Sümer, Zeynep Hatipo?lu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128
Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Vincent, M L; Bartley, G L; Clearie, A F
Teachers of human sexuality classes are one of the most important factors in the success of school based programs; until recently, professionals involved in sex education acquired their expertise randomly and informally. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 16 week sexuality education training program on attitudes and knowledge about human sexuality among teachers in a public school district. 39 participants (teachers, school nurses, and psychologists) were enrolled in a University of South Carolina course which consisted of lectures, group discussions, role playing, and films. The evaluation instrument used was the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), and was administered to each participant before and after the course was given. Results show that there are significant changes in knowledge, acceptance and rejection of sexual myths, and attitudes concerning abortion and autoeroticism. The training course resulted in a shift deemed positive and conducive for teacher effectiveness in teaching sex education. There was a significant shift in a more liberal direction in all of the attitudinal scales except heterosexual relations. This positive change in attitudinal scores is essential for teachers who will be instructing students from a variety of family backgrounds. PMID:12314199
Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. PMID:23417908
Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.
This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…
Sanderson, Catherine A.
Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
Jiankang Chao; Yenchin Lin; Michia Ma; Yanchiou Ku; Chinghong Tsai; Mingder Shi
BACKGROUND: Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. METHODS: Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern
Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education PMID:20875121
Steinke, E E
Two studies using separate samples sought to explore differences among male and female elders on their knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviour using a nonexperimental approach. Two different samples from separate health and wellness groups were surveyed using the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Scale (White 1982). Additional data were collected on sexual satisfaction, sexual activity, and demographic variables. In the first study, questionnaires were mailed to the homes of 759 members of the wellness group. The second study was conducted in a similar manner, but with random selection of 400 males and 400 females. Both groups showed a moderate amount of knowledge and permissive attitudes with no significant differences observed between males and females. Reported sexual satisfaction was variable. Subjects were sexually active with activity varying from 0 to 30 times per month, with a mean of 4 times per month. Findings suggest that males and females are comparable on their knowledge and attitudes about sexuality in ageing and most are sexually active. Many are seeking further information on the impact of chronic illness and medications on sexuality. PMID:8014308
Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.
Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…
Sung, Su-Ching; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Mei-Hsiang
Promoting patients' sexual health for better quality of life is an important task for nurses. Little is known about the factors impacting nursing students to better prepare for the future nursing practice on sexual health care. The purpose of the study is to address the need for nursing education on sexuality by exploring the relationship between nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy for patients' sexual health care. A total of 190 senior nursing students were purposely enrolled to the study by answering a self-report questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results demonstrated positive correlation of the relationship between knowledge of sexual health care (KSH) and attitude to sexual health care (ASH; ? = .35, t = 3.31, P < .001), the relationship between KSH and self-efficacy for sexual health care (SESH; ? = .29, t = 2.98, P < .01), and relationship between ASH and SESH (? = .34, t = 4.30, P < .001). Therefore, nursing educators need not only provide students the knowledge and skills on sexual health care but also educate them about positive attitudes on sexuality to enhance their efficacy to deal with the patients' sexuality matters in the future nursing practice. PMID:25999199
Popovich, D M
This exploratory study assessed pediatric nurses' attitudes, knowledge, and patient care practices related to the sexuality of hospitalized preschool and early school-age children. Sexuality was defined as the sum of the physical, emotional, and psychologic attributes that are expressed in gender identity and behavior. For this study, a questionnaire containing 24 attitude, 20 knowledge, and 29 nursing practice Likert-scale items was used to survey 45 pediatric nurses in a southeastern tertiary care teaching hospital. Results indicated that, in general, the nurses surveyed had positive attitudes, sound knowledge, and appropriate practice with regard to the sexuality-related needs of their patients. However, there appeared to be some attitudinal biases and knowledge gaps that could adversely affect nursing practice. These findings were used to alter the content in pediatric nursing education at the study institution. PMID:12026337
This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…
Ehde, Dawn M.; And Others
Unmarried heterosexual college students' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, and sexual behavior were assessed before and after Magic Johnson's HIV-positive serostatus disclosure. After the disclosure, students showed small increases in HIV knowledge scores, but their attitudes, risk perceptions, and sexual…
Background Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs. Methods Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association (FPAHK) in 2011, this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1,126 unmarried youth aged 18 to 27 years. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to examine factors associated with unmarried youth’s premarital sex, casual relationships, multiple sex partners, and premarital pregnancy. Results Unmarried youth in Hong Kong had adequate sex knowledge, but contraceptive knowledge was deficient. The majority of unmarried youth (63.8%) held liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and about half held liberal attitudes toward any form of sexual activity and premarital pregnancy. Around 60% held conservative attitudes toward causal sex relationships and multiple sex partners. Males tended to hold more liberal attitudes toward high-risk sex behaviors than female youth. Approximately 41.5% of unmarried youth reported having engaged in premarital sex, whereas less than 10% engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Males also reported higher amounts of premarital sex, casual sex relationships, and multiple sex partners. Females reported higher levels of sexual coercion. Logistic regressions indicated that being older, coming from a divorced family, out of school status and liberal attitudes toward risky sex behavior were more likely to engage in premarital sex or high-risk sex behaviors, and being female, being better educated and being immigrants were less likely to engage in premarital sex. However, being immigrants was more likely to engage in casual relationship and to have multiple partners. Conclusions Premarital sex is becoming more prevalent among unmarried youth in Hong Kong, and a small proportion of young adults are engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Sex education and HIV prevention programs should equip them with adequate knowledge on contraception and condom use. Intervention programs can start with their attitudes toward sex. PMID:23895326
Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.
This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
To help support and direct the Lions Club's construction of a Community Health Clinic specializing in Reproductive and Sexual Health, this descriptive study began in November of 2004 and was completed in May 2005. The sample consists of 552 high school students in Rumiñahui County, and surveys were used to study four principle themes: reproductive and sexual health education, family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and domestic violence. The results show a widespread lack of accurate and adequate information about reproductive and sexual health. Statistically significant variables studied include sex, age, monthly income, and age of first sexual experience. Female sex, younger age, lower monthly income, and younger age of first sexual experience all contribute to a lower quality of reproductive and sexual health, in terms of having less information about and access to these four aspects of reproductive and sexual health. PMID:18523623
Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath
The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean=16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. PMID:25637417
Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A
College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women. PMID:25411811
Seher Güler; Zeynep Deniz YÖNDEM
In this study, the effect of group guidance activities regarding adolescence and sexual health education on knowledge and attitudes of 6th graders was examined. An experimental design was used as a research method, and there were 22 students in the experimental group and 24 students in the control group. In order to measure the knowledge and attitudes of students related
Mafany, N M; Mati, J K; Nasah, B T
This study examines the level of knowledge, attitude and practice in matters concerning sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among secondary school students in Fako-District, Cameroon. A substantial proportion of the respondents are sexually active and doing so with multiple sexual partners. Although 70% of respondents claimed they knew about STDs, not more than 16.1% of them could name any one common STD and give its signs or symptoms. Knowledge about prevention and complications of STDs was equally poor. The school teacher was the principal source of information followed by magazines/books. Among the respondents who had had an STD, only 8% had consulted in an STD clinic, 13.6 and 15.4% respectively to a Doctor and in Hospital, 43% received no treatment and another 19% had gone to chemist shops. The implication of these results together with the needs of the students are discussed. PMID:2282892
Is a Little Knowledge a Good Thing? College Students Gain Knowledge, but Knowledge Increase Does Not Equal Attitude Change regarding Same-Sex Sexual Orientation and Gender Reassignment Surgery in Sexuality Courses
Noland, Ramona M.; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Rosanne S.; Miller, Rowland
The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of the…
Dawood, Naseema; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kay; Chohan, Ebrahim
This study investigates the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices of adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) in relation to HIV/AIDS. Questionnaires were personally administered to a saturation sample of 90 adolescents with MMR drawn from one specialised educational institution in Durban, South Africa. The study revealed critical gaps and erroneous beliefs regarding knowledge of HIV/AIDS, especially with regard to its existence, transmission and cure. Participants indicated a high degree of exposure to various sources of information, particularly media messages. The results indicate that gender-role prescriptions and prevailing social constructions of immorality have had a negative influence on the attitudes and behaviour of participants, particularly with regard to sexual practices and preventative risk behaviours. Furthermore, the sample was found to have low levels of self-efficacy in relation to sexual negotiation and decision-making, more specifically with regard to condom use. It should be noted, however, that only a small proportion of the sample was sexually active and the use of contraceptives was accordingly found to be extremely low. The findings are discussed against the backdrop of the empirical literature on HIV/AIDS, developmental theory, and pertinent theories and models of health behaviour. This study may help to promote a better understanding of the psycho-educational dynamics of HIV infection in this special group of adolescents, and also help to inform attempts to tailor suitable educational programmes, as well as promote further research to add to our knowledge as we address the problems of HIV/AIDS among this group. PMID:25875141
Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Anjana; Kishore, Jugal; Ingle, Gopal Krishan
Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years). Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban) across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners.
Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy
Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment. PMID:24875840
Lui, Paraniala Silas; Sarangapany, Jeganathan; Begley, Kim; Musson, Rachel; Ram, Sharan; Kishore, Kamal
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify the attitudes and behaviours of health care workers (HCWs) in health care settings (HCS) in Fiji involving 369 participants. Self-rated knowledge of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) varied depending on whether the HCS was divisional or sub-divisional, and varied between the various national divisions. HCWs with experience in HIV, reproductive health and antenatal clinics had higher self-rated HIV knowledge. A high proportion had a fear of catching HIV from HIV-positive clients. This study found high levels of negative attitudes towards clients from vulnerable groups with regards to the transmission and spread of HIV. Study participants also reported observing differential treatment by their colleagues if a client was known to have or was suspected of having HIV. There is a need for further HIV education of HCWs, with training focussed on occupational risk, and on reducing stigma and discrimination of those living with or vulnerable to HIV in Fiji. PMID:22877590
Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping
Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…
Coleman, Lester; Testa, Adrienne
Objective: To provide evidence about the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of an ethnically diverse sample of young people from Secondary/High schools in London. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The sample consisted of students in school Years 11 to 13 (aged 15-18 years), present in school on the day of…
Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.
Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…
Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong
Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905
Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara
Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of teachers who contribute to secondary school sexual health education in order to determine whether teachers are adequately prepared to implement present government education and public health policies. Design: Results were obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study.…
Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C
Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts. Male participants had a very casual attitude towards having sex with multiple partners. Premarital sex is more common than once believed. In the light of our finds and the current scenario, sexuality education is indispensable in order to guide the youth to develop and adopt healthy and appropriate sexual practices. PMID:25302214
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754
Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng
Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (p<0.001) answered “Yes” for the question “Can an apparently healthy person be HIV-infected?”), and stigma and prejudice towards HIV/AIDS among migrant wives were more common than those among local women (e.g. 73.2% vs 65.7% (p=0.006) answered “No” for the question “If a shopkeeper or food seller had the HIV, would you buy food from them?”). Compared to local women, migrant wives were more likely to have ever had sex during menstruation (6.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.065) and extramarital sex (17.5% vs 10.1%, p=0.01), and were less likely to consistently use condoms with their husbands (45.8% vs 57.5%, p<0.001) or extramarital sex partners (48.8% vs 58.95, p<0.001). Conclusions Migrant wives in rural China had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population. PMID:25844269
Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues. PMID:23057505
Background As communities face serious pressures on traditional values, such as those posed by HIV infection, cultural inertia may result, whereby existing trends towards more liberalized views of sexuality are stalled. We examined changes in attitudes around HIV in Bagalkot district, south India, between 2003 and 2009. Methods General population surveys were conducted in 2003 and 2009, among approximately 6,600 randomly sampled men and women in 10 villages and 20 urban blocks of Bagalkot. Questions about HIV knowledge, sexuality, gender and condoms were included. We compared responses in the two surveys using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Awareness of HIV increased significantly from 76.9% in 2003 to 87.8% in 2009, and condom awareness increased significantly (37.4% to 65.4%) in all groups studied. However, in 2009, only 23% of people mentioned condoms as a means of prevention, an improvement from 8% in 2003 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.3; 95%CI 2.6-4.1, p <0.001). There was a significant increase in the number of women believing sex workers should be compulsorily tested for HIV (76.3%-86.4%%, AOR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4-2.4, p<0.001). An increasing number agreed that “it is wrong to talk about sex” (p=0.05), especially women (21.9% vs. 32.4%, p<0.01). There was an increase in women who thought it “wrong to talk about AIDS in a respectable family”, and more respondents in 2009 thought it improper to discuss condoms (15.6% vs. 27.4%, AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, p=0.001). In 2003, 31.4% agreed that “access to condoms promotes promiscuity”, increasing to 45.2% in 2009 (AOR 1.7; 95%CI 1.3-2.3, p<0.001). Educated and young urban women were the most likely to believe this. In 2003, 19.3% and in 2009 30.2% (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.4-2.3, p<0.001) thought that sex education promotes sexual activity and promiscuity. Conclusions Despite increases over time in HIV-related knowledge and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes, resistance to changing cultural mores was apparent, with less willingness to embrace openness and discuss sexuality. Young and female respondents appeared to be the most resistant to change, reflecting a cultural inertia that mirrors studies of other pressures on traditional societal values. More effort is required to advocate among women and young people for healthy sexuality, openness and safe sex practices. PMID:22376184
Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.
Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…
Alina G. Lopez-Gottardi
Purpose. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship of counselor sex guilt to sex knowledge, sex attitudes, and level of facilitativeness towards the sexual concerns of adolescents.Method. Eighty-six volunteer subjects who had completed a minimum of a master's level practicum in Counseling Psychology were administered the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Scale and the Sex Attitude and
Korhonen, Teija; Kylmä, Jari; Houtsonen, Jarmo; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja
This study describes Finnish university students' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour. Finnish-speaking students were randomly selected from all registered students at two universities in Finland (N = 9715, n = 950). The data were collected by using a modified version of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing AIDS Study Questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour developed by Held and Chng. The total response rate was 35% (n = 333). The data were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. Normally distributed data were analysed by t-test and one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post-hoc test. The majority of students were familiar with HIV and AIDS, including its mode of transmission. However, there were still some misconceptions concerning HIV and AIDS. The oldest students and women had a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Of patients with HIV or AIDS, intravenous drug users were perceived most negatively. Male students had more homophobic attitudes. Students who reported that religion had an important role in their lives had significantly stricter attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Students' knowledge correlated positively with general attitudes towards HIV and AIDS. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS will lead to more positive attitudes towards HIV and AIDS as a disease, towards those infected as well as homosexual people. There is a need to focus on preventive health care and sexual health promotion by educating young people and changing their attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. PMID:22739116
Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.
Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…
Background Sexual assault is a threat to public health in refugee and conflict affected settings, placing survivors at risk for unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortion, STIs, HIV, psychological trauma, and social stigma. In response, the International Rescue Committee developed a multimedia training tool to encourage competent, compassionate, and confidential clinical care for sexual assault survivors in low-resource settings. This study evaluated the effect of the training on healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practices in four countries. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a purposive sample of 106 healthcare providers before and 3 months after training to measure attitudes, knowledge, and confidence. In-depth interviews with 40 providers elaborated on survey findings. Medical record audits were conducted in 35 health facilities before and 3 months after the intervention to measure healthcare providers’ practice. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent statistical and thematic analysis. Results While negative attitudes, including blaming and disbelieving women who report sexual assault, did not significantly decrease among healthcare providers after training, respect for patient rights to self-determination and non-discrimination increased from 76% to 91% (p?.01) and 74% to 81% (p?.05) respectively. Healthcare providers’ knowledge and confidence in clinical care for sexual assault survivors increased from 49% to 62% (p?.001) and 58% to 73% (p?.001) respectively following training. Provider practice improved following training as demonstrated by a documented increase in eligible survivors receiving emergency contraception from 50% to 82% (p?.01), HIV post-exposure prophylaxis from 42% to 92% (p?.001), and STI prophylaxis and treatment from 45% to 96% (p?.01). Conclusions Although beliefs about sexual assault are hard to change, training can improve healthcare providers’ respect for patient rights and knowledge and confidence in direct patient care, resulting in more competent and compassionate clinical care for sexual assault survivors. PMID:23819561
Padilla, Amado M.; Baird, Traci L.
Examines sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of 84 Mexican-American adolescents. Findings show low sexual knowledge for all subgroups. Few sexually active subjects practiced contraception. Majority indicated birth control makes sex seem preplanned. Respondents appeared traditional in sex attitudes, with virginity and birth-control…
Eisenberg, N.; And Others
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
The effects of a systematically developed photo-novella on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections among secondary school learners in South Africa.
James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champaklal C; Van Empelen, Pepijn; Van den Borne, Bart
A pre-post test follow-up design was used to test the effects of a systematically developed photo-novella (Laduma) on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections, after a single reading by 1168 secondary school learners in South Africa. The reading resulted in an increase in knowledge on the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), change in attitude to condom use and towards people with STIs and/or HIV/AIDS, as well as increased intention to practice safe sex. Laduma did not influence communication about sexually transmitted infections and reported sexual behaviour and condom use. While print media proved to be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of youth and prepare them for adequate preventive behaviours, the study also identified the need to combine print media with other planned theory-based interventions that build confidence and skills to initiate the preventive behaviour. PMID:15764686
Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani
This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
Ahrold, Tierney K.; Farmer, Melissa; Trapnell, Paul D.; Meston, Cindy M.
Recent research on the impact of religiosity on sexuality has highlighted the role of the individual, and suggests that the effects of religious group and sexual attitudes and fantasy may be mediated through individual differences in spirituality. The present study investigated the role of religion in an ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 1413, 69% women) using religious group as well as several religiosity domains: spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and fundamentalism. Differences between religious groups in conservative sexual attitudes were statistically significant but small; as predicted, spirituality mediated these effects. In contrast to the weak effects of religious group, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism were strong predictors of women’s conservative sexual attitudes; for men, intrinsic religiosity predicted sexual attitude conservatism but spirituality predicted attitudinal liberalism. For women, both religious group and religiosity domains were significant predictors of frequency of sexual fantasies while, for men, only religiosity domains were significant predictors. These results indicate that individual differences in religiosity domains were better predictors of sexual attitudes and fantasy than religious group and that these associations are moderated by gender. PMID:20364304
Grigorios Kotronoulas; Constantina Papadopoulou; Elisabeth Patiraki
Background The experience of living with cancer is associated with a variety of consequences in several central aspects of a patient’s\\u000a quality of life, including intimacy, body image, human relationships, sexuality, and fertility. Despite their importance,\\u000a incidence, and impact on psychosocial well-being, sexual health care (SHC) is a matter not frequently dealt with by nurses\\u000a in daily practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Goals of work The
Maykovich, Minako K.
Middle-aged middle-class women (N=200) in suburban cities in the United States and Japan are compared with regard to their attitudes toward and behavior in extramarital sexual relations. The primary difference seems to lie in their attitudes rather than in their experiences. (Author)
Foulis, Danielle; McCabe, Marita P.
Studies the effects of sex, age, occupation, and experience of sexual harassment (SH) on attitudes to and perceptions of SH. Results from 196 participants reveal males to be more tolerant of SH, females experienced more SH than males, and males and females perceived the same incidents as sexual harassment. Education is viewed as necessary to…
Background Sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are extremely vulnerable to sexual violence. From a public health perspective, the healthcare system is globally considered an important partner in the prevention of sexual violence. The aim of this study is twofold. In a first phase, we aimed to identify the current role and position of the Moroccan healthcare sector in the prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants. In a second phase, we wanted these results and available guidelines to be the topic of a participatory process with local stakeholders in order to formulate recommendations for a more desirable prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants by the Moroccan healthcare sector. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in Morocco concerning sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants and its prevention were firstly explored in semi-structured interviews after which they were discussed in a participatory process resulting in the formulation of recommendations. Results All participants (n=24) acknowledged the need for desirable prevention of sexual violence against transmigrants. Furthermore, important barriers in tertiary prevention practices, i.e. psychosocial and judicial referral and long-term follow-up, and in secondary prevention attitudes, i.e. active identification of victims were identified. Moreover, existing services for Moroccan victims of sexual violence currently do not address the sub-Saharan population. Thus, transmigrants are bound to rely on the aid of civil society. Conclusions This research demonstrates the low accessibility of existing Moroccan services for sub-Saharan migrants. In particular, there is an absence of prevention initiatives addressing sexual violence against the sub-Saharan transmigrant population. Although healthcare workers do wish to develop prevention initiatives, they are dealing with structural difficulties and a lack of expertise. Recommendations adapted to the context of sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are suggested. PMID:23442386
Amoyaw, Jonathan Anim; Kuuire, Vincent Zubedaar; Boateng, Godfred Odei; Asare-Bediako, Yvonne; Ung, Mengieng
Recent research suggests that Zambian women face an increasing risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) within marital relationships. Married women's perceived ability to negotiate safer sex or adopt self-efficacy practices is recognized as critical in preventing new infections within marriage. Yet women's self-efficacy practices, such as requesting condom use or refusing sex within marriage, are influenced by individual and context-specific factors. Using the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey data from 4,306 married women, this article examines the association between married women's perceived ability to negotiate safer sex and a range of attitudinal, knowledge, and sociodemographic variables. Results from complementary log-log regression models reveal that married women who have factual knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention, as well as those who have been tested for their HIV serostatus, were more likely to report they can request that their husbands use a condom. Rural married women were more likely to report they can refuse their husbands sex compared to woman in urban areas. Likewise, married women who agree that a wife is justified in refusing her husband sex if he sleeps with other women were more likely to report they can negotiate safer sex compared to women who disagree. These findings suggest that married women are able to negotiate safer sex if they have correct factual knowledge about HIV transmission and are aware of their rights within marital relations. PMID:26132804
Wilson, Michele D.; And Others
Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…
China is the most populated of any country in the world. Social norms and values pertaining to love and marriage have changed considerably since the launch of its open-door policy and economic reforms of the 1980s. Attitudes to sex have become more open, while the negative consequences of early sexual intercourse have become issues of health and social concern. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in contemporary China. A literature review was conducted between 2000 and 2010, using both English (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA) and Chinese language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database). Thirty-six studies were included and reviewed. It was found that young people reported poor sexual knowledge, especially in relation to reproductive matters and sexually transmitted infections. The media, such as television, magazines and the Internet, were seen as their main sources of information on sex. Despite the frequently reported liberal attitudes to sexual behaviour, only a small number of young people had already lost their virginity or been involved in pregnancies. Young men were more likely than young women to report having had sex, while respondents at vocational high schools were less likely to remain virgins than those at common/key high schools. Although the prevalence of sexual intercourse among Chinese teenagers was still lower than that reported in studies conducted in most western countries, the findings do reflect some changes in sexual values and behaviour of young people within the country. They also suggest the need to develop more comprehensive sex education programmes in co-operation with young people, schools, health organisations, families and communities and to make sexual and reproductive health services accessible to teenagers and unmarried young people throughout China. PMID:22404303
Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.; Raacke, John
Research has been conducted on individual's knowledge and attitudes toward older adult sexuality. This includes investigating attitudes and knowledge of nursing home staff, college students, and the elderly themselves. The current experiment sought to replicate previous research findings by comparing college students' attitudes and knowledge of…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
Tobin, Casey T.
This classroom exercise is designed to facilitate insight and understanding of the relationships between sexual attitudes and sexual experiences among college students. First, students complete a 65-item survey on which they indicate their moderate to traditional sexual attitudes and their corresponding sexual experiences. Next, correlations,…
Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike Iyanuoluwa; Sabageh, Adedayo Olukemi
Introduction. Young people are at the centre of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of peer education in improving HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices among in-school adolescents in Osun State, Nigeria. Methods. This was an intervention study that was carried out among in-school adolescents attending mixed secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study was in three stages: before intervention, intervention, and after intervention. The impact of peer education was evaluated twelve weeks after intervention. Data were collected using pretested semistructured questionnaires and data analysis was done with SPSS version 16. Results. At the preintervention stage, the study and control groups were similar in their sociodemographic characteristics, HIV knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices, including high risk behaviours for HIV/AIDS transmission. After the peer education intervention, those with good knowledge and positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS increased significantly from 50.0% to 86.7% and from 49.0% to 85.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The study showed that peer education is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and some preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS among in-school adolescents. Educational programmes about HIV/AIDS should therefore be designed to target this age group putting into consideration their unique characteristics. PMID:25478212
McCabe, Marita P.; Cummins, Robert A.
Thirty adults with mild mental retardation and 50 first-year psychology students were surveyed regarding their sexual knowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Subjects with mental retardation had less knowledge, more negative attitudes toward sexual issues, and less experience in intimacy and sexual intercourse, but more experience in…
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo
This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718
Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.
We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance.…
Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Lefkowitz, Eva S
This study examined ethnic differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes, and associations between ethnic identity commitment and sexual behaviors and attitudes. African American (32%), Latino American (29%), and European American (39%) first-year college students (N = 434; 52% female) completed surveys about their sexual behaviors (number of partners, condom use, and alcohol use before intercourse) and attitudes (conservative attitudes, condom-related beliefs, and fear of AIDS) and ethnic identity commitment. Analyses of covariance and hierarchical linear regressions were performed. Among the three groups, Latino Americans reported riskier condom-related behaviors and attitudes, whereas European Americans were less fearful of AIDS. Ethnic identity commitment was a protective factor against risky attitudes regardless of ethnicity. For sexual behaviors, however, ethnic identity served as a protective factor only for European Americans. This study contributes to the understanding of adolescents' sexuality during college and the role of ethnic identity in their sexual experiences. PMID:19288336
Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana
Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…
Edmonson, Barbara; And Others
The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…
Jessica R. Sandfort; Andrew Pleasant
Objective: To assess students’ human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants\\/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior, vaccination status, as well as past and preferred sources of information about HPV and sexual
Bondurant, Barrie; Donat, Patricia L.
Explored factors related to male college students' perceptions of sexual intent, measuring self-reported sexual behavior and attitudes contributing to a more sexualized processing of women's intent. Men who engaged in sexually aggressive behavior were significantly more likely to misperceive women's sexual intent than were other people. Cognitive…
Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.
HIV infection among the mentally ill is estimated to be at least eight times the prevalence in the general population. Psychiatric patients may also be disproportionately vulnerable to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but this has not been well studied. We sought to characterize the prevalence and correlates of STIs in a sample of psychiatric outpatients (N = 464). Over one-third of the sample (38%) reported a lifetime history of one or more STIs. Multivariate analyses showed that, relative to those without an STI history, patients with a lifetime STI history were more knowledgeable about HIV, expressed stronger intentions to use condoms, and perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV. However, those with a past STI were also more likely to report sex with multiple partners and reported more frequent unprotected sex in the past 3 months. Treatment for an STI may increase HIV knowledge and risk reduction motivation, but does not necessarily lead to changes in sexual risk behavior among psychiatric patients. Findings highlight the need for STI/HIV risk reduction interventions in psychiatric settings, particularly for patients with high-risk profiles. PMID:17298932
Hager, Mark A.
Responds to Krull's conclusions (1994) that higher educational attainment is indirectly related to sexual promiscuity through more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex. Criticizes Krull's omission of certain variables, recoding of variables, and assumption of a one-way causal relationship between sexual attitudes and behaviors. Reanalysis with…
Lisa DeMarni Cromer; Rachel E. Goldsmith
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced
are discussed in light of cultivation theory, the uses and gratifications perspective, and prior literature in the use of sexually explicit material and its associations with sexually permissive attitudes and perceptions of women....
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…
Damrosch, Shirley Petchel
Reviewed empirical evidence relevant to taboos for aged sexuality and measured the attitudes of 114 graduate nursing students toward a 68-year-old woman. Nurses read a vignette which either contained or excluded information about the woman's sexual activity and exhibited a statistically significant bias favoring the sexually active version. (JAC)
Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying
In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. PMID:25491444
Amanda M. Michie; William R. Lindsay; Victoria Martin; Alan Grieve
Several authors have suggested that lack of sexual knowledge is a primary reason for inappropriate sexual behaviour in men with intellectual disabilities. This hypothesis, counterfeit deviance, is tested in the current report with two separate cohorts comparing sex offenders and controls, both with intellectual disability. The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was completed on all participants and any significant differences
Sudhinaraset, May; Mmari, Kristin; Go, Vivan; Blum, Robert Wm
China's rates of internal migration increased to an all-time high of over 200 million individuals at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Yet, there is a dearth of information on the lives of young migrant populations. The aim of this study was to explore how migration influences the sexual attitudes and behaviours of 18-24-year-old migrant men and women in Shanghai, China. A total of 64 migrants participated in 10 focus-group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews. Guided by acculturation theory, coded data were organised into analytic matrices to compare themes across participants. Factors associated with increased sexual-risk behaviours include acculturative stress, discrimination leading to social isolation, conflicts between traditional and modern city values and increased sexual opportunities. Premarital sex, cohabitation, unprotected sex and visiting sex workers are common among this population. Reasons for not using condoms included being unprepared, lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing reproductive services due to not having urban documentation. Local family planning programmes should help migrants negotiate traditional and modern values and partner with work-sites to provide comprehensive sexual education and services and train health professionals in the specific healthcare needs of young migrant populations. PMID:22943505
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…
Veloso, Danyelle Lorrane Carneiro; Peres, Valéria Costa; Lopes, Juliane da Silveira Ortiz de Camargo; Salge, Ana Karina Marques; Guimarães, Janaína Valadares
This study aims to identify the knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception among nursing students from a public university in Goiás--a state in Brazil. A descriptive and analytical research methodology with a quantitative approach was used, applying, from February to May 2011 a questionnaire on the sexual knowledge and attitude of students regarding emergency contraception. 178 students participated in the study. Knowledge was confirmed through the high frequency of correct answers to the questions, especially those concerning the correct time and the instructions for use (between 86%-96%). Although many students use this method, there are still some doubts about the mechanism of action, side effects and access availability (frequency of correct answers lower than 50%). We noticed the need to develop educational policies that encourage the promotion of sex education in schools and universities. PMID:25158458
Rahman, Azriani Abdul; Rahman, Razlina Abdul; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it. PMID:22751680
KISHA BRAITHWAITE; VERONICA G. THOMAS
The HIV\\/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk-taking behaviors of a sample of African-American and Caribbean college were investigated. The study also explored the relationship between the women's self-esteem, self-efficacy, sexual communication, and reli- giosity and their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors. Findings revealed that while both groups of women were fairly knowledgeable about HIV\\/AIDS transmission and preven- tion, their
Rinehart, Jenny K; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Musci, Rashelle J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Lenberg, Kathryn L
An experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) substantially increases women's risk of adult sexual assault (ASA), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Previous research often has not examined the full range of ASA experiences or included the influence of ethnicity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes on CSA and severity of ASA. The current study utilized path analysis to explore the relationships among ethnicity, sexual attitudes, number of lifetime sexual partners, CSA, and severity of ASA in emerging adult women. Results indicated a significant relationship between CSA and more severe ASA that was partially explained by having more lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, European American women, relative to Hispanic women, reported more severe victimization, which was fully explained by more positive attitudes toward casual sex and having more lifetime sexual partners. These results have implications in the design and implementation of universal and selective prevention programs aimed at reducing ASA and revictimization among emerging adult women. PMID:25258422
Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'
Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…
Socolar, Rebecca R. S.
A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…
Godow, Annette G.; LaFave, Francis
The impact of a college human sexuality course upon sexual attitudes and behavior was examined. A questionnaire, designed by the authors, was administered to students of a human sexuality course and a social psychology course at the beginning and end of the spring semester, 1975. On six of the seven attitudinal categories measured, students from…
Hartnett, Barbara M.; Zettle, Thomas E.
For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew
The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…
Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Pietz, C L; Fryer, B A; Fryer, H C
The nutritional knowledge and attitudes of 230 dental students were studied. The students answered 68.6% of the nutritional knowledge questions currectly, but the test scores were low because they were adversely affected by the degree of certainty. First-year students scored significantly higher than fourth-year students. There was no significant difference between scores of men and women. Knowledge scores were highest for questions on nutrition and oral health and lowest for those on nutritional assessment. Dental students generally expressed favorable attitudes toward nutrition and nutritional care of patients. They agreed that dentists were vital members of the health team and had a responsibility to become involved in health screening and nutrition education of patients. Dietitians were seen as valuable resources to be consulted about nutrition education of the dental patient. More first-year students supported the idea that dentists should prescribe nutritoinal supplements for patients, whereas more fourth-year students were undecided about this matter. There were no differences in nutrition attitude scores attributable to gender of the student or year in dental school. In this study, nutritional knowledge scores did not correlate with nutrition attitude scores. PMID:6928168
The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…
Nason, Erica E; Yeater, Elizabeth A
This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, sexual attitudes, and psychopathology on the effectiveness of women's responses to high- and low-risk dating and social situations. Two hundred fifteen undergraduate women listened to a description of each situation, viewed a clip of an actor making a verbal request, and provided a videotaped, verbal response to each situation. Participants then completed measures assessing their victimization history, sexual attitudes, and symptoms of psychopathology. Finally, participants viewed their responses and rated how effective each response was at decreasing their risk for having an unwanted sexual experience, defined as one in which they would be verbally or physically coerced into having sexual contact of any kind with a man. Experts in the sexual violence research area also rated the effectiveness of participants' responses using the same instructions. Results revealed that sexual attitudes mediated the relationship between victimization history and the effectiveness of participants' responses to high- and low-risk situations. Specifically, more severe victimization experiences were linked to more liberal sexual attitudes, which, in turn, were related to responses that were rated by experts as less effective in decreasing risk of sexual victimization. PMID:22328654
McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.
Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…
Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley
Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…
Sandra L. Caron; D. Bruce Carter
Relationships among U.S. college students' (N = 618) attitudes toward rape myths and their sex role orientation, affective responses to sexuality, sex role egalitarianism, and attitudes toward violence against women were investigated. Results indicated that men were more tolerant of rape, more likely to attribute blame for rape to the victim, and less negative in their views of rapists than
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents. PMID:24502972
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Brown, Amy L.; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Male college students (N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness…
Ramiro, Lúcia; Reis, Marta; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Diniz, José Alves
There is a recent decline in HIV in a significant number of countries due to the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors, which demonstrates that HIV reduction is possible. The goal of this research was to deepen knowledge of preventive sexual behavior in adolescents, including knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, and assessing whether they changed from 2002 to 2010. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from the Portuguese sample of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children, a collaborative WHO study. The study provided national representative data of 10,587 Portuguese adolescents attending 8th and 10th grade. In terms of preventive behaviors, results showed an increasing trend regarding the percentage reporting first sexual intercourse at 14 years old or more and condom use at last intercourse and a stabilized trend concerning having had intercourse, contraceptive pill use at last intercourse and having had intercourse under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Nevertheless, results showed a systematic decreasing trend in terms of knowledge and attitudes. This suggested that sex education programs are still too limited to teaching sessions, strongly homogenized in their content and inadequate to enhance knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV, let alone personal and social skills of different target groups. PMID:24128038
The purpose of this study was to assess university students' knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraception pills (ECPs). A written survey was administered to a convenience sample at a university. Study findings showed favorable student attitudes toward ECP and poor knowledge levels. Knowledge and attitude scores were not influenced by gender. Students who reported receiving health care provider ECP counseling had more positive attitudes toward ECP than those who did not receive counseling, but no knowledge level difference existed. More research is needed on methods to educate students on ECP and on the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and ECP utilization. PMID:24788046
Meredith G. F. Worthen
Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Using a college sample of heterosexual students (n =
Worthen, Meredith G. F.
Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…
Y. A. Jaffer; M. Afifi; F. Al Ajmi; K. Alouhaishi
We examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Omani adolescents with regard to re- productive health in a nationally representative secondary school-based sample of 1670 boys and 1675 girls. Through a self-administrated questionnaire the adolescents were asked about puberty, marriage, birth spac- ing and AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Only half of the sample knew the changes at puberty of
Crawford, Tanya; Geraghty, Wendy; Street, Karen; Simonoff, Emily
Investigated knowledge, attitudes, and training needs of professionals working with adolescents who deliberately self-harm (DSH). Over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual males and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH; one-third were unaware adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of…
Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudes to sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast. PMID:8061079
Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…
Saunders, Janice Miller; Edwards, John N.
Presents a model of extramarital sexual permissiveness, focusing on several aspects of the marital dyad and dyadic independence. While autonomy of heterosexual interaction, the comparison level of alternatives, and marital satisfaction each play some role in accounting for permissive attitudes, the strongest predictor is the diffuseness of…
Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.
Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…
Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars
The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…
Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…
Demehin, P A
This article examines sexual attitudes and beliefs in Nigeria, from the traditional society to the modern one; focusing specificially on Yoruba culture describing sexual attitudes and sex education in the traditional Yoruba Society and examining its evolution under the influence of the British Colonial rules. It concludes that the sexual attitude was much healthier and sexual life more disciplined in the traditional society before the colonizers broke down the community structure causing children to turn against their parents. The children were presented a confused system of values, which combined sexual permissiveness with the idea of sin-confusion became more pronounced in the aftermath of the Civil War-with the young people unable to identify or understand either the old traditional or the new western system of values. In conclusion, the paper examines the efforts made by the Nigerian government to introduce sex education in schools by encouraging the students to rediscover their own traditional values and place them in perspective in the modern context. PMID:20841121
Sánchez-Sánchez, F; González-Correales, R; Jurado-López, A R; San Martín-Blanco, C; Montaña-Hernández, R M; Tijeras-Úbeda, M J; Benitez-Moreno, J M; Brenes-Bermúdez, F; Mir Pizà, J; Villalba-Quintana, E
A sexual satisfactory life favourably affects quality of life, there being evidence that shows there are multiple organic processes of which sexual dysfunction is often a precocious sign of underlying organic disease (cardiovascular, endocrinological or neurological). Difficulties exist in recording the sexual anamnesis on the part of the professional, the patient, or by the health system. Nevertheless, given its importance, it is necessary for the doctor to adopt an attitude of active search, especially among the population of risk. To do this, it is necessary that the situation is propitious (sense of the opportunity), preserving the confidentiality of the meeting, and it will be carried out naturally and with empathy, adopting a listening attitude, taking into account the non-verbal language, without issuing valued judgments, and resorting to assertivity to overcome the resistances. This article proposes guidelines to perform an anamnesis adequately. PMID:23953149
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122
Cutler, Stephen J.
Available evidence does not support the notion that aging is associated with increasingly conservative social and political attitudes, or the idea that attitudinal rigidity is the norm among older cohorts. To examine whether aging is associated with attitudinal rigidity, nine surveys from the National Opinion Research Center were analyzed to…
Garipoli, V; Guala, A; Paoletti, R; Festa, F; Campra, D; Ghini, T; Cozzi, M; Sinaccio, C; Pastore, G
A group of 1.085 students (582 M, 503 F) attending high school (742) and nursing school (343) filled in an anonymous questionnaire on their sexual habits and their knowledge of contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Overall, 57% of the study population had already a complete sexual intercourse at a mean age of 16,4 (SD +/- 1,8). 74% had 1-3 sexual partners, whereas 28% had more than 3. All students affirmed that it was possible to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and 92,6% indicated correct methods. However 10% of students did not know that AIDS is transmitted sexually as 47% hepatitis B. The responses made by nursing students were more correct that those of high school students. PMID:15058831
Moran, J R; Corley, M D
A survey of Anglo and Hispanic adolescent males' sources of sexual information and their attitudes and practices was conducted. A comparison of attitudes and behaviors revealed little difference by ethnicity; however, a more detailed analysis of sources of information resulted in some interesting findings. The relationship between completing a sex education class and condom use was statistically significant in a positive direction. In addition, this relationship was much stronger for Hispanic youth. The important implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:1789173
Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane
OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635
This current study was conducted to examine parental communication and perceived parental attitudes about sexuality with respect to gender among Turkish college students. Moreover, attitudes toward premarital sexuality with respect to gender were explored. A demographic data form, premarital sexual permissiveness scale, parental communication…
Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay
Sexual attitudes and their influence on sexual behavior among high school students (N=1,587) and parents (N=1,372) were investigated. Multiple regression analyses yielded models for attitudes about premarital sexual intercourse with separate models for adolescent females and males. When family factors were integrated, the model had more…
Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…
Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred
Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…
Traeen, Bente; Martinussen, Monica
This paper explores differences and similarities in sexual attitudes among university students 18 years or older of different sexual orientation in Havana, Tromsø, and Cape Town. In the period 2004-5, a questionnaire survey on sexuality, happiness and life satisfaction, was undertaken among 318 students from the University of Havana, 144 students from the University of Tromsø, and 182 students from the University of the Western Cape. The respondents in Cape Town generally expressed more restrictive attitudes toward sexuality than respondents in the other two samples. The dimensionality of attitudes was studied, and three interpretable dimensions were identified: Sexual novelty seeking; Individualization and equality; and Fidelity. Attitudes toward sexual novelty seeking were most efficient in separating straight men and women, and queer men and women in the three samples. The samples were also different in their acceptance of infidelity. More research is needed to further explore cultural differences in sexual attitudes. PMID:18190401
The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715
Hildebrand, Milton; Abramowitz, Stephen
Surveyed college students (N=4,885) in 1969, 1973, 1977, and 1981 to examine changes in sexual attitudes and behavior. Results indicated sexual activity and permissiveness increased between 1969 and 1977, especially for women, but moderated by 1981. (JAC)
Marko, George Franklin
The study aimed at constructing, validating, and testing two instruments, one of which measured attitude change toward Civil Defense adult education, and one which measured level of knowledge about Civil Defense practices; and evaluating the effectiveness of the Personal and Family Survival (PFS) Course in terms of attitude change and knowledge…
Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla
This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…
Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.
The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…
Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema
Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…
Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (Mage T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26376287
This study examined the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereo-typed music video imagery on sexual attitudes (adversarial sexual beliefs, acceptance of rape myths, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and gender role stereotyping). A group of 44 U.S. college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that viewed either a video portraying stereotyped sexual imagery or a video that excluded all sexual images. Exposure to traditional sexual imagery had a significant main effect on attitudes about adversarial sexual relationships, and gender had main effects on 3 of 4 sexual attitudes. There was some evidence of an interaction between gender and exposure to traditional sexual imagery on the acceptance of interpersonal violence. PMID:10410622
Callander, Denton; Newman, Christy E; Holt, Martin
Sexual racism is a specific form of racial prejudice enacted in the context of sex or romance. Online, people use sex and dating profiles to describe racialized attraction through language such as "Not attracted to Asians." Among gay and bisexual men, sexual racism is a highly contentious issue. Although some characterize discrimination among partners on the basis of race as a form of racism, others present it as a matter of preference. In May 2011, 2177 gay and bisexual men in Australia participated in an online survey that assessed how acceptably they viewed online sexual racism. Although the men sampled displayed diverse attitudes, many were remarkably tolerant of sexual racism. We conducted two multiple linear regression analyses to compare factors related to men's attitudes toward sexual racism online and their racist attitudes more broadly. Almost every identified factor associated with men's racist attitudes was also related to their attitudes toward sexual racism. The only differences were between men who identified as Asian or Indian. Sexual racism, therefore, is closely associated with generic racist attitudes, which challenges the idea of racial attraction as solely a matter of personal preference. PMID:26149367
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…
Parker, Latofia P.
The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' attitudes toward the sexuality of students with intellectual disabilities. One hundred and twenty-two high school counselors in Alabama were the participants for this study. Participants completed the "Attitudes towards Sexuality and Students with Intellectual Disability…
Weis, David L.; Slosnerick, Michael
Investigated attitudes of undergraduate students toward sexual and nonsexual extramarital involvements and explored correlates of these attitudes. Results indicated that a sizeable majority of the students were opposed to extramarital sexual involvement, while the majority also reported they would find several nonsexual extramarital behaviors…
Weis, David L.; Jurich, Joan
Used five national surveys to investigate the relationship between attitudes toward extramarital sexual relations and a group of predictor variables. Results indicated that size of community was strongly and directly related to extramarital attitudes, along with premarital sexual permissiveness, level of education, and marital happiness/status.…
Ashley, George; Ramirez, Octavio; Cort, Malcolm
The purpose of this study was to identify Black Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students' attitudes toward the concept of sexual abstinence. Attitude toward abstinence was operationalized as a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection of the concept as a way to order sexual behavior. The study utilized a convenience sample ("N" =…
Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique
Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…
Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho
The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls’ knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32–11.93; p = 0.000). Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable), but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37–3.63; p = 0.008). HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions. PMID:26327322
Mattos, Meghan K; Jiang, Yun; Seaman, Jennifer B; Nilsen, Marci L; Chasens, Eileen R; Novosel, Lorraine M
Preparing nurses to care for a growing population of older adults is one of the most significant challenges for nursing education. The purpose of the current study was to describe baccalaureate nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults, and explore the impact of a gerontological nursing course on their knowledge and attitudes. Results showed that students who had prior experience with older adults had significantly more positive attitudes toward them. Although students who participated in a gerontological nursing course had significantly higher knowledge scores than the comparison group, no significant difierence was noted in overall attitude. In addition, students who were enrolled in the gerontological nursing course or had prior experience with older adults were more likely to report plans to work with this population after graduation. Students who participated in interviews with older adults found the experience meaningful and their attitudes regarding older adults were largely positive. PMID:25941944
----------------------------------------------- 5 Knowledge About Fire Prevention ------------------------------------------- 8 Attitudes Regarding Fire Prevention ------------------------------------------ 11 Characteristics of High Risk Residents in the prevention of man-caused forest fires. He joined the Pacific Southwest Station staff in 1962 after a career
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission. PMID:23304676
Stone, Marilyn; Couch, Sue
Evidence suggests that adults in school settings are doing less than they should to stop student peer sexual harassment. When such behavior persists, it creates an intrusive environment that may interfere with learning. The study was designed to determine teachers' attitudes toward sexual harassment; their perceptions of sexually harassing student…
Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Zucker, Alyssa N.
To better understand the relation of feminist identification to sexuality, we compared the attitudes of feminist, egalitarian, and nonfeminist undergraduate women (N= 342) in five domains: (a) erotophilia (one's positive affective or evaluative responses to sexual stimuli), (b) sexual assertiveness, (c) perceived self-efficacy for safer sex, (d)…
Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter
Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth
Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice. PMID:24628017
Haignere, Clara S.
Planned Parenthood conducted a national public opinion poll, asking 1,000 12- through 17-year-olds about their knowledge and beliefs on the problem of teenage pregnancy. The results showed that over 50% of the adolescents had sexual intercourse before their 18th birthday. Those teenagers most likely to be sexually active fell into certain at-risk…
Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara
Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of secondary school pupils in order to ascertain whether the current government public health and education policies are having any impact on pupils' sexual health. Design: Results obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study. Setting: Nineteen mixed-sex, state secondary…
Hibbard, Roberta A.; Zollinger, Terrell W.
A survey conducted of 902 legal, health, law enforcement, and social services professionals attending child sexual abuse educational programs found that those professionals with formal training, more years of professional practice, and who see 5 or more victims per month were more knowledgeable about child sexual abuse, but differences were not…
Ahrold, Tierney K.
Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302
Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Singhpoo, Karnchanasri; Ariyanuchitkul, Sukanda; Ngamroop, Ratchada
Background Information on the knowledge of, and attitudes and practices towards epilepsy of the general population in Thailand is still limited, particularly with respect to the differences between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample population of 1,000, with 500 participants each from municipal and nonmunicipal areas, in the Khon Kaen district. Results The participants in the municipal area had higher incomes and higher education than did the participants in the nonmunicipal area. Both groups had low knowledge regarding epilepsy definition, causes, and treatment, but participants in the municipal area were more knowledgeable on the causes, types, and treatment of epilepsy. With respect to attitude, there were a significantly higher number of nonmunicipal participants than municipal participants who thought epilepsy was a disgusting disorder or that persons with epilepsy were sinful, had brain damage, and could not attend school. The municipal participants showed greater knowledge of correct practice than did nonmunicipal participants with regard to the following: not driving a car; avoiding acrobatic sports, fighting, or water sport; able to eat pork, not having to resign from work; not having to quit school; and able to have sexual relations. Conclusion The participants from the municipal area had better knowledge, attitudes, and practices than did the participants from the nonmunicipal area. A campaign should be carried out to promote knowledge and understanding of, and practices towards epilepsy. Different emphases should be placed on the two groups of populations and different strategies used. PMID:24174885
Coles, Victoria Ah; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M
Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n?=?58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25300588
Garside, R; Ayres, R; Owen, M R; Pearson, V H; Roizen, J
In the UK, under-sixteen-year-olds with some exceptions can be provided with contraceptive care even if unwilling to inform their parents. Nonetheless, many teenagers express doubts about confidentiality in these circumstances, as well as fear of being judged. The attitudes of general practitioners in North and East Devon towards the Gillick ruling regarding the treatment of under sixteens for sexual health matters were assessed. They were asked to indicate their level of agreement or disagreement with a series of statements. 235 (73%) responded, and only 15 (6.5%) rejected the notion that the same duty of confidentiality applies to under-sixteens as to older patients. 76% did, however, prefer parents to know they had been consulted about contraception. Only 7 GPs believed that provision of contraception encourages under-age sex. Despite GPs' general acknowledgment of the importance of confidentiality in relation to sexual activity, teenagers may well be discouraged from seeking advice if they expect strong pressure to tell their parents. PMID:11198685
Shanthini N, Fatima
Introduction: Emergency Contraception is a grossly underu–tilized option of prevention of pregnancy. It is a safe and effective method which can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and unwanted childbirth. Knowledge and attitude of Nursing personnel who are both service providers and health educators to the community can influence the contraceptive behavior of the people exposed to them. A few studies done in our country indicate that their awareness regarding EC is low. Aim: To explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC amongst Nursing Personnel in a medical college hospital. Materials and Methods: In this study, 185 nursing personnel participated. A predesigned, pretested questionnaire was used to collect their responses regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of EC. Descriptive analysis of data was done. Results : Out of the total, 52.43% of the participants had good knowledge regarding the general information of EC, 51.35% had positive attitude towards EC, 47.56% had expressed willingness to use EC if indicated whereas only 22.7% had ever used EC. 72.97% had expressed willingness to attend awareness programmes on EC. Conclusion :Even though knowledge and attitude towards EC among the participants was marginally good they had many misconceptions regarding specific aspects like mode of action, indications and timing of administration. More awareness programmes would definitely clear their misconceptions and apprehensions and encourage Nursing Personnel to personally use and promote EC to others. PMID:25386489
Tayler, Laramie D
Previous studies of the effects of sexual television content have resulted in mixed findings. Based on the information processing model of media effects, I proposed that the messages embodied n such content, the degree to which viewers perceive television content as realistic, and whether sexual content is conveyed using visual or verbal symbols may influence the nature or degree of such effects. I explored this possibility through an experiment in which 182 college undergraduates were exposed to visual or verbal sexual television content, neutral television content, or no television at all prior to completing measures of sexual attitudes and beliefs. Although exposure to sexual content generally did not produce significant main effects, it did influence the attitudes of those who perceive television to be relatively realistic. Verbal sexual content was found to influence beliefs about women's sexual activity among the same group. PMID:16123843
Zakireh, Barry; Ronis, Scott T; Knight, Raymond A
This study examined the individual beliefs and attitudes (e.g., sexuality, aggression, criminality) and victimization histories of 100 male youths who were divided equally into four demographically similar groups: (a) sexual offenders in residential placement, (b) sexual offenders in outpatient treatment, (c) nonsexual offenders in residential placement, and (d) nonsexual offenders in outpatient treatment. Based on youths' reports on the Multidimensional Assessment of Sex and Aggression and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, results showed that juvenile sexual offenders in residential placement had the most negative sexual and aggressive attitudes. There were also other noted differences between the two groups of sexual offenders as well as between youths with histories of sexual offenses and juvenile offenders with no such histories. The implications of these findings for research, theory, treatment, and risk assessment are discussed. PMID:18775842
Essien, E. James; Monjok, Emmanuel; Chen, Hua; Abughosh, Susan; Ekong, Ernest; Peters, Ronald J.; Holmes, Laurens; Holstad, Marcia M.; Mgbere, Osaro
Objective Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. Method The study used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from two military cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria. Data was collected between 2006 and 2008. Using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression, HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual behaviors were described in relation to socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that level of education and knowing someone with HIV/AIDS were significant (p<0.05) predictors of HIV knowledge in this sample. HIV prevention self-efficacy was significantly (P<0.05) predicted by annual income and race/ethnicity. Condom use attitudes were also significantly (P<0.05) associated with number of children, annual income, and number of sexual partners. Conclusion Data indicates the importance of incorporating these predictor variables into intervention designs. PMID:20387111
Patricia Goodson; Eric R. Buhi; Sarah C. Dunsmore
PurposeThis review systematically examined the relationship between self-esteem and adolescents’ sexual behaviors, attitudes, and intentions, as empirically investigated by researchers over the last 20 years.
Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser
Background: Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Results: Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Conclusions: Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed. PMID:25838929
Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément
People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ?50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups. PMID:22533309
The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Shriner's Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p < .0001). Pediatric nurses in Mongolia demonstrate insufficient knowledge of pediatric pain management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes. PMID:25439122
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…
Rashwan, Hesham H; Saat, Nur Zakiah N Mohd; Abd Manan, Dahlia Nadira
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and oncogenic HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. However, HPV vaccination is already available as the primary preventive method against cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of HPV vaccination among Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Universiti Malaya (UM) students. This study was conducted from March until August 2009. Pre-tested and validated questionnaires were filled by the third year UKM (n=156) and UM (n=149) students from medical, dentistry and pharmacy faculties. The results showed that the overall level of knowledge on HPV infection, cervical cancer and its prevention among respondents was high and the majority of them had positive attitude towards HPV vaccination. Medical students had the highest level of knowledge (p<0.05). Very few students (3.6%) had already taken the vaccine with no significant difference between the two Universities (p=0.399). In conclusion, the knowledge and attitude of the respondents were high and positive, respectively. Only few students took HPV vaccination. Thus, more awareness campaigns and HPV vaccination services should be provided at universities' campuses with the price of the HPV vaccine reduced for the students. PMID:22901207
Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others
Describes investigation of effects of mothers' dating behaviors on adolescents' sexuality using reports from a sample of adolescents and their divorced mothers. Suggests mothers' dating behaviors directly influenced sexual behavior of males and indirectly influenced sexuality of females. Mothers' sexual permissiveness influenced daughters' sexual…
Beckwith, Henry D.; Morrow, Jennifer Ann
Factors such as religiosity and spirituality were examined to determine their impact on the sexual attitudes of college students. The sample consisted of 330 undergraduate students from a southeastern doctoral research institution. It was hypothesized that higher scores of religiosity would be associated with more conservative attitudes regarding…
Gilmore, Linda; Chambers, Brooke
Background: The attitudes of support staff and others in the community towards the sexuality of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have the potential to influence opportunities for normalised life experiences in the area of sexuality. Method: A sample of 169 disability support staff and 50 employees from leisure and service…
Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.
Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…
Sitron, Justin A.; Dyson, Donald A.
In recent years, leading scholars in the field of sexology have been calling for more professionals who are primarily sexologists rather than professionals in other fields who specialize in sexuality. Such professionals require specialized training that meets their specific needs. The Sexuality Attitude Reassessment (SAR) has been established as a…
In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest. PMID:25501864
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…
Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…
Ven-hwei Lo; Ran Wei
This study examines use of Internet pornography by adolescents in Tai- wan and the relationships between exposure to Internet pornography and the sexual attitudes and behavior of surveyed teens. Results show that about 38% of the sample had some exposure to Internet pornogra- phy. Further, this exposure was associated with greater acceptance of sexual permissiveness and the greater likelihood of
Nielson, Mary Hugo; Strong, Linda; Stewart, Julie G
There are over 243,800 female sexual assaults in the United States annually. Of those who seek healthcare services after being sexually assaulted, 90% present to hospitals. Unfortunately, care and services for women who have been sexually assaulted are inconsistent. Increased burnout, frustration, and feelings of inadequacy can lead healthcare providers to exhibit personal biases or negative attitudes toward their patients. The Joint Commission, responsible for accreditation of healthcare organizations, has stated that nurses must provide competent care to all patients. Therefore, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) training needs to be available for emergency department (ED) nurses who care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. A survey using the Attitude Toward Rape Victims Scale was sent to 1503 ED nurses throughout the United States, from the Emergency Nursing Association's mailing list. The results of the survey showed that there was a significant difference in attitudes toward the patients between SANE-trained emergency nurses and those without training. This study also showed that 35.5% of hospitals represented by the respondents did not have SANE services available for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted, and furthermore, 85.5% of the respondents who cared for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted were not SANE trained. The negative attitudes held toward such patients as found in this study, coupled with a lack of training provides evidence that ED nurses may benefit from education related to appropriate treatment for patients who have been sexually assaulted. As evidence-based practice becomes the gold standard of care, ensuring that nurses are properly trained to care for all patients must be the goal. PMID:26291848
Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.
Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…
Gold, Melanie A.; Bost, James E.; Adimora, Ada A.; Orr, Donald P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis
Purpose Little is known about how adolescent sexual behaviors develop and the influence of personal or perceived social attitudes. We sought to describe how personal, perceived peer and perceived family attitudes towards adolescent sexual activity influences adolescent females’ sexual behaviors over time. Methods Between 1999–2006, 358 English-speaking females, aged 14–17 were recruited from three urban adolescent clinics. Participants completed quarterly and annual questionnaires over 4 years. Primary outcomes were engagement in eight sexual behaviors: kissing, having breasts or genitals touched, touching partners’ genitals, and oral (giving or receiving), anal, or vaginal sex. Three attitudinal scales assessed personal importance of abstinence, perceived peer beliefs about when to have sex and perceived family beliefs that adolescent sex is negative.. We used generalized estimating equations to identify predictors of each sexual behavior and compared whether personal, perceived peer or perceived family attitudes predicted sexual behaviors over time. Results The odds of reporting each sexual behavior increased with age but were lower among those whose personal or perceived family attitudes were less positive. Participants’ personal attitudes towards adolescent sex were the strongest predictor of engagement in all eight sexual behaviors even after controlling for perceived peer and perceived family attitudes. Conclusions Female adolescent’s personal attitudes towards abstinence appear to be the strongest predictor of engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. Efforts to influence adolescent attitudes towards abstinence may be an important approach to reducing sexual behaviors that increase the risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. PMID:21185529
Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Hagens, Salazar Arnold; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C.; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.
Background Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future research on gender and the sexual experiences of adolescents. PMID:24461355
Wilson, Stephan M.; Medora, Nilufer P.
Found significant differences between male and female college students' (n=641) attitudes toward premarital sex among casual acquaintances and attitudes toward extramarital, oral-genital, and anal sex, with males expressing more liberal attitudes. Found no significant differences between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Dowd, Steven B.
This bibliography presents, in reverse chronological order, the results of 22 articles from professional journals discussing the knowledge and attitudes found in various groups of health professionals regarding acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and patients with AIDS. This review covers a 5-year…
Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael
This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)
Kuhlemeier, Hans; van den Bergh, Huub; Lagerweij, Nijs
In a national assessment program, 57% of Dutch ninth-grade students had a positive attitude towards the environment and 35% were prepared to make sacrifices for the environment. Student knowledge about environmental problems, however, was fragmentary and often incorrect. Environmentally responsible behavior was more strongly connected with the…
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.
Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…
Goh, David S.
This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Nhan T. Tran; Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; Cuong Pham V; Jeffrey C. Lunnen; Youngji Jo; Jonathon Passmore; Phuong N. Nguyen; Adnan A. Hyder
Objective Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes and
Nhan T. Tran; Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; V. Cuong Pham; Jeffrey C. Lunnen; Youngji Jo; Jonathon Passmore; Phuong N. Nguyen; Adnan A. Hyder
Objective: Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and
P G Gibson; R L Henry; G V Vimpani; J Halliday
Adolescents with asthma, their peers, and their teachers were studied in order to establish the level of knowledge concerning asthma and its management, their attitudes towards asthma, and the degree quality of life impairment due to asthma. A community survey was conducted among year 8 high school students (n = 4161) and their teachers (n = 1104). There was a
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Grant, John A.
Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)
Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John
This study examined both self-rated and objectively measured attractiveness in relation to sexual behaviors and attitudes in an undergraduate sample (N=456). About a quarter of the variance in self-ratings of attractiveness was predicted from combining standard objective measures of attractiveness, including face photo ratings, body mass index, and chest-to-waist ratio for men, and face photo ratings, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio for women. Correlations were investigated among self-rated attractiveness, measured attractiveness, the residual component of self-rated attractiveness (controlling for measured attractiveness), and a number of sexual and related variables. Measured attractiveness correlated moderately with sexual behaviors but not with sociosexuality or sexual moral attitudes, indicating that higher levels of observable attractiveness may serve to increase opportunities for sex with multiple desirable partners without affecting interests in or moral acceptance of casual sex. Self-rated attractiveness correlated positively with sexual behaviors and with sociosexuality, but the correlation with sociosexuality was based entirely on residual factors beyond the objective measures of attractiveness. Other predictors of sexual behavior were discussed in terms of their variable roles in affecting interest in, opportunities for, and social costs of promiscuous sexual activity. PMID:17136591
Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel
Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…
Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ?35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ?5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980
Hobbs, Courtney; Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Bass, Martha A; Brodell, Robert T
Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one's overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities. PMID:24782927
Hobbs, Courtney; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Brodell, Robert T.
Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one's overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities. PMID:24782927
Bancroft, J; Sherwin, B B; Alexander, G M; Davidson, D W; Walker, A
Female undergraduates (108) volunteered for a study of hormones and sexuality, 55 of whom were oral contraceptive (OC) users. In this paper, OC users and nonusers are compared on measures of sexual attitudes and behavior, use of erotic fantasy, and gender role. In the second paper, the effects of OC on androgen levels and the relationship between androgens and behavioral measures within each group are reported. OC users were more likely to have a current sexual partner and less likely to be virgins. The two groups did not differ in frequency of masturbation or use of erotic fantasies. OC users reported less restrictive sexual morality and more interest in erotic images. These differences persisted when women without current partners were excluded. Among those in active sexual relationships, OC users reported more frequent sexual intercourse, higher psychosexual motivation and enjoyment, and were more positive in their evaluation of their partners than OC nonusers. PMID:2064537
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645
Chan, Connie S.
There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…
Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios
In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…
Jana Fan?ovi?ová; Pavol Prokop
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants. It was found that mean scores of participants' attitudes towards and knowledge of plants significantly increased
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265
Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn
Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431
Tung, Wei-Chen; Cook, Daniel M; Lu, Minggen; Ding, Kele
Taiwan withdrew from the United Nations in 1971, which led to missed opportunities for participating in global HIV/AIDS programs and made Taiwan more vulnerable to HIV. Employing a questionnaire of 996 college students in Taiwan, the authors assessed and compared female and male HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sources of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) information. Students reported moderate knowledge and attitudes. Females had more positive attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS than males. Most participants reported learning about HIV and STIs from traditional media, school teachers, and the Internet. We suggest evidence-based educational interventions for students should include targeted electronic and cultural awareness strategies. PMID:25271399
Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian
Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…
Hsiang-Chu Pai; Sheuan Lee; Wen-Jiuan Yen; Ming-Yung Lee
Knowledge of sexual health is an important indicator of the development of healthy adolescent sexuality. An evaluation instrument in nursing school practice, whose results can lead to improved sexual health in adolescents, is needed. We conducted this study to undertake rigorous testing of the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale (SHKS), as a means to ensure a reliable and valid quantitative measure
O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R
Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices. PMID:24830906
Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272
Abate, Meskerem; Assefa, Nega; Alemayehu, Tadesse
Background Unplanned pregnancy from casual sex, unplanned sexual activity, and sexual violence are increasing. Emergency Contraceptives (EC) are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies thereby preventing the occurrence and consequences of unplanned pregnancy. Emergency contraception is widely available in Ethiopia particularly in major cities. Yet the use of EC is very low and abortion rate in cities is high compared to the national average. Objectives To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and determinants on the use of emergency contraception among women obtaining abortion service at selected health institutions in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 390 women selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The samples were generated from government and private for non profit health facilities. Participant’s knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception were measured using composite index based on 7 and 9 questions, respectively and analyzed using mean score to classify them as knowledgeable or not, and have positive attitude or not. Practice was assessed if the women reported ever use of emergency contraception. Determinants of use of emergency contraception were analyzed using logistic regression. Result Out of 390 women interviewed, 162 women (41.5%) heard about EC, only 133 (34.1%) had good knowledge, and 200 (51.3%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards to EC. Ever use of EC was reported by 38 (9.7%). Age, living arrangement, education, marital status, religion were found to be significantly associated with the use of emergency contraceptives. Women with poor knowledge were less likely to use EC compared to the knowledgeable ones [AOR?=?0.027, 95% CI (0.007, 0.105)]. Conclusion The study identified that most respondents lack adequate knowledge on the method of EC. In addition ever use of EC is very low. Recommendations Health professions should give attention in increasing knowledge and uptake of Emergency Contraception. PMID:25330229
This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally. PMID:24287963
Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam
Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897
Natalia De Sá, Policarpo; Moura, Jayne Ramos Araujo; Júnior, Eugênio Barbosa De Melo; De Almeida, Paulo César; De Macêdo, Suyanne Freire; Da Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca
The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos--PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%). On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot. PMID:25508617
Natalia de Sá, Policarpo; Moura, Jayne Ramos Araujo; de Melo Júnior, Eugênio Barbosa; de Almeida, Paulo César; de Macêdo, Suyanne Freire; da Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca
The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos--PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%). On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot. PMID:25474838
Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam
Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897
Hayden, Mary H.; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek
Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…
Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
Myers, Julie E; Myers, Ronnie; Wheat, Mary E; Yin, Michael T
Dental professionals may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens in their work, and dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group. Fear of exposure has also been linked to discriminatory practices. A cross-sectional survey of dental students was conducted at one U.S. dental school to assess their knowledge about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens and management of exposures; the frequency of their bloodborne pathogen exposures (BBPEs); and associations among their prior exposure, knowledge, perception of knowledge, and attitudes toward practice. Overall, 220 students (72.1 percent) responded to the survey, and 215 (70.5 percent) answered questions about exposures. The prevalence of BBPE was 19.1 percent and was greater among clinical than preclinical students (p<0.01). Percutaneous injuries occurred in 87.5 percent of those exposed. All students (preclinical and clinical combined) answered more survey questions correctly about transmission of bloodborne pathogens (66.7 percent) than about post-exposure management (25.0 percent). Fewer than half reported adequate knowledge of transmission and management (47.5 percent and 37.3 percent, respectively). In this context, 8.2 percent of the respondents acknowledged an unwillingness to perform procedures on patients with HIV. Since knowledge gaps may lead to failure to report incidents and delays in appropriate exposure management and some negative attitudes towards treating individuals with HIV persist, these findings justify improving BBPE education at U.S. dental schools. PMID:22473560
Carri Maynard; Michael Wiederman
Objective: The present study examined how sex of the child and the adult and age of the child influence perceptions regarding the abusiveness of adult-child sexual interactions and attributions of blame and responsibility to the adult in such incidents. The relationship of gender-role attitudes to perceptions of child sexual abuse was also investigated.Method: Undergraduate students (N = 404) read one
Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei
In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867
Nikken, Peter; de Graaf, Hanneke
Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexual attitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3% girls) reported on permissive sexual attitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexual attitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media. PMID:23192452
Gibson, P G; Henry, R L; Vimpani, G V; Halliday, J
Adolescents with asthma, their peers, and their teachers were studied in order to establish the level of knowledge concerning asthma and its management, their attitudes towards asthma, and the degree quality of life impairment due to asthma. A community survey was conducted among year 8 high school students (n = 4161) and their teachers (n = 1104). There was a good response rate to the questionnaires from students (93%) and teachers (61%). Twenty three per cent of students had asthma and this caused mild to moderate quality of life impairment, particularly with strenuous exercise. Asthma was provoked by passive smoke exposure in 30% of asthmatic students and up to 51% of students avoided situations because of asthma triggers. Asthma knowledge was low in teachers (mean score 14.90 out of a possible 31), students without asthma (11.25) and students with asthma (14.50). Specific knowledge on the prevention and treatment of exercise induced asthma was poor. There was a moderate degree of tolerance towards asthma among all three groups. Most considered internal locus of control as important, although students without asthma also considered chance to be a determinant of outcomes for people with asthma. Asthma is a common cause of quality of life impairment among year 8 high school students. Although specific knowledge on asthma is low, students and teachers hold favourable attitudes towards asthma. There are opportunities to intervene and improve asthma management among adolescents. PMID:7492196
Jadalla, A; Sharaya, H
Cancer is a major cause of death in Jordan. It is noticed that the majority of the Jordanian people still have many misconceptions about this disease. Public education campaigns were launched regularly when the first cancer center in the country was initially opened and began to function partially in 1996. However, the baseline data needed for the initial planning of these campaigns were not available. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge and attitudes of a sample of the Jordanian people toward cancer. The questionnaire, Public Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Cancer (PKAC), developed by the researchers, was the main tool used in the study. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: The first section obtained demographic data about the participants, and the second solicited data concerning the participants' knowledge and feeling about the disease. The second section contained items to which the participants answered yes, no, or don't know. The findings of this study will contribute to our general understanding and knowledge of the educational needs in Jordanian society regarding cancer as a disease. PMID:9691509
John F Morgan; Sally Porter
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning
Medora, Nilufer P.; Burton, Mary M.
A study of 200 single undergraduate students' opinions on extramarital sexual behavior indicates (1) fraternity/sorority membership does not predict students' opinions, (2) females are more conservative than males, and (3) religiosity is negatively correlated with extramarital sexual permissiveness. (CM)
Chia, Patricia Ching Yen; Lian, Wee Bin
INTRODUCTION Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in children is rare but significant, with poor survival rates and high morbidity. Asystole is the most common dysrhythmia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is of great importance in such cases. We aimed to survey the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of parents in Singapore regarding infant basic life support (IBLS). METHODS A questionnaire survey was administered to parents of children managed at the Neonatal Department of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between 1 September and 31 December 2008. The questionnaire consisted of three sections – section A collected demographic data, section B included questions on knowledge, and section C explored attitudes and perceptions. Knowledge T-scores were analysed for the entire cohort and subanalysed with respect to prior IBLS training. RESULTS In our study cohort (n = 375), the median Basic Knowledge (BK) T-score was 7 (range 1–9) and the pass rate was 55%. Median BK T-scores were significantly different between untrained (6; range 3 –9) and previously trained (8; range 3–9) participants. A majority of the trained participants obtained pass marks. Median Total Knowledge T-score, involving advanced questions, for previously trained participants was 11 (range 3–14), but pass rate was low (35.7%). Higher educational qualification was a significant factor impacting all scores. Untrained participants indicated interest in attending IBLS courses, while trained participants were interested in refresher courses. CONCLUSION IBLS training, as part of basic cardiac life support training, is important given that CPR can significantly alter the outcome in children with CPA. Our survey revealed knowledge gaps that could be bridged through formal training. Refresher courses to regularly update parents’ knowledge are recommended. PMID:24664380
Cesario, Sandra K.
The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338
Memish, Ziad A.; Filemban, Sanaa M.; Kasule, Sabirah N.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.
Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan), aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8%) had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85%) held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45%) had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9%) followed by the married ones (40.4%). Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%), whereas women (73.4%) cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required.
A Andersson-Ellström; L Forssman; I Milsom
PURPOSE: To assess longitudinally the relationship between knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and sexual behaviour, contraceptive use, STD protection and social class in a group of Swedish teenage girls. METHODS: Girls starting their upper secondary school education were invited to attend a teenage clinic during a period of 2 years (5 visits). Questions were asked about family situation, sexual
Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians' perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians' attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of 'accidents' and fatalism. Participants were 14-26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah ('accident') signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah ('injury') was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries. PMID:20587813
Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians’ perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians’ attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of ‘accidents’ and fatalism. Participants were 14–26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah (‘accident’) signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah (‘injury’) was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries. PMID:20587813
Ehlers, K M; Fox, H
A study of the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of shoppers in a new kind of cooperative food store indicated shoppers were primarily interested in cooperatives because of the food: its believed superiority in terms of growing conditions, freedom from processing, or nutritional value. Shoppers were skeptical of processed foods and believed organic foods, vitamin supplements, and other special nutrition measures are needed to ensure health. Working members and vegetarians were significantly less orthodox in their nutrition attitudes than nonworking members and nonvegetarians. Seventy-five percent of the sample thought nutrition information and the education function of the cooperative were important. Topics of greatest interest to these food cooperative shoppers were organic gardening, food preservation and preparation, and vegetarianism. PMID:7054260
Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Coffey, Patricia; Bingham, Allison
CONTEXT Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be spread between female sex partners, probably through the exchange of cervicovaginal fluid and direct mucosal contact. Additionally, lesbians have a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, which may represent an STD in this population. However, few data on sexual practices or perceived STD risk among lesbians are available to guide development of interventions aimed at reducing the risk. METHODS To inform the development of a safer-sex intervention for women who have sex with women, focus group discussions were conducted with 23 lesbian and bisexual women aged 18–29. Topics included sexual practices, STD transmission and prevention, and knowledge about bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS Although six participants had had bacterial vaginosis and three an STD, women reported little use of preventive measures with female partners (washing hands, using rubber gloves and cleaning sex toys). Participants said that vaginal penetrative practices using sex toys and fingers or hands are common, and that partners frequently share sex toys during a sexual encounter, generally without condoms. Knowledge of potential for STD transmission between women, and of bacterial vaginosis, was limited. Participants viewed use of barrier methods (gloves or condoms) as acceptable, provided that there is a reason (usually STD-focused) to use them and that they are promoted in the context of sexual health and pleasure. CONCLUSIONS Safer-sex messages aimed at lesbian and bisexual women should emphasize the plausibility of STD transmission between women, personal responsibility and care for partners’well-being; should target common sexual practices; and should promote healthy sexuality. PMID:15888397
In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women’s groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. PMID:25126420
Shuaib, Faisal; Todd, Dana; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Ehiri, John; Jolly, Pauline E.
Background Dengue virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in most tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Dengue fever is endemic in Jamaica and continues to be a public health concern. There is a paucity of information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Jamaicans regarding dengue infection. Objective To describe dengue related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of residents of Westmoreland, Jamaica. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 192 parents attending child health clinics in the Parish of Westmoreland was conducted. Results More than half of the parents (54%) had good knowledge about signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission of dengue. Approximately 47% considered dengue to be a serious but preventable disease to which they are vulnerable. Nevertheless, a majority (77%) did not use effective dengue preventive methods such as screening of homes and 51% did not use bed nets. Educational attainment (OR, 2.98; CI, 1.23–7.23) was positively associated with knowledge of dengue. There was no correlation between knowledge about dengue and preventive practices (p=0.34). Radio and TV were the predominant sources of information about dengue fever. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the good knowledge about dengue fever among residents of Westmoreland did not translate to adoption of preventive measures. Health program planners and practitioners need to identify and facilitate removal of barriers to behavior change related to control of dengue fever among the population. Future campaigns should focus on educating and encouraging individuals and families to adopt such simple, inexpensive preventive actions, such as, use of insecticide treated bed nets and screening of homes. PMID:21132094
Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei; Holzemer, William L
The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses know about HIV/AIDS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, China. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Only 7.9% of the nurse (n = 177) used condoms during their first experience of sexual intercourse. Eight-six percent of the nurses had been stuck by sharps while working, and 76% of them had been splashed by patient fluids. For 12 basic HIV/AIDS questions, the mean score was 6.66. The mean score is 6.28 for 9 HIV/AIDS attitude questions. Knowledge and attitude are negatively related (r = -0.215, p < 0.005). Training in reducing the risk for occupational exposures in this sample is important. Nurses who have a better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention are more likely to have negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. This study suggests the necessity of increasing HIV/AIDS education for nurses, family members, friends, and all health care providers. PMID:15307930
Koralek, T; Brown, B; Runnerstrom, MG
and attitudes among Chinese college students in the US. Jattitudes, and beliefs about Ebola virus disease among college studentscollege students utilized during the 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak and their knowledge, attitudes, and
Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597
Sadler, Georgia R; Ryujin, Lisa T; Ko, Celine Marie; Nguyen, Emily
Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123) completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information. PMID:11553321
Turnquist, Bruce Eric
This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…
Kufskie, Kathy L.
Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…
it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative atti- tudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, ca- sual sex, and extramarital sex.Forexample, there seems to be a spectrum of liberality in attitudes towards homosexuality, with African
Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Yamawaki, Niwako; Sato, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Aki; Saito, Hisako
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing attitudes toward sexual activity among early adolescents in Japan. A total of 1,551 students aged 12 to 14 years at 4 junior high schools were divided into either a conservative or liberal group. Results of chi-square tests showed that the liberal group had higher percentages of students…
Ganczak, Maria; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Szych, Zbigniew
The aim of the study was to survey the needs for HIV/AIDS educational interventions and attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV infection, including sexual relationships, among 17-year-old Polish adolescents. A total of 761 students who attended schools located in urban and rural areas was surveyed. The study, based on the voluntary, self-completed,…
Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David
Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…
A review of 25 years of research in "Human Communication Research" indicated that the mass media are a significant source of learning and that the media can and do affect attitudes, which in turn influence behaviors. Based on a community sample, a study sought to extend such findings by establishing a direct link between media use, sexual…
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…
Chapman, James W.; Pitceathly, Amanda S.
A research review and a study of residential and sheltered workshop care staff (N=20) attitudes toward sexuality, marriage, and parenthood of mentally retarded persons indicated staff ambivalence and conservatism. Teaching techniques for use by care staff and counselors in sex education programs for mentally retarded persons are presented. (CB)
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education is one way Namibia combats HIV/AIDS. This exploratory study had two objectives: to investigate attitudes and perceptions towards sex education, and to see what purpose sex education serves in Namibia. To what extent do stakeholders support sex education in Namibia? What kind of obstacles exists to SRH…
Bazzo, Giuseppe; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ferrari, Lea; Minnes, Patricia
Background: The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. We hypothesized that social service providers' role, educational level and service in which they worked could affect attitudes…
Previous studies of non-human animals and humans with endocrine abnormalities have demonstrated that higher prenatal androgen levels promote more male-typical behavior, including cognitive abilities and sexual behavior. Research on normal hormonal...
Jankovi?, Suzana; Malatestini?, Giulia; Striehl, Henrietta Bencevi?
This study aims to detect opinions about what and when should be talked about in sexual education in schools respecting the role of parents. This study was conducted in 23 elementary schools in the town Rijeka, Croatia from March to May 2010. The sample consisted of parents of sixth grade elementary school pupils. There were 1,673 respondents, divided in groups of mothers and fathers. Both groups had answered what is the majority of topics to be talked about in the higher grades of elementary school. In lower elementary school grades children should be taught about the structure and differences of male and female genitalia. Topics that most parents find inappropriate to be talked about in sexual education, are sexual satisfaction and pleasure, masturbation, pornography and prostitution (5.01-7.7%). Results of this study can help in creating sexual education programs in schools where parents are considered of being equal accomplices. PMID:23697245
Claibourne I. Dungy; Rhona J. McInnes; David M. Tappin; Anne Baber Wallis; Florin Oprescu
Objectives This study: (1) investigated infant feeding attitudes and knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers in an urban\\u000a community with historically low breastfeeding rates, (2) examined the influence of women’s social networks on infant feeding\\u000a attitudes and decisions, and (3) validated a measure of infant feeding attitudes and knowledge in this population (Iowa Infant\\u000a Feeding Attitude Scale, IIFAS). Methods Women attending
Tuchinda, S; Chotpitayasunondh, T; Teeraratkul, A
A survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding human immunodeficiency virus infection was performed on 899 students from 3 government-administered high schools located in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Initially, all students completed a written questionnaire (pre-test) regarding HIV/AIDS. Following this, they attended a slide lecture presentation given by a specialist physician. The same test questionnaire was then completed by the same students six weeks (post-test) later for comparison of their previous KAP. The subjects composed of male to female ratio equal to that of the median age 15-16 years old. Sixty-seven per cent of the subjects were living with their parents, 16.3 per cent with relatives and 15 per cent with friends. Ninety nine per cent of the subjects had received information on HIV/AIDS before enrollment to this study. The source of knowledge ranged from television (89.1%), teachers (81.6%), pamphlets (80.2%), newspapers (75%), radio (55%), health care workers (53.4%), friends (38.6%) and only 32.5 per cent from their parents. The subjects' knowledge about HIV/AIDS and risk factors in the post-test questionnaire was significantly increased (P < 0.001) from the pre-test status. However, their attitudes to an HIV infected person were not significantly changed in the post-test questionnaire: only the "attending school" question showed significantly (P < 0.05) increased numbers of agreement. Similarly, the attitudes and practices to prevent HIV infection were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between pre-test and post-test questionnaires. The result of this study is to recommend regular school-based programs of education to increase awareness of preventive strategies for HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:9529843
Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Cofie, Nicholas; Ezeh, Alex
Although attitudes to premarital sex may be influenced by several factors, the importance of religion to that discourse cannot be underestimated. By providing standards to judge and guide behaviour, religion provides a social control function such that religious persons are expected to act in ways that conform to certain norms. This study investigated the interconnectedness of several dimensions of religion and premarital sexual attitudes among young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Using reference group as the theoretical base, it was found that those affiliated with Pentecostal/Evangelical faiths had more conservative attitudes towards premarital sex than those of other Christian faiths. Additionally, while a high level of religiosity was found to associate with more conservative views on premarital sex, the effect was more pronounced among Pentecostal groups. The findings are discussed in relation to programmes on adolescent sexuality. PMID:22716919
Barry, William T.; Mills, Rachel; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Svetkey, Laura; Sullivan, Jennifer; Willard, Huntington F.
Background: Variable health literacy and genetic knowledge may pose significant challenges to engaging the general public in personal genomics, specifically with respect to promoting risk comprehension and healthy behaviors. Methods: We are conducting a multistage study of individual responses to genomic risk information for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 300 individuals were recruited from the general public in Durham, North Carolina: 60% self-identified as White; 70% female; and 65% have a college degree. As part of the baseline survey, we assessed genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing. Results: Scores of factual knowledge of genetics ranged from 50% to 100% (average=84%), with significant differences in relation to racial groups, the education level, and age. Scores were significantly higher on questions pertaining to the inheritance and causes of disease (mean score 90%) compared to scientific questions (mean score 77.4%). Scores on the knowledge survey were significantly higher than scores from European populations. Participants' perceived knowledge of the social consequences of genetic testing was significantly lower than their perceived knowledge of the medical uses of testing. More than half agreed with the statement that testing may affect a person's ability to obtain health insurance (51.3%) and 16% were worried about the consequences of testing for chances of finding a job. Conclusions: Despite the relatively high educational status and genetic knowledge of the study population, we find an imbalance of knowledge between scientific and medical concepts related to genetics as well as between the medical applications and societal consequences of testing, suggesting that more effort is needed to present the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing, particularly, at the social and personal levels, to ensure informed decision making. PMID:23406207
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge scores were classified into high,…
Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.
Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…
Morton, R S
This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496
Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia
Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…
Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas
Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…
Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs
Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care. PMID:25212415
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar
Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…
Pulford, Andrew; Malcolm, William
The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by health professionals forms an important component of ongoing surveillance of post-marketing drug safety. The extension of responsibility for all health professionals to report ADRs has coincided with national immunization programmes, such as the national childhood immunization, human papillomavirus (HPV), and seasonal and H1N1 influenza programmes. The study objective was to evaluate knowledge of, and attitudes to, reporting ADRs among the professional groups most likely to see suspected reactions to vaccines. This included nursing professionals, whose views have not been included in previous studies. A survey of 91 practice nurses, health visitors, school nurses and GPs working in Ayrshire and Arran during June, July and August 2007 was undertaken. The respondents' knowledge of ADR reporting varied considerably. Although the majority of respondents recognized that it is the responsibility of health professionals to report suspected ADRs, there were lower levels of knowledge about the purpose of the Yellow Card system specifically; less than 50% of the respondents reported good knowledge about the system. The study suggests implications for practice with regard to the implementation of large-scale immunization programmes and potential solutions to under-reporting among these professional groups. PMID:20647982
Pelullo, Concetta P.; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F.
Background This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. Methods A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Results Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. Conclusions Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease. PMID:22905178
Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Jabbari, Hossein; Bakhshian, Fariba; Shafaei, Leila; Shafaei, Soheyla; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Mohseni, Mohammad
Context: Due to expansion of chronic diseases and increase of health care costs, there is a need for planning and delivering hospice care for patients in their final stages of life in Iran. The aim of the present study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about delivering hospice care for End of Life (EOL) patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 with a sample size of 200 nurses that were selected by convenient (available) sampling. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire whose validity was approved by experts’ opinions and its reliability was approved by test-retest method. Results: Among all participants of this study, 87% were female. The mean age of nurses was 32.00 ± 6.72. From all respondents 62% stated that they have no knowledge about hospice care and 80% declared that need for hospice care is increasing. Most of the participants felt that, appropriate services are not presented to patients in the final stages of their lives. About 80% believed that hospice care leads to reduction of health care costs, improvement of physical, mental and social health of patients and finally improvement of the quality of health care services. There was a significant relationship between age, employment history and level of education of nurses and their attitude and knowledge about how this service is provided. Conclusion: In view of the increase in chronic illnesses and the costs of caring, the need for provision of hospice care is felt more and more every day. However the awareness level of nurses about these services is low. Therefore the need for including these issues in nursing curriculum and holding scientific courses and seminars in this field is needed. PMID:26009676
Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G. T.; Helbling, Marc
Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals’ sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile—as measured with benevolent sexism items—related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions—that is, more positive attitudes—among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters.
Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G T; Helbling, Marc
Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals' sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile-as measured with benevolent sexism items-related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions-that is, more positive attitudes-among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters. PMID:26283985
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N
Introduction Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. Methods and materials We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). Conclusion These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. PMID:23874117
Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Woog, Vanessa
Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high-risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has…
Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Raji?, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A
The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged <30) and producers with smaller herds were more likely to favour this practice. Two-thirds of producers (66.7%) were concerned that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) might preclude successful treatment of sick cattle. Producers who completed a dairy-health management course (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.69), organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians as very knowledgeable about OFFS (90.9% answered 4 or 5 on a five-point scale) and a favoured (73.1%) source of information about food safety. In contrast, only 13.2% and 30.2% of producers, respectively, indicated that consumers and government personnel are knowledgeable about OFFS. Targeted continuing education for dairy producers in Canada should address the major gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards food safety identified in this study, and veterinarians should be included as key knowledge-transfer informants. PMID:19962773
Background The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. Methods The study population included residents aged 15–49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnaires assessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Results The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P?0.05). Almost 37% of students scored low. Nearly one-third of the study population was practicing risky sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p?>?0.05). Conclusions The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour. PMID:25292443
Mounir, Gehan M; Mahdy, Nehad H; Fatohy, Ibtsam M
In Egypt, adolescents don't have enough and/or correct knowledge regarding reproductive health. Health education interventions are widely seen as the most appropriate strategy for promoting young people's sexual health. The aim of the present work was to assess the impact of a short-term health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria university students. Quasi-experimental study (pre-post testing control group) was carried out among 682 female university students living in the university hostels, 354 students represented the intervention group (Ezbet-Saad hostel) who received the program and 328 students constituted the control group (El-Shatby hostel). The study revealed that no one had satisfactory knowledge level while 61.7 % and 38.3% respectively had fair and poor levels. The low knowledge level was more evident regarding the questions about: the meaning of the term 'reproductive health' (only 5.1% gave correct complete answer), the benefits of premarital examination (only 37.9% reported complete answer), the investigations done for the pregnant woman (only 28.3% gave complete answer) the benefits of breast feeding (only 8.2% reported complete answer), methods of family planning (only 36.4% gave complete answer), side effects of female genital mutilation (only 4% reported complete answer), sexually transmitted diseases and methods of protection (only 11.9% and 3.9% reported complete answer). It was evident that 32.6% had an overall positive attitude level, 46.3% were in the neutral level and 21.1% had a negative level. It was also found that students of highly or moderately educated mothers and of high social class reported significantly higher knowledge score about premarital examination, age of marriage and breast-feeding than those of non-educated mothers and of low social class. After the intervention program there was a significant improvement in the majority of knowledge questions from pre to post test in the intervention group and no absolute changes were detected in the control group. The highest percentage of gain scores (33.3%) was detected for knowledge about the term 'reproductive health' and female genital mutilation. A significant gain score of 25% was observed for the knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases. Also there was a gain of 20% in the median score concerning the knowledge about breast feeding and family planning. A significant shift towards a positive attitude was found among the intervention group. PMID:17219905
Rastmanesh, Reza; Taleban, Furugh Azam; Kimiagar, Masood; Mehrabi, Yadolah; Salehi, Moosa
Context: Little is known about sport nutritional problems and requirements of athletes with physical disabilities. Objective: To compare the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of Iranian athletes with physical disabilities (APDs) after nutrition education. Because proper nutrition is important for both performance and injury healing, learning about the nutritional areas in which APDs are deficient may assist professionals in educating them. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting: Sport camp. Patients or Other Participants: Seventy-two APDs (42 APDs in the intervention group and 30 age-matched and sex-matched control APDs) and 10 coaches completed the study. Intervention(s): The APDs in the intervention group and their coaches were given nutrition education, which included a booklet with a simplified food guide pyramid, simple concepts about nutrition and weight loss, and four 3-hour courses. The APDs in the control group and their coaches were not given nutrition education. Main Outcome Measure(s): Subjects completed 2 nutritional questionnaires with both quantitative and qualitative components. Nutritional questionnaires were administered at 2 consecutive camps, 30 days apart, before and after nutrition education. Our questionnaires included a demographics section; 88 Likert scale and true-false questions; and 18 open-ended questions, 13 of which were specifically designed for APDs. Each APD completed two 3-day food records. Results: The APDs in the intervention group scored significantly higher after nutrition education and higher than the control group on the knowledge subscales and interest in nutrition. Although the nutrition knowledge score in this study was moderate, several specific areas of deficient nutritional knowledge were identified that are critical for the health of APDs. Our model of nutrition education was more effective than the usual instructions presented irregularly by coaches. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Iranian APDs lack nutritional knowledge in areas critical to preventing nutrition-related health problems, especially components related to nutrition for athletes with disabilities. PMID:17597950
Olaiya, M A; Alakija, W; Ajala, A; Olatunji, R O
Summary. interviewed with questionnaires on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations about blood donations. It was found that a large number of them (92.9%) donated because of the benefits they will obtain from the hospital. Such benefits include antenatal registration (67.1%) and saving the lives of relations (25.8%). Even though many of the donors are educated (98.9%), majority of whom have university degrees (36.1%) and have heard about blood donation before, 52.4% of them believe they can contact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis infection from blood donation. A good number (47.0%) are afraid of what they regard as side effects, such as weight loss (23.8%), sexual failure (5.9%), high blood pressure (5.2%), sudden death (3.3%), and convulsion (1.47%). About 41.0% prefers certificates as an incentive for donation, whereas 13.6% prefers money; less than 3% will like their names announced or published on the media and 2.58% will donate for nothing. It is recommended that an intensive blood donation campaign should be maintained. This will allow people to be well informed, turning the positive attitude of saving life through blood donation to a regular practice. PMID:15043588
Angelillo, I. F.; Ricciardi, G.; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; Langiano, E.; Pavia, M.
The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512
López Jaime, P; Santos Ortíz, M C; Dávila Torres, R R; Torres, L; Díaz, L
The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge about sexuality (including STD/HIV/AIDS), the sexual practices more frequents and sexuality education sources in a group of students with visual impairments. A self administered questionnaire was utilized in 50 students with visual impairment. Descriptive statistics were utilized. Seventy six percent (76.0%) of the participants presented a high knowledge about sexuality and 22.0% presented moderated knowledge. The no penetrative sexual practice more frequent was corporal caress (82.0%) and the penetrative was penis-vagina (74.0%). The source of sexuality education most common was the conferences (83.9%). Although, in general, the knowledge about sexuality was high, there are "gaps" in them. There is the need to develop educational materials adapted to the needs of the studied population. PMID:11776730
Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.
This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers (n =…
Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.
This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers…
Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen
In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…
Singh, Jagjit K.
A descriptive study was conducted in three junior high schools in Calgary (Alberta) to examine: (1) student attitudes toward computers, (2) student preferences for different kinds of software, and (3) student knowledge of computers and computer applications. Subjects (n=157) completed a survey designed to evaluate their attitudes and knowledge…
Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan
International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…
Campbell, Emily B; And Others
Nursing staff (n=166) in four nursing homes participated in quasi-experimental study to measure knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence and compliance with toileting protocols. Intervention group (n=96) showed slight increase in knowledge; their attitudes remained positive over four testing times. Compliance with protocol was only 72…
Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance
The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.
Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali
Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…
H Sanaei Nasab; F Ghofranipour; A Kazemnejad; A Khavanin; R Tavakoli
Background: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward
Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa
The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…
Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly
Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
Dunst, Carl J.
Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB) puppet shows on elementary school students' knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities are described. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and change attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both…
Tanya Crawford; Wendy Geraghty; Emily Simonoff
This study investigates knowledge, attitudes and training needs concerning deliberate self-harm (DSH) in adolescents, amongst a variety of professionals involved in the assessment and management of adolescence who self-harm. A questionnaire survey was completed by 126 health professionals working with adolescents who harm themselves. The main outcome measures were a knowledge measure and three attitude measures (generated using factor analysis).
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie
Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…
Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela
The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…
Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf
The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy rates in under-16-year old teenagers and sexual risk-taking are both increasing. Ensuring that teenagers access health care--particularly sexual health care--appropriately is problematic. AIM: To find out the opinions and attitudes of 13- to 15-year-old teenagers towards general practice-based sexual health care services. METHOD: A quantitative survey, using a questionnaire completed during school hours. RESULTS: One thousand and forty five children aged 13 to 15 years completed questionnaires. The majority (709 [68%]) were aware of the sexual health services offered by general practitioners (GPs), and 786 (75%) were positive about being given helpful advice at a consultation. However, 567 (54%) teenagers believed they had to be over 16 years old to access sexual health services and 604 (58%) were concerned about their confidentiality not being preserved by their GP. They were also concerned about GPs not having the time or skills to deal with their problems (314 [30%]). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that work is needed to improve teenagers' access to, and use of, primary care sexual health services. In particular, identifying strategies that improve teenagers' awareness of services and general practitioners' approaches towards teenagers are priorities. PMID:10954936
Ugboga Adaji Nwokoji; Ademola J Ajuwon
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in
Hill, Dana; Holmes, Talmage
Lyme disease (LD), a vector-borne disease, causes illness for many individuals in the United States. All of the conditions for the promulgation of LD are present in one Southern state in the United States; yet this state reports lower numbers of LD than adjacent states. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between this Southern state's primary care providers' knowledge and attitudes regarding the diagnosis and reporting of LD. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted via a mailed questionnaire by the Arkansas Department of Health to 2,693 primary care providers. Respondents were 660 primary care providers from all regions of this state. Secondary data were analyzed using descriptive, Chi square, and logistic regression techniques. Analysis results included the following: a correct response rate of 59.1 % for symptom recognition, of 46.2 % for knowledge of recommended testing processes, and of 78.9 % for knowing LD is a reportable disease. These results compared to the expected norm were significant in every area with p values of .000. Specialty, region, and years of practice were found to be confounding influences in a number of assessment areas. PMID:25187225
Lim, Ka Keat; Teh, Chew Charn
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic utilization in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among public attending a local hospital. The four-part questionnaire collected responses on demographic characteristics, recent use of antibiotics, knowledge and attitude statements. Cronbach’s alpha for knowledge and attitude statements were 0.68 and 0.74 respectively. Only questionnaires with complete responses were analysed. General linear modelling was used to identify demographic characteristics which contributed significantly to knowledge and attitude. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of obtaining an inappropriate response for each knowledge and attitude statement. The relationship between antibiotic knowledge and attitude was examined using Pearson’s correlation and correlation between related statements was performed using the Chi-square test. In all statistical analyses, a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was positive correlation (p<0.001) between mean knowledge (6.07±2.52) and attitude scores (5.59±1.67). Highest education level (p<0.001) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.001) contributed significantly to knowledge. Gender (p=0.010), race (p=0.005), highest education level (p<0.001), employment status (p=0.016) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.005) contributed significantly to attitude. The differences in score between demographic groups were small. Misconceptions that antibiotics would work on both bacterial and viral infections were reported. Approximately three quarters of respondents expected antibiotics for treatment of coughs and colds. Close to two thirds (60%) believed that taking antibiotics would improve recovery. Several demographic groups were identified as ‘high risk’ with respect to gaps in knowledge and attitude. Conclusions: This study has identified important knowledge and attitude gaps as well as people ‘at risk’. These findings would be useful in strategizing targeted antibiotic awareness campaigns and patient counselling. PMID:23532680
Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.
A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students’ knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students’ knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes toward this population. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia, such that knowledge was only related to positive attitudes among students who had more personal contact with persons with the illness. Implications for social work training in severe mental illness are discussed (99 words). PMID:24353396
Thanavanh, Bounbouly; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi
Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.1–9.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.5–27.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.9–8.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.6–6.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky practices were also present. Educational programmes with specific interventions are recommended to increase KAPs and to prevent new HIV infections among students in Lao PDR. PMID:23481130
Webb, Marquitta C; Beckford, Safiya E
Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of "1" and incorrect answers were given a score of "0." For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; "5" was given to the most positive response, and "1" was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316
Webb, Marquitta C.; Beckford, Safiya E.
Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of “1” and incorrect answers were given a score of “0.” For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; “5” was given to the most positive response, and “1” was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316
Gilliam, A; Seltzer, R
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on AIDS or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of AIDS, attitudes toward AIDS, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight. In particular, there was little effect on social attitudes. The showing of one educational movie on AIDS (particularly the movie that was used in this experiment) appears to be insufficient to educate students on this issue. PMID:2723257
Ellen J. Rohaan; Ruurd Taconis; Wim M. G. Jochems
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers’ knowledge of technology and pupils’\\u000a attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature\\u000a in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is essential for stimulating\\u000a a positive attitude towards technology in pupils. Particularly, teachers’
Moossavi, Shirin; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Mojarrad, Asal; Merat, Dorsa; Ansari, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Merat, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza
BACKGROUND Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is employed to replace the ‘unhealthy’ microbiota of the patient with the ‘healthy’ microbiota of a pre-screened healthy donor. Given the growing importance of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of intestinal or extraintestinal diseases; it is conceivable that FMT becomes integrated in the routine clinical practice. Our objective was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the Iranian physicians towards FMT. METHODS We surveyed the participants of Iranian gastroenterology and hepatology 2014 conference. RESULTS Overall, 146 (68.5%) were familiar with FMT; of whom 132 (94.28%) were willing to accept FMT if scientifically and ethically approved and 115 (88.46%) were willing to refer their patients for FMT if indicated. In total, 42 (30.7%) had identified stool preparation as the most unappealing aspect of FMT, while 17 (11.6%) reported the therapeutic use of fecal material as the most unappealing and 39 (28.5%) indicated that both are equally unappealing. The doctors who had an overall positive opinion toward FMT reported less negative feelings towards FMT. CONCLUSION Iranian physicians are willing to accept FMT as a therapeutic option if it is scientifically justified and ethically approved. Nevertheless, physicians prefer to skip the stool preparation phase; as they are more in favour of synthetic microbiota as opposed to fecal microbiota. PMID:26396717
Recena, Maria Celina P; Caldas, Eloisa D; Pires, Dario X; Pontes, Elenir Rose J C
In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with pesticide use and exposure were evaluated in the agricultural community of Culturama, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was completed by 250 farm workers aged > or =18 years old. The average age of the studied population was 43.6 years and 17.6% had never been to school. Their farms were small (approximately 30ha) and family operated and did not utilize advanced farming technology. About 92% of the interviewees had worked directly with pesticides and 59.6% reported typical intoxication symptoms. Only 44.3%, however, believe that they had been intoxicated. A significant correlation was found between hand washing after pesticide application and reporting symptoms (P=0.014). Over 90% of the farmers reported using the organophosphorus insecticide methamidophos. A great majority (>90%) considered pesticides to be harmful to human health, but less than 20% used masks, impermeable clothes, or gloves during pesticide application. These results indicate that special educational programs, legislation promoting the use of safer pesticides, and implementation of personal protective measures are necessary to decrease the pesticide exposure of farmers in Culturama. PMID:16497291
Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.
Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G
Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p < .01) and that they could use drugs and always make healthy choices about using protection (B = .31, SE = .09, p < .01). Significant positive associations were also found between complimentary sexual stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p < .05). These findings suggest that endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23421336
This study reports the results of a questionnaire and interview-based study designed to test the often-stated claims of college preparatory schools, i.e., "prep schools" that, along with a high-quality education, they also instill a superior system of values than is possible in a public school. Comparisons are made between "preppies" and college-bound public school students in terms of sexual attitudes and behavior as well as with the earlier studies of Kinsey, Pomeroy et al., Sorensen, and Haas. The results indicate that, even when measured by the standards of the schools themselves, preppies rank lower in many areas, especially attitudinal, than their public school counterparts. Despite the enormous amount of faculty energy expended to prevent it, the sexual activity of the prep school student, both in amount and degree of sophistication, is significantly greater than is found in public school students. Further, in terms of sex-related drug use, exploitiveness, female self-image, homophobia and sexism, preppies do not compare favorably with public school students. Hypotheses are advanced to account for the differences detected and suggestions made for future research. It is also suggested that the research technique used in this study has great potential for future study of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior that, in the past, have been extremely difficult to perform. PMID:3618330
Berber, Gürol; Karapirli, Mustafa; Kantarci, Nabi; Kandemir, Eyüp; Varkal, Mihriban Dalkiran; Sahin, Esat; Emül, Murat
Childhood sexual abuse is a growing concern throughout the world, although the legal sequelae of this phenomenon are frequently neglected. We aimed to reveal and compare the attitudes of judiciary and junior clerks toward sexually abused children that might contribute to these sequelae. We divided 302 study participants into two groups of judiciary members and junior clerks. All the participants were asked to anonymously complete a questionnaire about stigmatization, including questions assessing social distance, dangerousness and skillfulness. In their responses, 51.2% of the judiciary and 64.0% of the junior clerks displayed a negative attitude toward "asking a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor to supervise their child for few hours" (p=0.029). When asked "What would you think if your child wanted to marry a CSA survivor?" 76.5% of the judiciary and 84.1% of the junior clerks were opposed to the idea (p=0.095). Interestingly, significantly more judiciary than junior clerks believed that a "CSA survivor can control his/her rage" (p=0.001), and significantly more of the junior clerks did not believe that "CSA survivors do not behave impulsively" (p=0.034). Both groups of legal professionals in this study appear to distance themselves from or have negative thoughts about CSA survivors, particularly when the issue involves their own children and/or social situations. Along with other factors, these negative assumptions might also contribute to lower prosecution rates and retestifying procedures. PMID:23219700
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
Data from 1087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends’ attitudes and behavior were assessed with friends’ reports. Among males, there was evidence for selection effects on STI diagnoses and socialization effects on reports of unintended pregnancy, both involving friends’ attitudes. Among females, there was evidence for long-term effects of both socialization and selection processes involving same-sex friends’ attitudes. Discussion focuses on the importance of peer and individual attitudes as potential intervention targets. PMID:22563148
Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7% ± 1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47 ± 0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24 ± 0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98 ± 0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to female college students about HPV and its vaccination in developing countries where the incidence of sexually transmitted infections is on the rise. PMID:25597945
Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Paulina López-del-Toro; Ellen Andresen; Laura Barraza; Alejandro Estrada
The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' attitudes, as well as perceptions and knowledge that shape those attitudes, toward the ecological role of vertebrates inhabiting shaded-coffee farms. We also aimed to determine whether differences existed among two groups of farmers: one that had attended environmental education workshops, and one that had not. We conducted 36 oral interviews of
Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.
This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…
Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.
Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…
Lin, Yen-Chin; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Lin, Helene H.
The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…
Abramson, P R; Moriuchi, K D; Waite, M S; Perry, L B
Cross-cultural differences in parental attitudes and experiences of childhood sexual education were examined. Parental attitudes and experiences were isolated for study because of their significance as a vehicle for transmitting culturally prescribed norms. The present study also tested for artifactual differences between cultures, in terms of explaining the differences with concomitant variability. Couples with children ranging in age from 1 to 10 were utilized and were drawn from four subcultures (Mexican-American, N = 22, Black American, N = 20, Caucasian American, N = 27, and Japanese-American, N = 18). The most salient and consistent finding was the pronounced significance of the covariate controls (especially father's education and mother's religiosity). That is, although a few cross-cultural effects remained significant despite the influence of a covariate, most of the findings were biased by a concomitant (i.e., demographic) variable. PMID:6651506
Tikka, Paivi M.; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Tynys, Salla M.
Establishes whether students in a variety of educational environments differ in their attitudes toward nature and the environment. Identifies students' nature and environment-related activities and knowledge. (Author/CCM)
Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio
Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)
Edwards, Karen Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, perceptions of, and attitudes toward sustainable agriculture held by Texas county extension agents. Conducted from August 1998 to August 1999, the study targeted 570 Texas county...
Stöcker, Petra; Dehnert, Manuel; Schuster, Melanie; Wichmann, Ole; Deleré, Yvonne
Purpose: Since March 2007, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends HPV vaccination for all 12–17 y-old females in Germany. In the absence of an immunization register, we aimed at assessing HPV-vaccination coverage and knowledge among students in Berlin, the largest city in Germany, to identify factors influencing HPV-vaccine uptake. Results: Between September and December 2010, 442 students completed the questionnaire (mean age 15.1; range 14–19). In total 281/442 (63.6%) students specified HPV correctly as a sexually transmitted infection. Of 238 participating girls, 161 (67.6%) provided their vaccination records. Among these, 66 (41.0%) had received the recommended three HPV-vaccine doses. Reasons for being HPV-unvaccinated were reported by 65 girls: Dissuasion from parents (40.2%), dissuasion from their physician (18.5%), and concerns about side-effects (30.8%) (multiple choices possible). The odds of being vaccinated increased with age (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.19, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.16, 4.15) and decreased with negative attitude toward vaccinations (OR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.13, 0.84). Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 10th grade school students in 14 participating schools in Berlin to assess socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and statements on vaccinations. Vaccination records were reviewed. Multivariable statistical methods were applied to identify independent predictors for HPV-vaccine uptake among female participants. Conclusions: HPV-vaccine uptake was low among school girls in Berlin. Both, physicians and parents were influential regarding their HPV-vaccination decision even though personal perceptions played an important role as well. School programs could be beneficial to improve knowledge related to HPV and vaccines, and to offer low-barrier access to HPV vaccination. PMID:22995838
AMANDA NAGLE; MARGOT SCHOFIELD; SALLY REDMAN
SUMMARY This study examined smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of hospital-based nurses. The specific aims were: to determine the prevalence of self-reported smoking and the characteristics of hospital nurses who smoke; to describe nurses' knowledge of the health risks of smoking and strategies which aid quitting; and to describe their attitudes to smoking and quitting and providing smoking cessation care.
Low, W Y; Wong, Y L; Zulkifli, S N; Tan, H M
This qualitative study aimed to examine cultural differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices related to erectile dysfunction (ED) utilizing focus group discussion. Six focus groups consisting of 66 men, 45-70-y-old were conducted-two Malay groups (n=18), two Chinese groups (n=25) and two Indian groups (n=23). Participants were purposely recruited from the general public on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analysis software ATLASti. The Malay and Chinese traditional remedies for preventing or treating ED are commonly recognized among all races. Many have a negative perception of someone with ED. Malay and Chinese men tended to blame their wife for their problem and thought that the problem might lead to extra-marital affairs, unlike the Indian men who attributed their condition to fate. Malays would prefer traditional medicine for the problem. The Chinese felt they would be more comfortable with a male doctor whilst this is not so with the Malays or Indians. Almost all prefer the doctor to initiate discussion on sexual issues related to their medical condition. There is a need for doctors to consider cultural perspectives in a multicultural society as a lack of understanding of this often contributes to an inadequate consultation. PMID:12494275
Arafa, Mostafa A.; Farhat, Karim H.; Rabah, Danny M.
Aims: The aim of the following study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of men, in our region, regarding cancer prostate and its screening practices. Subjects and Methods: The field work was conducted in Riyadh City, during the period February through July 2011. It was a population - based cross-sectional study comprising 400 men over 40 years. In addition to socio-demographic data, history of the present and past medical illness, history of prostatic diseases and examination, family history of cancer prostate; participants were inquired about their knowledge and attitude toward prostate cancer (PC) and screening behavior using through two different Likert scales. Results: Only 10% of the respondents had practiced a regular PC examination checkup. Their knowledge about PC was poor and their attitude toward examination and screening was fair, where the mean of total correct knowledge score was 10.25 ± 2.5 (51.25%), while the mean of total attitude score was 18.3 ± 4.08 (65.3%). The respondents identified the physicians as the main sources of this information (62.4%), though they were not the main motives for a regular checkup. Knowledge represented the only significant predictor for participants’ attitude. Conclusion: Beliefs and attitudes have a great impact, at every stage of the cancer continuum, this attitudes depends mainly on level of knowledge and quantity of information provided to patients and their families. Such attitudes should rely on a solid background of proper information and motivation from physicians to enhance and empower attitudes toward PC screening behavior. PMID:25837827
Priest, Hannah M.
This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…
Corprew, Charles S., III.; Mitchell, Avery D.
This study examines correlates that contribute to sexually aggressive attitudes toward women. Using a sample that includes 217 college males from 3 southern universities, the study evaluates the relationship between college men's hypermasculine and sexually aggressive attitudes, as well as how fraternity membership and disinhibition moderate…
Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde
Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20–24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this. PMID:25763397
Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Kilbourne, Barbara
The threat of HIV/AIDS to African American's health has become the focus of much concern. This study investigated the potential differences between African Americans' and white college students' current and future sexual behaviors and safer sex behaviors with HIV/AIDS awareness, condom use self-efficacy, and safer sex attitudes. A convenience…
Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.
Sean D. Young; Eric Rice
This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los\\u000a Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression\\u000a and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge,\\u000a sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually
Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with having a positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Conclusion Findings presented have important implications for anti-trafficking programs, in particular those designed to educate the adolescent females who are at most-risk of sex trafficking. Educational programs need to include specific interventions to improve knowledge and attitudes towards sex trafficking among adolescent females in Nepal. PMID:26177534
Onuh, Sunday O.; Igberase, Gabriel O.; Umeora, Joaness O. U.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Otoide, Valentine O.; Gharoro, Etedafe P.
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) and cutting is a subject of global interest, with many countries of the world still practicing it despite efforts by the WHO and other agencies to discourage the practice. The highest known prevalence is in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among nurses in the ancient metropolis of Benin in a Nigerian state where FGM is illegal. RESULTS: One-hundred-ninety-three nurses in the study hospital were recruited in the study out of which 182 (94.3%) appropriately filled and returned the questionnaires. The average age of respondents was 37 years, and the average duration of postgraduation experience was 14.5 years. Most respondents are of Bini (36.8%) and Esan (34.1%) ethnic origin. All respondents identified at least one form of FGM, but only 12 respondents (6.6%) could correctly identify the four types of FGM. The harmful effects of FGM identified by the majority of respondents include hemorrhage, difficult labor/childbirth, genital tears, infections and scar/keloid formation. Forty-four (24.2%) of respondents were of the opinion that some forms of FGM are harmless. Eighty nurses admitted to having undergone FGM, for a prevalence of 44%. Five respondents (2.8%) view FGM as a good practice and will encourage the practice. Twelve respondents (6.6%) routinely perform FGM out of which seven (58.3%) viewed FGM as a bad practice. Nurses performing FGM routinely were those who had spent >20 years (59%) and 11-20 years (41%) in the profession. Another 26 (14.3%) had performed FGM before, though not on a routine basis. Of this latter group, 15 will perform FGM in the future when faced with certain circumstances. Reasons for FGM practice were mainly cultural. Eight of the respondents would have their daughters circumcised. CONCLUSION: Nurses perceive FGM in Benin as cultural. Almost half have had FGM themselves, and a small percentage recommend it to their daughters. Discouraging FGM practice will require culturally sensitive education of the healthcare providers and the population at large on the ill effects of FGM, including the risk to health and violations of human rights. PMID:16573307
Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania
Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills. PMID:25250548
Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul
In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…
Kamal, S. M. Mostafa
This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…
Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine
Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…
Conclusions of the study were as follows: 1) results revealed a low level of energy knowledge; 2) the reading level of students based on CAT scores was the best predictor for energy knowledge; 3) given the energy knowledge test, sex was a significant predictor for males; 4) although race was not a significant predictor for energy knowledge, white students had a higher mean score than black students; 5) given the attitudinal mean score, the attitude of students fell in the undecided category. The overall mean tended to indicate a less than favorable attitude toward energy conservation; 6) the best predictor for energy attitudes was the CAT score with higher reading levels indicating more positive attitudes; 7) population density also was a significant predictor for energy attitudes with heavier populated areas indicating more positive attitudes; 8) sex was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, females' mean scores tended to be more positive than males'; 9) race was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, the analysis showed that white students' attitudes tended to be more positive; 10) teacher knowledge and attitudes were not significant variables for predicting student energy knowledge and energy attitudes; and 11) there was no significant relationship between student energy knowledge and energy attitudes. The major recommendation for further study is that more attention be devoted to energy education at state and local levels.
Ghotbi, Nader; Anai, Akane
Cervical cancer resulting from prior infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant public health threat against young Japanese women. A national immunization plan to vaccinate 13~16 year old female students against HPV infection has been started in Japan since 2010, and may reach almost full coverage by the end of 2012. Older age females who may already be sexually active are not targeted by this plan but should follow safer sex practices as well as periodic screening of the cervix cytology to reduce their risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination alone does not offer full protection either, because only some HPV types are covered by the vaccines and the long-term efficacy of the vaccines has not been determined yet. Therefore, we did a survey at an international university in Japan to study the knowledge and attitude of female college students towards prevention of cervical cancer, to examine the age when they start sexual activity and other related attributes that may influence the risk of cervical cancer. We discuss the results of our survey and what they imply for the possible impact of an HPV immunization plan on the risk of cervical cancer in Japan, and conclude by an emphasis on the need to increase awareness among Japanese female adolescents and to enhance the cervical screening rates among older females who are already sexually active. PMID:22631668
In this response to Damien Riggs' analysis of sex education websites, the author draws on Foucault's understanding of knowledge, power and governmentality to understand how some forms of knowledge about sex and sexuality become normalised "official knowledge" that frame institutional policies and practices and shape everyday discourses. Foucault…
Chng, Chwee Lye; Eke-Huber, Esther; Eaddy, Starr; Collins, John. R.
This study examined HIV knowledge, perceived risk and sexual behavior of 370 undergraduate students in selected universities in southern Nigeria. MANOVA confirmed females to have significantly higher overall HIV knowledge than males ([p.bar] = .03). In addition, more females than males reported significantly higher knowledge on the risk of HIV…
Kakavoulis, Alexandros; Forrest, Joan
This article describes a survey comparing university students in Greece and Scotland with regard to their attitudes to sexual development and sex education. A questionnaire was constructed in Greek and English and was completed by 436 university students in Greece and an equivalent number in Scotland. Comparative results show a tendency for students' attitudes to converge with regard to gender identity, inter-sexual relations, appropriate forms of sexual behaviour and the factors that shape it. Differences exist regarding the aims of sex education, the concept of a sexually mature person, and the moral principles that should govern inter-sexual relations.
Behnaz, Fatemah; Mohammadzade, Golnaz; Mousavi-e-Roknabadi, Razieh S; Mohammadzadeh, Mahmoud
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the effective management of TB. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among medical students. The survey was done from 2012 to 2013. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed regarding tuberculosis with a questionnaire. Knowledge mean score of students was 16.13±2.06 and Attitude score was 36.08±3.76, Knowledge and attitude levels of students were moderate to high in the majority of them. Practice score of the study subjects was 22.77±4.95, 11.9% of students had poor practice level. 43% did not know that a sputum smear is the most important method used for diagnosis of TB. Two-thirds of them did not know the distance that should be kept from contagious patients. Half of them believed that the BCG vaccination has no role in the prevention of TB. This study concluded that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge of students regarding TB transmission and the role of sputum smear in diagnosis. The importance of the BCG vaccination should be emphasized. PMID:24857175
Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one among different approaches which have been implemented as an attempt to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact at the individual, family and society level. VCT is perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people like tertiary level students. Ethiopia as a country with high burden of HIV started responding to the epidemic by preparing and updating guidelines on VCT. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among university students in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 using a stratified sampling method to enroll students from different faculties into the study. A total of 330 university students filled in a self-administered questionnaire with response rate of 97.3%. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV. A chi-square test was used to determine an association between a number of independent factors and dependant variables. Result About 66.1% of the study participants were males with a mean age of 20 years. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents were Orthodox with 63% reported living in urban areas before joining the university. From the study participants 86.3% were knowledgeable on VCT, 73.3% had positive attitude towards VCT for HIV and 61.8% had had VCT for HIV in the past. Previous residence before joining the university, level of education, sex and religion were among the sociodemographic variables that showed statistically significant association with the one or more of the outcome variables. Fear of positive results, stigma and discrimination following the positive results were reported as main barriers for VCT uptake. Conclusion The findings reveal important barriers for VCT uptake and suggest strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination. PMID:23914738
Lönn, Elin; Sahlholm, Karin; Maimaiti, Rena; Abdukarim, Kaisaier; Andersson, Rune
China has to date in general only been moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic, but there are cities, particularly in Yunnan, with a high prevalence. This situation seems to be changing, however, with the risk of a rapidly growing epidemic. Our aim was to investigate the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and risk behavior among young people at Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China. Xinjiang has a population of mixed minority groups and Han Chinese. The largest minority group is the Uygur (8.82 million), who are Sunni Muslims and speak a Turkish language. Questionnaires were handed out to 400 students. Twenty open interviews were conducted after invitation to the students answering the questionnaires and their friends. All but one had heard about HIV/AIDS and approximately 95% knew the most common routes of transmission: sexual contact, mother to child, and sharing needles. Eighty percent also knew about transmission through breastfeeding. There were some knowledge gaps about how HIV is not transmitted. The questionnaires showed that only 5.7% of the undergraduate students admitted to being sexually active. Twenty-eight percent of the undergraduates and 17% of the postgraduates would not tell anyone if they were infected with HIV. In the interviews the students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS seems to be superficial. Although they did not display high sexual risk behavior during the time of our study, attitudes are changing, and becoming more liberal. We believe that extensive information about sex, infection, and protective measures is crucial to help China prevent an epidemic. PMID:17263657
Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…
This study examined the effect of a hypermedia-enhanced problem-based learning environment in astronomy on sixth-graders' science knowledge, attitude toward learning science, and motivation toward learning. It was found that the students had significantly increased their science knowledge from pretest to post test and also retained much of what…
Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.
We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Sizemore, O. J.; Lewandowski, Gary W., Jr.
Students completed surveys at the beginning and end of a sophomore-level course on research and statistics. We hypothesized that the course would produce advances in knowledge of research and statistics and that those changes would be accompanied by more favorable attitudes toward the subject matter. Results showed that knowledge did increase…
Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others
A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…
Karen M. Robinson; Kay F. Kiesler; Stephen W. Looney
This pilot study explored the effect that respite care training had on volunteers' knowledge about Alzheimer's disease (AD), their attitudes toward the cognitively impaired, and their self-esteem. Volunteer respite providers (n = 52) were recruited and participated in four different day (seven-hour) respite care training programs. The sample was predominantly female (85 percent) and white (90 percent). Knowledge about AD
Perkins, Rotha M.
Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…
Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James
Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Mousouli, Maria; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Angelopoulou-Sakadami, Nicoletta; Aristotelous, Maria
The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitudes of physical education undergraduate students towards children with special needs. A questionnaire of seven questions was submitted to 140 physical education students. Questions concerned the knowledge about the different kinds of disability, the acceptance of children with…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.
The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…
GAYLE REICHLER; SHARRON DALTON
Objective To determine if chefs' and student chefs' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding healthful food preparation are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.Design An analytical survey questionnaire was distributed to 4 chef groups. Sections 1 and 2 of the survey measured chefs' food science knowledge (13 questions) and likelihood of using food preparation practices (15 questions) necessary to meet
Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique
Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence. PMID:20432131
Mohsen, A M
This study aimed to assess and upgrade the level of knowledge and attitudes towards AIDS among nurses and university graduates (U.G.). The study used pre-test, post-test with no control group design. It was done over a period from January 1995 to July 1996. Four hundred and thirty four nurses and 244 U.G. were subjected to baseline questionnaire and health education lecture about mean score of knowledge and attitudes were significantly improved from pre to post-lecture among both groups (p=0.0001). There were no significant differences in the levels of knowledge and attitudes pre and post-lecture between the two studied groups, or participants' sex (p>O.05). There were statistically significant differences between married and single participants with high levels among married (p=0.003). Logistic regression analysis showed that marriage was the strongest predictor variable of good knowledge score (> or =75%). PMID:17217018
Sunilkumar, MM; Boston, Patricia; Rajagopal, MR
Context: Sexual dysfunction is a major concern for Indian men living with a spinal cord injury. Few first-hand reports exist about the experience of living with an altered sense of sexual identity and the inability to express sexual concerns. Aims: In this qualitative study, the authors explore views and attitudes towards sexual functioning in men living with a spinal cord injury in Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured and open-ended interviews were conducted with seven participants according to IE Seidman's phenomenological approach. Thematic analysis followed the analytic process outlined by Moustakas (1990). Results: Identification of seven interconnected themes included: Recalling an active sexual life, disconnection with sexual identity, incongruence between emotional and physical capability, spousal isolation, social readjustment of spouse, physical barriers to sexual functioning, coping, and reintegration. Conclusions: Patient's descriptions of suffering demonstrate complexities of experience in sexual functioning. All patients were sexually active prior to the injury. This was now lost causing anxiety, distress, and sadness. A huge gap existed between sexual desire and physical capability. The patient and spouse were now isolated emotionally, socially, and physically. Physical barriers included urinary incontinence and indwelling catheters. While several self-evolved coping strategies were identified, support from palliative care services was not evident. Two important gaps exist in research and practice: (1) Attention to sexual issues and whole-person care. (2) Attention to quality of sexual life. Future qualitative studies on sexual dysfunction could provide a useful adjunct to current literature which is predominantly biomedical in its approach. PMID:25709179
Al-Rabeei, N A; Dallak, A M; Al-Awadi, F G
Students of health-related subjects have an important role in national strategies on HIV/AIDS prevention. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS among students at health institutes in Sana'a city, Yemen. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 600 students selected by cluster sampling. Students had a moderate level of HIV/AIDS knowledge (an average of 67.6% were correct on all items). Nevertheless, 82.3% knew that HIV could be transmitted by sexual intercourse without a condom, 87.5% from syringes, 71.8% from infected blood and 80.7% from mother to child. Misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted (e.g. hugging and kissing or sharing food, swimming pools and classrooms) were found among 41.5% of the students. Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS showed that 59.8% of students were accepting and positive. There was a common opinion among respondents that HIV-infected persons needed to be punished (65.5%) and isolated (41.0%); however, 86.8% were willing to care for an HIV-infected person. PMID:22574474
Stalder, Laura D.; And Others
A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)
Kellert, Stephen R.; Westervelt, Miriam O.
The basic objectives of this research, which involved children in the 2nd, 5th, 8th, and 11th grades, were to describe children's uses and perceptions of animals and to discern possible developmental stages in the evolution of attitudes toward animals. Personal interviews were conducted with 267 children from 16 public schools randomly selected…
This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…
Muller, M T; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B D; Kriegsman, D M; van der Wal, G
The objective of the study was to gain insight into the knowledge of and attitudes towards voluntary active euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide (EEDAS) of Dutch medical students, and to determine whether knowledge and attitudes change after a 1-day informative conference about EDAS. Data were collected by means of two self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaire 1 had to be completed before the start of the conference and questionnaire 2 after the conference. In both questionnaires, students were asked by means of two open-ended questions to define euthanasia and doctor-assisted suicide. They were also asked to indicate which of eight statements met with the requirements for prudent practice. Finally, the students were asked to what extent they agreed or disagreed with each of seven statements about attitudes towards EDAS. To determine if a selection occurred among students who returned both questionnaires, their background characteristics, and knowledge and attitudes towards EDAS were compared with those who returned only the first questionnaire. Forty-seven students returned only the first questionnaire, while both questionnaires were returned by 137 students. No differences were found between students who returned both questionnaires and those who returned only the first questionnaire with regard to age, religion, knowledge of and attitudes towards EDAS. Students' knowledge of the definitions of EDAS and the requirements for prudent practice improved significantly. Students' reactions to the statements on attitudes towards EDAS showed that a large majority had a fairly positive attitude towards EDAS. There was no significant difference before and after the conference. Male students and students with a religion were more opposed to EDAS than female students and students without a religion. The fact that the students' knowledge of EDAS improved after a 1-day conference does not imply sufficient understanding of the issue. Because EDAS is allowed only under strict conditions in the Netherlands, medical students require special training. Only then will they be equipped to deal with requests for EDAS during their future careers. PMID:9217905
Saengpattrachai, Montri; Srinualta, Dumnern; Lorlertratna, Nithi; Pradermduzzadeeporn, Ekachai; Poonpol, Fakjit
The purpose of this nationwide survey was to assess familiarity with and knowledge of epilepsy, as well as to identify predictors of negative attitudes toward people with epilepsy, in Thailand. Of the 1581 people interviewed, 80.8% were familiar with the word epilepsy, but few knew anyone with the condition. The main reason given for avoiding helping a seizure victim was a lack of proper first-aid knowledge, not a negative attitude toward the person. The factors predicting negative attitudes in the Thai population were low educational level, unfamiliarity with epilepsy, and the misconception that epilepsy is a form of insanity. Different from most previous studies worldwide, the attitudes of friends and parents toward people with epilepsy were strongly positive. Social awareness of the public organization Epilepsy Society of Thailand was low; only 4.6% of the respondents knew about it. These data should be considered in a nationwide strategy to alleviate social discrimination against people with epilepsy. PMID:20189885
Yusoff, Hafzan; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Ahmad, Zulkifli
A higher occurrence of iron deficiency anemia is present in rural Malaysia than urban Malaysia due to a lower socio-economic status of rural residents. This study was conducted in Tanah Merah, a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia. Our objective was to investigate the impact of nutrition education alone, daily iron, folate and vitamin C supplementation or both on knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin status of adolescent students. Two hundred eighty fourth year secondary students were each assigned by school to 1 of 4 different treatment groups. Each intervention was carried out for 3 months followed by 3 months without treatment. A validated self-reported knowledge and attitude questionnaire was administered; hemoglobin levels were measured before and after intervention. At baseline, no significant difference in hemoglobin was noted among the 4 groups (p = 0.06). The changes in hemoglobin levels at 3 months were 11, 4.6, 3.9 and -3.7% for the supplementation, nutrition education, combination and control groups, respectively. The changes at 6 months were 1.0, 6.8, 3.7 and -14.8%, respectively. Significant improvements in knowledge and attitude were evidenced in both the nutritional education and combination groups. The supplementation and control groups had no improvement in knowledge or attitudes. This study suggests nutritional education increases knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin levels among Malaysian secondary school adolescents. PMID:23082570
Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…
Bergamini, M; Cucchi, A; Guidi, E; Stefanati, A; Bonato, B; Lupi, S; Gregorio, P
The aim of the study is to determine awareness about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their prevention in people aged 14-19 of Ferrara and province. The study was carried out using a self-administered standardised anonymous questionnaire in a sample of students attending to three upper secondary schools. Total number of collected questionnaires was 2695, the average age of interviewed was 17.1. Only 52.3% of respondents correctly recognized STD definition. Over 95% of subjects identified acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), while properly classification of Hepatitis B increased with age and lowest degree of knowledge concerned herpes infection and Candidiasis. Sex without condom (95.97%) and needle exchange in drugs abusers (94.9%) are considered high risk behaviours. 80.3% of interviewed, without distinction of school attendance, sex, and age considered lack of information as a situation of high risk. Condoms are not used by 46.4% of the subjects in case of sex with a regular partner and by 9.5% with casual partner. Majority of students declared condoms very safe in preventing STDs but an important percentage indicated also contraception methods; correct answers were higher among females and increased with age. Main sources of information were TV (21.6%), school (21.1%) and friends (14.8%) and a few sought information from family doctor (7.4%) and web (4.8%). The study suggests, as priority, to improve teenagers' awareness about risk behaviours and prevention of STDs. School can play an important role in reinforcement of sexual education programmes and directing young people to general practitioners and primary sexual health care services. PMID:24396993
Gallegos, Esther C.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Gómez, Marco Vinicio; Onofre, Dora Julia; Zhou, Yan
This study describes the sexual knowledge and communication of Mexican parents and adolescents. Pre-intervention data was analyzed from 829 high school students (ages 14-17) and one of their parents. Differences were found between parents and adolescents in sexual knowledge (M = 16.16 vs. M = 14.92; t = 7.20; p < 0.001); specifically parents had higher knowledge related to STD’s, HIV/AIDs, and condom use. Parents perceived more general communication (t (787) = 6.33 p < .001), and less discomfort talking about sex (t (785) = 4.69, p < .001) than adolescents. Parents with higher education levels scored higher in HIV knowledge and general communication. Fathers had higher total sexual knowledge while mothers perceived higher sexual communication than fathers. There were no differences in knowledge and communication by parental socioeconomic level. Results suggest health care providers need to assist parents in developing specific knowledge and skills to support their adolescents’ sexual decision making. PMID:17403494
Social influence factors in sharing knowledge by e-mail are important issues in developing and understanding successful knowledge management systems and human–computer interaction. This article investigates important factors in shaping attitudes toward knowledge sharing by e-mail, based on social influence theory and self-determination theory. An empirical test of the proposed model using an online survey was conducted with a sample of
Ahamed, Shabeer; Moyin, Shabna; Punathil, Sameer; Patil, Neha A; Kale, Vishwajeet Tulshidas; Pawar, Ganesh
Background: Dentists play very important role in the oral health education of the community. Thus it is important to know the status of knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward the maintenance of oral health at the student level. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude, and behavior among preclinical and clinical dental students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 147 dental students from 1st to 4th year of Malabar Dental College, Kerala, in the year of March-June 2010 and was carried out with the help of 30 questionnaires. Age, gender and academic year data were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the help of SPSS version 20 using the Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA tests. Results: The difference in scores of oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior between preclinical and clinical dental students was found statistically highly significant (Student’s t-test, P < 0.001). The variation of scores of knowledge, attitude, and behavior also showed highly significant increase with the year of study (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.001). While the difference in scores between males and females showed that females have better oral health knowledge than males, but the difference was not statistically significant (Student’s t-test, P > 0.01). The present study thus showed improvement of knowledge, attitude and behavior with the academic years and there was no bias of gender with reference to oral health. Conclusions: Although oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior showed improved results from 1st to 4th year dental students, it should be improved in order to serve better for the community in the future. PMID:26124603
Whiteside, Y Omar; Harris, Tammy; Scanlon, Christopher; Clarkson, Stephen; Duffus, Wayne
Several domestic and international trials of the use of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention are ongoing among groups at high risk for HIV infection. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess self-perceived risk of HIV infection and attitudes about PrEP among 405 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees in South Carolina. Self-percieved risk of HIV infection and attitudes about PrEP were assessed using three questions from a self-administered survey. Ordinal logistic regression and logistic regression were used to evaluate differences in risk perception for HIV infection and attitudes about the use of PrEP among risk groups. Compared to heterosexual participants, homosexual participants were significantly more likely to have knowledge of PrEP (odds ratio [OR]=6.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70-26.1). Compared to those participants who had 1 sexual partner in the past 3 months, individuals who had 2 to 4 sexual partners in the past 3 months were approximately 2.35 times as likely to have a lower level of agreement with the statement "I believe I am at risk of getting HIV" (p=0.0003). Compared to female participants, respondents who were male were approximately 2.8 times as likely to have a lower level of agreement with the statement "If I had to it would be very difficult for me (or my partner) to both use condoms and take daily pills to prevent HIV infection" (p<0.0001). These results suggest the need for the creation of PrEP implementation programs that are tailored to self-perceived risk perception, age, and gender. PMID:21470046
Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed. PMID:18032292
Kurtz, M E; Johnson, S M; Ross-Lee, B; Narayanan, S
This study investigated whether knowledge and attitudes of Malay college students regarding smoking can be positively influenced by educational intervention. The experiment included a pretest to assess the students knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking, a lecture on the health risks associated with smoking, and a posttest given six weeks later to assess whether any changes had occurred. A profile of the typical Malay student smoker was also elicited. Twenty-seven percent of the study population were smokers. Of the men in the sample, 44% were smokers, while less than 4% of the women were smokers. T-tests indicated that knowledge of the health risks associated with smoking was significantly improved for most groups, while attitudes towards smoking were essentially unchanged. PMID:2152053
Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L
Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs. PMID:11302230
Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.701, p?0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.593, p?0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r?=?0.413, p?0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248
Alghanim, Saad Abdullah
The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural respondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counterparts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents' source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this significant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs. PMID:20061688
AlMuzaini, Anwar A A Y; Yahya, Asmaa S Y S; Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sharma, Prem N
Although several studies have been conducted to assess dentists' knowledge of and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), few have targeted dental assistants. The main aims of this study were to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among dental assistants in Kuwait and to compare the knowledge and attitudes of dental assistants at Kuwait University Dental Center (KUDC) with those of dental assistants in Ministry of Health (MoH) hospitals. The secondary objective was to determine if any intervention was needed to provide more information to dental assistants on HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing questionnaires. The study sample included 85 dental assistants from each of KUDC and the MoH. The questionnaire included questions to assess the assistants' knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Qualitative data were analysed using the Pearson chi-square text for any association or the Z-test for proportion to test the significance of differences. A total of 167 questionnaires were completed, returned and analysed. KUDC dental assistants were found to have significantly more knowledge about HIV/AIDS than their MoH counterparts, whereas the assistants at the MoH clinics displayed a more positive attitude towards patients with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.05). Although dental assistants at KUDC were more knowledgeable than those at the MoH clinics, there are still some misconceptions that need to be addressed, in addition to the negative attitudes displayed by some of the respondents. It would therefore be beneficial to increase awareness about HIV/AIDS patients through lectures, seminars and workshops targeting dental assistants. PMID:25345503
Background Since May 2004, ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries have joined the European Union, leading to a large influx of CEE migrants to the United Kingdom (UK). The SALLEE project (sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans) set out to establish an understanding of the sexual lifestyles and reproductive health risks of CEE migrants. CEE nationals make up a small minority of the population resident in the UK with no sampling frame from which to select a probability sample. There is also difficulty estimating the socio-demographic and geographical distribution of the population. In addition, measuring self-reported sexual behaviour which is generally found to be problematic, may be compounded among people from a range of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This paper will describe the methods adopted by the SALLEE project to address these challenges. Methods The research was undertaken using quantitative and qualitative methods: a cross-sectional survey of CEE migrants based on three convenience samples (recruited from community venues, sexual health clinics and from the Internet) and semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of CEE migrants. A detailed social mapping exercise of the CEE community was conducted prior to commencement of the survey to identify places where CEE migrants could be recruited. A total of 3,005 respondents took part in the cross-sectional survey, including 2,276 respondents in the community sample, 357 in the clinic sample and 372 in the Internet sample. 40 in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with a range of individuals, as determined by the interview quota matrix. Discussion The SALLEE project has benefited from using quantitative research to provide generalisable data on a range of variables and qualitative research to add in-depth understanding and interpretation. The social mapping exercise successfully located a large number of CEE migrants for the community sample and is recommended for other migrant populations, especially when little or no official data are available for this purpose. The project has collected timely data that will help us to understand the sexual lifestyles, reproductive health risks and health service needs of CEE communities in the UK. PMID:19878564
Whittaker, Mette Kristensen; Brown, Jennifer; Beckett, Richard; Gerhold, Contanze
Despite a rapid growth in research interest and treatment facilities for adolescent sex offenders, understanding of how these adolescents differ from non-offending adolescents remains incomplete. This study contributes to knowledge of the distinguishing characteristics of offenders and focuses on levels of sexual knowledge and empathy that…
Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Darteh, Eugene Kofuor Maafo
Adults constitute gatekeepers on adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). This qualitative paper discusses the views of adults on ASRH problems and challenges based on 60 in-depth interviews conducted among adults in Ghana in 2005. Adults were purposively selected based on their roles as parents, teachers, health care providers and community leaders. The major ASRH problems mentioned were teenage pregnancy and HIV/AIDS. The results indicated a number of challenges confronting ASRH promotion including resistance from parents, attitudes of adolescents, communication gap between adults and adolescents and attitudes of health care providers. Among health workers three broad categories were identified: those who were helpful, judgmental and dictators. Some adults supported services for young people while others did not. Some served as mediators and assisted to 'solve' ASRH problems, which occurred in their communities. It is argued that exploring the views of adults about their fears and concerns will contribute to the development of strategies and programmes which will help to improve ASRH. PMID:25438519
Santos, José Carlos; Simões, Rosa Maria Pereira; Erse, Maria Pedro Queiroz de Azevedo; Façanha, Jorge Daniel Neto; Marques, Lúcia Amélia Fernandes Alves
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care. METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training. RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention. PMID:25296153
This study looked into contraceptives knowledge and sexual behaviour among federal university students in Ibadan. The main objective of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of contraceptive and the relationship between level of knowledge of contraceptive and safe sexual behaviour of federal university students in Ibadan. It is…
Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu
Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455
Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu
Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455
Background Questions remain regarding the sustainment of evidence-based practices following implementation. The present study examined the sustainment of community clinicians’ implementation (i.e., penetration) of cognitive-behavioral therapy, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and knowledge of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety two years following training and consultation in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. Methods Of the original 115 participants, 50 individuals (43%) participated in the two-year follow-up. A t- test examined sustainment in penetration over time. Hierarchical linear modeling examined sustainment in knowledge and attitudes over time. Time spent in consultation sessions was examined as a potential moderator of the change in knowledge and attitudes. Results Findings indicated sustained self-reported penetration of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth, with low fidelity to some key CBT components (i.e., exposure tasks). Follow-up knowledge was higher than at baseline but lower than it had been immediately following the consultation phase of the study. Belief in the utility of evidence-based practices was sustained. Willingness to implement an evidence-based practice if required to do so, appeal of evidence-based practices, and openness toward evidence-based practices were not sustained. Participation in consultation positively moderated changes in knowledge and some attitudes. Conclusions Sustainment varied depending on the outcome examined. Generally, greater participation in consultation predicted greater sustainment. Implications for future training include higher dosages of consultation. PMID:25030651
Gupta, Vivek V.; Bhat, Nagesh; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Mridula; Bapat, Salil; Chaturvedi, Pulkit
Objectives A study was conducted with the purpose to assess the knowledge and attitude towards informed consent among private dental practitioners in Bathinda City, Punjab, India. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all private dental practitioners in Bathinda City. A self-administered structured questionnaire consisting of 14 items was used to assess their knowledge and attitude regarding informed consent. The response format was based on a 3-point Likert scale. One-way analysis of variance, independent sample t test, and stepwise multiple linear regression analysis were utilized for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5%, respectively. Results The mean scores for knowledge and attitude were 19.37 ± 31.82 and 9.40 ± 1.72, respectively. Analysis revealed that qualification and years of experience was statistically significant among both dependent variables (p ? 0.05). Conclusion An unbalanced knowledge of informed consent among the current dentists has suggested the need for awareness programs to fill the knowledge gaps and instill positive attitudes. PMID:25938015
Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol
Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition. PMID:24088375
Oser, Carrie B.; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women’s endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality (CSS) and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project (B-WISE). Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women’s endorsement of CSS and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants’ endorsement of CSS was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p < .01) and that they could use drugs and always make healthy choices about using protection (B = .31, SE = .09, p < .01). Significant positive associations were also found between CSS and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) and their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p < .05). These findings suggest that endorsement of CSS by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI). PMID:23421336
Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W
Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. PMID:24372621
Ekeh, Bertha C.; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.
Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy.
This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1±2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices. PMID:23930337
Le, Yen-Chi L.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Calo, William A.; Savas, Lara S.; Vélez, Camille; Aragon, Angela Pattatucci; Colón-López, Vivian
Introduction The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by increasing vaccination for HPV. Yet vaccination uptake and completion of the 3-dose series remain low among Puerto Rican females. This study explored psychosocial factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake decisions among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters. Methods We conducted 7 focus groups with young women aged 16 to 24 (n = 21) and their mothers (n = 9) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to cervical cancer, HPV, and HPV vaccination. We analyzed the focus group transcripts and identified themes by using a constant comparison method of qualitative data analysis and interpretation, guided by a grounded theory approach. Results The analysis identified several emergent themes related to vaccine uptake: 1) low knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine; 2) inconsistent beliefs about susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer; 3) vaccine effectiveness; 4) vaccine safety and side effects; 5) concerns that the vaccine promotes sexual disinhibition; and 6) availability of insurance coverage and overall cost of the vaccine. Conclusion Our study found that adolescent girls and young women in Puerto Rico have low levels of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer, low perceived susceptibility to HPV, and concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and these factors may influence uptake and completion of HPV vaccination. Interventions are needed for both mothers and daughters that address these psychosocial factors and increase access to vaccination. PMID:25474384
Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 – 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 – 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459 PMID:24400743
Ogunsemi, Olawale O; Lawal, Rahmaan A; Okulate, Gbenga T; Alebiosu, Christopher O; Olatawura, Michael O
Context Studies on knowledge and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS reported from developed countries have shown that people with psychiatric disorders constitute a special risk group. In Nigeria, although similar studies have been conducted on various population groups, there has, so far, been no reported study on people suffering from psychiatric disorders. Objective The present study set out to compare knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors related to HIV/AIDS among schizophrenic patients and diabetic patients. Method Ninety-eight consecutive schizophrenic patients attending the outpatient clinics of a psychiatric hospital over a period of 8 weeks completed an interviewer's administered questionnaire. The interview covered demographics, risk behaviors, knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and patients' attitudes toward people infected with HIV/AIDS. Their responses were compared with those of 56 diabetic patients who were similarly interviewed in a teaching hospital. Results Compared with the diabetic patients, the schizophrenic patients were significantly less sexually active in the previous 12 months (P < .05). They had more misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and were less tolerant towards people living with HIV/AIDS compared with the diabetic patients. They were also more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors. Conclusion Mental health providers rarely educate psychiatric patients about HIV/AIDS and should be more involved in doing so. Despite being less sexually active, patients with schizophrenia engaged in risk behaviors as did the diabetic patients. PMID:17415323
Lee, Haeyoung; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee; Yun, Soon Nyung; Choi-Kwon, Smi
We investigated familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy among teachers in elementary schools in Korea, where there is profound prejudice against epilepsy. Most of the teachers thought that epilepsy is a genetic disease. They agreed that children with epilepsy (CWE) should attend regular classes (although with some restriction of school activities) because their academic achievement would be comparable to that of children without epilepsy. However, half of the teachers opposed having CWE in their own classes because they feared a child having a seizure during class and they felt they lacked knowledge of first-aid for seizures. Those teachers who had inaccurate clinical knowledge of epilepsy also demonstrated negative attitudes toward the marriage and employment of persons with epilepsy. We conclude that information about epilepsy should be included in teacher training programs so as to increase their level of knowledge of epilepsy and correct prejudices against epilepsy. PMID:20042372
Potter, Gail; Clarke, Tammie; Hackett, Susan; Little, Maureen
This descriptive study explored the influence of specific geriatric knowledge on second and third year nursing students in their provision of care to older adults. Nineteen student participants provided qualitative data on their values and beliefs about nursing older adults prior to their attendance at a 1-h session teaching about two assessment tools: SPICES (Sleep disorders, Problems with feeding, Incontinence, Confusion, Evidence of falls, Skin breakdown) and BPI-SF (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form). Data were again collected following a 6-week practice experience in which the same students had the opportunity to implement the tools. Four emerging themes, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and application, suggested how the students' geriatric knowledge and attitudes evolved and took on personal meaning in their intermediate practice experiences. Their realization of the hegemony associated with devaluing of the care of older adults warrants further examination into how geriatric knowledge is conveyed and assimilated. PMID:23465846
Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan
Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (? = -0.28), unreliability (? = -0.19), and advantages of BN (? = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709
As the budget for the scientific exploration of space shrinks, the need for more autonomous spacecraft increases. For a spacecraft with a star tracker, the ability to determinate attitude from a lost in space state autonomously requires the capability to identify the stars in the field of view of the tracker. Although there have been efforts to produce autonomous star trackers which perform this function internally, many programs cannot afford these sensors. The author previously presented a method for identifying stars without a priori attitude knowledge specifically targeted for onboard computers as it minimizes the necessary computer storage. The method has previously been tested with simulated data. This paper provides results of star identification without a priori attitude knowledge using flight data from two 8 by 8 degree charge coupled device star trackers onboard the X-Ray Timing Experiment.
Stroupe, Natalie Nicole
The purpose of this study was to ascertain the relationships among women's sexual experiences and attitudes, their level of difficulty with orgasm, and their perception of themselves as anorgasmic or orgasmic. Anonymous data was provided by 208...
Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Klima, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly; Chisolm, Deena; McBride, Kim L
Clinical genetic testing for specific isolated congenital heart defects (CHD) is becoming standard of care in pediatric cardiology practice. Both genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing are associated with an increased utilization of genetic testing, but these factors have not been evaluated in parents of children with CHD. We mailed a survey to measure the demographics, genetic knowledge, and attitudes towards genetic testing of parents of children with CHD who previously consented to participate in a separate research study of the genetic etiology of left ventricular outflow tract malformations (LVOT). Of the 378 eligible families, 190 (50%) returned surveys with both parents completing surveys in 97 (51%) families, resulting in 287 participants. Genetic knowledge was assessed on an adapted measure on which the mean percent correct was 73.8%. Educational attainment and household income were directly and significantly associated with genetic knowledge (P?0.001). Attitudes about the health effects of genetic testing were favorable with at least 57% agreeing that genetic testing would be used for managing health care and finding cures for disease. Conversely, a minority of participants found it likely that genetic testing would be used for insurance (up to 39.9%), employment (15.8%), or racial/social discrimination (up to 11.2%). Parents of younger children were less likely to endorse employment or racial/social discrimination. Genetic knowledge was not correlated with specific attitudes. Among parents of children with CHD, genetic knowledge was directly associated with household income and education, but additional research is necessary to determine what factors influence attitudes towards genetic testing. PMID:25256359
Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.; Becker-Schutte, Ann M.
Four studies on the development and validation of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Heterosexuals (LGB-KASH) were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded 5 factors assessing internalized affirmativeness, civil rights attitudes, knowledge, religious conflict, and hate--indicating that…
Nichole Fairbrother; Ilana Stanger-Ross
Using an experimental design, this study assessed knowledge, attitudes, and intentions regarding infant feeding practices among Canadian female university undergraduates (N = 285). Participants completed a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and intentions with respect to infant-feeding practices. Two versions of the survey were randomly distributed to participants: one containing a photograph of a woman breastfeeding her infant (n = 131)
Mohammad Hossein Rahbar; Khalid Ibrahim; Parisa Assassi
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating\\u000a the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in\\u000a Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had heard of “autism.” Our
Naquin, Millie; Cole, Diane; Bowers, Ashley; Walkwitz, Ed
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental health knowledge, attitudes and practices of children enrolled in grades four through eight at a university laboratory school in southeast Louisiana, U.S.A. Quantitative and qualitative questions were completed through an online survey. The children's written responses to the survey…
Torney, Judith V.
Data concerning political attitudes and knowledge were collected for 30,000 adolescents in nine countries. Findings indicate that students in countries with a high degree of international contact were more internationally minded. Sampling procedures are described. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The…
Ata, Abe W.
The main objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, education and attitudes of Chinese, Indian and Arab speaking students in Australia towards the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) test. A questionnaire was administered to 200 students at six university language centers to investigate their overall response towards…
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.
Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…
Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930
Brynteson, Paul; And Others
The purpose of this study was to determine if fitness, knowledge about health related fitness, and attitudes toward health related fitness could be improved as a result of a one-semester college health fitness course. A second purpose was to compare which of four methods of instruction would result in the greatest improvements in health related…
Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan
This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…
M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.
This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate and present some pertinent comments concerning Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, attitudes and misconceptions among the general population in a city of west Turkey. This study was deemed important and relevant due to the increasing importance of AIDS in Turkey and the other countries. METHODS: Using a multistage area sampling method,
Johnson, Nancy L.
The focus of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between generalized multicultural awareness and knowledge as measured by the "Attitudes toward Multicultural Children Scale" ("AMCS") and the "Multicultural Counseling Vignette" ("MCV"). How race, gender, education, and years of experience as a counselor affect measures of…
Xueqin He; Ting Hong; Lan Liu; John Tiefenbacher
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional economic development and environmental problems in the eastern\\/coastal and western\\/inland regions
Christine C. Reed; S. Colleen Beall; Lorin A. Baumhover
Most health care and social service providers are routinely required to work with elderly clients and clients’ aging family members. Research suggests that students entering these professions have knowledge deficits and lack positive attitudes toward older people. Few prefer to work with aging clients. Professional curricula are not providing students with adequate training to serve the current needs of this
de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.
Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…
Kehoe, John; Echols, Jr., Frank
This study reveals that Canadian secondary school students' knowledge of civil liberties and human rights laws is inadequate and that their attitudes are negative and inconsistent. Items on the survey include freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; right to counsel; access to a public facility; right of employment; and rental accommodation.…
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Marita Broadstock; Ron Borland; David Hill
Adolescence is a risk period for skin damage that may lead to skin cancer. The present study measured knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and usual self-reported behaviour relevant to sun protection and suntanning among a representative sample of 4721 secondary school students in Victoria, Australia. Using a cross-sectional design, the study investigated how the above variables varied across age group, sex, and
Nina S. Wampler; Timothy Ryschon; Spero M. Manson; Dedra Buchwald
American Indian women have low screening mammography rates. The authors’ goal was to compare the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer among Northern Plains Reservation women who had and had not received screening mammography in the previous year. Another goal was to compare response rates achieved with an immediate monetary incentive to those achieved with an incentive after survey
This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…
Yi-Chun Chiang; Chun-Nin Lee; You-Mei Lin; Yu-Hsuan Yen; Hsiang-Yin Chen
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an asthma continuing education program on pharmacists’ knowledge and attitudes related to asthma pharmaceutical care. Subjects and Methods: A 20-hour continuing education program was conducted by the joint efforts of the Taipei City Government, Taiwan Association of Asthma Education and Taipei Medical University Wan Fang Hospital, in a
Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia
Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…
This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…
Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; McDonald, Christina; Kahlke, P. Maurine Hatch
Celebrating the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this paper presents results of two exploratory surveys taken in the province of Manitoba, Canada in January to March 2008. A random sample of 506 adults completed a mailed out questionnaire designed to measure respondents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning…
Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat
Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…
Yoo, Hyera; Lee, Sun Hae; Kwon, Bo Eun; Chung, Sulki; Kim, Sanghee
To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, related behaviors, and sources of HIV/AIDS information among high school-aged students in South Korea. One thousand and seventy-seven students (586 females and 491 males) from 5 high schools from 5 representative school districts participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire measuring…
Campbell, Todd; Medina-Jerez, William; Erdogan, Ibrahim; Zhang, Danhui
This study examined the similarities and differences among 171 Grade 7-12 science teachers from three different countries (54 U.S, 63 Bolivian, and 54 Turkish) with respect to their attitudes toward environmental education (EE) and instructional practices. The instrument employed explored how teachers' knowledge, instructional practices,…
Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.
Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min
Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…
Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…
This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using…
The aim of the current research was to examine pre?service, general and special education teachers' attitudes to and knowledge of metalinguistics (awareness of language structure) in the process of learning to read. Effective teachers of reading, writing, and spelling need to understand the relationship between speech and print because these basic language processes are often deficient in cases of reading
Newman, Beverly Cumberland
The overall purpose of this study was to investigate physical therapists attitudes and knowledge toward research and evidence-based practice (EBP). The research design was based on a realist theoretical framework. Twenty-five interviews were conducted asking standardized open-end questions which allowed the participants to relate their real world…
SJ Etuk; FE Okonofua
This study examined the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar on abortion, post- abortion care and post-abortion family planning. Forty eight private practitioners who were proprietors of private clinics in the city were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22.9% of the doctors routinely terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so by
Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…
Fitzgerald, James T.; Williams, Brent C.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Persky, Neal W.; Shay, Barbara R.
This study examines the impact of an interdisciplinary training program on knowledge and attitudes of learners from four health care programs: medicine, pharmacy, social work, and nursing. Sixty-two learners participated in a 4-day educational program (one day each week for 4 weeks) focusing on interdisciplinary geriatric care. After completing…
Veitia, Marie C.; And Others
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Mifsud, Mark C.
There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…
Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David
This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…
Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.
Informational pamphlets about breast self-examination (BSE) and testicular self-examination (TSE) are widely distributed in health care settings, but the pamphlets' effectiveness in promoting knowledge and positive attitudes about these early cancer detection procedures is largely unknown. A study compared pamphlets with alternative methods of…
Kruse, Cara K.; Card, Jaclyn A.
In this study, the authors examined the effects of a conservation education camp program offered through one zoo education department. The conservation education program included 4 levels of camps with increasing levels of animal husbandry. Campers rated their conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior prior to, immediately after, and 1 month…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
Mifsud, Mark C.
Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…
Dominique Brossard; Bruce Lewenstein; Rick Bonney
This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants' attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of
Green, Edward C.
The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…
Liller, Karen D.; Morissette, Brenda; Noland, Virginia; McDermott, Robert J.
Examined middle school students' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding bicycle helmet use. Surveys indicated that most rode bicycles but did not use helmets, despite understanding their protective capabilities, because of poor peer support and helmet design. There was a positive relationship between helmet ownership and use. Most…
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl
Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…
Fitzgerald, James T.; Wray, Linda A.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Williams, Brent C.; Supiano, Mark A.
Purpose: This study examined medical students' interest in geriatrics: Are knowledge, positive attitudes, and prior experience with older adults associated with an interest in geriatric medicine? Design and Methods: Entering University of Michigan medical students completed three surveys: the Revised Facts on Aging Quiz, the University of…
Liu, Shiyu; Roehrig, Gillian; Bhattacharya, Devarati; Varma, Keisha
This study explores in-service teachers' attitudes and knowledge about a pressing environmental issue, "global climate change" (GCC), and how these may relate to their classroom teaching. In this work, nineteen teachers from Native American communities attended a professional development workshop that focused on enhancing their…
Yun, Eun Kyoung
Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings. PMID:23806194
de Graaf, Hanneke; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Woertman, Liesbeth; Keijsers, Loes; Meijer, Suzanne; Meeus, Wim
This study investigated age- and gender-specific associations between parental support and parental knowledge of the child's whereabouts, on the one hand, and sexual experience and sexual health (the ability to have safe and pleasurable sexual experiences) on the other hand. A representative Dutch sample of 1,263 males and 1,353 females (aged…
Sandie, C L; Heindel, L J
The provision of epidural analgesia for postoperative pain control offers many patient benefits and has become commonplace on many nursing units. Since nurses are responsible for the day-to-day management of patients receiving epidural analgesia, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding this technique are pivotal to its success. Therefore, the purpose of the present descriptive study was to examine the knowledge base, attitudes, and clinical practice of registered nurses (N = 85) regarding postoperative epidural analgesia as managed by an acute pain service (APS). Information was obtained from a survey distributed via a convenience sample to all nurses working on 6 units in a large military teaching facility. We developed the "Epidural Knowledge and Attitude Survey" using the nursing literature on epidural analgesia. The survey consisted of a demographics section, true/false (T/F) questions, multiple choice (M/C) questions, an attitude section, and a comment section. These sections addressed the nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practices in regard to epidural pharmacology, management, and adverse effects, as well as their general satisfaction with the APS of their facility. Data were analyzed statistically using means, standard deviations, percentages, forward step-wise linear regression, the Fisher-Irwin (exact) test, the chi 2 test, and analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple comparisons. A P value of < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results of the study demonstrated that the respondents attained a 78% overall correct score on T/F questions and 38% on M/C questions. The attitude section illustrated that 73% of nurses had "positive" attitudes toward epidural analgesia. Correct management of patients receiving epidural analgesia was being practiced by 77% of nurses. The satisfaction with the APS at this facility was 32% "very satisfied" and 62% "somewhat satisfied." The demographic characteristics that best predicted a higher score on the knowledge portion of the survey were greater years of practice as a nurse and receipt of pain education in nursing training. Nurses who had received inservice education about epidural analgesia rated a "good" self-knowledge of epidurals more often (40%) than those who did not (10%) and scored significantly higher on the knowledge portion of the survey. PMID:10876436
Hoffman, Elise; And Others
In order to design and implement a plan to integrate human sexuality into the curriculum for associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas), levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary in promoting sexual health were defined. Of the four levels in the Mims and Swenson Sexual Health Model (life experiences, basic,…
Kapil, U; Manocha, S
Majority of the urban adolescent girl students (n = 76) from middle socioeconomic group correctly reported that breast milk is the best food for infants (95%), and it has protective antibodies (98%). However, most of them (92%) had incorrect knowledge about the role of diet in breast milk secretion and continuation of breastfeeding while mother is suffering from tuberculosis (92%), malaria (84%). PMID:2228094
Piccolo-Torsky, Judith; Waishwell, Lynn
To evaluate teachers' knowledge about attention deficit disorders (ADHD), a questionnaire was distributed to 180 elementary teachers in a New Jersey district. Of 154 respondents, 128 (83%) indicated they had received negligible formal training in ADHD as undergraduates; only 3.9% had extensive training. A majority had recently taught at least six…
Allendorff, Sibylle; And Others
The Chicago Heart Health Curriculum Program (CHHCP) is a cardiovascular disease risk reduction program designed for students and families. Results of a study of CHHCP suggest that future programs conveying heart health knowledge should consider student learning in the context of self-esteem, independence of peers, and teacher humanism. (Author/MT)
Salehi, Saeed; And Others
A survey was conducted of 817 high school students in representative school districts in Maryland to: determine AIDS-related knowledge, beliefs and practices of high school students by grade, sex, age, and race; assess the perceived behavior of their peers and themselves; and assess the level of students interest in, and effectiveness of, AIDS…
Seshadri, D; Khaitan, B K; Khanna, N; Sagar, R
Leprosy stands tall among the oldest and most misunderstood diseases of man. Today leprosy is easily treated; unfortunately, persistent misconceptions result in unnecessary stigmatization. Thus the present study aims to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding leprosy in people with and without leprosy, factors affecting the same; and to study their relationship with treatment status in leprosy patients. Detailed knowledge and attitude questionnaires were administered to 260 subjects (100 leprosy patients, 60 family members of leprosy patients and 100 people with non-leprosy skin diseases) at AIIMS, New Delhi. Crude scores based on subject responses were used for inter-group comparisons. Leprosy patients had significantly higher knowledge scores than family members who in turn scored significantly higher than people with other skin diseases. Leprosy patients had fair knowledge about common symptoms, but awareness about MDT was low. Delayed diagnosis and non-compliance were common. Attitudes did not differ between groups. Fear of the leprosy-affected and reluctance for physical contact, food sharing and marriage were prominent. Treated leprosy patients had the highest knowledge scores. Higher education and greater knowledge scores were positive predictors of attitude. Knowledge and attitude scores showed significant positive correlation. Knowledge and attitude towards leprosy are unsatisfactory. Improving knowledge may help to improve attitudes. In the post-elimination era, we must incorporate education about the disease into routine care of leprosy patients and focus on community education about leprosy. PMID:25591277
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434
Terzidis, Agis; Koutroumpa, Anastasia; Skalkidis, Ilias; Matzavakis, Ioannis; Malliori, Meni; Frangakis, Constantine E; DiScala, Carla
Objectives To explore whether an intervention during mandatory schooling can lead to age?specific changes in water safety knowledge and attitudes. Methods Age?specific questionnaires were distributed to 202 kindergarten and grade one pupils, 220 elementary school pupils and 337 pupils attending the first three high school grades in Greater Athens. The information was used to design an educational package that was subsequently presented to pupils of the same grades and similar socio?demographic profiles attending different schools in the same area. One month later, a post?exposure evaluation was conducted using the initial questionnaires, in which 115, 205 and 321 pupils from the respective grade categories provided their responses. In order to compare the performance of pupils exposed to the educational intervention with that of pupils who participated only in the initial assessment, mean differences in scores measuring overall knowledge and attitudes were estimated within each of the three grade groups adjusting for age, gender, sibship size, maternal education and swimming knowledge. Results Among kindergarten and grade one pupils, those who received the intervention scored significantly higher for knowledge (17.40%, 95% CI 6.41% to 28.39%) and attitudes (23.64%, 95% CI 4.48% to 42.79%). Among elementary school pupils the gains in knowledge were less evident (14.58%, 95% CI ?3.05% to 32.21%)) and almost null in attitudes (5.64%, 95% CI ?11.47% to 22.77%). Further advancement of age showed no improvement in knowledge (?0.15%, 95% CI ?5.30% to 4.99%) and a minimal, insignificant increase in attitudes (6.32%, 95% CI ?1.87% to 14.52%) among exposed high school pupils. Conclusion The school?based intervention resulted in considerable positive changes in knowledge and attitudes among very young pupils. Elementary schooling seems to provide meagre opportunities to simply improve knowledge. Alternative/complementary approaches should be sought in any attempt to modify behavior. PMID:17446253
Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1 Many survivors find that their sexual attitudes and reactions are impacted after a sexual assault or sexual abuse. While these effects are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy
Stockwell, Fawna M. J.; Walker, Diana J.; Eshleman, John W.
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) examines implicit attitudes through the measurement of response latencies. In this study, the IRAP was used to assess implicit attitudes toward "mainstream" sexual terms (e.g., Kissing) and "BDSM" terms (e.g., Bondage) among individuals reporting BDSM interests and among students who did not…
Cotten-Hustan, Annie L.
Examined the effects of sexuality classes on 23 sex offenders and 28 college students. Results showed that compared to controls, participants had more positive attitudes toward masturbation and a disgust of perverse fantasies about women, suggesting human sexuality education may be useful in preventing sex offenses and rehabilitating offenders.…
Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.
Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…