormal behavioral activity and/or antennal sensitivity. Our results indicate that, for Grapholita molesta and Pandemis pyrusana females, copulation, but not calling, was reduced following pre-exposure to sex pheromone. In contrast, for Cydia pomonella and Choristoneura rosaceana, sex pheromone pre-exposure did not affect either calling or copulation propensity. Adaptation of female moth antennae to their own sex pheromone, following sex pheromone auto-exposure, as measured by electroantennograms, occurred in a species for which identical exposure reduced mating success (G. molesta) and in a species for which such exposure did not affect mating success (C. rosaceana). These results suggest that pre-exposure of female moths of certain species to sex pheromone may further contribute to the success of pheromone-based mating disruption. Therefore, we conclude that, in some species, mating disruption may include a secondary mechanism that affects the mating behavior of female moths, in addition to that of males. PMID:22350561

  18. Identification of the Aggregation Pheromone of the Date Palm Root Borer Oryctes agamemnon.

    PubMed

    Saïd, Imen; Hasni, Narjes; Abdallah, Zeineb; Couzi, Philippe; Ouhichi, Monêem; Renou, Michel; Rochat, Didier

    2015-05-01

    Laboratory and field investigations aimed to characterize the chemical communication system of the date palm pest Oryctes agamemnon. Live males or extracts of male effluvia attracted conspecifics in an olfactometer, whereas female effluvia attracted only males. Volatile emissions from adults feeding on sugarcane were sampled and analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Males emitted a blend of 1) ethyl 4-methyloctanoate, 2) 4-methyloctanoic acid, 3) 4-methyloctanyl acetate, and 4) 4-methyloctanol in variable ratio. Single sensillum recordings demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, and 3 are detected by specific olfactory receptor neurons. Olfactometric experiments showed that compounds 1 and 3 attract both sexes of O. agamemnon, but females are more attracted by compound 1 and males by compound 3. Compound 2 was more attractive for females, especially virgin ones. Field experiments confirmed that compound 1 and compound 2 attracted O. agamemnon of both sexes and showed synergy with palm odors. No clear activity of compound 3 was observed. A mix of compounds 1 and 2 with date palm core odor was significantly the most attractive, and captured more females than males. The male aggregation pheromone of O. agamemnon appears therefore to be based on a mixture in contrast to previously identified Oryctes pheromones. Our results provide the basis for developing mass trapping to control this pest. PMID:25900246

  19. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    PubMed

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities. PMID:25195441

  20. On-site airborne pheromone sensing.

    PubMed

    Wehrenfennig, Christoph; Schott, Matthias; Gasch, Tina; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Kohl, Claus-Dieter

    2013-08-01

    Pheromones and other semiochemicals play an important role in the natural world by influencing the behavior of plants, mammals, and insects. In the latter case, species-dependent pheromone communication has numerous applications, including the detection, trapping, monitoring and guiding of insects, as well as pest management in agriculture. On-site sensors are desirable when volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are used as semiochemicals. Insects have evolved highly selective sensors for such compounds, so biosensors comprising complete insects, isolated organs or individual proteins can be highly effective. However, isolated insect organs have a limited lifetime as biosensor, so biomimetic approaches are needed for prolonged monitoring, novel applications, or measurements in challenging environments. We discuss the development of on-site biosensors and biomimetic approaches for airborne-pheromone sensing, together with biomimetic VOC sensor systems. Furthermore, the infochemical effect describing the anthropogenic contamination of the ecosystem through semiochemicals, will be considered in the context of novel on-site pheromone sensing-systems. PMID:23842897

  1. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system.

    PubMed

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  2. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  3. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Friebely, Joan; Rako, Susan

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether a putative human sex-attractant pheromone increases specific sociosexual behaviors of postmenopausal women, we tested a chemically synthesized formula derived from research with underarm secretions from heterosexually active, fertile women that was recently tested on young women. Participants (n = 44, mean age = 57 years) were postmenopausal women who volunteered for a double-blind placebo-controlled study designed, to test an odorless pheromone, added to your preferred fragrance, to learn if it might increase the romance in your life. During the experimental 6-week period, a significantly greater proportion of participants using the pheromone formula (40.9%) than placebo (13.6%) recorded an increase over their own weekly average baseline frequency of petting, kissing, and affection (p = .02). More pheromone (68.2%) than placebo (40.9%) users experienced an increase in at least one of the four intimate sociosexual behaviors (p = .04). Sexual motivation frequency, as expressed in masturbation, was not increased in pheromone users. These results suggest that the pheromone formulation worn with perfume for a period of 6 weeks has sex-attractant effects for postmenopausal women. PMID:15765277

  4. Trap placement and attractant choice affect capture and create sex and parity biases in collections of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis.

    PubMed

    McDermott, E G; Mayo, C E; Gerry, A C; Mullens, B A

    2016-09-01

    Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary North American vector of bluetongue virus (BTV), which can cause high morbidity and mortality in ruminant livestock or wildlife. Worldwide, most Culicoides surveillance relies on light (usually UV) traps typically placed near animals or larval development sites. However, the trapping method can cause sex, species and parity biases in collections. We collected C. sonorensis from three dairies in California using suction traps baited with CO2 , UV light or CO2  + UV placed near animals, wastewater ponds, or in fields. Higher numbers of parous females were collected using CO2  + UV traps, although this difference was only significant on one dairy. UV traps were poor at collecting nulliparous females, but the addition of UV to a trap increased the abundance of males in a collection. Traps set in open fields collected significantly higher numbers of males and females than in either of the other two locations. In some cases, there was a significant interaction between the trap type and site. We discuss the limitations of traditional trapping methodologies for C. sonorensis and make suggestions for vector surveillance. PMID:27257164

  5. Pheromonal influences on sociosexual behavior in young women.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Norma L; Pitino, Lisa

    2002-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a synthesized putative female pheromone was conducted with regularly menstruating, university women (N=36, mean age=27.8). The pheromone formula was derived from earlier work investigating the underarm secretions of fertile, sexually active, heterosexual women. A vial of either synthesized pheromone or placebo was selected blindly and added to a subject's perfume. Subjects recorded seven sociosexual behaviors and reported them weekly across three menstrual cycles. Beginning with Day 8 of each cycle, the first cycle contained a 2-week baseline period followed by an experimental period of as many as 3 weeks each from the next two cycles for a maximum of 6 weeks. The 19 pheromone and 17 placebo subjects did not differ significantly in age, weight, body mass index, dating status or ethnicity nor in reported accuracy, back-filling data, perception of a positive effect or perfume use. Placebo subjects were significantly taller than pheromone subjects. Except for male approaches, subjects did not differ significantly at baseline in average weekly sociosexual behaviors. A significantly greater proportion of pheromone users compared with placebo users increased over baseline in frequency of sexual intercourse, sleeping next to a partner, formal dates and petting/affection/kissing but not in frequency of male approaches, informal dates or masturbation. Three or more sociosexual behaviors increased over baseline for 74% of pheromone users compared with 23% of placebo users. We conclude that this synthesized pheromone formula acted as a sex attractant pheromone and increased the sexual attractiveness of women to men. PMID:11897264

  6. Application of a putative alarm cue hastens the arrival of invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) at a trapping location

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hume, John B; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas; Luhring, Thomas M; Siefkes, Michael J; Wagner, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus is an invasive pest in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, threatening the persistence of important commercial and recreational fisheries. There is substantial interest in developing effective trapping practices via the application of behavior-modifying semiochemicals (odors). Here we report on the effectiveness of utilizing repellent and attractant odors in a push–pull configuration, commonly employed to tackle invertebrate pests, to improve trapping efficacy at permanent barriers to sea lamprey migration. When a half-stream channel was activated by a naturally derived repellent odor (a putative alarm cue), we found that sea lamprey located a trap entrance significantly faster than when no odor was present as a result of their redistribution within the stream. The presence of a partial sex pheromone, acting as an attractant within the trap, was not found to further decrease the time to when sea lamprey located a trap entrance relative to when the alarm cue alone was applied. Neither the application of alarm cue singly nor alarm cue and partial sex pheromone in combination was found to improve the numbers of sea lamprey captured in the trap versus when no odor was present — likely because nominal capture rate during control trials was unusually high during the study period. Behavioural guidance using these odors has the potential to both improve control of invasive non-native sea lamprey in the Great Lakes as well as improving the efficiency of fish passage devices used in the restoration of threatened lamprey species elsewhere.

  7. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  8. Early-Summer Pheromone Biology of Galerucella calmariensis and Relationship to Dispersal and Colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has become an effective biological control agent for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). A male-produced aggregation pheromone was recently identified in this mostly univoltine beetle, and attractiveness to both sexes was demonstrated in the ...

  9. Trapping sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Coleoptera: Brentidae), with high doses of sex pheromone: Catch enhancement and weathering rate in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...

  10. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    The first aggregation pheromone components from bark beetles were identified in 1966 as a mixture of ipsdienol, ipsenol and verbenol. Since then, a number of additional components have been identified as both aggregation and anti-aggregation pheromones, with many of them being monoterpenoids or derived from monoterpenoids. The structural similarity between the major pheromone components of bark beetles and the monoterpenes found in the host trees, along with the association of monoterpenoid production with plant tissue, led to the paradigm that most if not all bark beetle pheromone components were derived from host tree precursors, often with a simple hydroxylation producing the pheromone. In the 1990 s there was a paradigm shift as evidence for de novo biosynthesis of pheromone components began to accumulate, and it is now recognized that most bark beetle monoterpenoid aggregation pheromone components are biosynthesized de novo. The bark beetle aggregation pheromones are released from the frass, which is consistent with the isoprenoid aggregation pheromones, including ipsdienol, ipsenol and frontalin, being produced in midgut tissue. It appears that exo-brevocomin is produced de novo in fat body tissue, and that verbenol, verbenone and verbenene are produced from dietary α-pinene in fat body tissue. Combined biochemical, molecular and functional genomics studies in Ips pini yielded the discovery and characterization of the enzymes that convert mevalonate pathway intermediates to pheromone components, including a novel bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase/myrcene synthase, a cytochrome P450 that hydroxylates myrcene to ipsdienol, and an oxidoreductase that interconverts ipsdienol and ipsdienone to achieve the appropriate stereochemistry of ipsdienol for pheromonal activity. Furthermore, the regulation of these genes and their corresponding enzymes proved complex and diverse in different species. Mevalonate pathway genes in pheromone producing male I. pini

  11. Gene trapping uncovers sex-specific mechanisms for upstream stimulatory factors 1 and 2 in angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmi; Liu, Xuebo; Davis, Deborah R; Sigmund, Curt D

    2012-06-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C/A) located within an E-box at the -20 position of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) promoter may regulate transcriptional activation through differential recruitment of the transcription factors upstream stimulatory factor (USF) 1 and 2. To study the contribution of USF1 on AGT gene expression, mice carrying a (-20C) human AGT (hAGT) transgene were bred with mice harboring a USF1 gene trap allele designed to knock down USF1 expression. USF1 mRNA was reduced relative to controls in liver (9 ± 1%), perigenital adipose (16 ± 3%), kidney (17 ± 1%), and brain (34 ± 2%) in double-transgenic mice. This decrease was confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed a decrease in USF1, with retention of USF2 binding at the hAGT promoter in the liver of male mice. hAGT expression was reduced in the liver and other tissues of female but not male mice. The decrease in endogenous AGT expression was insufficient to alter systolic blood pressure at baseline but caused reduced systolic blood pressure in female USF1 gene trap mice fed a high-fat diet. Treatment of USF1 knockdown males with intravenous adenoviral short hairpin RNA targeting USF2 resulted in reduced expression of USF1, USF2, and hAGT protein. Our data from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggests that this decrease in hAGT is attributed to decreased USF2 binding to the hAGT promoter. In conclusion, both USF1 and USF2 are essential for AGT transcriptional regulation, and distinct sex-specific and tissue-specific mechanisms are involved in the activities of these transcription factors in vivo. PMID:22547438

  12. New traps, baits, and lures for tree fruit IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies conducted at the USDA, ARS Laboratory in Wapato, WA to develop new monitoring tools for key pests of tree fruits in the western United States are reviewed. The combination of pear ester, sex pheromone, and acetic acid was shown to be highly effective in orchards treated with sex pheromones f...

  13. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken'Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective 'single pgFARs' produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a 'single reductase' can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  14. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  15. Three pheromone-binding proteins help segregation between two Helicoverpa species utilizing the same pheromone components.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Pelosi, Paolo; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2012-09-01

    The two sibling species Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa assulta utilise the same two aldehydes as their sex pheromones, but in opposite ratios. In both species three odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) can be classified as pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs). To investigate the role of these three PBPs in chemical communication between sexes and their mode of action, we have expressed the proteins in bacteria and prepared mutants lacking their C-terminal regions. Using polyclonal antibodies we found that the expression of the three PBPs is basically confined to the antennae of both sexes and both species. Binding experiments with the fluorescent probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine across a pH range indicated that, the affinity of wild-type proteins decreases at low pH, while that of the mutants is not or less affected, suggesting that a conformational change of the C-terminus occurs in these proteins, as reported for other lepidopteran OBPs. All three proteins bind with similar strength both pheromone components, as well as their corresponding alcohols and acetates. However, they exhibit significant selectivity to linear alcohols and aldehydes of different length, with optimal affinities to the ligand of 13-15 carbon atoms for PBP1 and 12-14 carbon atoms for PBP2. We suggest that all three PBPs might cooperate to build a unique olfactory image, that could help avoiding cross-mating between the two species and with other noctuids. PMID:22750167

  16. Identification and field activity of a male-produced aggregation pheromone in the pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Juan A; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Ibeas, Fernando; Gallego, Diego; Hall, David R; Farman, Dudley I

    2010-06-01

    The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis, is a pest of pine trees in Europe and North Africa. Previously considered a secondary pest of stressed and dying trees, it is now receiving considerable attention as a vector of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of a lethal wilting disease in susceptible species of pines. Adult beetles are attracted to traps baited with a kairomone blend consisting of a host volatile, alpha-pinene, and two bark beetle pheromone components, ipsenol and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. More recently it has been shown that mature male M. galloprovincialis produce a pheromone that attracts mature females in a laboratory bioassay. Here, volatiles were collected from mature male and female M. galloprovincialis, and a compound produced specifically by mature males was identified as 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol from its gas chromatographic retention times, its mass spectrum, and by comparison with synthetic standards. The naturally-derived and synthetic compounds elicited electroantennographic responses from both females and males. Sealed polyethylene vials and polyethylene sachets were shown to be effective dispensers with zero-order release, the latter giving a higher release rate than the former. In two field tests, multiple-funnel traps baited with synthetic 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol caught both female and male M. galloprovincialis, with higher catches at the higher release rate. This compound also synergized the attractiveness of the kairomone blend, the combined mixture catching 80-140% more beetles than the sum of the catches to each bait separately and luring up to two beetles/trap/d in a moderate-density population. We conclude that 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol is a male-produced aggregation pheromone of M. galloprovincialis. This is the first example of a sex-specific compound in the cerambycid subfamily Lamiinae with significant behavioral activity in the field at a range sufficient to make it a useful trap bait

  17. Position around a tree: consequences for pheromone detection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ginger L; Loudon, Catherine; Freed, Sarah

    2007-03-01

    The air flow pattern expected around a cylindrical object such as a tree in slow wind, is predicted from fluid mechanics to have areas of faster flow (upwind) and slower recirculating flow with eddies (downwind). An organism located on the surface of a tree would experience different flow depending on its circumferential position. If that organism was searching for a chemical signal, such as a pheromone plume, it might maximize its probability of chemodetection by placing itself in areas of greatest flow speed (the upwind surface of the cylinder, i.e., in front of the separation points). We tested whether wood cockroaches in the genus Parcoblatta exhibit such upwind positioning; they live in forests, and males actively fly from tree to tree, while searching for females releasing sex pheromone. In contrast to an expectation of upwind preference, male cockroaches were evenly distributed around trees relative to upwind (measured with a novel "feather boa" flow visualization technique), even though the wind direction was relatively steady. We investigated whether sex pheromone could be detected at any location around a cylindrical surface in a laboratory flow chamber by using Bombyx mori wing fanning as a bioassay. Although upwind moths arrayed on the surface detected pheromone more rapidly, pheromone detection occurred at least a third of the time at any position, which could explain the even distribution of Parcoblatta males around trees. PMID:17252213

  18. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  19. Extrusion of the C-terminal Helix in Navel Orangeworm Moth Pheromone-Binding Protein (AtraPBP1) Controls Pheromone Binding†

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Xianzhong; Leal, Walter S.; Ames, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), is an agricultural insect pest that can be controlled by disrupting male-female communication with sex pheromones, a technique known as mating disruption. Insect pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) provide fast transport of hydrophobic pheromones through aqueous sensillar lymph and promote sensitive delivery of pheromones to receptors. Here we present a mutational analysis on a PBP from Amyelois transitella (AtraPBP1) to evaluate how the C-terminal helix in this protein controls pheromone binding as a function of pH. Pheromone binds tightly to AtraPBP1 at neutral pH, but the binding is much weaker at pH below 5. Deletion of the entire C-terminal helix (residues 129–142) causes more than 100-fold increase in pheromone binding affinity at pH 5 and only a 1.5-fold increase at pH 7. A similar pH-dependent increase in pheromone binding is also seen for the H80A/H95A double mutant that promotes extrusion of the C-terminal helix by disabling salt bridges at each end of the helix. The single mutants (H80A and H95A) also exhibit pheromone binding at pH below 5, but with ~2-fold weaker affinity. NMR and circular dichroism data demonstrate a large overall structural change in each of these mutants at pH 4.5, indicating an extrusion of the C-terminal helix that profoundly affects the overall structure of the low pH form. Our results confirm that sequestration of the C-terminal helix at low pH as seen in the recent NMR structure may serve to block pheromone binding. We propose that extrusion of these C-terminal residues at neutral pH (or by the mutations in this study) exposes a hydrophobic cleft that promotes high affinity pheromone binding. PMID:21130734

  20. Prionic Acid: An Effective Sex Attractant for an Important Pest of Sugarcane, Dorysthenes granulosus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae).

    PubMed

    Wickham, Jacob D; Lu, Wen; Jin, Tao; Peng, Zhengqiang; Guo, Dongfeng; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Chen, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Male Dorysthenes granulosus (Thomson, 1860) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) were caught in traps baited with racemic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid (prionic acid) during field screening trials in China that tested known cerambycid pheromones. This species is an important pest of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). In follow-up dose-response trials, plastic sachets loaded with 1 or 0.1 mg of prionic acid were equally attractive to male beetles, whereas lower doses were no better than controls. Two commercial prionic acid lures also were attractive, suggesting that traps baited with prionic acid can be rapidly incorporated into integrated pest management programs targeting this major pest. It is likely that this compound is a major component of the female-produced sex pheromone of D. granulosus because this species is in the same subfamily as Prionus californicus Motschulsky, 1845, the species from which prionic acid was originally identified. PMID:26362990

  1. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  2. Gqalpha-linked PLCbeta and PLCgamma are essential components of the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex pheromone production for most moths is regulated by pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN). In Bombyx mori, PBAN binding triggers the opening of store-operated Ca2+ channels, suggesting the involvement of a receptor-activated phospholipase C (PLC). In this study, we found that P...

  3. A practical method for obtaining useful quantities of pheromones from sea lamprey and other fishes for identification and control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, J.M.; Sisler, S.P.; Vrieze, L.A.; Swink, W.D.; Sorensen, P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Pheromonally-mediated trapping is currently being developed for use in sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes. To identify and test lamprey pheromones a practical procedure was needed to isolate relatively large quantities of pheromone from lamprey holding water. The present study developed such a technique. It employs Amberlite XAD7HP, an adsorbent resin which we found can extract over 80% of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone from larval holding water at low cost and with relative ease. This technique allowed its to collect tens of milligrams of all three components of the sea lamprey migratory pheromone, eventually permitting both identification and successful field testing. This technique might also be used to collect pheromones released by other species of fish.

  4. Unisex pheromone detectors and pheromone-binding proteins in scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Nikonov, Alexander Alexeevich; Peng, Guihong; Tsurupa, Galina; Leal, Walter Soares

    2002-07-01

    Olfaction was studied in two species of scarab beetle, Anomala octiescostata and Anomala cuprea (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae), which are temporarily isolated and use the same sex pheromone compounds, (R)-buibuilactone and (R)-japonilure. Single sensillum recordings in A. octiescostata revealed highly sensitive olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) (threshold <1 pg) that were tuned to the detection of the green leaf volatile compound (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. As opposed to similar ORNs in another scarab species, Phyllopertha diversa, in A. octiescostata a diazo analogue elicited much lower neuronal responses than the natural ligand. Detectors for other floral and leaf compounds were also characterized. Extremely stereoselective ORNs tuned to sex pheromone were identified in male and female antennae. Biochemical investigations showed that, in A. octiescostata and A. cuprea, the pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) isolated from male antennae were identical to PBPs obtained from female antennae. AoctPBP and AcupPBP had seven different amino acid residues. Binding of AoctPBP to (R)-japonilure is shown. PdivOBP1, which is also known to bind to (R)-japonilure, differed from AcupPBP in only two amino acid residues, one at the N-terminus and the other near the C-terminus. The structural features of the Bombyx mori PBP are compared with the sequences of eight known scarab odorant-binding proteins. PMID:12142325

  5. The evolution of pheromonal communication.

    PubMed

    Swaney, William T; Keverne, Eric B

    2009-06-25

    Small-brained rodents have been the principle focus for pheromonal research and have provided comprehensive insights into the chemosensory mechanisms that underpin pheromonal communication and the hugely important roles that pheromones play in behavioural regulation. However, pheromonal communication does not start or end with the mouse and the rat, and work in amphibians reveals much about the likely evolutionary origins of the chemosensory systems that mediate pheromonal effects. The dual olfactory organs (the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ), their receptors and their separate projection pathways appear to have ancient evolutionary origins, appearing in the aquatic ancestors of all tetrapods during the Devonian period and so pre-dating the transition to land. While the vomeronasal organ has long been considered an exclusively pheromonal organ, accumulating evidence indicates that it is not the sole channel for the transduction of pheromonal information and that both olfactory systems have been co-opted for the detection of different pheromone signals over the course of evolution. This has also led to great diversity in the vomeronasal and olfactory receptor families, with enormous levels of gene diversity and inactivation of genes in different species. Finally, the evolution of trichromacy as well as huge increases in social complexity have minimised the role of pheromones in the lives of primates, leading to the total inactivation of the vomeronasal system in catarrhine primates while the brain increased in size and behaviour became emancipated from hormonal regulation. PMID:18977248

  6. Responses to Pheromones in a Complex Odor World: Sensory Processing and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Anton, Sylvia; Renou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Insects communicating with pheromones, be it sex- or aggregation pheromones, are confronted with an olfactory environment rich in a diversity of volatile organic compounds of which plants are the main releaser. Certain of these volatiles can represent behaviorally relevant information, such as indications about host- or non-host plants; others will provide essentially a rich odor background out of which the behaviorally relevant information needs to be extracted. In an attempt to disentangle mechanisms of pheromone communication in a rich olfactory environment, which might underlie interactions between intraspecific signals and a background, we will summarize recent literature on pheromone/plant volatile interactions. Starting from molecular mechanisms, describing the peripheral detection and central nervous integration of pheromone-plant volatile mixtures, we will end with behavioral output in response to such mixtures and its plasticity. PMID:26462691

  7. Boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) continue to release pheromone following host removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  8. Predicted taxonomic patterns in pheromone production by longhorned beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Ann M.; Lacey, Emerson S.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2006-11-01

    Males of five species of three tribes in the longhorned beetle subfamily Cerambycinae produce volatile pheromones that share a structural motif (hydroxyl or carbonyl groups at carbons two and three in straight-chains of six, eight, or ten carbons). Pheromone gland pores are present on the prothoraces of males, but are absent in females, suggesting that male-specific gland pores could provide a convenient morphological indication that a species uses volatile pheromones. In this article, we assess the taxonomic distribution of gland pores within the Cerambycinae by examining males and females of 65 species in 24 tribes using scanning electron microscopy. Gland pores were present in males and absent in females of 49 species, but absent in both sexes of the remaining 16 species. Pores were confined to indentations in the cuticle. Among the species that had male-specific gland pores were four species already known to produce volatile compounds consistent with the structural motif. These findings support the initial assumption that gland pores are associated with the production of pheromones by males. There were apparently no taxonomic patterns in the presence of gland pores. These findings suggest that volatile pheromones play an important role in reproduction for many species of the Cerambycinae, and that the trait is evolutionarily labile.

  9. Pheromone-evoked potentials and oscillations in the antennal lobes of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Heinbockel, T; Kloppenburg, P; Hildebrand, J G

    1998-06-01

    Using intra- and extracellular recording methods, we studied the activity of pheromone-responsive projection neurons in the antennal lobe of the moth Manduca sexta. Intracellularly recorded responses of neurons to antennal stimulation with the pheromone blend characteristically included both inhibitory and excitatory stages of various strengths. To observe the activity of larger groups of neurons, we recorded responses extracellularly in the macroglomerular complex of the antennal lobe. The macroglomerular complex is part of a specialized olfactory subsystem and the site of first-order central processing of sex-pheromonal information. Odors such as the pheromone blend and host-plant (tobacco) volatiles gave rise to evoked potentials that were reproducible upon repeated antennal stimulation. Evoked potentials showed overriding high-frequency oscillations when the antenna was stimulated with the pheromone blend or with either one of the two key pheromone components. The frequency of the oscillations was in the range of 30-50 Hz. Amplitude and frequency of the oscillations varied during the response to pheromonal stimulation. Recording intracellular and extracellular activity simultaneously revealed phase-locking of action potentials to potential oscillations. The results suggest that the activity of neurons of the macroglomerular complex was temporally synchronized, potentially to strengthen the pheromone signal and to improve olfactory perception. PMID:9631552

  10. Ovarian steroid sulphate functions as priming pheromone in male Barilius bendelisis (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, J P; Sajwan, M S

    2001-06-01

    The study reveals that pre-ovulatory females of the fish Barilius bendelisis (Ham.) release sex steroids and their conjugates into the water and that a steroid sulphate of these compounds functions as a potent sex pheromone which stimulates milt production in conspecific males prior to spawning. Since males exposed to the purified subfraction III of the steroid sulphate fraction have increased milt volume and more spermatozoa with greater motility, the function of this priming pheromone appears to be to enhance male spawning success. High turbulence and faster water currents render the hillstream ecosystem extremely challenging for chemical communication. Therefore, ovulatory female fish secrete highly water soluble steroid sulphates for rapid pheromonal action in males. Inhibited milt volume in olfactory tract lesioned (OTL) males exposed to the steroid sulphate fraction and 17alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one supports the concept that the pheromonally induced priming effect in male fish is mediated through olfactory pathways. PMID:11426061

  11. Distinct Signals Conveyed by Pheromone Concentrations to the Mouse Vomeronasal Organ

    PubMed Central

    He, Jie; Ma, Limei; Kim, Sangseong; Schwartz, Joel; Santilli, Michael; Wood, Christopher; Durnin, Michael H.; Yu, C. Ron

    2010-01-01

    In mammalian species, detection of pheromone cues by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) at different concentrations can elicit distinct behavioral responses and endocrine changes. It is not well understood how concentration-dependent activation of the VNO impacts innate behaviors. In this study, we find that when mice investigate the urogenital areas of a conspecific animal, the urinary pheromones can reach the VNO at a concentration of ~1% of that in urine. At this level, urinary pheromones elicit responses from a subset of cells that are tuned to sex-specific cues and provide unambiguous identification of the sex and strain of animals. In contrast, low concentrations of urine do not activate these cells. Strikingly, we find a population of neurons that is only activated by low concentrations of urine. The properties of these neurons are not found in neurons responding to putative single pheromones. Further analyses show that these neurons are masked by high concentration pheromones. Thus, an antagonistic interaction in natural pheromones results in the activation of distinct populations of cells at different concentrations. The differential activation is likely to trigger different downstream circuitry and underlies the concentration-dependent pheromone perception. PMID:20519522

  12. TICK PHEROMONES AND USES THEREOF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subject invention provides materials and methods for tick control. The tick control methods of the subject invention are particularly advantageous because they utilize natural chemical signals (pheromones) in combination with an acaricide. The use of environmentally friendly pheromones makes i...

  13. Chemical communication in scarab beetles: reciprocal behavioral agonist-antagonist activities of chiral pheromones.

    PubMed Central

    Leal, W S

    1996-01-01

    A novel mechanism of reciprocal behavioral agonist-antagonist activities of enantiomeric pheromones plays a pivotal role in overcoming the signal-to-noise problem derived from the use of a single-constituent pheromone system in scarab beetles. Female Anomala osakana produce (S, Z)-5-(+)-(1-decenyl)oxacyclopentan-2-one, which is highly attractive to males; the response is completely inhibited even by 5% of its antipode. These two enantiomers have reverse roles in the Popillia japonica sex pheromone system. Chiral GC-electroantennographic detector experiments suggest that A. osakana and P. japonica have both R and S receptors that are responsible for behavioral agonist and antagonist responses. PMID:8901541

  14. Sex and the nose: human pheromonal responses

    PubMed Central

    Bhutta, Mr Mahmood F

    2007-01-01

    The chemosensory functions of the human nose are underappreciated. Traditional teaching is that the sense of smell detects volatile compounds, which may then allow the identification of substances that may be beneficial or harmful—such as good versus putrefied food. However, increasing evidence from research in other animals suggests that olfaction may serve another and more important purpose, that of mate selection in sexual reproduction; indeed, olfaction may be an essential impetus for evolution. PMID:17541097

  15. Optimizing Generic Cerambycid Pheromone Lures for Australian Biosecurity and Biodiversity Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R A; Griffiths, M W; Nahrung, H F; Arnold, P A; Hanks, L M; Millar, J G

    2016-08-01

    The cerambycid beetles comprise a diverse family that includes many economically important pests of living and dead trees. Pheromone lures have been developed for cerambycids in many parts of the world, but to date, have not been tested in Australia. In this study, we tested the efficacy of several pheromones, identified from North American and European species, as attractants for cerambycids at three sites in southeast Queensland, Australia. Over two field seasons, we trapped 863 individuals from 47 cerambycid species. In the first season, racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one was the most attractive compound among the eight pheromones tested. Subsequently, we aimed to optimize trapping success by combining this compound with other components. However, neither the addition of other pheromone components nor host plant volatiles improved the efficacy of 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one alone. We also tested a generic pheromone blend developed for North American cerambycids, and found that only the combination of this blend with host plant volatiles improved trapping success. The Australian cerambycid fauna is not well known, and effective lures for use in trapping beetles would greatly assist in the study of this important group. Effective semiochemical lures would also have implications for biosecurity through improved monitoring for invasive species. PMID:27247298

  16. Behavioral Responses of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Different Enantiomer Concentrations and Blends of the Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Grandisoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Hock, Virginia; Chouinard, Gérald; Lucas, Éric; Cormier, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E; Zhang, Aijun; Pichette, André

    2015-04-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of fruit in North America. Males produce an aggregation pheromone (grandisoic acid) that attracts both sexes of the northern univoltine and the southern multivoltine strains. Grandisoic acid ((1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclobutaneacetic acid) is a chiral molecule containing one chiral center. A synthetic racemic mixture will contain two optical isomers that are mirror images of each other with equal amounts of (+)- and (-)-enantiomeric isomers. Male plum curculio only produce the (+) enantiomer. Some enantiomers can have antagonistic effects on the attraction of weevils to pheromones. An understanding of the effect of both enantiomers on the behaviour of plum curculio is needed to develop more efficient trap baits. Behavioural bioassays were conducted in a dual-choice still-air vertical olfactometer using a quantity of 1.5 ml of both (+) and (-) synthetic enantiomers and the racemic mixture of grandisoic acid with live female responders to determine which concentration and enantiomeric purity is the most attractive and if there is an antagonistic effect of the unnatural (-) enantiomer. Results indicated that plum curculio were attracted to low concentrations of the (+) enantiomer at 72% enantiomeric excess, but that strains were attracted to different concentrations of the (+) enantiomer (2×10(-7) mg/ml for univoltine, 2×10(-9) mg/ml for multivoltine). PMID:26470165

  17. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM. PMID:18613577

  18. Exposure to Female Fertility Pheromones Influences Men’s Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Robin; Goldman, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that humans consciously use alcohol to encourage sexual activity. The current study investigated whether decision-making about alcohol use and sex can be cued outside of awareness by recently revealed sexual signaling mechanisms. Specifically, we examined if males exposed without their knowledge to pheromones emitted by fertile females would increase their alcohol consumption, presumably via neurobehavioral information pathways that link alcohol to sex and mating. We found that men who smelled a T-shirt worn by a fertile female drank significantly more (non-alcoholic) beer, and exhibited significantly greater approach behavior toward female cues, than those who smelled a T-shirt worn by a non-fertile female. These findings reveal previously unknown influences on human alcohol consumption, augment the research base for pheromone cuing of sexual behavior in humans, and raise the possibility that other, as yet unknown, pathways of behavioral influence may be operating hidden from view. PMID:26053321

  19. Field and Laboratory Responses of Male Leaf Roller Moths, Choristoneura rosaceana and Pandemis pyrusana, to Pheromone Concentrations in an Attracticide Paste Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Curkovic, Tomislav; Brunner, Jay F.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Male leafroller moths, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Pandemis pyrusana (Kearfott), were evaluated for responses to a paste formulation loaded with a range of concentrations of the two species' pheromone blends and evaluated in a laboratory wind tunnel and in the field. Response criteria were flight, flight towards the pheromone source, and contact with the pheromone source for the wind tunnel assays, and capture of moths in traps for the field tests. In the wind tunnel and field, responses of males of both species to the paste generally increased as the pheromone concentration in the paste was increased. There was little response by either species to paste with less than 0.16% pheromone. The relationship between pheromone concentration and response for P. pyrusana was linear and for C. rosaceana was sinusoidal over the range of pheromone concentrations tested. These patterns were seen both in the wind tunnel and in the field. Initial release rates from the paste of (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate, the main component of the pheromone blends of both species was 3.6–3.8 ng/h. Inhibitory thresholds for responses were not reached for either species, using pheromone concentrations as high as 16%, in either the wind tunnel or the field. For both species, response of males to rubber septa with one mg pheromone loads was similar to the response to the paste with pheromone at concentrations greater than 3–4%. For C. rosaceana, rates of contact with the paste in the wind tunnel were statistically similar to rates of contact in response to conspecific females, with paste pheromone concentrations above 1.6%. Response rates for males of P. pyrusana were significantly lower to the paste than to conspecific females at all paste pheromone concentrations tested. Overall, the optimum pheromone concentration in the paste for moth attraction to contact was 3.2 % for C. rosaceana and 8% for P. pyrusana. PMID:19619030

  20. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Pheromone Glands of Mated and Virgin Bombyx mori by Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Yin, Xinming; Du, Mengfang; Song, Qisheng; An, Shiheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Mating decreases female receptivity and terminates sex pheromone production in moths. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating the mating-regulated inactivation of pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) secretion, little is known about the mating induced gene expression profiles in pheromone glands (PGs). In this study, the associated genes involved in Bombyx mori mating were identified through digital gene expression (DGE) profiling and subsequent RNA interference (RNAi) to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the mating-regulated gene expression in PGs. Results Eight DGE libraries were constructed from the PGs of mated and virgin females: 1 h mating (M1)/virgin (V1) PGs, 3 h mating (M3)/virgin (V3) PGs, 24 h mating (M24)/virgin (V24) PGs and 48 h mating (M48)/virgin (V48) PGs (M48 and V48). These libraries were used to investigate the gene expression profiles affected by mating. DGE profiling revealed a series of genes showing differential expression in each set of mated and virgin female samples, including immune-associated genes, sex pheromone synthesis-associated genes, juvenile hormone (JH) signal-associated genes, etc. Most interestingly, JH signal was found to be activated by mating. Application of the JH mimics, methoprene to the newly-emerged virgin females leaded to the significant reduction of sex pheromone production. RNAi-mediated knockdown of putative JH receptor gene, Methoprene tolerant 1 (Met1), in female pupa resulted in a significant decrease in sex pheromone production in mature females, suggesting the importance of JH in sex pheromone synthesis. Conclusion A series of differentially expressed genes in PGs in response to mating was identified. This study improves our understanding of the role of JH signaling on the mating-elicited termination of sex pheromone production. PMID:25330197

  1. Identification of functionally important residues in the silkmoth pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide receptor, an insect ortholog of the vertebrate Neuromedin U Receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biosynthesis of sex pheromone components in many lepidopteran insects is regulated by interactions between pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) and the PBAN receptor (PBANR), a class-A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). To identify functionally important amino acid residues in t...

  2. The pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) receptor of Heliothis virescens: Identification, functional expression, and structure-activity relationships of ligand analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) promotes synthesis and release of sex pheromones in moths. We have identified and functionally expressed a PBAN receptor from Heliothis virescens (HevPBANR) and elucidated structure-activity relationships of PBAN analogs. Screening of a larval C...

  3. Changes in Odor Background Affect the Locomotory Response to Pheromone in Moths

    PubMed Central

    Party, Virginie; Hanot, Christophe; Büsser, Daniela Schmidt; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Many animals rely on chemical cues to recognize and locate a resource, and they must extract the relevant information from a complex and changing odor environment. For example, in moths, finding a mate is mediated by a sex pheromone, which is detected in a rich environment of volatile plant compounds. Here, we investigated the effects of a volatile plant background on the walking response of male Spodoptera littoralis to the female pheromone. Males were stimulated by combining pheromone with one of three plant compounds, and their walking paths were recorded with a locomotion compensator and analyzed. We found that the addition of certain volatile plant compounds disturbed the orientation toward the sex pheromone. The effect on locomotion was correlated with the capacity of the plant compound to antagonize pheromone detection by olfactory receptor neurons, suggesting a masking effect of the background over the pheromone signal. Moths were more sensitive to changes in background compared to a constant background, suggesting that a background odor also acts as a distracting stimulus. Our experiments show that the effects of odorant background on insect responses to chemical signals are complex and cannot be explained by a single mechanism. PMID:23301000

  4. Sex ratio in Diabroticina beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on cucurbitacin traps and baits depends on the distribution of the attractant source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbitacin-rich juices attract large numbers of diabroticine beetles of many species, for which they have been studied and applied in traps and toxic baits. Although laboratory tests indicate both males and females feed avidly on them, field trials reveal that males are far more attracted than fem...

  5. An anti-steroidogenic inhibitory primer pheromone in male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Wang, Huiyong; Bryan, Mara B.; Wu, Hong; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive functions can be modulated by both stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromones released by conspecifics. Many stimulatory primer pheromones have been documented, but relatively few inhibitory primer pheromones have been reported in vertebrates. The sea lamprey male sex pheromone system presents an advantageous model to explore the stimulatory and inhibitory primer pheromone functions in vertebrates since several pheromone components have been identified. We hypothesized that a candidate sex pheromone component, 7α, 12α-dihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one-24-oic acid (3 keto-allocholic acid or 3kACA), exerts priming effects through the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To test this hypothesis, we measured the peptide concentrations and gene expressions of lamprey gonadotropin releasing hormones (lGnRH) and the HPG output in immature male sea lamprey exposed to waterborne 3kACA. Exposure to waterborne 3kACA altered neuronal activation markers such as jun and jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and lGnRH mRNA levels in the brain. Waterborne 3kACA also increased lGnRH-III, but not lGnRH-I or -II, in the forebrain. In the plasma, 3kACA exposure decreased all three lGnRH peptide concentrations after 1 h exposure. After 2 h exposure, 3kACA increased lGnRHI and -III, but decreased lGnRH-II peptide concentrations in the plasma. Plasma lGnRH peptide concentrations showed differential phasic patterns. Group housing condition appeared to increase the averaged plasma lGnRH levels in male sea lamprey compared to isolated males. Interestingly, 15α-hydroxyprogesterone (15α-P) concentrations decreased after prolonged 3kACA exposure (at least 24 h). To our knowledge, this is the only known synthetic vertebrate pheromone component that inhibits steroidogenesis in males.

  6. Neurogenic and Neuroendocrine Effects of Goldfish Pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) use reproductive hormones as endocrine signals to synchronize sexual behavior with gamete maturation, and as exogenous signals (pheromones) to mediate spawning interactions between conspecifics. We examined the differential effects of two hormonal pheromones, prostagland...

  7. Attractiveness of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica, aggregation pheromone: field response to isomers, ratios, and dose.

    PubMed

    Weber, Donald C; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo; DiMeglio, Anthony S; Athanas, Michael M; Leskey, Tracy C; Khrimian, Ashot

    2014-12-01

    A two-component pheromone, (3S,6S,7R,10S)- and (3S,6S,7R,10R)-10,11-epoxy-1-bisabolen-3-ol (murgantiol), present in emissions from adult male harlequin bugs, Murgantia histrionica, is most attractive in field bioassays to adults and nymphs in the naturally occurring ratio of ca. 1.4:1. Each of the two individual synthetic stereoisomers is highly attractive to male and female adults and nymphs, but is more attractive in combination and when deployed with a harlequin bug host plant. Blends of 8 stereoisomers also are highly attractive, suggesting that isomers not found in the natural pheromone are not repellent. Deployment of an inexpensive non-stereospecific synthetic pheromone holds promise for efficient trapping and/or use in trap-crops for this important pest in North America. PMID:25380993

  8. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hua; Hurt, K Joseph; Breen, Kelsey; Stabler, Sally P; Allen, Robert H; Orlicky, David J; Maclean, Kenneth N

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap. PMID:26276101

  9. Sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine oxidation and the methionine and folate cycles in female cystathionine gamma-lyase null mice: a serendipitous model of the methylfolate trap

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hua; Hurt, K. Joseph; Breen, Kelsey; Stabler, Sally P.; Allen, Robert H.; Orlicky, David J.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In addition to its role in the endogenous synthesis of cysteine, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CGL) is a major physiological source of the vasorelaxant hydrogen sulfide. Cgl null mice are potentially useful for studying the influence of this compound upon vascular tone and endothelial function. Here, we confirm a previous report that female Cgl null mice exhibit an approximate 45-fold increase in plasma total homocysteine compared to wild type controls. This level of homocysteine is approximately 3.5-fold higher than that observed in male Cgl null mice and is essentially equivalent to that observed in mouse models of cystathionine beta synthase deficient homocystinuria. Cgl null mice of both sexes exhibited decreased expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase compared to WT controls. Female Cgl null mice exhibited a sex-specific induction of betaine homocysteine S-methyltransferase and methionine adenosyltransferase 1, alpha and a 70% decrease in methionine synthase expression accompanied by significantly decreased plasma methionine. Decreased plasma cysteine levels in female Cgl null mice were associated with sex-specific dysregulation of cysteine dioxygenase expression. Comparative histological assessment between cystathionine beta-synthase and Cgl null mice indicated that the therapeutic potential of cystathionine against liver injury merits possible further investigation. Collectively, our data demonstrates the importance of considering sex when investigating mouse models of inborn errors of metabolism and indicate that while female Cgl null mice are of questionable utility for studying the physiological role of hydrogen sulfide, they could serve as a useful model for studying the consequences of methionine synthase deficiency and the methylfolate trap. PMID:26276101

  10. Trap Response of Abagrotis orbis (Grote) Cutworm Moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to a Sex Attractant Lure in Grape Vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of Abagrotis orbis (Grote) are climbing cutworms and can damage grapevines (Vitis sp.) in early spring when they consume the expanding buds. A sex attractant would likely be useful for monitoring this insect in commercial grape vineyards. (Z)-7-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acet...

  11. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  12. Single-Component Pheromone Consisting of Bombykal in a Diurnal Hawk Moth, Neogurelca himachala sangaica.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Kitahara, Hiroshi; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Recent work has suggested that hawk moths share pheromone components but are sexually separated by qualitative and quantitative differences in their pheromone blends. During field assays on the sex pheromones of other species, a diurnal hawk moth, Neogurelca himachala sangaica (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), was frequently captured, but the composition of the sex pheromone of this species was not known. Analysis of hexane extracts of the pheromone glands of calling female by gas chromatography (GC) using an electroantennographic detector (EAD) revealed two components that elicited EAD responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified by their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns as (10E,12Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald) and a trace of its (10E,12E)-isomer (E10,E12-16:Ald) in 98:2 ratio. In field experiments, E10,Z12-16:Ald alone attracted male moths, and addition of E10,E12-16:Ald significantly reduced the attractiveness, even at the naturally-occurring ratio. Analysis of the data using a generalized linear mixed model showed that E10,Z12-16:Ald positively contributed to attractiveness, whereas E10,E12-16:Ald did so negatively, and it was concluded that the sex pheromone of N. himachala sangaica consists solely of E10,Z12-16:Ald, bombykal. The negative effect of E10,E12-16:Ald on attractiveness could promote the species-specificity of this single-component pheromone system. PMID:27300505

  13. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  14. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  15. Monitoring two native Spodoptera species using an exotic pheromone lure developed for an exotic species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pheromone lure for the exotic species Spodoptera exempta was successful at attracting two native species, S. latifascia and S. albula. Trapping was conducted in north-central Florida and in southern Texas. Large numbers of both native species were collected throughout the season....

  16. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates.

    PubMed

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S; Thorpe, Kevin W; Hickman, Andrea D; Leonard, Donna S; Roberts, E Anderson; Tobin, Patrick C

    2013-01-01

    Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GM(TM), in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment. PMID:26466798

  17. Persistence of the Gypsy Moth Pheromone, Disparlure, in the Environment in Various Climates

    PubMed Central

    Onufrieva, Ksenia S.; Thorpe, Kevin W.; Hickman, Andrea D.; Leonard, Donna S.; Roberts, E. Anderson; Tobin, Patrick C.

    2013-01-01

    Mating disruption techniques are used in pest control for many species of insects, yet little is known regarding the environmental persistence of these pheromones following their application and if persistence is affected by climatic conditions. We first studied the persistent effect of ground applications of Luretape® GM in Lymantria dispar (L) mating disruption in VA, USA in 2006. The removal of Luretape® GM indicated that the strong persistent effect of disparlure in the environment reported by previous studies is produced by residual pheromone in the dispensers as opposed to environmental contamination. In 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of two formulations, Disrupt® II and SPLAT GMTM, in VA and WI, USA, which presented different climatic conditions. In plots treated in WI and VA, male moth catches in pheromone-baited traps were reduced in the year of treatment and one year after the pheromone applications relative to untreated controls. However, similar first- and second-year effects of pheromone treatments in VA and WI suggest that the release rate over one and two years was the same across markedly different climates. Future applications that use liquid or biodegradable formulations of synthetic pheromones could reduce the amount of persistence in the environment. PMID:26466798

  18. Role of Enhancer of zeste on the Production of Drosophila melanogaster Pheromonal Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicker-Thomas, C.; Jallon, J.-M.

    In a search for genes controlling the production of Drosophila melanogaster contact pheromones, the gene Enhancer of zeste [E(z)] was found to be one player. Flies mutant for either the amorphic or the antimorphic allele of E(z) showed a similar hydrocarbon phenotype as those with the overlapping Df lxd15deficiency: decreased amounts of total hydrocarbons and especially unsaturated ones in both sexes. The decrease in the level of D. melanogaster female sex pheromone 7,11-heptacosadiene was dramatic and was correlated with an increase in 7-heptacosene. Females mutant for a gain-of-function allele had increased amounts of total hydrocarbons with wild-type proportions of dienes. Thus the E(z) gene seems to affect hydrocarbon biosynthesis, especially its desaturation steps and even more so the female-specific desaturation step transforming 7-monoenic fatty acids to 7,11-dienic ones and leading to female pheromones.

  19. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  20. The neuropeptide tachykinin is essential for pheromone detection in a gustatory neural circuit

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Shruti; Chua, Jia Yi; Tan, Kah Junn; Calvert, Meredith EK; Weng, Ruifen; Ng, Wan Chin; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y

    2015-01-01

    Gustatory pheromones play an essential role in shaping the behavior of many organisms. However, little is known about the processing of taste pheromones in higher order brain centers. Here, we describe a male-specific gustatory circuit in Drosophila that underlies the detection of the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone (3R,11Z,19Z)-3-acetoxy-11,19-octacosadien-1-ol (CH503). Using behavioral analysis, genetic manipulation, and live calcium imaging, we show that Gr68a-expressing neurons on the forelegs of male flies exhibit a sexually dimorphic physiological response to the pheromone and relay information to the central brain via peptidergic neurons. The release of tachykinin from 8 to 10 cells within the subesophageal zone is required for the pheromone-triggered courtship suppression. Taken together, this work describes a neuropeptide-modulated central brain circuit that underlies the programmed behavioral response to a gustatory sex pheromone. These results will allow further examination of the molecular basis by which innate behaviors are modulated by gustatory cues and physiological state. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06914.001 PMID:26083710

  1. A host beetle pheromone regulates development and behavior in the nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    PubMed Central

    Cinkornpumin, Jessica K; Wisidagama, Dona R; Rapoport, Veronika; Go, James L; Dieterich, Christoph; Wang, Xiaoyue; Sommer, Ralf J; Hong, Ray L

    2014-01-01

    Nematodes and insects are the two most speciose animal phyla and nematode–insect associations encompass widespread biological interactions. To dissect the chemical signals and the genes mediating this association, we investigated the effect of an oriental beetle sex pheromone on the development and behavior of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus. We found that while the beetle pheromone is attractive to P. pacificus adults, the pheromone arrests embryo development, paralyzes J2 larva, and inhibits exit of dauer larvae. To uncover the mechanism that regulates insect pheromone sensitivity, a newly identified mutant, Ppa-obi-1, is used to reveal the molecular links between altered attraction towards the beetle pheromone, as well as hypersensitivity to its paralyzing effects. Ppa-obi-1 encodes lipid-binding domains and reaches its highest expression in various cell types, including the amphid neuron sheath and excretory cells. Our data suggest that the beetle host pheromone may be a species-specific volatile synomone that co-evolved with necromeny. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03229.001 PMID:25317948

  2. Ligand specificity of pheromone-binding proteins of the processionary moth.

    PubMed

    Feixas, J; Prestwich, G D; Guerrero, A

    1995-12-01

    Photoaffinity labeling of proteins extracted from sensory hairs and antennal branches of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa with a tritium-labeled diazoacetate analogue of the sex pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate revealed a 15-kDa pheromone-binding protein in male moth sensory hairs (SH-15). A different 15-kDa protein in male antennal branches (B-15) was not photolabeled. All extracts except male sensory hairs showed a photolabeled 20-kDa protein; a photolabeled male 30-kDa protein in the branches (B-30) was also observed. The 20-kDa proteins in the sensory hairs (SH-20) and branches (B-20) showed differing affinities for the photoaffinity analogues; moreover, SH-15 exhibits higher affinity for the natural pheromone, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate, than for its alcohol metabolite and other analogues in competitive displacement experiments. The affinity shown by the pheromone-binding protein for the metabolic product suggests that the alcohol may be also transported by the binding protein. Interestingly, a shift in labeling from SH-15 to SH-20 was produced in the presence of an excess of the natural pheromone, its alcohol and other analogues. The binding showed little discrimination among structurally similar analogues of the pheromone, while saturated and aromatic molecules showed little affinity for the proteins of either sensory hairs or antennal branches. PMID:8536698

  3. Ligands for pheromone-sensing neurons are not conformationally activated odorant binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Reina, Jaime H; Cambillau, Christian; Benton, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pheromones form an essential chemical language of intraspecific communication in many animals. How olfactory systems recognize pheromonal signals with both sensitivity and specificity is not well understood. An important in vivo paradigm for this process is the detection mechanism of the sex pheromone (Z)-11-octadecenyl acetate (cis-vaccenyl acetate [cVA]) in Drosophila melanogaster. cVA-evoked neuronal activation requires a secreted odorant binding protein, LUSH, the CD36-related transmembrane protein SNMP, and the odorant receptor OR67d. Crystallographic analysis has revealed that cVA-bound LUSH is conformationally distinct from apo (unliganded) LUSH. Recombinantly expressed mutant versions of LUSH predicted to enhance or diminish these structural changes produce corresponding alterations in spontaneous and/or cVA-evoked activity when infused into olfactory sensilla, leading to a model in which the ligand for pheromone receptors is not free cVA, but LUSH that is "conformationally activated" upon cVA binding. Here we present evidence that contradicts this model. First, we demonstrate that the same LUSH mutants expressed transgenically affect neither basal nor pheromone-evoked activity. Second, we compare the structures of apo LUSH, cVA/LUSH, and complexes of LUSH with non-pheromonal ligands and find no conformational property of cVA/LUSH that can explain its proposed unique activated state. Finally, we show that high concentrations of cVA can induce neuronal activity in the absence of LUSH, but not SNMP or OR67d. Our findings are not consistent with the model that the cVA/LUSH complex acts as the pheromone ligand, and suggest that pheromone molecules alone directly activate neuronal receptors. PMID:23637570

  4. PHEROMONE-BASED ATTRACTANT FOR MALES OF CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), is an invasive pest of Opuntia spp. Since its arrival in the Florida Keys in 1989, it has moved rapidly up the east and west coasts of Florida, threatening to invade the southwestern United States and Mexico. Female moths produce a sex pheromone that ...

  5. Tarsi of male heliothine moths contain aldehydes and butyrate esters as potential pheromone components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Noctuidae is one of the most specious moth families and contains the genera Helicoverpa and Heliothis. Their major sex pheromone component is (Z)-11-hexadecenal except for Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa gelotopoeon both of which utilize (Z)-9-hexadecenal. The minor components of heliothine ...

  6. MATING DISRUPTION OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH BY CONCENTRATED APPLICATIONS OF MICROENCAPSULATED PHEROMONE IN TURKEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of ultra low-volume, concentrated applications of a microencapsulated sex pheromone formulation for the Oriental fruit moth (OFM) Grapholita molesta (Busck) was evaluated in 2006. Large plots, 4 ha for each treatment, were established at two locations near Bursa, northwestern Turkey. Th...

  7. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  8. A novel pheromone dispenser for mating disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sex pheromone of the citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella, was deployed in a Florida citrus grove using a novel deployment device containing SPLAT™, a flowable formulation of an emulsified wax compound designed to provide slow release of semiochemicals. The device consisted of two disks con...

  9. Mobile mating disruption of light brown apple moths using pheromone-treated sterile Mediterranean fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public opposition to aerial application of sex pheromone for mating disruption of light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana, LBAM) in California stopped its further use in the ca. $74 million eradication programme in 2008, underscoring the need for other eradication tactics. We demonstrate that ...

  10. An antennal circadian clock and circadian rhythms in peripheral pheromone reception in the moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Christine; Lucas, Philippe; Rochat, Didier; François, Marie-Christine; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2007-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are observed in mating behaviors in moths: females emit sex pheromones and males are attracted by these pheromones in rhythmic fashions. In the moth Spodoptera littoralis, we demonstrated the occurrence of a circadian oscillator in the antenna, the peripheral olfactory organ. We identified different clock genes, period (per), cryptochrome1 (cry1) and cryptochrome2 (cry2), in this organ. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we found that their corresponding transcripts cycled circadianly in the antenna as well as in the brain. Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings over 24 h demonstrated for the first time a circadian rhythm in antennal responses of a moth to sex pheromone. qPCR showed that out of one pheromone-binding protein (PBP), one olfactory receptor (OR), and one odorant-degrading enzyme (ODE), all putatively involved in the pheromone reception, only the ODE transcript presented a circadian rhythm that may be related to rhythms in olfactory signal resolution. Peripheral or central circadian clock control of olfaction is then discussed in light of recent data. PMID:18057325

  11. Courtship Pheromone Use in a Model Urodele, the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    PubMed Central

    Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Mortier, Anneleen; Proost, Paul; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Sex pheromones have been shown to constitute a crucial aspect of salamander reproduction. Until now, courtship pheromones of Salamandridae and Plethodontidae have been intensively studied, but information on chemical communication in other urodelan families is essentially lacking. The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum, Ambystomatidae) has a courtship display that suggests a key role for chemical communication in the orchestration of its sexual behavior, but no sex pheromones have yet been characterized from this species. Here we combined whole transcriptome analyses of the male cloaca with proteomic analyses of water in which axolotls were allowed to court to show that male axolotls secrete multiple ca. 20 kDa glycosylated sodefrin precursor-like factor (SPF) proteins during courtship. In combination with phylogenetic analyses, our data show that the male cloaca essentially secretes a courtship-specific clade of SPF proteins that is orthologous to salamandrid courtship pheromones. In addition, we identified an SPF protein for which no orthologs have been described from other salamanders so far. Overall, our study advocates a central role for SPF proteins during the courtship display of axolotls and adds knowledge on pheromone use in a previously unexplored deep evolutionary branch of salamander evolution. PMID:26842386

  12. Courtship Pheromone Use in a Model Urodele, the Mexican Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Maex, Margo; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Mortier, Anneleen; Proost, Paul; Bossuyt, Franky

    2016-01-01

    Sex pheromones have been shown to constitute a crucial aspect of salamander reproduction. Until now, courtship pheromones of Salamandridae and Plethodontidae have been intensively studied, but information on chemical communication in other urodelan families is essentially lacking. The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum, Ambystomatidae) has a courtship display that suggests a key role for chemical communication in the orchestration of its sexual behavior, but no sex pheromones have yet been characterized from this species. Here we combined whole transcriptome analyses of the male cloaca with proteomic analyses of water in which axolotls were allowed to court to show that male axolotls secrete multiple ca. 20 kDa glycosylated sodefrin precursor-like factor (SPF) proteins during courtship. In combination with phylogenetic analyses, our data show that the male cloaca essentially secretes a courtship-specific clade of SPF proteins that is orthologous to salamandrid courtship pheromones. In addition, we identified an SPF protein for which no orthologs have been described from other salamanders so far. Overall, our study advocates a central role for SPF proteins during the courtship display of axolotls and adds knowledge on pheromone use in a previously unexplored deep evolutionary branch of salamander evolution. PMID:26842386

  13. Volatile pheromone signalling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean P

    2012-03-01

    Once captured by the antenna, 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA) binds to an extracellular binding protein called LUSH that undergoes a conformational shift upon cVA binding. The stable LUSH-cVA complex is the activating ligand for pheromone receptors present on the dendrites of the aT1 neurones, comprising the only neurones that detect cVA pheromone. This mechanism explains the single molecule sensitivity of insect pheromone detection systems. The receptor that recognizes activated LUSH consists of a complex of several proteins, including Or67d, a member of the tuning odourant receptor family, Orco, a co-receptor ion channel, and SNMP, a CD36 homologue that may be an inhibitory subunit. In addition, genetic screens and reconstitution experiments reveal additional factors that are important for pheromone detection. Identification and functional dissection of these factors in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen should permit the identification of homologous factors in pathogenic insects and agricultural pests, which, in turn, may be viable candidates for novel classes of compounds to control populations of target insect species without impacting beneficial species. PMID:24347807

  14. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    PubMed

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey. PMID:16222791

  15. A pear-derived kairomone with pheromonal potency that attracts male and female codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Douglas M.; Knight, Alan L.; Henrick, Clive A.; Rajapaska, Dayananda; Lingren, Bill; Dickens, Joseph C.; Reynolds, Katherine M.; Buttery, Ronald G.; Merrill, Gloria; Roitman, James; Campbell, Bruce C.

    2001-08-01

    Ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate, a pear-derived volatile, is a species-specific, durable, and highly potent attractant to the codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.), a serious pest of walnuts, apples, and pears worldwide. This kairomone attracts both CM males and virgin and mated females. It is highly attractive to CM in both walnut and apple orchard contexts, but has shown limited effectiveness in a pear orchard context. Rubber septa lures loaded with ethyl (2 E, 4 Z)-2,4-decadienoate remained attractive for several months under field conditions. At the same low microgram load rates on septa, the combined gender capture of CM in kairomone-baited traps was similar to the capture rate of males in traps baited with codlemone, the major sex pheromone component. The particular attribute of attracting CM females renders this kairomone a novel tool for monitoring population flight and mating-ovipositional status, and potentially a major new weapon for directly controlling CM populations.

  16. Sequence similarity and functional comparisons of pheromone receptor orthologs in two closely related Helicoverpa species.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Hao; Di, Chang; Yu, Shanlin; Zhu, Ligui; Huang, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Chen-Zhu

    2014-05-01

    The olfactory system of moth species in subfamily Heliothinae is an attractive model to study the evolution of the pheromone reception because they show distinct differentiation in sex pheromone components or ratios that activate pheromone receptors (PRs). However, functional assessment of PRs in closely related species remains largely untried. Here we present a special cloning strategy to isolate full-length cDNAs encoding candidate odorant receptors (ORs) from Helicoverpa armigera (Harm) and Helicoverpa assulta (Hass) on the basis of Heliothis virescens ORs, and investigate the functional properties of PRs to determine how the evolution of moth PRs contribute to intraspecific mating choice and speciation extension. We cloned 11 OR orthologs from H. armigera and 10 from H. assulta. We functionally characterized the responses of PRs of both species to seven pheromone compounds using the heterologous expression system of Xenopus ooctyes. HassOR13 was found to be highly tuned to the sex pheromone component Z11-16:Ald, and unexpectedly, both HarmOR14b and HassOR16 were specific for Z9-14:Ald. However, HarmOR6 and HassOR6 showed much higher specificity to Z9-16:OH than to Z9-16:Ald or Z9-14:Ald. HarmOR11, HarmOR14a, HassOR11 and HassOR14b failed to respond to the tested chemicals. Based on our results and previous research, we can show that some PR orthologs from H. armigera, H. assulta and H. virescens such as OR13s have similar ligand selectivity, but others have different ligand specificity. The combined PR function and sex pheromone component analysis suggests that the evolution of PRs can meet species-specific demands. PMID:24632377

  17. Hormones and pheromones in regulation of insect behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both pheromones and hormones are well recognized regulators of insect biology. However, the interactions between hormones and pheromones in coordinating insect biology are less well understood. We have studied the interactions between juvenile hormone, its precursor methyl farnesoate, and pheromon...

  18. Evaporation rate of emulsion and oil-base emulsion pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of pheromone evaporation rate is critical to distribute pheromone containers effectively in the forest, orchard and field. There are several factors influencing the pheromone evaporation rate that include wind speed, container size and porosity, release area, temperature, humidity, pherom...

  19. Brain response to putative pheromones in homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; Lindström, Per

    2005-05-17

    The testosterone derivative 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and the estrogen-like steroid estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST) are candidate compounds for human pheromones. AND is detected primarily in male sweat, whereas EST has been found in female urine. In a previous positron emission tomography study, we found that smelling AND and EST activated regions covering sexually dimorphic nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus, and that this activation was differentiated with respect to sex and compound. In the present study, the pattern of activation induced by AND and EST was compared among homosexual men, heterosexual men, and heterosexual women. In contrast to heterosexual men, and in congruence with heterosexual women, homosexual men displayed hypothalamic activation in response to AND. Maximal activation was observed in the medial preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus, which, according to animal studies, is highly involved in sexual behavior. As opposed to putative pheromones, common odors were processed similarly in all three groups of subjects and engaged only the olfactory brain (amygdala, piriform, orbitofrontal, and insular cortex). These findings show that our brain reacts differently to the two putative pheromones compared with common odors, and suggest a link between sexual orientation and hypothalamic neuronal processes. PMID:15883379

  20. Sensillar expression and responses of olfactory receptors reveal different peripheral coding in two Helicoverpa species using the same pheromone components

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hetan; Guo, Mengbo; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2016-01-01

    Male moths efficiently recognize conspecific sex pheromones thanks to their highly accurate and specific olfactory system. The Heliothis/Helicoverpa species are regarded as good models for studying the perception of sex pheromones. In this study, we performed a series of experiments to investigate the peripheral mechanisms of pheromone coding in two-closely related species, Helicoverpa armigera and H. assulta. The morphology and distribution patterns of sensilla trichoidea are similar between the two species when observed at the scanning electron microscope, but their performances are different. In H. armigera, three functional types of sensilla trichoidea (A, B and C) were found to respond to different pheromone components, while in H. assulta only two types of such sensilla (A and C) could be detected. The response profiles of all types of sensilla trichoidea in the two species well matched the specificities of the pheromone receptors (PRs) expressed in the same sensilla, as measured in voltage-clamp experiments. The expressions of PRs in neighboring olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) within the same trichoid sensillum were further confirmed by in situ hybridization. Our results show how the same pheromone components can code for different messages at the periphery of two Helicoverpa species. PMID:26744070