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1

Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Retarded Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)

Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.

1976-01-01

2

Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

2009-01-01

3

Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

Sümer, Zeynep Hatipo?lu

2014-02-01

4

Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

Russell, Elizabeth B.

2012-01-01

5

Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

2007-01-01

6

Sex Knowledge and Sexual Attitudes Among Medical and Nursing Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between background and sociodemographic variables, attitudes toward controversial aspects of human sexuality and sex knowledge among medical and nursing students.Method: The study design was a questionnaire-based survey of medical and nursing students in Western Australia. Participants were first-through fifth-year medical students at the University of Western Australia and first-through

Robert S. McKelvey; John A. Webb; Loretta V. Baldassar; Suzanne M. Robinson; Geoff Riley

1999-01-01

7

Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

2010-01-01

8

The Effectiveness of a Sexuality Education Newsletter in Influencing Teenagers' Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexual Involvement and Drug Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…

Sanderson, Catherine A.

2000-01-01

9

Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Experiences of High School Students with and without Disabilities in Taiwan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school students in Taiwan with disabilities (N=1204) were compared with nonhandicapped adolescents (N=754) on their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. Although the nonhandicapped students were most knowledgeable and demonstrated the most positive attitudes toward sexuality, the hearing-impaired group were the most sexually

Duh, Jengjyh

1999-01-01

10

An Exploratory Study of Selected Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Indiana Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…

Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.

2007-01-01

11

Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

2010-01-01

12

Adolescent sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among school girls in Transkei, South Africa.  

PubMed

Teenagers make up a quarter of all mothers in Transkei, South Africa, and well over 75% of them are unmarried. Such a high rate of teenage pregnancy is indicative of a high level of unprotected adolescent sexual activity. We examined sexual behaviour, knowledge and attitudes to sexuality among adolescent school girls in Transkei, using a self-administered questionnaire, in order to establish the incidence of sexual activity, and associated risk factors. Of the 1072 respondents, 74.6% were already sexually experienced, and 21.0% were not. The majority of sexually experienced girls (SEGs) and sexually inexperienced girls (SIGs) were living with both their parents. There were no religious differences between the two groups of girls. The age of SEGs at first coitus correlated positively with the age of menarche, and the age at the first date, suggesting that sexual maturation and onset of dating were possible risk factors for initiation of sexual activity. Contraceptive use was low, and a third of SEGs had been pregnant at least once. The knowledge of reproductive biology among both groups of girls was generally poor, although SEGs were significantly more knowledgeable than SIGs. The majority of girls in both groups did not approve of premarital sex, and adolescent pregnancy. They also did not approve of the idea of introducing sex education in schools, or the provision of contraceptives by schools. Nearly a third of the respondents in both groups did not wish to get married in future. In conclusion, there is a high level of unprotected sexual activity among school girls in Transkei. The risk factors for this include early sexual maturation, early onset of dating, and poor knowledge of reproductive biology and contraceptives. PMID:8756047

Buga, G A; Amoko, D H; Ncayiyana, D J

1996-02-01

13

The Effectiveness of a Sexuality Education Newsletter in Influencing Teenagers’ Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexual Involvement and Drug Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effectiveness of a newsletter written by teenagers on sexual and health issues in changing knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Four hundred and nineteen high school students completed a pretest, were given a copy of an eight-page newsletter on sexual and health issues to read as homework, and then completed a

Catherine A. Sanderson

2000-01-01

14

Volunteer Bias in a Study of Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some studies of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior involve college students who volunteered to participate in the research. The present study assesses the impact of volunteer bias when considering random samples of an entire student body. (Author)

Bauman, Karl E.

1973-01-01

15

AIDS Knowledge, Condom Attitudes, and Risk-Taking Sexual Behavior of Substance-Abusing Juvenile Offenders on Probation or Parole.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…

Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.

1999-01-01

16

Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

2012-01-01

17

Sexuality and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, Experiences, and Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…

Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo

2006-01-01

18

Sexuality, sexual and reproductive health: an exploration of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of the Greek-Cypriot adolescents.  

PubMed

This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. PMID:19066235

Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L

2008-12-01

19

Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Community College Students in Metropolitan New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…

DeMarzo, Jenine

20

School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

2004-01-01

21

Sexuality Education and HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…

Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.

2008-01-01

22

Sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in a school going population of Sri Lankan adolescents.  

PubMed

The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean?=?16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. PMID:25637417

Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath

2015-03-01

23

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent negotiation among college women.  

PubMed

College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women. PMID:25411811

Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A

2014-01-01

24

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interviewed 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism about sexuality and dating. Sexual knowledge and interest were assessed by a sexuality vocabulary checklist and a multiple-choice questionnaire. Group differences were found in experience, with more sexual experiences among the mentally retarded adults, but not in knowledge or interest. In both groups IQ

Opal Y. Ousley; Gary B. Mesibov

1991-01-01

25

The knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards patients with sexually transmitted infections: exploring changes to the curriculum.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment. PMID:24875840

Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy

2014-09-01

26

Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.  

PubMed

Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028

Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

2013-01-01

27

Sexual Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide evidence about the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of an ethnically diverse sample of young people from Secondary/High schools in London. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The sample consisted of students in school Years 11 to 13 (aged 15-18 years), present in school on the day of…

Coleman, Lester; Testa, Adrienne

2007-01-01

28

Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

2007-01-01

29

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism.  

PubMed

Interviewed 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism about sexuality and dating. Sexual knowledge and interest were assessed by a sexuality vocabulary checklist and a multiple-choice questionnaire. Group differences were found in experience, with more sexual experiences among the mentally retarded adults, but not in knowledge or interest. In both groups IQ was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had significantly greater interest in sexuality than females. Implications of sex and group differences are discussed. PMID:1778961

Ousley, O Y; Mesibov, G B

1991-12-01

30

Sexual Attitudes and Knowledge of High-Functioning Adolescents and Adults with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexual knowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…

Ousley, Opal Y.; Mesibov, Gary B.

1991-01-01

31

Cross-sectional survey on the knowledge, attitude and practice of male Filipino seafarers on sexual health.  

PubMed

The Philippines is currently the world's leading supplier of seafarers aboard foreign vessels, accounting for nearly a quarter of the world's maritime industry. Seafarers, being mobile, have a significant contribution impact on the worldwide spread of infectious diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, as well as the attitudes and practices (KAP) of male Filipino seafarers regarding sexual health. A cross-sectional survey was administered through convenience sampling of male Filipino seafarers. The respondents showed the least knowledge about prevention, followed by transmission of STIs. The respondents showed adequate knowledge about risk factors such as multiple sex partners, and about transmission such as vertical spread. In addition, the respondents indicated their attitude and level of responsibility in informing their sexual partners in case they contract STIs and avoidance of high-risk partners. They also showed attitudes that predispose them to high-risk behaviour such as decreased sexual sensation caused by use of condoms and added pleasure in having intercourse with strangers. The majority of respondents were sexually active. Most have STI/HIV screening as part of their pre-employment medical exam. Positive practices include use of condoms, voluntary medical evaluation for STI's, and avoidance of high-risk partners. Negative practices include going to bars closely linked with prostitution, and most of the respondents had had sexual intercourse with sex workers overseas. Male seafarers appear to have double standards regarding women as sexual partners - about half had intercourse outside their stable relationships. They perceive protection as their sole discretion. PMID:21348016

Guevara, N; Pineda, M; Dorotan, M; Ghimire, K; Co, M; Guzman, A; Postrano, L

2010-01-01

32

Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Undergraduate Students in Wuhan, China: The Only-Child versus Students with Siblings  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905

Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong

2013-01-01

33

Media’s Contribution to Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors for Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Asian Cities  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and 32–41% of the variance in sex-related behaviors. Media variables explained 13–24% of the variance in sexual knowledge, 3–13% in premarital sexual permissiveness and 3–13% in sex-related behaviors, which was comparable to that of family, peer and school variables. These associations differed by city and gender. Conclusion Access to and use of mass media and the messages it presents are influential factors on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of unmarried Asian adolescents and young adults, and should be considered in future research and intervention programs attempting to improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:22340853

Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

2014-01-01

34

Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers regarding Sexual Health Education in England  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of teachers who contribute to secondary school sexual health education in order to determine whether teachers are adequately prepared to implement present government education and public health policies. Design: Results were obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study.…

Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

2007-01-01

35

Impact of an educational initiative on applied knowledge and attitudes of physicians who treat sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, blinded, multicenter, controlled study was undertaken to assess the impact of a multiyear continuing medical education (CME) initiative on physician knowledge and behavior in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of CME and compare applied knowledge and attitude scores of participants in the Consortium for Improvement in Erectile

Ridwan Shabsigh; Richard Sadovsky; R C Rosen; C C Carson; A D Seftel; M Noursalehi

2009-01-01

36

A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai  

PubMed Central

Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts. Male participants had a very casual attitude towards having sex with multiple partners. Premarital sex is more common than once believed. In the light of our finds and the current scenario, sexuality education is indispensable in order to guide the youth to develop and adopt healthy and appropriate sexual practices. PMID:25302214

Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

2014-01-01

37

An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues. PMID:23057505

2012-01-01

38

University students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards, HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour: a questionnaire survey in two Finnish universities.  

PubMed

This study describes Finnish university students' knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS, homosexuality and sexual risk behaviour. Finnish-speaking students were randomly selected from all registered students at two universities in Finland (N = 9715, n = 950). The data were collected by using a modified version of the State University of New York at Buffalo School of Nursing AIDS Study Questionnaire on sexual risk behaviour developed by Held and Chng. The total response rate was 35% (n = 333). The data were analysed using quantitative statistical methods. Normally distributed data were analysed by t-test and one-way ANOVA, with Bonferroni corrections. Non-normally distributed data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by a post-hoc test. The majority of students were familiar with HIV and AIDS, including its mode of transmission. However, there were still some misconceptions concerning HIV and AIDS. The oldest students and women had a more positive attitude towards people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). Of patients with HIV or AIDS, intravenous drug users were perceived most negatively. Male students had more homophobic attitudes. Students who reported that religion had an important role in their lives had significantly stricter attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. Students' knowledge correlated positively with general attitudes towards HIV and AIDS. Knowledge about HIV and AIDS will lead to more positive attitudes towards HIV and AIDS as a disease, towards those infected as well as homosexual people. There is a need to focus on preventive health care and sexual health promotion by educating young people and changing their attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour. PMID:22739116

Korhonen, Teija; Kylmä, Jari; Houtsonen, Jarmo; Välimäki, Maritta; Suominen, Tarja

2012-11-01

39

Sexual Attitudes of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sexual attitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexual attitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…

Etchison, Marilyn G.

40

Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

2013-01-01

41

Religiosity, spirituality, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors among college students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743

Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

2012-09-01

42

Clinical care for sexual assault survivors multimedia training: a mixed-methods study of effect on healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practice in humanitarian settings  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual assault is a threat to public health in refugee and conflict affected settings, placing survivors at risk for unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortion, STIs, HIV, psychological trauma, and social stigma. In response, the International Rescue Committee developed a multimedia training tool to encourage competent, compassionate, and confidential clinical care for sexual assault survivors in low-resource settings. This study evaluated the effect of the training on healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practices in four countries. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a purposive sample of 106 healthcare providers before and 3 months after training to measure attitudes, knowledge, and confidence. In-depth interviews with 40 providers elaborated on survey findings. Medical record audits were conducted in 35 health facilities before and 3 months after the intervention to measure healthcare providers’ practice. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent statistical and thematic analysis. Results While negative attitudes, including blaming and disbelieving women who report sexual assault, did not significantly decrease among healthcare providers after training, respect for patient rights to self-determination and non-discrimination increased from 76% to 91% (p?knowledge and confidence in clinical care for sexual assault survivors increased from 49% to 62% (p?sexual assault are hard to change, training can improve healthcare providers’ respect for patient rights and knowledge and confidence in direct patient care, resulting in more competent and compassionate clinical care for sexual assault survivors. PMID:23819561

2013-01-01

43

Knowledge and Attitudes About Later Life Sexuality: What Clinicians Need To Know About Helping the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the family therapy field we have often overlooked the elderly and in particular addressing sexual concerns within the context of couples therapy with the elderly (Van Amburg, Barber, & Zimmerman, 1996). The projected life-span of the elderly has increased due to improvements in medical technology and due to a better quality of life which promotes longevity. Included in this

Amanda Willert; Maureen Semans

2000-01-01

44

Absent sexual scripts: lesbian and bisexual women's knowledge, attitudes and action regarding safer sex and sexual health information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recent evidence demonstrating that lesbian and bisexual women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), there is a common perception that STIs cannot be transmitted between women. This paper reports on a study in which a self?report questionnaire, completed by over 300 lesbian and bisexual women and a comparison group of heterosexual women, was undertaken to determine lesbian

Jennifer Power; Ruth McNair; Susan Carr

2009-01-01

45

The Assessment of Sexual Knowledge in People with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of this study were to evaluate components of a new tool, the Assessment of Sexual Knowledge (ASK), and to use it to assess the sexual knowledge of adults with intellectual disability. The ASK consists of a Knowledge Section, an Attitudes Section, a Quick Knowledge Quiz and a Problematic Socio-Sexual Behaviours Checklist. A sample of 96…

Galea, Jennifer; Butler, Jenny; Iacono, Teresa; Leighton, Daniel

2004-01-01

46

Attitudes Toward Sexuality Among Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a paucity of data regarding sexuality among nursing home residents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexual attitudes in a group of independent residents in a large urban nursing home. Ten items covering different aspects of sexual attitude were scored by two board certified psychiatrists following a semistructured interview. The study was undertaken at a

Dov Aizenberg; Abraham Weizman; Yoram Barak

2002-01-01

47

Mexican-American Adolescent Sexuality and Sexual Knowledge: An Exploratory Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 84 Mexican-American adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19 years. Findings indicated that the level of sexual knowledge was low for all subjects regardless of gender, sexual experience, or age. The Pill, condoms, IUD, and spermacides were the most commonly known methods ofpregnancy prevention mentioned by the adolescents. Of

Amado M. Padilla; Traci L. Baird

1991-01-01

48

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Behaviors in HIV/AIDS and Predictors Affecting Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives In South Korea, men who have sex with men (MSM) are rather understudied, but are known to be at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was to access HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors, and to identify the factors of condom use in HIV prevention. Methods We recruited 1070 MSM in Korea, using the Internet to maximize the confidentiality of the MSM. Results The prevalence of self-reported and sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the total sample was 10.7% and 2.7%, respectively. Factual knowledge and phobias regarding HIV/AIDS and self-efficacy were relatively high among the MSM. After controlling for age, education, marital status, and sexual identity, predictors of condom use at most recent anal sex included knowledge (OR = 1.25; p < 0.0001); self-efficacy (OR = 1.33; p = 0.02), additionally, having HIV testing (OR = 1.45; p = 0.02); and having a regular partner (OR = 0.53; p < 0.0001) were also positively associated with condom use. Conclusion The intervention programs for MSM in Korea may need to take the idiosyncratic societal and cultural pressures of the region into consideration in order to reduce infection risk. PMID:24159508

Sohn, Aeree; Cho, Byonghee

2012-01-01

49

College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

2012-01-01

50

The effects of a systematically developed photo-novella on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections among secondary school learners in South Africa.  

PubMed

A pre-post test follow-up design was used to test the effects of a systematically developed photo-novella (Laduma) on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections, after a single reading by 1168 secondary school learners in South Africa. The reading resulted in an increase in knowledge on the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), change in attitude to condom use and towards people with STIs and/or HIV/AIDS, as well as increased intention to practice safe sex. Laduma did not influence communication about sexually transmitted infections and reported sexual behaviour and condom use. While print media proved to be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of youth and prepare them for adequate preventive behaviours, the study also identified the need to combine print media with other planned theory-based interventions that build confidence and skills to initiate the preventive behaviour. PMID:15764686

James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champaklal C; Van Empelen, Pepijn; Van den Borne, Bart

2005-06-01

51

Nottingham study of sexuality and ageing (NoSSA II). Attitudes of care staff regarding sexuality and residents: A study in residential and nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a paucity of research in attitudes of care staff in residential and nursing homes regarding sexuality and older people in the United Kingdom. Aims: To investigate the attitudes of care staff in residential and nursing homes regarding residents' sexuality. Design: A descriptive questionnaire survey using the attitudinal part of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS).

Walter Pierre Bouman; Jon Arcelus; Susan Mary Benbow

2007-01-01

52

Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

2012-01-01

53

Protocol study: sexual and reproductive health knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi women: a questionnaire survey of university students  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs. PMID:24885041

2014-01-01

54

Examining the Relationship between Degree of Religiousness and Attitudes toward Elderly Sexual Activity in Undergraduate College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has been conducted on individual's knowledge and attitudes toward older adult sexuality. This includes investigating attitudes and knowledge of nursing home staff, college students, and the elderly themselves. The current experiment sought to replicate previous research findings by comparing college students' attitudes and knowledge of…

Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.; Raacke, John

2011-01-01

55

Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

2008-01-01

56

Exploring Sexual Attitudes and Experiences: A Classroom Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom exercise is designed to facilitate insight and understanding of the relationships between sexual attitudes and sexual experiences among college students. First, students complete a 65-item survey on which they indicate their moderate to traditional sexual attitudes and their corresponding sexual experiences. Next, correlations,…

Tobin, Casey T.

2011-01-01

57

Sexual Experience and Couple Formation Attitudes Among Emerging Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we explore the relationship between attitudes toward both marriage and cohabitation and sexual experience during\\u000a emerging adulthood. Results from 990 emerging adults indicated only moderate evidence that marital attitudes are related to\\u000a sexual experience but strong evidence of a relationship between attitudes toward cohabitation and sexual experience. In particular,\\u000a sexually active emerging adults were more likely to

Brian J. Willoughby; Jason S. Carroll

2010-01-01

58

Psychiatric nurses' attitudes toward sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest.  

PubMed

This descriptive, exploratory study examined psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest, and explored the relationships between these attitudes and the personal characteristics of the nurse. Contrary to previous research on nurses in nonpsychiatric settings, the nurses in this Canadian study had favorable attitudes towards sexuality and did not subscribe to attitudes of victim blaming in sexual assault/rape and incest. The strongest predictor of attitudes was age of the nurse (p < .02); cultural/ethnic background may also be associated with attitudes (p < .02). The results indicate a need to develop more precise measures of attitude for psychiatric nurses. PMID:8687255

Boutcher, F; Gallop, R

1996-06-01

59

Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

Pebdani, Roxanna N.

2013-01-01

60

The Relationship Between Exposure to Sexual Music Videos and Young Adults' Sexual Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to sexual music videos and young people's sexual attitudes (i.e., premarital sexual permissiveness and endorsement of the sexual double standard). Items gauging exposure to 75 music videos ranging in sexual explicitness were used to measure sexual video viewing among a sample of 266 undergraduate students. As expected, exposure

Yuanyuan Zhang; Laura E. Miller; Kristen Harrison

2008-01-01

61

The Relationship between College Women's Sexual Attitudes and Sexual Activity: The Mediating Role of Body Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between sexual attitudes and engagement in sexual activity among a sample of 401 college women. In addition, we investigated the potential role of body image as a mediator of this relationship. Online surveys included self-report measures of sexual attitudes ranging from liberal to conservative, body image satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Results indicated that

Jessica L. Lemer; Elizabeth H. Blodgett Salafia; Kristen E. Benson

2012-01-01

62

Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

63

The Relationship between Gender, Sexual Attitudes, Attitudes towards Gender and High School Counselors' Ethical Decision-Making regarding Adolescent Sexuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated relationships between high school counselors' ethical decision-making, gender, attitudes towards gender, and sexual attitudes. Of the 161 respondents, only 157 participants' data sets were included in the data set. Participants completed the Ethical Decision-Making Questionnaire, The Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hendrick,…

Martin-Donald, Kimberly A.

2010-01-01

64

Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

2009-01-01

65

Attitudes and Knowledge Concerning Alcohol Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents data regarding social work practitioner experiences, attitudes and knowledge about alcoholism. A standardized instrument was used to survey BSWs and MSWs (N = 105) at three sites in Canada. Significant findings were: (a) these practitioners had low levels of knowledge about alcoholism as measured on the Alcohol Knowledge Scale (AKS), and (b) professional experiences, not personal ones,

Vincent J. Giannetti; Jackie D. Sieppert; Michael J. Holosko

2002-01-01

66

Attitudes and knowledge in older people's care.  

PubMed

Both student nurses and registered nurses may lack sufficient knowledge and positive attitudes to care for an ageing population, and education programmes are not addressing this. This research review, which includes a small study by the author, found that neither education nor clinical placements significantly improved students' knowledge about or attitudes towards older people. This review also explores the evidence and suggests how this issue could be addressed. PMID:25241437

Welford, Claire

67

Psychologists' Attitudes Toward Adult Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined 154 psychologists' (82 female, 72 male) reactions to vignettes describing the sexual abuse of a male victim. Results indicate that the psychologists' attitudes toward men, rather than the sex of the psychologists, predicted blaming attitudes. For example, those holding more traditional attitudes toward men tended to blame male survivors…

Richey-Suttles, Stephen; Remer, Rory

1997-01-01

68

Japanese College Students' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material (SEIM) and Sexual Attitudes  

E-print Network

This study examined Japanese college students' (N=476) use of sexually explicit material in mass media (i.e., print, electronic, and the Internet) and its association with their sexually permissive attitudes and perceptions of women. Results...

Taguchi, Kikuko

2009-05-04

69

Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. PMID:25491444

Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying

2014-12-10

70

Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

71

Sexual attitudes, behaviours and acculturation among young migrants in Shanghai.  

PubMed

China's rates of internal migration increased to an all-time high of over 200 million individuals at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Yet, there is a dearth of information on the lives of young migrant populations. The aim of this study was to explore how migration influences the sexual attitudes and behaviours of 18-24-year-old migrant men and women in Shanghai, China. A total of 64 migrants participated in 10 focus-group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews. Guided by acculturation theory, coded data were organised into analytic matrices to compare themes across participants. Factors associated with increased sexual-risk behaviours include acculturative stress, discrimination leading to social isolation, conflicts between traditional and modern city values and increased sexual opportunities. Premarital sex, cohabitation, unprotected sex and visiting sex workers are common among this population. Reasons for not using condoms included being unprepared, lack of knowledge and barriers in accessing reproductive services due to not having urban documentation. Local family planning programmes should help migrants negotiate traditional and modern values and partner with work-sites to provide comprehensive sexual education and services and train health professionals in the specific healthcare needs of young migrant populations. PMID:22943505

Sudhinaraset, May; Mmari, Kristin; Go, Vivan; Blum, Robert Wm

2012-10-01

72

HIV\\/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk-behaviors among African-American and Caribbean college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk-taking behaviors of a sample of African-American and Caribbean college were investigated. The study also explored the relationship between the women's self-esteem, self-efficacy, sexual communication, and reli- giosity and their HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors. Findings revealed that while both groups of women were fairly knowledgeable about HIV\\/AIDS transmission and preven- tion, their

KISHA BRAITHWAITE; VERONICA G. THOMAS

2001-01-01

73

Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge  

E-print Network

1 Global Positioning System Integer Ambiguity Resolution without Attitude Knowledge John L measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provides a novel approach for three-axis attitude

Crassidis, John L.

74

Hormonal influences on sex-linked sexual attitudes  

E-print Network

not using hormonal contraceptives. Results replicate previously reported sex differences in sexual attitudes, sex-linked behaviors and personality traits. More importantly, results provide the first evidence for both pre- and postnatal contributions...

Charles, Nora

2009-05-15

75

Sexual Knowledge of College Students in a Southern State: Related Factors and Impact of Previous Sex Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed college students in one southern state to determine their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A group of 915 students (602 female and 313 male) attending 4 state universities completed the Sexual Knowledge instrument during class. The instrument contained 27 sex knowledge items, 5 demographic questions, 3 items to…

Synovitz, Linda; Hebert, Eddie; Kelley, R. Mark; Carlson, Gerald

76

A Comparative Analysis of Mestizo and Indigenous Mayan Young Women in Guatemala: Attitudes and Knowledge of Sexual Reproduction and Health among Members of Children International's Youth Health Corps  

E-print Network

Children International’s Youth Health Corps Program uses Peer Education techniques to teach impoverished adolescents about Sexual Health and Reproduction. In the Youth Health Corps in Guatemala, both rural indigenous Maya youth and urban mestizo...

Trapp, Sarah Casement

2011-04-21

77

The role of ethnicity, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior in sexual revictimization during the transition to emerging adulthood.  

PubMed

An experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) substantially increases women's risk of adult sexual assault (ASA), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Previous research often has not examined the full range of ASA experiences or included the influence of ethnicity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes on CSA and severity of ASA. The current study utilized path analysis to explore the relationships among ethnicity, sexual attitudes, number of lifetime sexual partners, CSA, and severity of ASA in emerging adult women. Results indicated a significant relationship between CSA and more severe ASA that was partially explained by having more lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, European American women, relative to Hispanic women, reported more severe victimization, which was fully explained by more positive attitudes toward casual sex and having more lifetime sexual partners. These results have implications in the design and implementation of universal and selective prevention programs aimed at reducing ASA and revictimization among emerging adult women. PMID:25258422

Rinehart, Jenny K; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Musci, Rashelle J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Lenberg, Kathryn L

2014-01-01

78

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

2009-01-01

79

Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Bulimic Women: A Preliminary Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a disorder repeatedly related to body-esteem and hypothesized to be related to sexuality, bulimia was expected to be related to contraceptive behavior. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between bulimia and sexual attitudes and behavior. Female college students (N=117) considered at high, medium, and low risk for developing…

Irving, Lori M.; And Others

80

HIV\\/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk-behaviors among African-American and Caribbean college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV\\/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and sexualrisk-taking behaviors of a sample ofAfrican-American and Caribbean college wereinvestigated. The study also explored therelationship between the women's self-esteem,self-efficacy, sexual communication, andreligiosity and their HIV knowledge, attitudes,and risk behaviors. Findings revealed thatwhile both groups of women were fairlyknowledgeable about HIV\\/AIDS transmission andprevention, their sexual risk-taking behaviorswere still relatively high. TheAfrican-American women were more knowledgeableabout HIV\\/AIDS

Kisha Braithwaite; Veronica G. Thomas

2001-01-01

81

It's "Supposed" to Be Personal: Personal and Educational Factors Associated with Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, Comfort and Skill in Health Profession Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…

West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew

2012-01-01

82

Does positive youth development predict adolescent attitudes about sexuality?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667

Chapman, Erin N; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

83

High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude

Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

2009-01-01

84

Slovakian Pupils' Knowledge of, and Attitudes toward, Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the world's biodiversity is being destroyed, costs for na- ture protection activities increase. One proposed way to increase peo- ple's pro-environmental attitudes is to increase their knowledge base. It has been suggested that knowledge and attitudes are related, but no consensus in this field yet exists. Thus, the investigation of the relationship between attitudes and knowledge has valuable implications

Pavol Prokop; Milan Kubiatko; Jana Fan?ovi?ová

2008-01-01

85

Sexual attitudes mediate the relationship between sexual victimization history and women's response effectiveness.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of a sexual victimization history, sexual attitudes, and psychopathology on the effectiveness of women's responses to high- and low-risk dating and social situations. Two hundred fifteen undergraduate women listened to a description of each situation, viewed a clip of an actor making a verbal request, and provided a videotaped, verbal response to each situation. Participants then completed measures assessing their victimization history, sexual attitudes, and symptoms of psychopathology. Finally, participants viewed their responses and rated how effective each response was at decreasing their risk for having an unwanted sexual experience, defined as one in which they would be verbally or physically coerced into having sexual contact of any kind with a man. Experts in the sexual violence research area also rated the effectiveness of participants' responses using the same instructions. Results revealed that sexual attitudes mediated the relationship between victimization history and the effectiveness of participants' responses to high- and low-risk situations. Specifically, more severe victimization experiences were linked to more liberal sexual attitudes, which, in turn, were related to responses that were rated by experts as less effective in decreasing risk of sexual victimization. PMID:22328654

Nason, Erica E; Yeater, Elizabeth A

2012-09-01

86

Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

2011-01-01

87

Sexual Problems and Attitudes Toward the Sexuality of Persons With and Without Disabilities in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this descriptive study are to survey and compare the following criteria: estimated prevalence of sexual problems, the development of love, and attitudes toward sexuality between persons with and without disabilities. The sample was 25 persons with disabilities and 76 persons without disabilities. The questionnaires consisted of 35 questions and were distributed to the sample. Research results showed

Tavee Cheausuwantavee

2002-01-01

88

A Survey of AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among Prostitutes in an International Border Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…

Peralta, Felipe; And Others

1992-01-01

89

The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

2009-01-01

90

Does Exposure to Sexual Hip-Hop Music Videos Influence the Sexual Attitudes of College Students?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated short-term effects of exposure to hip-hop music videos with varying degrees of sexual imagery on viewers' acceptance of the objectification of women, sexual permissiveness, gender attitudes, and rape myth acceptance. Using a posttest-only group experimental design, college undergraduates (N = 195) viewed a set of 5 hip-hop music videos of either high or low sexual content. Male participants who

Michelle E. Kistler; Moon J. Lee

2009-01-01

91

The Impact of a Community-Based Comprehensive Sex Education Program on Chinese Adolescents' Sex-Related Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexual knowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related…

Wang, Bo; Meier, Ann; Shah, Iqbal; Li, Xiaoming

2006-01-01

92

Trends in adolescent sexual behavior, impact of information, and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in Portugal.  

PubMed

There is a recent decline in HIV in a significant number of countries due to the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors, which demonstrates that HIV reduction is possible. The goal of this research was to deepen knowledge of preventive sexual behavior in adolescents, including knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, and assessing whether they changed from 2002 to 2010. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from the Portuguese sample of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children, a collaborative WHO study. The study provided national representative data of 10,587 Portuguese adolescents attending 8th and 10th grade. In terms of preventive behaviors, results showed an increasing trend regarding the percentage reporting first sexual intercourse at 14 years old or more and condom use at last intercourse and a stabilized trend concerning having had intercourse, contraceptive pill use at last intercourse and having had intercourse under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Nevertheless, results showed a systematic decreasing trend in terms of knowledge and attitudes. This suggested that sex education programs are still too limited to teaching sessions, strongly homogenized in their content and inadequate to enhance knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV, let alone personal and social skills of different target groups. PMID:24128038

Ramiro, Lúcia; Reis, Marta; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Diniz, José Alves

2014-01-01

93

Nottingham study of sexuality & ageing (NoSSA I). Attitudes regarding sexuality and older people: a review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes regarding sexuality and older people is a relatively under-researched area, despite its topical relevance as people live longer, remain healthy, and are better educated and well informed. The first part of the literature review examines the attitudes different age groups have about sexuality and old people. The second part describes the existing literature, which has investigated the attitudes of

2006-01-01

94

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in coastal areas of Karachi  

PubMed Central

Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24886122

2014-01-01

95

Dating and Sexual Attitudes in Asian-American Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…

Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.

2009-01-01

96

Premarital Sexual Guilt and Contraceptive Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the relationship between premarital sexual guilt and contraceptive attitudes and behavior among young single women. High-guilt subjects were significantly more embarrassed about coming to the birth control clinics and were more likely to believe that it was difficult to obtain birth control. (Author)

Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

1981-01-01

97

Young People, Pornography, and Sexuality: Sources and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…

Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina

2006-01-01

98

Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

2008-01-01

99

Masculinity Femininity, Personality and Sexual Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study suggests that sexuality constitutes a continuum which is largely colinear with P (psychoticism) and with masculinity. The P Scale appears to be closely related with the masculinity femininity dimension. (Author)

Eysenck, Hans J.

1971-01-01

100

Femininity Ideology and Sexual Health in Young Women: A focus on Sexual Knowledge, Embodiment, and Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional femininity ideology is associated with diminished sexual agency in women; yet we know little about its connection to sexual knowledge or experiences of one's body during sex. This study examined how femininity ideology related to sexual health knowledge, body comfort during sex, condom self-efficacy, and sexual assertiveness in college-age women. Femininity ideologies were related to decreased sexual-risk knowledge and

Nicola Curtin; L. Monique Ward; Ann Merriwether; Allison Caruthers

2011-01-01

101

Survey of attitude and knowledge of reproductive health among middle school students in Luoyang, China.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of AIDS and sexual behavior of middle school students. Structural questionnaires were designed to interview 1980 junior and senior middle school students about their basic knowledge, attitude, and behavior with respect to AIDS and sexual behavior. Students were recruited from the six most common middle schools of the six regions in Luoyang City of the Henan Province of China by cluster sampling from September to December of 2004. Results showed that 54.5% of students had not learned about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in school, and 38.3% of students did not have any knowledge about the route of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, 91.2% of students were reluctant to share a classroom with HIV/AIDS patients. Approximately 21.7% of students had read books, watched videos, and consulted other media related to sex, 1.1% of students had had sexual intercourse during high school, and 80.5% believed that health education on HIV/AIDS and sex was necessary. The results of this survey showed that middle school students have little knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sex. Therefore, health education programs for HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual health should be developed as soon as possible to help students peacefully get through a sexually puzzling period of life. PMID:24737509

Wang, P; Zhang, Y J; Pan, X J; Xia, X Y; Lv, S Y

2014-01-01

102

Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

2012-01-01

103

Slovakian Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…

Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla

2007-01-01

104

Political and Sexual Attitudes Concerning Same-Sex Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is based upon interviews and questionnaire data from male “homosexuals” (n = 177), “bisexuals” or “bicurious” (n = 166), and “persistent heterosexuals” (n = 528) between 20 and 30 years of age from working and professional social classes in three countries: Brazil, Turkey and\\u000a Thailand. The main goal is to compare cultural attitudes toward politics and sex, as well as the impact of social class

Fernando L. Cardoso

2010-01-01

105

Chinese Adolescents' Attitudes toward Sexual Relationships and Premarital Sex: Implications for Promoting Sexual Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…

Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

2014-01-01

106

The effects of school poverty on adolescents' sexual health knowledge.  

PubMed

Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

2012-06-01

107

Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

2014-01-01

108

Knowledge and Attitudes of Lawyers Regarding Offenders with Intellectual Disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

People with an intellectual disability appear to be over-represented in the criminal justice system and have characteristics that may render them particularly vulnerable. Hypotheses concerning different treatment have been investigated by others through analysis of the attitudes of various criminal justice personnel. The current study extends this work by examining the knowledge and attitudes of Victorian criminal lawyers towards offenders

Jane A. Mcgillivray; Barry Waterman

2003-01-01

109

Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among senior high school students in north Gonder.  

PubMed

Sexual experience, knowledge, attitude and practice on contraception was studied among 991 senior high school students in north Gonder in May 1993 using anonymous questionnaire. Three-hundred-four students (30.7%) answered that they had experienced sexual intercourse. Out of 83 sexually active female students 25(30.1%) reported to have been pregnant. Only four students admitted to have had abortion. Seven-hundred-fifty (75.7%) students claimed that they know at least one method of modern contraception. Of the variables considered in the study reported knowledge of pills and positive attitude to contraception were significantly associated with modern contraceptive use. The most common reason for not using modern contraceptive methods among sexually active respondents was little or no knowledge of contraceptives followed by no access to contraceptives and harmful effects of contraceptives. It is recommended that family life education should be conducted in high schools. Counselling and clinical services on family planning in high schools and places where adolescents gather for recreation and other purposes may also be considered. PMID:7895743

Fantahun, M; Chala, F; Loha, M

1995-01-01

110

Effects of Knowledge and Persuasion on High-School Students' Attitudes Toward Nuclear Power Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, no evidence of a cause-effect relationship was found.

Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

2006-12-07

111

Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality. PMID:25050559

Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

2014-07-22

112

Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

2007-01-01

113

Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice. PMID:24628017

de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

2015-03-01

114

The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.  

PubMed

Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to the low number of AIDS cases and poor information about the problem, boys do not concern themselves with safer sex behavior. Finally, recent political and economic change in Poland has prompted boys to delay their sexual initiation and avoid permanent relationships and early marriages in the attempt to not ruin any plans for their future which they may have. PMID:12283770

Lew-starowicz, Z

1990-12-01

115

Prediction of Attitudes towards Child Sexual Abuse among Three Different Norwegian Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative…

Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

2006-01-01

116

High School Counselors' Attitudes toward the Sexuality of Students with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' attitudes toward the sexuality of students with intellectual disabilities. One hundred and twenty-two high school counselors in Alabama were the participants for this study. Participants completed the "Attitudes towards Sexuality and Students with Intellectual Disability…

Parker, Latofia P.

2012-01-01

117

Attitudes toward Sexual Abstinence among Black Seventh-Day Adventist College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to identify Black Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students' attitudes toward the concept of sexual abstinence. Attitude toward abstinence was operationalized as a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection of the concept as a way to order sexual behavior. The study utilized a convenience sample ("N" =…

Ashley, George; Ramirez, Octavio; Cort, Malcolm

2013-01-01

118

Sexual messages during prime-time programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Television provides a wide range of depictions that help to shape people's knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors. In the realm of sexual socialization, television is thought to contribute to young people's knowledge about sexual relationships, their judgments about social norms regarding sexual activity, and their attitudes about sexual behaviors, among other influences. An increasing collection of evidence documents these

Kirstie Farrar; Dale Kunkel; Erica Biely; Keren Eyal; Rena Fandrich; Edward Donnerstein

2003-01-01

119

On the Relationship Between Automatic Attitudes and Self-Reported Sexual Assault in Men  

PubMed Central

Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119

Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael

2013-01-01

120

Assessing Changes in Medical Student Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Human Sexual Behaviors Using a Confidential Audience Response System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…

Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.

2010-01-01

121

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Emergency Contraception on Nursing Personnel  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Emergency Contraception is a grossly underu–tilized option of prevention of pregnancy. It is a safe and effective method which can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and unwanted childbirth. Knowledge and attitude of Nursing personnel who are both service providers and health educators to the community can influence the contraceptive behavior of the people exposed to them. A few studies done in our country indicate that their awareness regarding EC is low. Aim: To explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC amongst Nursing Personnel in a medical college hospital. Materials and Methods: In this study, 185 nursing personnel participated. A predesigned, pretested questionnaire was used to collect their responses regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of EC. Descriptive analysis of data was done. Results : Out of the total, 52.43% of the participants had good knowledge regarding the general information of EC, 51.35% had positive attitude towards EC, 47.56% had expressed willingness to use EC if indicated whereas only 22.7% had ever used EC. 72.97% had expressed willingness to attend awareness programmes on EC. Conclusion :Even though knowledge and attitude towards EC among the participants was marginally good they had many misconceptions regarding specific aspects like mode of action, indications and timing of administration. More awareness programmes would definitely clear their misconceptions and apprehensions and encourage Nursing Personnel to personally use and promote EC to others. PMID:25386489

Shanthini N, Fatima

2014-01-01

122

Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Curaçao women. Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?  

PubMed Central

Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception and abortion and reasons for ineffective use of contraceptives among women, visiting general practitioners. Results Of 158 women, 146 (92%) participated and 82% reported that their education on sexuality and about contraception was of good quality. However 'knowledge of reliable contraceptive methods' appeared to be - in almost 50% of the cases - false information, misjudgements or erroneous views on the chance of getting pregnant using coitus interruptus and about the reliability and health effects of oral contraceptive pills. Almost half of the interviewed women had incorrect or no knowledge about reliability of condom use and IUD. 42% of the respondents risked by their behavior an unplanned pregnancy. Most respondents considered abortion as an emergency procedure, not as contraception. Almost two third experienced emotional, physical or social problems after the abortion. Conclusions Respondents had a negative attitude toward reliable contraceptives due to socio-cultural determined ideas about health consequences and limited sexual education. Main economic factors were costs of contraceptive methods, because most health insurances in Curaçao do not cover contraceptives. To improve the effective use of reliable contraceptives, more adequate information should be given, targeting the wrong beliefs and false information. The government should encourage health insurance companies to reimburse contraceptives. Furthermore, improvement of counseling during the abortion procedure is important. PMID:21699701

2011-01-01

123

Factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Jordanian women and their sexual attitudes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, and orgasm, as well as sexual pain, that leads to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. Social aspects of FSD have been understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the social aspects of FSD and sexual attitudes of Jordanian women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundred thirteen married females were studied between October 2006 and August 2007 at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan. Females were interviewed using a special questionnaire that was suitable to our culture and added to the Arabic translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire. RESULTS: Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm. About 58.5% of women reported that they prepared themselves if they had sexual desire and 68.2% reported wearing special attire for this purpose. Only 37.2% of women could ask their husband for a special excitement. CONCLUSIONS: FSD is prevalent in Jordan. Its social aspects are understudied and need more research in the future. PMID:19584582

Abu Ali, Ruba M.; Al Hajeri, Rabaa M.; Khader, Yousef S.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.

2009-01-01

124

Knowledge and attitudes of physicians in private practice towards HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, Iran.  

PubMed

Being responsible for providing care for HIV/AIDS in a society, physicians should be knowledgeable and have favourable attitudes. We designed a cross-sectional study to assess knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of private practicing physicians in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 346 general practitioners and specialists completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires with response rate of 91.1%. For knowledge questions, the mean proportion of correct responses was 53.5% (±13.2). Misconceptions about HIV transmission were the main areas of insufficient knowledge. Surprisingly only 20% knew how to manage a patient who had experienced sexual contact with an HIV-positive partner. While 84% disagreed that 'HIV-infected individuals deserved to catch infection' owing to high-risk behaviours, 38% sympathized less with people who were infected via extramarital sex. It seems that knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among the studied physicians is not favourable and is an area that requires attention to enable effective management of the disease in Iran. PMID:22930308

Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Moradi Marjaneh, M; Mashhadi, I Eftekharzadeh

2012-08-01

125

Osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female collegiate athletes.  

PubMed

Female athletes often engage in harmful dietary and weight control practices that can impair bone health and hinder performance. To promote related positive health behavior practices, nutrition educators may be more effective if they understand the osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female athletes. A questionnaire including items related to osteoporosis and dietary calcium knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral practices was administered to 114 female collegiate athletes (19.6+/-1.4 years). Self-reported intakes of dairy product consumption were also obtained; subjects were asked how many times per week they drank milk and ate cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. The mean score for osteoporosis knowledge was 7.1+/-1.9 (out of 10 items). The mean score for favorable responses to attitude items was 2.1+/-0.8 (out of 3 items). Correct responses to dietary calcium knowledge items were 2.2+/-0.7 (out of 3 items). On average, subjects consumed 2.4+/-1.6 servings of dairy products per day; 31% of subjects consumed the recommended 3 or more servings per day. Osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis attitudes, and dietary calcium knowledge were not correlated (p > .05) with dairy product intake. Because of the importance of achieving a high peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis, our data suggest that further research is needed regarding other factors that might influence dairy product intake among female athletes. PMID:11915782

Turner, L W; Bass, M A

2001-12-01

126

High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

2014-01-01

127

Physiotherapy students' attitudes towards and knowledge of older people.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students' attitudes towards and knowledge of older people changed throughout the physiotherapy undergraduate program. Students' demographic information and attitudes towards and knowledge of older people were gathered via repeated question-responses over three points of time during the 4-year program. Validated instruments--the Geriatric Attitudinal Scale (GAS) and the Facts on Ageing Quiz 1 (FAQ1)--were used to measure participants' attitudes and knowledge of older people. The FAQ1 yielded two variables: knowledge as percentage of FAQ1 correct responses, and ignorance as percentage of FAQ1 Don't Know responses. The instruments were administered in Year 2 prior to the students' first clinical (Time 1), immediately after their first clinical (Time 2), and Year 4 just prior to completion of the program (Time 3). Changes over time were analysed using paired t-tests with significance set at p < 0.05. Participants initially demonstrated positive attitudes towards older people with a mean of 73.8% GAS positive responses with no significant change over time (p = 0.56). Initial knowledge about older people was poor with a mean of 43.6% FAQ1 correct responses which increased significantly over time to 51.7% (p = 0.0001). This improvement in knowledge was accompanied by a decrease in ignorance over the study period (p = 0.0001). While attitudes toward older people were positive and knowledge improved over time, the level of knowledge attained was below expectation for beginning practitioners. This finding has implications for the education and training of physiotherapy students. PMID:16764548

Hobbs, Cheryl; Dean, Catherine Mary; Higgs, Joy; Adamson, Barbara

2006-01-01

128

Sexual health and the practice nurse: a survey of reported practice and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPractice nurses have an important role in the provision of sexual health services in general practice.AimThis study set out to determine practice nurses' reported practice and training in sexual health, attitudes towards sexual health, barriers to discussing sexual health with patients, and training needs.MethodA confidential self-administered postal questionnaire survey was sent to all 298 practice nurses in one English health

Tim Stokes; Judith Mears

2000-01-01

129

The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n?=?58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25300588

Coles, Victoria Ah; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

2014-10-01

130

Planned Parenthood Harris Poll Findings: Teens' Sexuality Knowledge and Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Planned Parenthood conducted a national public opinion poll, asking 1,000 12- through 17-year-olds about their knowledge and beliefs on the problem of teenage pregnancy. The results showed that over 50% of the adolescents had sexual intercourse before their 18th birthday. Those teenagers most likely to be sexually active fell into certain at-risk…

Haignere, Clara S.

131

Social class background, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior in a heterosexual undergraduate sample.  

PubMed

To further the understanding of the relationship between social class and sexual attitudes and behavior, we present data from a study of undergraduate students. We look at the education of students' fathers and how it relates to students' sexual profiles. Among the men, some traditional social class differences are found, indicating that class differences persist among some upwardly mobile men. For the women, fewer social class differences appear. Further, we compare our 1992 sample of 554 college students, 19-22 years old, with a university sample of 904 similar age students from 1967, and find our sample more coitally experienced. College students today are following norms that in the past were associated with a lower educational level. Implications of our findings for class convergence theory are addressed. Reliable birth control, gains in equality by women, and the sexual images of television and other media are discussed as major factors contributing to the increased sexual permissiveness among university students of the 1990s. PMID:9415798

Weinberg, M S; Lottes, I L; Gordon, L E

1997-12-01

132

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitude towards voluntary counseling and testing among adults.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Nigeria has the third highest population of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite this, the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and uptake of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is still low, especially in the rural areas. This study assessed knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitude towards VCT among adults in a rural community in northern Nigeria. METHODS: A pretested questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 210 adults in Danbare village, northern Nigeria. Information about knowledge of HIV/AIDS and attitudes toward VCT was elicited among respondents. RESULTS: The majority of respondents (59%) did not know the causative agent of AIDS; however, knowledge of route of disease transmission was high, with 71% and 64% of study participants mentioning sexual activity and unscreened blood transfusion, respectively, as possible transmission routes. Respondents listed avoidance of premarital sex, outlawing prostitution, condom use and screening of blood before transfusion as protective measures. Overall, 58 (27.6%), 80 (38.1%) and 72 (34.3%) of the respondents had good, fair and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, female gender and formal education remained significant predictors of HIV/AIDS knowledge. Reasons for rejection of VCT included fear of stigma, marital disharmony, incurable nature of the disease and cost of treatment. Formal education, female gender and HIV knowledge significantly predicted positive attitude toward VCT for HIV/AIDS among the study population. CONCLUSION: More than half of the respondents had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and the majority were willing to have VCT. However, misconceptions, fear, gaps in knowledge and limited access to VCT remain prevalent. Our findings suggest the need to provide health education and scale up VCT services in northern Nigeria by targeting the efforts of international and local development partners to underserved rural areas. PMID:17225834

Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S.; Kabir, Mohammed; Aliyu, Muktar H.

2006-01-01

133

Exploring Associations Between Exposure to Sexy Online Self-Presentations and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

2014-10-01

134

Menopause Knowledge, Attitude, Symptom and Management among Midlife Employed Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives Midlife women's knowledge, positive attitudes and management toward menopause may improve the quality of peri and post-menopause life. This study was to identify correlations of the knowledge, attitude, symptoms and management toward menopause in middle-aged women. Methods We used a cross-sectional questionnaire study applying to 231 perimenopausal and menopausal women aged from 40 to 59 years old. The completed data of 189 perimenopausal and menopausal women were analyzed through t-test, ANOVA and pearson's correlation coefficient using the SPSS statistical programme. Results The menopausal women showed significantly higher physical symptoms than perimenopausal women. The menopausal women showed significantly higher psychosomatic symptom than perimenopausal women. There was a significant correlation between the menopausal attitude and management. Conclusion This study suggests that the fundamental data of developing midlife women's symptom index (MSI) and providing menopause management could be a strategy to encourage successful menopausal transition in middle-aged women. PMID:25580423

Kwak, Eun Kyung; Park, Hyun Soon

2014-01-01

135

Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

2004-01-01

136

Medical students' behaviour, attitudes and knowledge of sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: A seminar on sleep disorders was recently introduced for third, fourth and final year medical students rotating through the psychiatry posting in the Institute of Mental Health. This survey was conducted to assess the attitudes as well as knowledge of medical students towards sleep medicine. Methods: Verbal consent was taken from the students who were willing to take part

R Mahendran; M Subramaniam; Y H Chan

137

Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

2013-01-01

138

Ethnicity Knowledge and Attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…

Goh, David S.

139

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

140

Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

2009-01-01

141

Students' Knowledge of Energy and Attitudes to Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data were collected by pencil-and-paper instruments from 33 students in grade 10 in Perth, Western Australia. Data indicated that students were only slightly knowledgeable about energy and energy conservation; they had slightly positive attitudes toward energy conservation. (MNS)

Vlahov, Stephen J.; Treagust, David F.

1988-01-01

142

Pesticides exposure in Culturama, Brazil—Knowledge, attitudes, and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with pesticide use and exposure were evaluated in the agricultural community of Culturama, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was completed by 250 farm workers aged ?18 years old. The average age of the studied population was 43.6 years and 17.6% had never been to

Maria Celina P. Recena; Eloisa D. Caldas; Dario X. Pires; Elenir Rose J. C. Pontes

2006-01-01

143

Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

2014-01-01

144

Teachers' Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Child Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…

Kenny, M.C.

2004-01-01

145

Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

2006-01-01

146

Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

2014-01-01

147

The role of romantic attachment security and dating identity exploration in understanding adolescents' sexual attitudes and cumulative sexual risk-taking.  

PubMed

This study addressed how two normative developmental factors, attachment and identity, are associated with adolescents' sexual attitudes and sexual risk-taking behavior. The sample consisted of 2029 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years) living in the Southeast United States. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Higher levels of attachment anxiety predicted more dating identity exploration and less healthy sexual attitudes. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted less dating identity exploration and indirectly predicted less healthy sexual attitudes through dating identity exploration. Females with dating or sexual experience showed the weakest associations between the attachment dimensions and dating identity exploration. More dating identity exploration predicted healthier sexual attitudes; this association was strongest for non-virgins. Finally, higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with higher cumulative sexual risk scores, but only among non-virgin males. Results are interpreted in light of theory and research on attachment, identity exploration, and adolescent sexual relationships. PMID:25598388

McElwain, Alyssa D; Kerpelman, Jennifer L; Pittman, Joe F

2015-02-01

148

[Knowledge about sexual health in Italian adolescents girls and women: the need for intergenerational communication].  

PubMed

The aim of this study, performed between September to November 2010, was to provide insight into Italian girls' and women's knowledge of sexual health and sexuality, in particular regarding the physiology of human reproduction, contraception, sexuality, cervical cancer screening and abortion. The data used were obtained through face-to-face interviews with two groups of women, performed by a trained interviewer using a structured multiple-choice questionnaire. The first group was composed of young women aged 17 to 20 years, randomly selected from five high-school institutes in the inner-city area of Perugia (Italy), while the second group was made up of women aged 30 to 43 years, recruited amongst women undergoing postpartum checks at a regional hospital. The number of correct answers for each group of questions and the total number of correct answers in the questionnaire were calculated. A Poisson regression model was used to identify the main determinants of answering correctly. Adult women gave a higher rate of correct answers for each topic, except for those related to abortion, contraception, and HPV. Characteristics of adult women associated with a better knowledge about sexuality were: discussing about sexuality with friends or partner, being Italy-born and having an open and relaxed attitude toward sex. For younger women, better knowledge was associated with being Italy-born, having attended affectivity education courses and having an open and relaxed attitude towards sex. Results suggest that no sex education or information source by itself is effective but what is needed is a combination of various information sources, both formal and informal, including parent-adolescent communication. PMID:25353267

Chiavarini, Manuela; Cicognola, Lucrezia; Salmasi, Luca; Angeli, Giuseppe; Minelli, Liliana

2014-01-01

149

Skin Cancer Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one's overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities. PMID:24782927

Hobbs, Courtney; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Brodell, Robert T.

2014-01-01

150

Sexuality Attitudes Reassessment (SAR): Historical and New Considerations for Measuring Its Effectiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, leading scholars in the field of sexology have been calling for more professionals who are primarily sexologists rather than professionals in other fields who specialize in sexuality. Such professionals require specialized training that meets their specific needs. The Sexuality Attitude Reassessment (SAR) has been established as a…

Sitron, Justin A.; Dyson, Donald A.

2009-01-01

151

Ideology or experience? The relationships among perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of sexual harassment in university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among sexual harassment experiences, perceptions about harassment (definitions, seriousness ratings, commonness estimates), and attitudes (about both harassment and sex roles) were examined in order to investigate the role of ideology and consciousness in the reporting of sexual harassment experiences. University students responding to a survey were divided by sex (74 males, 136 females) and level of harassment experience (high,

Donald B. Mazer; Elizabeth F. Percival

1989-01-01

152

Intellectual Disability and Sexuality: Attitudes of Disability Support Staff and Leisure Industry Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The attitudes of support staff and others in the community towards the sexuality of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have the potential to influence opportunities for normalised life experiences in the area of sexuality. Method: A sample of 169 disability support staff and 50 employees from leisure and service…

Gilmore, Linda; Chambers, Brooke

2010-01-01

153

Exposure to Internet Pornography and Taiwanese Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines use of Internet pornography by adolescents in Tai- wan and the relationships between exposure to Internet pornography and the sexual attitudes and behavior of surveyed teens. Results show that about 38% of the sample had some exposure to Internet pornogra- phy. Further, this exposure was associated with greater acceptance of sexual permissiveness and the greater likelihood of

Ven-hwei Lo; Ran Wei

2005-01-01

154

Punitive attitudes against pedophiles or persons with sexual interest in children: does the label matter?  

PubMed

In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest. PMID:25501864

Imhoff, Roland

2015-01-01

155

Does Body Image Play a Role in Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…

Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.

2006-01-01

156

Sources and Timing of Sex Education: Relations with American Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…

Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

2005-01-01

157

Improving questions on sexual partnerships: lessons learned from cognitive interviews for Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles ("Natsal-3").  

PubMed

Patterns of sexual partnership formation and dissolution are key drivers of sexually transmitted infection transmission. Sexual behavior survey participants may be unable or unwilling to report accurate details about their sexual partners, limiting the potential to capture information on sexual mixing and timing of partnerships. We examined how questions were interpreted, including recall strategies and judgments made in selecting responses, to inform development of a module on recent sexual partnerships in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles ("Natsal-3"). Face-to-face cognitive interviews were conducted with 14 men and 18 women aged 18-74 years, during development work for Natsal-3. People with multiple recent partners were purposively sampled and questions were presented as a computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were generally agreeable to answering questions about their sexual partners and practices. Interpretation of questions designed to measure concurrent (overlapping) partnerships was broadly consistent with the epidemiological concept of concurrency. Partners' ages, genders, ethnicity, and participants' perceptions of whether partner(s) had had concurrent partnerships were reported without offense. Recall problems and lack of knowledge were reported by some participants (of all ages), especially about former, casual, and/or new partnerships, and some reported guessing partners' ages and dates of sex. Generally, participants were able to answer questions about their sexual partners accurately, even when repeated for multiple partners. Cognitive interviews provided insight into the participants' understanding of, ability to answer, and willingness to answer questions. This enabled us to improve questions used in previous surveys, refine new questions, and ensure the questionnaire order was logical for participants. PMID:22695641

Aicken, Catherine R H; Gray, Michelle; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H

2013-02-01

158

Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

1990-01-01

159

Gender Comparisons of College Students' Attitudes toward Sexual Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Found significant differences between male and female college students' (n=641) attitudes toward premarital sex among casual acquaintances and attitudes toward extramarital, oral-genital, and anal sex, with males expressing more liberal attitudes. Found no significant differences between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when…

Wilson, Stephan M.; Medora, Nilufer P.

1990-01-01

160

HIV-Related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among educated young adults in Botswana  

PubMed Central

Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 393 students chosen via a random cluster method. Respondents were 50% junior and 50% senior students with 42% males. Half (52%) were “single”, 44% were “in a relationship”, and 4% were “married”. The mean percentage of knowledge questions answered correctly was 96%. 98% agreed that all sexually active adults should know their status and that condom use is important, but only 56% believed getting tested was common and 66% believed that it was common for students to always use a condom. As with the previous survey, we again found that students had excellent knowledge yet perceived use of testing services and condoms remain lower than might be predicted based on knowledge scores. PMID:23275859

Stephens, Lindsey L.; Bachhuber, Marcus A.; Seloilwe, Esther; Gungqisa, Nontombi; Mmelesi, Mpho; Bussmann, Hermann; Marlink, Richard G.; Wester, C. William

2012-01-01

161

Study of knowledge, attitude and practice concerning aspects of torture.  

PubMed

The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645

Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E

2000-06-01

162

Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to drive proportions and associations. Results The majority of health workers had positive attitudes. However, nearly one third (30%) of health care workers had negative attitudes toward providing RH services to unmarried adolescents. Close to half (46.5%) of the respondents had unfavorable responses toward providing family planning to unmarried adolescents. About 13% of health workers agreed to setting up penal rules and regulations against adolescents that practice pre-marital sexual intercourse. The multivariate analysis indicated that being married (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.44 - 3.06), lower education level (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.99), being a health extension worker (OR 2.49; 95% CI 1.43 - 4.35), lack of training on reproductive health services (OR 5.27; 95% CI 1.51 - 5.89) to be significantly associated with negative attitudes toward provision of sexual and reproductive services to adolescents. Conclusions The majority of the health workers had generally positive attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health to adolescents. However, a minority has displayed negatives attitudes. Such negative attitudes will be barriers to service utilization by adolescents and hampers the efforts to reduce sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies among unmarried adolescents. We therefore call for a targeted effort toward alleviating negative attitudes toward adolescent-friendly reproductive health service and re-enforcing the positive ones. PMID:22943476

2012-01-01

163

Police interviews of sexual assault reporters: do attitudes matter?  

PubMed

Sexual assault is underreported in the United States. Survivors are often reluctant to make police reports for various reasons; one is fear of revictimization by criminal justice professionals. Conversely, police officers often lack skills for interviewing crime victims. Posttraumatic stress reactions among victims can exacerbate the problem. Although some victims prefer female interviewers, it is not known whether they are more skilled. A sample of 429 police officers completed a written survey testing their rape myth acceptance and knowledge of how to interview rape reporters. A significant relationship between rape myth acceptance and interviewing skill was discovered. Although officer gender was related to interviewing skill, the effect was mediated by rape myth acceptance. Specific officer behaviors related to high rape myth acceptance were identified. Implications for selection of police to conduct victim interviews were discussed. PMID:22594220

Rich, Karen; Seffrin, Patrick

2012-01-01

164

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated

Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas

2010-01-01

165

HPV vaccine education: enhancing knowledge and attitudes of community counselors and educators.  

PubMed

Educational efforts targeting parents of preadolescents may help them make informed decisions about having their children vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV). We conducted a pilot study examining knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of community-based health educators and counselors who routinely disseminate sexual health and prevention information through counseling and supporting these parents. We evaluated the impact of a single, brief workshop by administering questionnaires before and after the session. The workshop consisted of an educational intervention that was presented orally by an expert in gynecological oncology and was followed by an open discussion period. Following the information and discussion session, improvements were seen in knowledge accuracy, confidence in being able to discuss HPV vaccine issues with parents, greater willingness to recommend the vaccine, and a better understanding of potential barriers to vaccine uptake. These results suggest that health educators and counselors may be better prepared to encourage their clients to make well-informed decisions regarding HPV vaccination. PMID:24146258

Rosberger, Z; Krawczyk, A; Stephenson, E; Lau, S

2014-09-01

166

Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior  

PubMed Central

Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

2013-01-01

167

Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431

Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn

2014-01-01

168

Attitudes toward Sexuality and Sexual Behaviors of Asian-American Adolescents. Implications for Risk of HIV Infection. An Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…

Chan, Connie S.

169

Knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy in Zambia: a questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (p<0.0001 and p=0.0004). Rural people were mostly in the highest stigma level (44.2%) and urban people in the lowest stigma level (60.4%). Misconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384

Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore

2014-05-01

170

Knowledge of and Attitudes Towards Evidence-Based Practices in Community Child Mental Health Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) suggests that practitioners’ knowledge of and attitudes towards\\u000a EBPs influence their decisions to adopt such practices. This study investigated the relationships between practitioner background\\u000a variables and EBP knowledge and attitudes, as well as the relationship between knowledge and attitudes among public sector\\u000a youth direct service providers (n = 240). Findings suggest that knowledge and

Brad J. NakamuraCharmaine; Charmaine K. Higa-McMillan; Kelsie H. Okamura; Scott Shimabukuro

2011-01-01

171

Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

1988-01-01

172

The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

2005-01-01

173

Searching for Sexually Explicit Materials on the Internet: An Exploratory Study of College Students' Behavior and Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The convergence of sexuality messages with a computerized medium (specifically, the Internet) represents an unprecedented phenomenon with, as of yet, unknown outcomes. Despite the Internet's widespread use, little is known about users' behaviors and attitudes when searching for sexually explicit materials online. This study examined specific behaviors and outcome expectations and expectancies (or attitudes) of a sample of 506 undergraduate

Patricia Goodson; Deborah McCormick; Alexandra Evans

2001-01-01

174

Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines.  

PubMed

The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15-20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

2014-07-01

175

Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to HIV transmission in northeastern China.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses know about HIV/AIDS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, China. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Only 7.9% of the nurse (n = 177) used condoms during their first experience of sexual intercourse. Eight-six percent of the nurses had been stuck by sharps while working, and 76% of them had been splashed by patient fluids. For 12 basic HIV/AIDS questions, the mean score was 6.66. The mean score is 6.28 for 9 HIV/AIDS attitude questions. Knowledge and attitude are negatively related (r = -0.215, p < 0.005). Training in reducing the risk for occupational exposures in this sample is important. Nurses who have a better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention are more likely to have negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. This study suggests the necessity of increasing HIV/AIDS education for nurses, family members, friends, and all health care providers. PMID:15307930

Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei; Holzemer, William L

2004-07-01

176

Abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse experiences in Turkish university women.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between abnormal eating attitudes and sexual abuse. The subject sample comprised 532 female Turkish undergraduate and nursing students in Istanbul. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), Sexual Abuse Questionnaire, the Setting Conditions for Anorexia Nervosa Scale, the Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale and the Need for Control Scale (NCS) were the instruments of the study. The results showed that sexual abuse has a direct effect on EAT-Bulimia but not on EAT-Dieting. It also has some indirect effects on both of these through its effects on family functioning. Perfectionism, on the other hand, was independently linked with both EAT-Dieting and EAT-Bulimia but was not associated with sexual abuse. PMID:15656010

Elal, G; Sabol, E; Slade, P

2004-09-01

177

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

2014-01-01

178

Undergraduate students' perceptions of child sexual abuse: Effects of age, sex, and gender-role attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study examined how sex of the child and the adult and age of the child influence perceptions regarding the abusiveness of adult-child sexual interactions and attributions of blame and responsibility to the adult in such incidents. The relationship of gender-role attitudes to perceptions of child sexual abuse was also investigated.Method: Undergraduate students (N = 404) read one

Carri Maynard; Michael Wiederman

1997-01-01

179

The sexual behaviour and knowledge about AIDS in a group of young adolescent girls in Leeds.  

PubMed Central

A questionnaire was given to 56 sexually active girls 12-16 years old, in a juvenile assessment centre or attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Sexual behaviour, drug use, contraceptive practice and knowledge and attitudes about AIDS were evaluated. The girls were similar in demographic characteristics from both centres and were regarded as one group. Sexual experience ranged from 1 partner ever to 70 clients/week; 19 girls had contracted a sexually transmitted disease at some time. Half had never used a contraceptive. Twenty eight had used illicit drugs, with two girls experimenting with intravenous misuse. Misconceptions about modes of transmission of HIV were common, but most girls knew some basic facts about the virus. Most girls realised they were at risk, were anxious about contracting HIV infection in the future, but had not modified their behaviour in terms of condom usage. This study indicates that high risk adolescents need to be targeted for effective health education in order to modify behaviour patterns which put them at risk of acquiring HIV in the future. PMID:2370062

Clarke, J; Abram, R; Monteiro, E F

1990-01-01

180

HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

2000-01-01

181

A Field Study of First Aid Knowledge and Attitudes of College Students in Kuwait University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge scores were classified into high,…

Al-Khamees, Nedaa

2006-01-01

182

Public Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Genetics and Genetic Testing  

PubMed Central

Background: Variable health literacy and genetic knowledge may pose significant challenges to engaging the general public in personal genomics, specifically with respect to promoting risk comprehension and healthy behaviors. Methods: We are conducting a multistage study of individual responses to genomic risk information for Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 300 individuals were recruited from the general public in Durham, North Carolina: 60% self-identified as White; 70% female; and 65% have a college degree. As part of the baseline survey, we assessed genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing. Results: Scores of factual knowledge of genetics ranged from 50% to 100% (average=84%), with significant differences in relation to racial groups, the education level, and age. Scores were significantly higher on questions pertaining to the inheritance and causes of disease (mean score 90%) compared to scientific questions (mean score 77.4%). Scores on the knowledge survey were significantly higher than scores from European populations. Participants' perceived knowledge of the social consequences of genetic testing was significantly lower than their perceived knowledge of the medical uses of testing. More than half agreed with the statement that testing may affect a person's ability to obtain health insurance (51.3%) and 16% were worried about the consequences of testing for chances of finding a job. Conclusions: Despite the relatively high educational status and genetic knowledge of the study population, we find an imbalance of knowledge between scientific and medical concepts related to genetics as well as between the medical applications and societal consequences of testing, suggesting that more effort is needed to present the benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing, particularly, at the social and personal levels, to ensure informed decision making. PMID:23406207

Barry, William T.; Mills, Rachel; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Svetkey, Laura; Sullivan, Jennifer; Willard, Huntington F.

2013-01-01

183

Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

2012-01-01

184

Knowledge of and Attitudes Towards Behavioral Health Services Among Older Youth in the Foster Care System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined knowledge of and attitudes toward services among 268 17-year olds with psychiatric diagnoses preparing\\u000a to exit foster care. A structured interview assessed knowledge of services with vignette scenarios and attitudes with a standardized\\u000a scale. Descriptive statistics described the extent of knowledge and attitudes among this population and regression analyses\\u000a examined predictors of these dimensions of literacy. Most

Michelle R. MunsonSarah; Sarah Carter Narendorf; J. Curtis McMillen

2011-01-01

185

Urinary incontinence knowledge and attitudes in São Paulo.  

PubMed

Urinary incontinence is a social and hygienic problem that affects 15% to 35% of individuals aged 60 years or older, with an estimated annual cost in the United States of $16 billion. To better understand the effects of misinformation and underestimation of the problem, a study to identify knowledge and attitudes related to urinary incontinence was conducted among 400 community-dwelling residents (55 years of age or older). The instrument covered four knowledge/attitude subject areas: treatment and effects, causes, the relationship between aging and urinary incontinence, and physician/patient discussion regarding urinary incontinence. Interviews were conducted in waiting rooms, shopping centers, subways, and hospital/clinic waiting rooms. One hundred, forty-two people (43% women and 23% men) reported current or previous bladder problems. Only two of the 14 knowledge statements elicited a correct response from the majority (60%) of participants. The percentage of correct answers to the other 12 statements ranged from 23% to 43%. Most people believed that urinary incontinence is an inevitable consequence of aging, and the majority of treatment responses (58%) indicated a lack of knowledge about available treatments. Differences in the percentage of correct responses related to the treatment and causes of urinary incontinence were observed between respondents with varying educational levels (P = 0.001) and between Caucasian and African American respondents (P = 0.001). The results confirm that misinformation about urinary incontinence is common in the general population and that educational interventions are needed if the prevalence of uncontrolled urinary incontinence is to be solved. PMID:11889727

Blanes, L; Pinto, R de C; Santos, V L

2001-12-01

186

Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

2009-01-01

187

Sexuality: Measures of Partnerships, Practices, Attitudes, and Problems in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) was designed to examine the relationship between sexual behavior, sexual problems, and health among older women and men. We describe measures of sexual partnerships, sexual practices, sexual problems, attitudes toward sex, and nonsexual intimacy in the first wave of NSHAP. Methods We compare measures of sexuality for those 57–85 years old, by age, separately for men and women. We construct scales of sexual mores, sexual interest, and relationship satisfaction and discuss properties of each scale. Results Sexuality among older adults tends to vary with age and gender. At all ages in this study, men are more likely than women to have a partner, more likely to be sexually active with that partner, and tend to have more positive and permissive attitudes toward sex. The proportions in a sexual partnership, behavior, problems, and attitudes all differ substantially by age. And these age patterns often differ for men and women. Discussion Data obtained in the NSHAP can be used to construct key measures of sexuality among older adults; to examine sexuality itself; and to explore the link between sexuality, health, well-being, and other dimensions of the lives of older adults. PMID:19497930

Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Schumm, L. Philip

2009-01-01

188

Knowledge, Practices, and Attitudes of Emergency Contraception among Female University Students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, practices, and attitudes among female university students in South Africa regarding emergency contraceptives (EC). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 582 female university students who were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find significant predictors for EC awareness. Results The average age of the female students was 20.9 years (SD?=?3.0) and 57.2% were presently sexually active. Overall, 49.8% of the participants reported having heard about EC prior to the study. Regarding sexual activities among the female students, 53.2% reported to have sex, and 21.2% of the sexually experienced students used EC prior to the study. Regarding the effectiveness of EC, 29.5% students said it could be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse, and 8% said it could be used just before sex. About two-thirds (61.8%) would recommend the use of EC and 63.2% would use it if they needed. The multivariate analysis indicated that students who were older (>20 years), presently sexually active, and living with their parents were more likely to be aware of EC (p<0.05). Conclusion The students’ knowledge and utilization of EC were low. Health education and promotion should be targeted towards these students, and the EC services should be offered on campus. PMID:23050018

Hoque, Muhammad Ehsanul; Ghuman, Shanaz

2012-01-01

189

Attitudes of Social Service Providers towards the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. We hypothesized that social service providers' role, educational level and service in which they worked could affect attitudes

Bazzo, Giuseppe; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ferrari, Lea; Minnes, Patricia

2007-01-01

190

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

2012-01-01

191

Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their affective orientation toward sexuality (erotophiliaerotophobia) and sex guilt. Subjects were 72 male and 57 female heterosexual college undergraduates. A self-report questionnaire was administered in a health education class and mailed to campus dormitories. The variables were measured by four scales:

William L. Yarber; Bernadette Yee

1983-01-01

192

Stakeholder Perceptions and Attitudes towards Sexual and Reproductive Health Education in Namibia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education is one way Namibia combats HIV/AIDS. This exploratory study had two objectives: to investigate attitudes and perceptions towards sex education, and to see what purpose sex education serves in Namibia. To what extent do stakeholders support sex education in Namibia? What kind of obstacles exists to SRH…

Mufune, Pempelani

2008-01-01

193

Teachers’ attitudes towards adolescent sexuality and life skills education in rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people’s sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes towards young people’s sexuality and pregnant students, and focused on girls’ perceived irresponsible behaviour instead of strategies to minimise HIV risk. Despite general awareness of the HIV epidemic, few teachers perceived it as an immediate threat, and teachers’ own HIV risk was infrequently acknowledged. Teachers perceived themselves to have higher personal standards and moral authority than members of the communities and schools they served. Male administrators’ authority to determine school policies and teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality fundamentally affect the content and delivery of school-based sexuality education and HIV prevention activities. Opportunities to create a supportive educational environment for students and for female teachers are frequently missed. Improving teachers’ efficacy to deliver impartial, non-judgemental and accurate information about sex and HIV is essential, as are efforts to acknowledge and address their own HIV risks. PMID:23662093

Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

2013-01-01

194

Family Functioning and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Attachment Styles and Sexual Attitudes in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…

Kufskie, Kathy L.

2009-01-01

195

Community Attitudes toward School-Based Sexuality Education in a Conservative State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…

Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

196

U.S. and Icelandic College Student Attitudes toward Relationships/Sexuality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…

Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David

2014-01-01

197

Sexual Practices, Risk Perception and Knowledge Of Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be spread between female sex partners, probably through the exchange of cervicovaginal fluid and direct mucosal contact. Additionally, lesbians have a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, which may represent an STD in this population. However, few data on sexual practices or perceived STD risk among lesbians are available to guide development of interventions aimed at reducing the risk. METHODS To inform the development of a safer-sex intervention for women who have sex with women, focus group discussions were conducted with 23 lesbian and bisexual women aged 18–29. Topics included sexual practices, STD transmission and prevention, and knowledge about bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS Although six participants had had bacterial vaginosis and three an STD, women reported little use of preventive measures with female partners (washing hands, using rubber gloves and cleaning sex toys). Participants said that vaginal penetrative practices using sex toys and fingers or hands are common, and that partners frequently share sex toys during a sexual encounter, generally without condoms. Knowledge of potential for STD transmission between women, and of bacterial vaginosis, was limited. Participants viewed use of barrier methods (gloves or condoms) as acceptable, provided that there is a reason (usually STD-focused) to use them and that they are promoted in the context of sexual health and pleasure. CONCLUSIONS Safer-sex messages aimed at lesbian and bisexual women should emphasize the plausibility of STD transmission between women, personal responsibility and care for partners’well-being; should target common sexual practices; and should promote healthy sexuality. PMID:15888397

Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Coffey, Patricia; Bingham, Allison

2005-01-01

198

Effects of sex education on sexual guilt, anxiety, and attitudes: a comparison of instruction formats.  

PubMed

Previous sex education research has neglected to examine systematically the effects of different types of instruction formats. In the present study, 193 undergraduates were assigned to one of the following conditions: (1) lecture only; (2) small group discussion only; (3) lecture + small group discussion; (4) lecture + extra lecture/review; and (5) no intervention control. Pre- and posttest measures assessed the dimensions of sexual guilt, sexual attitudes, and sexual anxiety. Results revealed significantly greater reductions in sexual guilt for the lecture only, lecture + small group discussion, and lecture + extra lecture/review conditions than for the no intervention control condition. Significantly greater changes in the direction of more tolerant sexual attitudes were found for the small group discussion only and lecture + extra lecture/review conditions than for the no intervention control condition. No other significant results were found. Contrary to expectation, the addition of 9 hours of small group discussion to a semester-long lecture format course did not result in significantly greater positive changes on the dimensions assessed than those achieved by lecture alone. The implications of these findings for the design of sex education courses are discussed. Recommendations for future research include assessment of the long-term effects of sex education on dimensions such as quality of sexual adjustment and consistency of contraceptive usage. PMID:6667108

Wanlass, R L; Kilmann, P R; Bella, B S; Tarnowski, K J

1983-12-01

199

A Cross-Site Intervention in Chinese Rural Migrants Enhances HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background: With the influx of rural migrants into urban areas, the spread of HIV has increased significantly in Shaanxi Province (China). Migrant workers are at high risk of HIV infection due to social conditions and hardships (isolation, separation, marginalization, barriers to services, etc.). Objective: We explored the efficacy of a HIV/AIDS prevention and control program for rural migrants in Shaanxi Province, administered at both rural and urban sites. Methods: Guidance concerning HIV/AIDS prevention was given to the experimental group (266 migrants) for 1 year by the center of disease control, community health agencies and family planning department. The intervention was conducted according to the HIV/AIDS Prevention Management Manual for Rural Migrants. A control group of migrants only received general population intervention. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by administering HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior (KAB) questionnaires after 6 and 12 months. Results: In the experimental group; 6 months of intervention achieved improvements in HIV/AIDS related knowledge. After 12 months; HIV/AIDS-related knowledge reached near maximal scores. Attitude and most behaviors scores were significantly improved. Moreover; the experimental group showed significant differences in HIV-AIDS knowledge; attitude and most behavior compared with the control group. Conclusions: The systematic long-term cross-site HIV/AIDS prevention in both rural and urban areas is a highly effective method to improve HIV/AIDS KAB among rural migrants. PMID:24762671

Li, Ning; Li, Xiaomei; Wang, Xueliang; Shao, Jin; Dou, Juanhua

2014-01-01

200

The emergency contraceptive pill: A survey of knowledge and attitudes among students at Princeton University  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to measure and analyze knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraceptive pills. The hypothesis we tested was that more accurate knowledge about the regimen would be associated with favorable attitudes toward its use.STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a random sample telephone survey and a series of focus group discussions at Princeton University (results for 11 focus groups are

Cynthia C. Harper; Charlotte E. Ellertson

1995-01-01

201

Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2011-01-01

202

First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

2003-01-01

203

A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

1990-01-01

204

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

Hendrix, Dean

2007-01-01

205

Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

2011-01-01

206

Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

1997-01-01

207

Comparing Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Genetic Testing in Parkinson's Disease in an American and Asian Population  

E-print Network

Comparing Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Genetic Testing in Parkinson's Disease in an American and attitudes towards genetics testing in PD was administered in the English language by a trained nurse items 3, 5 and 6, it consisted of "Not too likely" and "Unlikely". Association between knowledge

Lichtarge, Olivier

208

Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

2012-01-01

209

Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

2009-01-01

210

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of College Students Regarding the 1990 Nutrition Labeling Education Act food Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives This study examined the influence of 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act food labels on college students. The purposes of the study were to examine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of college students regarding labels and relationships among these factors, and whether educational experience with labels was associated with label-reading knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.Design A descriptive, nonexperimental research design was

ANNE B MARIETTA; KATHLEEN J WELSHIMER

1999-01-01

211

Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

1997-01-01

212

Public attitudes toward sexual offenders and sex offender registration.  

PubMed

This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As part of a telephone survey, 733 participants answered questions about fear of sex offenders and agreement with requirements about registration for offenders convicted of incest, statutory rape, marital rape, pedophilia, date rape, and an offense committed more than 10 years prior. Results indicated that all types of sexual offenders elicited some fear from respondents, and fear was related to support of registration requirements. PMID:19856734

Kernsmith, Poco D; Craun, Sarah W; Foster, Jonathan

2009-01-01

213

Sexual attitudes, preferences and infections in Ancient Egypt.  

PubMed Central

This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496

Morton, R S

1995-01-01

214

Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-reported Behaviours and Attitudes.  

PubMed

Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care. PMID:25212415

Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

2014-09-12

215

Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Likeliness of Sexual Behaviors of Black Lower-Socioeconomic Father-Present vs. Father-Absent Female Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared sexual permissiveness attitudes and likely behaviors of father-absent vs. father-present Black, lower-socioeconomic female adolescents (N=100). Father-absent subjects were not found to be more sexually permissive, but had significantly greater inconsistency between behavioral and attitudinal scores in which the reported behavior was more…

Eberhardt, Carolyn A.; Schill, Thomas

1984-01-01

216

Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

217

Parental Attitudes Regarding School-Based Sexuality Education in Utah  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…

Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar

2014-01-01

218

Sexuality, pregnancy and midwifery care for women with intellectual disabilities: a pilot study on attitudes of university students.  

PubMed

Women with intellectual disability have historically not been provided the opportunity to become mothers. Attitudes held by future professionals will determine the level and quality of support these women are provided. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the attitudes of students from Education, Disability and Midwifery towards the sexuality and parenting of people with an intellectual disability, and to further examine the attitudes held by Midwifery students following a lecture strategy. A questionnaire assessing attitudes towards the sexuality and parenting of people with intellectual disability was implemented and contained the themes of marriage, parenting, sexual intercourse and sterilization. Significant differences were found between student groups on the themes of sterilization and parenting, with further analysis indicating that Disability students held significantly more positive attitudes than the other two groups. Students reported less positive attitudes towards parenting than marriage, sterilization and sexual intercourse. Respondents' age was significantly associated with their attitudes on parenting, indicating that older students held more conservative attitudes towards the ability of people with an intellectual disability to parent. In addition, this research indicated that the attitudes of Midwifery students became more positive following a lecture delivered after the questionnaire. PMID:20636177

Jones, Linda K; Binger, Tara E; McKenzie, Christine R; Ramcharan, Paul; Nankervis, Karen

2010-01-01

219

From Agents to Objects: Sexist Attitudes and Neural Responses to Sexualized Targets  

PubMed Central

Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers’ sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs (“handle”) and clothed women with third-person action verbs (“handles”) than the inverse, as compared to their less sexist peers. In study 2, hostile sexism correlated negatively with activation of regions associated with mental state attribution—mPFC, posterior cingulate, temporal poles—but only when viewing sexualized women. Heterosexual men best recognized images of sexualized female bodies (but not faces), as compared with other targets’ bodies; however, neither face nor body recognition were related to hostile sexism, suggesting the fMRI findings are not explained by more or less attention to sexualized female targets. Diminished mental-state attribution is not unique to targets that people prefer to avoid, as in dehumanization of stigmatized people. The current studies demonstrate that appetitive social targets may elicit a similar response depending on perceivers’ attitudes toward them. PMID:20350187

Cikara, Mina; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Fiske, Susan T.

2013-01-01

220

Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes of Adolescent Swimmers in Trinidad and Tobago  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of “1” and incorrect answers were given a score of “0.” For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; “5” was given to the most positive response, and “1” was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316

Webb, Marquitta C.; Beckford, Safiya E.

2014-01-01

221

Attitudes and Values in Sexual Behavior and Sex Education: A Cross-Cultural Study among University Students in Greece and Scotland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a survey comparing the attitudes of university students in Greece and Scotland about sexual development and sex education. Students' attitudes tend to converge with regard to gender identity, sexual relations, and appropriate forms of sexual behavior. Differences exist regarding sex-education aims and the moral principles that should…

Kakavoulis, Alexandros; Forrest, Joan

1999-01-01

222

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among male high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic  

PubMed Central

Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.1–9.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.5–27.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.9–8.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.6–6.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky practices were also present. Educational programmes with specific interventions are recommended to increase KAPs and to prevent new HIV infections among students in Lao PDR. PMID:23481130

Thanavanh, Bounbouly; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi

2013-01-01

223

Race-Ethnic Differences in Sexual Health Knowledge  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults’ Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility. PMID:23565127

Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Hayford, Sarah R.

2012-01-01

224

HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge, Attitudes and Treatment Experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations. PMID:23516536

Nureña, César R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sánchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.

2013-01-01

225

Reviewing the relations between teachers’ knowledge and pupils’ attitude in the field of primary technology education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers’ knowledge of technology and pupils’\\u000a attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature\\u000a in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is essential for stimulating\\u000a a positive attitude towards technology in pupils. Particularly, teachers’

Ellen J. Rohaan; Ruurd Taconis; Wim M. G. Jochems

2010-01-01

226

Changes in attitude, sexual behaviour and the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission in southwest Nigeria.  

PubMed

This pilot study was carried out in southwest Nigeria to determine the current trends in sexual behaviours known to be associated with HIV transmission in Nigeria. Knowledge of AIDS in general and as an incurable disease was high (91.4% and 79.4% respectively). Knowledge of the means of AIDS transmission was also very high among both men and women. Overall, condom use was consistent at 25%, inconsistent at 55% and non-existent at 20% for all sexually active respondents. Over 60 per cent of sexually active respondents had two or more sexual partners, with significantly more males than females having this number of sexual partners (p < 0.01). Eighteen per cent of sexually active respondents had a history of sex with commercial sex workers while 25% had a history of at least one sexually transmitted disease. Using multiple logistic regression, the significant determinants of condom use among the sexually active group were: being in a stable sexual relationship, history of sex with commercial sex workers, self-perception of testing positive for HIV and self-perception of HIV/AIDS risk in Nigeria. Prevalence of condom use in this study was much higher than those reported in previous studies, suggesting a probable decline in high risk sexual behaviours among inhabitants of urban Southwest Nigeria since the advent of AIDS. Most sexually active respondents aged 19 years or below (adolescents) who perceived themselves at a high risk of testing positive for HIV had never used condoms. The non usage of condoms among this group of adolescents is disturbing, since they are at greatest risk of spreading the disease. Health education and promotion of safe sex practices need to be extensively targeted at adolescents. PMID:9487429

Olayinka, B A; Osho, A A

1997-09-01

227

The Relationship between Religiosity and Attitudes of Nurses Aides toward Sexual Expression by Older Adults in Nursing Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Systematic research on attitudes of nursing home staff toward the sexual expression of older residents is sparse and of recent origin. In order to determine the relationship between the degree of religiosity (religious commitment) of nursing home aides and their degree of tolerance concerning sexuality and aging, female nursing assistants (N=101)…

Stevenson, Robert T.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

228

Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.  

PubMed

The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

2013-07-01

229

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-10-01

230

Breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge in bachelor of science in nursing candidates.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding is an important health topic worldwide, although lack of breastfeeding knowledge is noted among health-care professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in undergraduate nursing students at the beginning and end of their clinical education. An electronic survey, based on the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire, was administered. Attitude scores did not differ significantly between groups. Total knowledge scores between groups differed modestly (p = .006). Correlations between total knowledge and total attitude scores were found (r[89] = .482, p < .000). Respondents reported that nursing education effectively teaches breastfeeding and that breastfeeding advocacy through patient education is a crucial nursing role. PMID:25364217

Vandewark, Aurora C

2014-01-01

231

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

2014-01-01

232

Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey.  

PubMed

Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A

2014-01-01

233

HIV knowledge and attitudes toward HIV testing of South Side Chicago Housing Authority residents.  

PubMed

High HIV infection rates in the United States are increasingly due to heterosexual risk behaviors, with increased rates in blacks and women. A survey of HIV knowledge and attitudes about HIV testing was conducted in an inner-city public housing population that included a convenience sample of residents of South Side Chicago Housing Authority facilities. The questionnaire addressed knowledge about HIV transmission and disease, health care options, condom use, prior HIV testing, and preferred places for HIV testing and education. Five hundred residents, ages 13-50 years completed the survey, during the period from November 2002 until April 2003. Eighty-three percent of the respondents were female and 50% of those surveyed were from 18-30 years of age. Race/ethnicity was not questioned in order to improve response rate. A comparable sample conducted earlier showed that population was 99% black race. Most respondents were knowledgeable about HIV transmission risk factors, although misinformation about transmission, treatment and prevention existed. Knowledge that HIV therapy is available was high (71%), while 25% thought an HIV vaccine was available and 13% thought there was a cure for HIV. Two thirds of sexually active respondents reported condom use in the past year. Three quarters reported previous testing for HIV and 90% of those tested returned for results. Most respondents wanted to learn more about HIV risk factors, testing and treatment but preferred primary care clinics to specialized places for HIV testing. Targeted HIV education interventions in the public housing facilities or primary care clinics are warranted. PMID:19183078

Djokic, Divna; Englund, Janet; Daum, Robert; Martin, Ruth; Dozier, Tynesha; Potts, Sandra; Verber, Lisa; Marcinak, John

2009-01-01

234

Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

235

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

2005-01-01

236

Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

237

Physicians' Knowledge and Attitudes Toward the Use of Analgesics for Cancer Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to examine the attitudes of physicians regarding the optimal use of analgesics for cancer pain management (CPM), to evaluate their knowledge and attitudes toward opioid prescribing, and to comprehend their perceptions of the barriers to optimal CPM. A survey was conducted on 356 physicians with cancer patient care responsibilities practicing in two medical centers

Luo-Ping Ger; Shung-Tai Ho; Jhi-Joung Wang

2000-01-01

238

Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

239

A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

1990-01-01

240

Enhancing knowledge and attitudes in pain management: a pain management education program for nursing home staff.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management. PMID:24602419

Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K

2014-03-01

241

Human papillomavirus vaccination: Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and intentions of college female students in Lebanon, a developing country.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common cause for genital warts and cervical cancer. Developing countries in the Middle East such as Lebanon are traditionally considered to be conservative societies with low incidence of sexually transmitted infections. However, nowadays, there is an unexpected increase in the incidence of HPV infections among Middle Eastern females. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the behavioral perceptions of HPV vaccination among female students attending an academic institution in Lebanon. This cross-sectional study invited 512 students to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and intentions towards HPV vaccination. Data analysis included the calculation of knowledge scores ranging from 0 to 100, attitude scores ranging from most positive (1) to most negative (5), and intention scores ranging from lowest intention (0) to highest intention (10). With a response rate of n=215 (42%), 36.5% never heard of the vaccine before, and only 16.5% were already HPV vaccinated. The median knowledge score of 52.7%±1.71 reflects poor to moderate knowledge. Still, the median attitude score of 2.47±0.05 shows a general positive attitude towards HPV vaccination where most of the participants agreed that female college students in Lebanon have a good chance of contracting HPV (62.1%) and that all gynecologists should recommend the vaccine (76.0%). Students in graduate programs, health related majors, and those who are vaccinated had significantly higher knowledge scores compared with students in undergraduate programs, non-health related majors, and HPV non-vaccinated students, respectively. Finally, the survey helped in increasing the intention to obtain HPV vaccine as the intention score increased significantly from 5.24±0.27 before the students went through the survey to 6.98±0.22 after the students completed the survey. Our study highlights the importance of offering guidance to female college students about HPV and its vaccination in developing countries where the incidence of sexually transmitted infections is on the rise. PMID:25597945

Dany, Mohammed; Chidiac, Alissar; Nassar, Anwar H

2015-02-18

242

Reviewing the Relations between Teachers' Knowledge and Pupils' Attitude in the Field of Primary Technology Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…

Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

2010-01-01

243

Users' Attitudes toward Web-Based Collaborative Learning Systems for Knowledge Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Web-based technology is a potential tool for supported collaborative learning that may enrich learning performance, such as individual knowledge construction or group knowledge sharing. Thus, understanding Web-based collaborative learning for knowledge management is a critical issue. The present study is to investigate learners' attitudes

Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

2008-01-01

244

Drug Experiences, Knowledge, and Attitudes of High and Low Guilt Individuals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of this study clearly indicate a relationship between guilt and experience, attitudes, and knowledge regarding drugs. They support Mosher's conceptualization that guilt as a personality predisposition results in the inhibition of behaviors that are culturally prohibited. (Author)

Schill, Thomas; Althoff, Michael

1975-01-01

245

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Whole Body Donation Among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.

2011-05-05

246

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

247

Twelfth Grade Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Environment in the Dominican Republic: An Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)

Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio

1989-01-01

248

Texas Latino knowledge and attitudes toward natural resources and the environment  

E-print Network

TEXAS LATINO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by ANGELICA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Agricultural Education TEXAS LATINO KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT A Thesis by ANGELICA LOPEZ Submitted to the Office...

Lopez, Angelica

2006-04-12

249

Association of Cancer Prevention-Related Nutrition Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes to Cancer Prevention Dietary Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate

LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND

1997-01-01

250

Sexually-transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Data from 1087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends’ attitudes and behavior were assessed with friends’ reports. Among males, there was evidence for selection effects on STI diagnoses and socialization effects on reports of unintended pregnancy, both involving friends’ attitudes. Among females, there was evidence for long-term effects of both socialization and selection processes involving same-sex friends’ attitudes. Discussion focuses on the importance of peer and individual attitudes as potential intervention targets. PMID:22563148

Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

2011-01-01

251

`Exploring relationships': a study of young people's (hetero)sexual subjectivities, knowledge and practices  

E-print Network

and health researchers between young people's knowledge about sexual activity and their actual practice (Crawford, Turtle and Kippax, 1990) suggested that, although levels of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, condom use and sexually transmitted diseases were... -social issues such as the buying, carrying and use of condoms within relationships (Wight, 1992). Alternatively, at a more practical level, research has focused on how sexuality education programmes might deliver safer sex messages more effectively (Bolton...

Allen, Louisa Elizabeth

2000-02-15

252

Hatching Babies and Stork Deliveries: Risk and Regulation in the Construction of Children's Sexual Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's access to sexual knowledge has always been considered "risky" and controversial due to the fraught relationship between childhood and sexuality. Based on focus groups with children and their parents, the authors explore the relationship between risk and regulation associated with providing children with accurate knowledge about…

Davies, Cristyn; Robinson, Kerry

2010-01-01

253

Community attitude towards the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS in Olorunda Local Government Area, Osogbo, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, the Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic remains a major public health problem. In most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS has already reversed the post-independence developmental gains. Purpose This study assessed community attitudes regarding the reproductive rights and sexual life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Olorunda Local Government Area of Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. Design and methods In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, the sample size calculation was based on the assumption that 67% of the target population has a negative attitude regarding the reproductive rights of PLWHA; a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was used. A minimum sample size of 340 was obtained using the formula n = Z2pq/d2. An anticipated 10% nonresponse rate was added to obtain a sample size of 374; a multistage sampling technique was utilized to select a total of 450 respondents. Data collected through a semistructured standardized and pretested questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software, version 15. Results The study revealed that 283 (66.6%) and 142 (33.4%) of respondents were urban and rural dwellers, respectively. Mean age of respondents was 28.7 years ± 2.2 years. Four hundred and two (94.6%) respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS, and 88.7% had knowledge of at least six different modes of HIV/AIDS transmission. About 30.7% of respondents had discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes towards PLWHA, and 50.9% and 44.8% had negative attitudes towards their sexual and reproductive rights, respectively. There were significant associations between gender, marital status, educational status, occupation, and residential area of respondents and their attitude towards the reproductive and sexual right of PLWHA (P < 0.05). Conclusion and recommendation Discriminatory and stigmatizing attitudes to PLWHA found among respondents translated into a negative attitude regarding the reproductive and sexual rights of PLWHA. There is an urgent need to institute programs for raising community awareness about the rights of PLWHA, especially in rural areas, and to strengthen legislative provisions for protecting and preserving the reproductive rights of PLWHA. PMID:23807862

Asekun-Olarinmoye, EO; Asekun-Olarinmoye, IO; Adebimpe, WO; Olugbenga-Bello, AI

2013-01-01

254

Women's judgments of a sexual assault scenario: the role of prejudicial attitudes and victim weight.  

PubMed

One potential barrier facing sexual assault survivors is that prejudicial attitudes and perceptions of victim appearance can influence the amount of blame, sympathy, and help that they receive from others. Using Weiner's (1980) attribution-affect-action theory as a guide, the present study investigated the relation between observer attitudinal characteristics (rape myth acceptance [RMA] and antifat attitudes [AFA]), victim weight, and specific judgments regarding a hypothetical sexual assault case. Female undergraduate participants (N=173) were presented with a sexual assault scenario and asked to complete a series of self-report questionnaires. Consistent with past research, attributions of victim fault were positively associated with adherence to rape myths and were higher toward thin victims than overweight victims. Further, the relation between the rater attitudinal variables and sentencing recommendations was found to be dependent on victim weight. When the victim was presented as thin, neither RMA nor AFA emerged as a predictor of sentencing recommendations. In contrast, both RMA and AFA were positively related to sentencing recommendations when the victim was presented as overweight. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19459403

Clarke, Allyson K; Lawson, Karen L

2009-01-01

255

Computer thought: propositional attitudes and meta-knowledge  

SciTech Connect

Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.

Dietrich, E.S.

1985-01-01

256

Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women.  

PubMed

Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p < .01) and that they could use drugs and always make healthy choices about using protection (B = .31, SE = .09, p < .01). Significant positive associations were also found between complimentary sexual stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p < .05). These findings suggest that endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23421336

Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

2013-01-01

257

Assessment of energy knowledge and attitudes of selected eighth grade students in the Southwest Educational Region of North Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of the study were as follows: 1) results revealed a low level of energy knowledge; 2) the reading level of students based on CAT scores was the best predictor for energy knowledge; 3) given the energy knowledge test, sex was a significant predictor for males; 4) although race was not a significant predictor for energy knowledge, white students had a higher mean score than black students; 5) given the attitudinal mean score, the attitude of students fell in the undecided category. The overall mean tended to indicate a less than favorable attitude toward energy conservation; 6) the best predictor for energy attitudes was the CAT score with higher reading levels indicating more positive attitudes; 7) population density also was a significant predictor for energy attitudes with heavier populated areas indicating more positive attitudes; 8) sex was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, females' mean scores tended to be more positive than males'; 9) race was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, the analysis showed that white students' attitudes tended to be more positive; 10) teacher knowledge and attitudes were not significant variables for predicting student energy knowledge and energy attitudes; and 11) there was no significant relationship between student energy knowledge and energy attitudes. The major recommendation for further study is that more attention be devoted to energy education at state and local levels.

Sudderth, P.L.

1984-01-01

258

Family planning: knowledge, attitudes and practice survey in Zigone, Myanmar.  

PubMed

Perhaps the most important finding of this Zigone KAP survey was that about 50.3% (95% CI 46.2-54.2) of the married women of reproductive age were currently practicing modern methods of contraception. For a country like Myanmar, where the government has until recently favored a pronatalist population policy, this is indeed surprising. This 30 cluster survey, designed to determine the prevalence of various family planning methods adopted, as well as knowledge and attitudes, among villagers in rural Myanmar, covered a sample of 600 married women of reproductive age in Zigone township which has a population of 70,000. The survey results showed a high awareness of specific contraceptive methods among the target group and the ever-use rate of birth spacing methods was about 54% (95% CI 50.7-58.7). The most used method was oral contraceptives (64.6% of all users), followed by injectable contraceptives (32.3%). There was a small number of IUD users (1.1%), use of a permanent method (sterilization) was extremely low (0.3%). Seven out of ten married women of reproductive age did not want more children and one out of two women in this group were current users of contraception. Therefore a certain proportion of user was probably using these (mainly temporary) methods to terminate fertility rather than for birth spacing purposes. Moreover, only 63% of those wanting children, but not in the next 12 months, were using a contraceptive method. These findings demonstrated that there was a large group of potential contraceptive users who were currently not using a method. In an attempt to investigate the factor hindering the non-use of contraceptives when needed, the women were divided, according to their contraceptive practice, into two groups. Logistic regression was employed to compare the characteristics of women in the user and nonuser groups. After adjusting for covariates, it was found that economic group and number of living children had a positive effective effect on contraceptive use, while age and number of children under three years of age had a negative effect. The survey also found that about 48% of the contraceptive users were obtaining their supplies from the private sector and another 40% received supplies from government health officers. The reference by respondents to "health staff", as the source of supply, was assumed to be health staff working in their private practice, since the government's current health program does not cover the provision of contraceptives. PMID:7939933

Panitchpakdi, P; Podhipak, A; Sein, U K; Kywe, B

1993-12-01

259

Knowledge, attitude and techniques of breastfeeding among Nigerian mothers from a semi-urban community  

PubMed Central

Background Mothers’ poor knowledge and negative attitude towards breastfeeding may influence practices and constitute barriers to optimizing the benefits of the baby-friendly initiative. This study assessed breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and techniques of postures, positioning, hold practice and latch-on among Nigerian mothers from a Semi-Urban community. Methods Three hundred and eighty three consenting lactating mothers who have breastfed for 6 months and up to two years volunteered for this cross-sectional survey, yielding a response rate of 95.7%. A self-administered questionnaire that sought information on maternal socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and breastfeeding techniques of mothers was employed. Results Based on cumulative breastfeeding knowledge and attitude scores, 71.3% of the respondents had good knowledge while 54.0% had positive attitude. Seventy one point three percent practiced advisable breastfeeding posture. Sitting on a chair to breastfeed was common (62.4%); and comfort of mother/baby (60.8%) and convenience (29.5%) were the main reasons for adopting breastfeeding positions. Cross-cradle hold (80.4%), football hold technique (13.3%), breast-to-baby (18.0%) and baby-to-breast latch-on (41.3%) were the common breastfeeding techniques. A majority of the respondents (75.7%) agreed that neck flexion, slight back flexion, arm support with pillow and foot rest was essential during breastfeeding. There was no significant association between breastfeeding posture practice and each of cumulative breastfeeding knowledge score levels (X2?=?0.044; p?=?0.834) and attitude score levels (X2?=?0.700; p?=?0.403). Conclusion Nigerian mothers demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitude towards breastfeeding. Most of the mothers practiced advisable breastfeeding postures, preferred sitting on a chair to breastfeed and utilized cross-cradle hold and baby-to-breast latch-on. PMID:24359943

2013-01-01

260

A Study of the Effectiveness on Parental Sexuality Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…

Lin, Yen-Chin; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Lin, Helene H.

2006-01-01

261

What's in Your Box? Promoting Self-Reflection and Analysis of External Influences on Gender Expression and Sexual Orientation Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lesson plan is designed to stimulate awareness and reflection on personal attitudes toward gender expression and sexual orientation. Participants are guided to identify and analyze how external influences from various socialization agents shape gender and sexual orientation norms and, consequently, personal attitudes about gender expression…

Priest, Hannah M.

2014-01-01

262

Assessment of the knowledge and attitude of female students towards cervical cancer prevention at an international university in Japan.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer resulting from prior infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant public health threat against young Japanese women. A national immunization plan to vaccinate 13~16 year old female students against HPV infection has been started in Japan since 2010, and may reach almost full coverage by the end of 2012. Older age females who may already be sexually active are not targeted by this plan but should follow safer sex practices as well as periodic screening of the cervix cytology to reduce their risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination alone does not offer full protection either, because only some HPV types are covered by the vaccines and the long-term efficacy of the vaccines has not been determined yet. Therefore, we did a survey at an international university in Japan to study the knowledge and attitude of female college students towards prevention of cervical cancer, to examine the age when they start sexual activity and other related attributes that may influence the risk of cervical cancer. We discuss the results of our survey and what they imply for the possible impact of an HPV immunization plan on the risk of cervical cancer in Japan, and conclude by an emphasis on the need to increase awareness among Japanese female adolescents and to enhance the cervical screening rates among older females who are already sexually active. PMID:22631668

Ghotbi, Nader; Anai, Akane

2012-01-01

263

The Influence of a Psychology and Law Class on Legal Attitudes and Knowledge Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…

Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.

2010-01-01

264

Korean health professionals’ attitudes and knowledge toward organ donation and transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify and analyse Korean health professionals’ attitudes and knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. An exploratory study using semi-structured interviews with nine key informants from three major hospitals which provide transplant services in Seoul was conducted. Overall, there was a lack of knowledge by Korean health professionals surrounding brain death and the organ

Doug Elliott; Cheryl Hyde

2004-01-01

265

AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes of Pupils Attending Urban High Schools in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares AIDS knowledge, attitude, and sources of information of 1724 students in high schools in Holon. Pupils attending the academic school have the highest knowledge concerning AIDS topics; those in the vocational school place second; and those in the religious school come last. Results indicate that misconceptions are still found in the…

Brook, Uzi

1999-01-01

266

Knowledge, Its Application, and Attitudes Associated with the Reading of Diverse Genres of Science Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14-15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other…

Nigro, Rogerio Goncalves; Trivelato, Silvia Frateschi

2012-01-01

267

Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitudes Regarding Medical Ethics: How Do Faculty and Housestaff Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…

Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others

1995-01-01

268

Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging among Nursing and Non-Nursing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge

Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.

2009-01-01

269

Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

2007-01-01

270

The Effect of MSW Education on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Substance Abusing Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge,…

Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.

2013-01-01

271

Knowledge, its Application, and Attitudes Associated with the Reading of Diverse Genres of Science Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to assess the knowledge, application of knowledge, and attitudes associated with the reading of different genres of expository science texts. We assigned approximately half of a sample consisting of 220 students 14–15 years of age, chosen at random, to read an excerpt from a popular scientific text, and the other half to read an

Rogerio Gonçalves Nigro; Silvia Frateschi Trivelato

2012-01-01

272

The Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Prospective Teachers: A Quantitative and Heuristic Phenomenological Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moule (2005) suggest diverse students suffer isolation, invisibility and inappropriate labeling in many educational institutions. This mixed method study explores the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes of prospective teachers. The research questions are: (1) what are the multicultural awareness, knowledge, skills and…

Perkins, Rotha M.

2012-01-01

273

Pre-Service Biology Teachers' and Primary School Students' Attitudes toward and Knowledge about Snakes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge

Tomazic, Iztok

2011-01-01

274

Microwave Cooking: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of California Foods Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)

Stalder, Laura D.; And Others

1990-01-01

275

Environmental knowledge, attitude and practices of student teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within this decade of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), educational institutions need to increase their efforts to educate their students for a sustainable future. Teachers are most influential in educating children and teenagers to be leaders of tomorrow in protecting the environment. Thus, aspiring teachers should demonstrate pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes if they are to integrate ESD effectively in their

Norizan Esa

2010-01-01

276

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Activity: An Examination of Racial Differences in a College Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The threat of HIV/AIDS to African American's health has become the focus of much concern. This study investigated the potential differences between African Americans' and white college students' current and future sexual behaviors and safer sex behaviors with HIV/AIDS awareness, condom use self-efficacy, and safer sex attitudes. A convenience…

Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Kilbourne, Barbara

2007-01-01

277

Knowledge and Attitudes of Physicians Towards Evidence Based Medicine in Ilam, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) is very important in the process of decision making, diagnosis and treatment of patients. For years, medical schools have developed instructions for EBM to determine the attitude and knowledge of physicians towards EBM and their related educational needs. Materials and Methods This study was a questionnaire study among physicians. One hundred twenty physicians were selected using stratified random sampling in Ilam. A main outcome measure was attitudes and knowledge of physicians toward EBM, ability to access and interpret evidence, and best method of moving from opinion based to EBM. Results Of the 120 questionnaires we have sent, 94 (78.3%) were answered. 56.6% were using the internet to answer their patients questions and 23.8% used the internet to obtain clinical evidence. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of knowledge and attitude scores were 24% ± 23% and 72% ± 10%, respectively. Pearson correlation shows a significant relation between knowledge of physicians and years of graduation (r = -0.37, P = 0.00). There was a significant difference between mean of knowledge score of general practitioners, specialist and subspecialist (P = 0.026). Conclusions Knowledge and attitude of young physicians were more based on EBM compare to old physicians. A significant difference in knowledge mean score of physician shows that the EBM is still new in Iran, the future physician’s critical need to learn EBM and necessity of entering EMB at all medical levels. PMID:24616789

Rashidbeygi, Milad; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

2013-01-01

278

A Study of a University-Based Men-Only Prevention Program (Men Care): Effect on Attitudes and Behaviors Related to Sexual Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups,…

Liu, En-Hsien

2010-01-01

279

The effect of instruction on knowledge and attitude of couples attending pre-marriage counseling classes  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds: Marriages and establishing a family is one of the most important events in the life of each person. It has significant effects on personal and social health, if it occurs with sufficient knowledge in the proper conditions. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of pre-marriage instruction on the knowledge and health attitudes of the couples attending the pre-marriage counseling classes. Materials and Methods: This pre and post quasi-experimental study was conducted on 250 couples attending the pre-marriage counseling classes. The required information was collected using an autonomous questionnaire designed based on the research objectives. The questionnaire included three parts: Demographic information, knowledge (27 questions) and attitude (18 questions. The questionnaire was filled out before and after the pre-marriage counseling program, which was presented as lectures. The effect of the instructional program was analyzed using a statistical test. Results: The results showed that 83.2% of the couples had poor knowledge, 16% average, and 0.8% had good knowledge before the intervention. After the intervention, 60.4% of couples had poor knowledge, 31.6% average and 8% had good knowledge. The results also revealed that that the difference in mean scores of knowledge and attitudes regarding reproductive health, family planning, genetic diseases and disabilities was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of the couples had increased after the instructional intervention, the increase in knowledge level was not very high. So the knowledge score of the couples increased just 4.3%, and only 8% of the couples had good knowledge after the instructional intervention. Therefore, to achieve a relatively stable behavior change in individuals and improving the health level of the young couples, it is recommended that more attention pay to the quality of the instructional classes. PMID:24251288

Moodi, Mitra; Miri, Mohammad-Reza; Reza Sharifirad, Gholam

2013-01-01

280

A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors.  

PubMed

Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs. PMID:11302230

Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L

2001-02-01

281

The Effect of Tenebrio obscurus on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers’ content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using mealworms ( Tenebrio obscurus). Multiple data sources indicate that most of the students had limited prior content knowledge about mealworms, expressed neutral attitudes toward mealworms upon first exposure to them, and were uncomfortable with the idea of having to teach with and about them. At the end of 9 weeks, content knowledge on mealworms had greatly improved. The preservice teachers’ attitudes about mealworms and their self-efficacy about using mealworms with children had also improved.

Weinburgh, Molly

2007-12-01

282

Normative "Sexual" Knowledge and Critique as a Mode of Resistance--A Response to Damien Riggs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this response to Damien Riggs' analysis of sex education websites, the author draws on Foucault's understanding of knowledge, power and governmentality to understand how some forms of knowledge about sex and sexuality become normalised "official knowledge" that frame institutional policies and practices and shape everyday discourses. Foucault…

Burns, Kellie

2013-01-01

283

Nigerian College Students: HIV Knowledge, Perceived Susceptibility for HIV and Sexual Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined HIV knowledge, perceived risk and sexual behavior of 370 undergraduate students in selected universities in southern Nigeria. MANOVA confirmed females to have significantly higher overall HIV knowledge than males ([p.bar] = .03). In addition, more females than males reported significantly higher knowledge on the risk of HIV…

Chng, Chwee Lye; Eke-Huber, Esther; Eaddy, Starr; Collins, John. R.

2005-01-01

284

Attitudes and values in sexual behaviour and sex education: A cross-cultural study among University students in Greece and Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a survey comparing university students in Greece and Scotland with regard to their attitudes to sexual development and sex education. A questionnaire was constructed in Greek and English and was completed by 436 university students in Greece and an equivalent number in Scotland. Comparative results show a tendency for students' attitudes to converge with regard to gender identity, inter-sexual relations, appropriate forms of sexual behaviour and the factors that shape it. Differences exist regarding the aims of sex education, the concept of a sexually mature person, and the moral principles that should govern inter-sexual relations.

Kakavoulis, Alexandros; Forrest, Joan

1999-03-01

285

Increasing Knowledge of Sexual Abuse: A Study with Elementary School Children in Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Child sexual abuse is a significant health problem with potential long-term consequences for victims. Therefore, prevention and education programs are critical. This preliminary study evaluates changes in children’s knowledge of sexual abuse using a school-based train-the-trainer curriculum. Emphasis was placed on developing a…

Baker, Charlene K.; Gleason, Kristen; Naai, Rachel; Mitchell, Jennifer; Trecker, Christine

2013-01-01

286

Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations.  

PubMed

The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural respondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counterparts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents' source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this significant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs. PMID:20061688

Alghanim, Saad Abdullah

2010-01-01

287

Gender and ethnic differences in sexual attitudes at a Hispanic-serving university.  

PubMed

The authors studied sexual attitudes in 328 university students from 10 undergraduate classes at a Hispanic-serving university near the Texas-Mexico border. Men (n = 128) and women (n = 199) rated their level of agreement with 38 items on a revised sexuality questionnaire. There were 283 self-identified Hispanic students and 44 self-identified non-Hispanic students in the sample. For the most part, these students agreed with one another, although there were statistically significant differences, with women being less permissive or more sex negative than men were on items relating to oral sex, premarital intercourse, love and sex, masturbation, Playboy magazine, and pornography. For the entire sample, 26 of the 38 items showed statistically significant gender differences. For Hispanics only, 23 of the 38 items showed statistically significant differences, with gender differences those of the sample as whole. There were 8 statistically significant differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic students, with Hispanic students tending to be more conservative. The authors discuss findings that are contradictory to D. M. Buss's (1999, 2000) evolutionary psychology jealousy theory, namely that women in the present study were more jealous than men were on the sexual intercourse item. PMID:16705908

Eisenman, Russell; Dantzker, M L

2006-04-01

288

Effect of improving the knowledge, attitude and practice of reproductive health among female migrant workers: a worksite-based intervention in Guangzhou, China.  

PubMed

Background The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge and attitudes of female migrant workers are far from optimum in China. A worksite-based intervention program on SRH-related knowledge, attitude and practice (SRH KAP) modification may be an effective approach to improve the SRH status among migrant workers. This study aimed to identify better intervention approaches via the implementation and evaluation of two intervention packages. Methods: A worksite-based cluster-randomised intervention study was conducted from June to December 2008 in eight factories in Guangzhou, China. There were 1346 female migrant workers who participated in this study. Factories were randomly allocated to the standard package of interventions group (SPIG) or the intensive package of interventions group (IPIG). Questionnaires were administered to evaluate the effect of two interventions. Results: SRH knowledge scores were higher at follow up than at baseline for all participants of the SPIG; the knowledge scores increased from 6.50 (standard deviation (s.d.) 3.673) to 8.69 (s.d. 4.085), and from 5.98 (s.d. 3.581) to 11.14 (s.d. 3.855) for IPIG; SRH attitude scores increased among unmarried women: the attitude scores changed from 4.25 (s.d. 1.577) to 4.46 (s.d. 1.455) for SPIG, and from 3.99 (s.d. 1.620) to 4.64 (s.d. 1.690) for IPIG; most SRH-related practice was also modified (PConclusions: The interventions had positive influences on improvements in SRH knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. Additionally, IPIs were more effective than SPIs, indicating that a comprehensive intervention may achieve better results. PMID:25469517

Gao, Xue; Xu, Longchang; Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Jie; Wang, Zhijin; Decat, Peter; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Chen, Yimin; Moyer, Eileen; Wu, Shizhong; Minkauskiene, Meile; Van Braeckel, Dirk; Temmerman, Marleen

2014-12-01

289

Impact of "+Contigo" training on the knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals about suicide  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of "+Contigo" training, developed by nurses and directed at 66 health professionals of integrated school health teams in Primary Health Care. METHOD: quantitative with data collection through the Suicide Behavior Attitude Questionnaire, administered before and after the training. RESULTS: significant increases were observed in suicide prevention knowledge and in changing attitudes of health professionals towards individuals with suicidal behavior. CONCLUSION: these results allow us to affirm that nurses hold scientific and pedagogical knowledge that grant them a privileged position in the health teams, to develop training aimed at health professionals involved in suicide prevention. PMID:25296153

Santos, José Carlos; Simões, Rosa Maria Pereira; Erse, Maria Pedro Queiroz de Azevedo; Façanha, Jorge Daniel Neto; Marques, Lúcia Amélia Fernandes Alves

2014-01-01

290

Improving Knowledge and Attitudes towards Depression: a controlled trial among Chinese medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a\\u000a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy\\u000a as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were

Ye Rong; Nick Glozier; Georgina M Luscombe; Tracey A Davenport; Yueqin Huang; Ian B Hickie

2011-01-01

291

Rape Myth Acceptance among Korean College Students: The Roles of Gender, Attitudes toward Women, and Sexual Double Standard  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…

Lee, Joohee; Kim, Jinseok; Lim, Hyunsung

2010-01-01

292

Effects of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program on Teens' Attitudes toward Sexuality: A Latent Trait Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136…

Thomas, Charles L.; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

2007-01-01

293

Adolescents' Perceptions of the Seriousness of Sexual Aggression: Influence of Gender, Traditional Attitudes, and Self-Reported Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about adolescents' perceptions of interpersonal aggression and the role of traditional social attitudes in these perceptions. Sixteen-year-old students (N = 212) of both sexes rated the seriousness of 9 aurally presented scenarios depicting either sexual or nonsexual, physical aggression. Sex of perpetrator and sex of victim were manipulated partly factorially. Students also reported on their own experiences

N. Zoe Hilton; Grant T. Harris; Marnie E. Rice

2003-01-01

294

AIDS in Canada: Knowledge, Behaviour, and Attitudes of Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A questionnaire dealing with knowledge about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and how it is communicated, with behavior involving risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and with public policy for dealing with AIDS was completed by 1,259 Canadian adults. Canadians had a generally high level of knowledge about the…

Ornstein, Michael D.

295

Sustaining clinician penetration, attitudes and knowledge in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety  

PubMed Central

Background Questions remain regarding the sustainment of evidence-based practices following implementation. The present study examined the sustainment of community clinicians’ implementation (i.e., penetration) of cognitive-behavioral therapy, attitudes toward evidence-based practices, and knowledge of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety two years following training and consultation in cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety. Methods Of the original 115 participants, 50 individuals (43%) participated in the two-year follow-up. A t- test examined sustainment in penetration over time. Hierarchical linear modeling examined sustainment in knowledge and attitudes over time. Time spent in consultation sessions was examined as a potential moderator of the change in knowledge and attitudes. Results Findings indicated sustained self-reported penetration of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxious youth, with low fidelity to some key CBT components (i.e., exposure tasks). Follow-up knowledge was higher than at baseline but lower than it had been immediately following the consultation phase of the study. Belief in the utility of evidence-based practices was sustained. Willingness to implement an evidence-based practice if required to do so, appeal of evidence-based practices, and openness toward evidence-based practices were not sustained. Participation in consultation positively moderated changes in knowledge and some attitudes. Conclusions Sustainment varied depending on the outcome examined. Generally, greater participation in consultation predicted greater sustainment. Implications for future training include higher dosages of consultation. PMID:25030651

2014-01-01

296

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacists regarding Dietary Supplements : A Community Pharmacy- based survey in Tehran  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate pharmacy practice regarding dietary supplements in Tehran (I.R. Iran). So, the factors affecting on pharmacists' practice including their knowledge, attitude, and some underlying factors were evaluated. This is an observational knowledge; attitude and practice (KAP) study. The unit of analysis include pharmacies practice located in Tehran. The data was collected in 2013 via an anonymous, self-administered; postal questionnaire consisted of demographic information, knowledge (subjective and objective questions), attitude, and practice evaluation part. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS. This study showed that although the knowledge has a significant effect on attitude and practice, the attention should be paid on other underlying factors such as experience, pharmacy ownership situation and academic degree which might have positive impact on pharmacists' practice. According to this study, although many underlying factors such as experience, university and pharmacy ownership have impact on pharmacy practice regarding dietary supplements, the most attention should paid to knowledge as the main factor and more attention should be paid to training on dietary supplement could be recommended.

Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Yousefi, Nazila; Hashemian, Farshad; Maleksabet, Hanieh

2014-01-01

297

Sexuality among Adolescents with Moderate Disabilities: Promoting Positive Sexual Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with moderate disabilities are not being given vital information regarding their sexuality and ways to behave responsibly with their peers. This article examines the laws that govern the education of all persons with disabilities, how societal norms and attitudes have contributed to this lack of sexuality knowledge, how these…

Harader, Dana L.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorne, Melissa

2009-01-01

298

Exploring the relationship of conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS to sexual behaviors and attitudes among African-American adults.  

PubMed

Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372

Bogart, Laura M; Bird, Sheryl Thorburn

2003-11-01

299

Doping in sports: Knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.  

PubMed

Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (ntotal ?=?3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children. PMID:24372621

Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

2015-02-01

300

Star Identification Without Attitude Knowledge: Testing with X-Ray Timing Experiment Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the budget for the scientific exploration of space shrinks, the need for more autonomous spacecraft increases. For a spacecraft with a star tracker, the ability to determinate attitude from a lost in space state autonomously requires the capability to identify the stars in the field of view of the tracker. Although there have been efforts to produce autonomous star trackers which perform this function internally, many programs cannot afford these sensors. The author previously presented a method for identifying stars without a priori attitude knowledge specifically targeted for onboard computers as it minimizes the necessary computer storage. The method has previously been tested with simulated data. This paper provides results of star identification without a priori attitude knowledge using flight data from two 8 by 8 degree charge coupled device star trackers onboard the X-Ray Timing Experiment.

Ketchum, Eleanor

1997-01-01

301

Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants’ attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of the scientific process. The project had an impact on participants’ knowledge of bird biology. No statistically significant change in participants’ attitudes toward science or the environment, or in participants’ understanding of the scientific process, could be detected. The results suggest that projects must make explicit to participants the issues that they are experiencing. In addition, the results suggest that more sensitive measures need to be designed to assess attitude change among environmentally aware citizens.

Brossard, Dominique; Lewenstein, Bruce; Bonney, Rick

2005-09-01

302

Nursing students and geriatric care: the influence of specific knowledge on evolving values, attitudes, and actions.  

PubMed

This descriptive study explored the influence of specific geriatric knowledge on second and third year nursing students in their provision of care to older adults. Nineteen student participants provided qualitative data on their values and beliefs about nursing older adults prior to their attendance at a 1-h session teaching about two assessment tools: SPICES (Sleep disorders, Problems with feeding, Incontinence, Confusion, Evidence of falls, Skin breakdown) and BPI-SF (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form). Data were again collected following a 6-week practice experience in which the same students had the opportunity to implement the tools. Four emerging themes, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and application, suggested how the students' geriatric knowledge and attitudes evolved and took on personal meaning in their intermediate practice experiences. Their realization of the hegemony associated with devaluing of the care of older adults warrants further examination into how geriatric knowledge is conveyed and assimilated. PMID:23465846

Potter, Gail; Clarke, Tammie; Hackett, Susan; Little, Maureen

2013-09-01

303

The Examination of Elementary School Students' Environmental Knowledge and Environmental Attitudes with Respect to the Different Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to examine seventh and eighth grade students' environmental knowledge and their attitudes toward environment in terms of different variables in 2005-2006 academic years in Amasya. Survey method was used in this study. The environmental knowledge test and the attitude scale were developed by benefiting from Leeming et al. (1995). The results showed that there

Oktay ASLAN; Arzu CANSARAN

304

Knowledge and attitudes of nurses on pressure ulcer prevention: a cross-sectional multicenter study in Belgian hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines for pressure ulcer prevention have been developed and promoted by authoritative organizations. However, nonadherence to these guidelines is frequently reported. Negative attitudes and lack of knowledge may act as barriers to using guidelines in clinical practice. AIMS: To study the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about pressure ulcer prevention in Belgian hospitals and to explore the correlation

D. Beeckman; T. Defloor; L. Schoonhoven; K. Vanderwee

2011-01-01

305

International Survey on Bioenergy Knowledge, Perceptions, and Attitudes Among Young Citizens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study with an international perspective, investigated the state of knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among\\u000a young students toward bioenergy in Finland, Slovakia, Taiwan, and Turkey. A total of 1,903 students with an average age of\\u000a 15 years from 19 rural and urban schools participated in this study. The study found statistically significant differences\\u000a in students’ bioenergy knowledge with respect to

Pradipta Halder; Pavol Prokop; Chun-Yen Chang; Muhammet Usak; Janne Pietarinen; Sari Havu-Nuutinen; Paavo Pelkonen; Mustafa Cakir

306

Human Papillomavirus Infection: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Lesbian, Gay Men, and Bisexual in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThis cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men.MethodsA face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and\\/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination

Concetta P. Pelullo; Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Italo F. Angelillo

2012-01-01

307

Multicultural and Diversity Issues: Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers' Attitudes and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to ascertain teachers' multicultural knowledge, cross-cultural perceptions, and attitudes about different cultures as a function of both pre-service professional preparation and graduate education curriculum. Accomplishing this goal required administration of the Multicultural/Diversity Scale?Revised (MCR) at…

Young, Barbara N.; Snead, Donald

2005-01-01

308

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories—social norms, health consequences, or tobacco industry manipulation. Methods: An independent samples t test was used to test for

Rebecca Murphy-Hoefer; Andrew Hyland; Cheryl Rivard

2010-01-01

309

Scientific knowledge and attitude change: The impact of a citizen science project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants' attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of

Dominique Brossard; Bruce Lewenstein; Rick Bonney

2005-01-01

310

GERONTOLOGICAL EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS IN NURSING AND SOCIAL WORK: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND PERCEIVED BARRIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most health care and social service providers are routinely required to work with elderly clients and clients’ aging family members. Research suggests that students entering these professions have knowledge deficits and lack positive attitudes toward older people. Few prefer to work with aging clients. Professional curricula are not providing students with adequate training to serve the current needs of this

Christine C. Reed; S. Colleen Beall; Lorin A. Baumhover

1992-01-01

311

Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

2005-01-01

312

Are They Living What They Learn?: Assessing Knowledge and Attitude Change in Introductory Politics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…

Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min

2012-01-01

313

Patient, caregiver, and health care practitioner knowledge of, beliefs about, and attitudes toward epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical literature related to knowledge of, beliefs about, and attitudes toward epilepsy was reviewed from the perspective of patients, caregivers, and health care providers. The literature points to a desire for enhanced epilepsy education by patients and caregiv- ers; however, these needs have not been met by primary or specialty care. Surveys of general practitioners (GPs) point to limitations

John Elliott; Bassel Shneker

314

Improving Students' Knowledge and Attitudes of Science through the Use of Hands-On Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents a program for improving science knowledge, attitudes, and higher order thinking skills through experiential science. The hands-on approach used successfully in the program is described, and evidence of student improvement is also presented. The targeted population consisted of students in the first, third, and fourth grades…

Fisher, Nancy; Gerdes, Karen; Logue, Teresa; Smith, Lorna; Zimmerman, Inge

315

Doping in sport: A review of medical practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCentral to the work of many medical practitioners is the provision of pharmaceutical support for patients. Patients can include athletes who are subject to anti-doping rules and regulations which prohibit the use of certain substances in and out of competition. This paper examines the evidence on medical practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards doping in sport.

Susan H. Backhouse; Jim McKenna

2011-01-01

316

Investigating Chinese University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Plagiarism from an Integrated Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…

Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun

2012-01-01

317

Staff Experience, Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding the Management of Adolescent Patients in Adult Mental Health Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Inpatient psychiatric care of adolescents should, where possible, be provided in specialized units. However, admission of adolescent patients to adult mental health units does occur. There is a paucity of data about this practice. This study collates information about the experience, attitudes and knowledge of clinical staff regarding the care of adolescent patients in adult psychiatry units within Northern

Genevieve Curran; Garry Walter; Nerissa Soh; Michael Herman; Martin Baker; Michael Paton; Liz Newton; Simon Byrne

2011-01-01

318

Emergency Contraception Education for Health and Human Service Professionals: An Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…

Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki

2010-01-01

319

Smoking Among Vietnamese Health Professionals: Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Health Care Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to investigate smoking patterns and compare knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, as well as explore predictors of smoking status among Vietnamese health professionals. A global survey questionnaire on tobacco use among health professionals by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adapted for data collection. Data from 2151 health workers from the

Dao Thi Minh An; Nguyen Van Huy; Dao Ngoc Phong

2008-01-01

320

The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

2014-01-01

321

Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

2012-01-01

322

The Effect of "Tenebrio Obscurus" on Elementary Preservice Teachers' Content Knowledge, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using…

Weinburgh, Molly

2007-01-01

323

Knowledge of Autism and Attitudes of Children towards Their Partially Integrated Peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…

Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.

2014-01-01

324

Knowledge, attitudes and vaccination coverage of healthcare workers regarding occupational vaccinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesImmunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) is a major issue for infection control in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge regarding occupational vaccinations, HBV, varicella and influenza vaccination rates and attitudes towards influenza vaccine among HCWs.

P. Loulergue; F. Moulin; G. Vidal-Trecan; Z. Absi; C. Demontpion; C. Menager; M. Gorodetsky; D. Gendrel; L. Guillevin; O. Launay

2009-01-01

325

Enhancing Botswana Children's Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices through the School Civic Clubs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…

Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi

2008-01-01

326

Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

Heuberger, Roschelle, A.; Stanczak, Melanie

2004-01-01

327

Knowledge and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Regarding the Health and Nutrition of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…

Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie

2004-01-01

328

Soy Protein and Coronary Heart Disease: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…

Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.

2007-01-01

329

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of School Personnel Regarding Influenza, Vaccinations, and School Outbreaks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…

Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.

2013-01-01

330

Influenza Vaccination Coverage among School Employees: Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…

de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.

2014-01-01

331

Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2005-01-01

332

Differences between family physicians and patients in their knowledge and attitudes regarding traditional chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With patients turning more to alternative medicine, most physicians are still conservative in their views toward these practices. It is important to know whether there is a difference between physicians and patients regarding knowledge and attitudes about alternative medicine. This study focused on information regarding a specific type of alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods: Two questionnaires—one for

Bin Chen; Amy Bernard; Randall Cottrell

2000-01-01

333

The effects of dolphin education programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zoological institutions typically exhibit dolphins in educational programs such as dolphin shows and interaction programs. The goal of these programs is to entertain visitors while increasing their conservation-related knowledge, attitude and behavior towards dolphins and the marine environment. The purpose of the current study was to examine dolphin shows and interaction programs in terms of their effectiveness in meeting these

Lance Joseph Miller

2009-01-01

334

Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative \\

Erin C. Barney; Joel J. Mintzes; Chiung-Fen Yen

2005-01-01

335

Exploring Science Teachers' Attitudes and Knowledge about Environmental Education in Three International Teaching Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the similarities and differences among 171 Grade 7-12 science teachers from three different countries (54 U.S, 63 Bolivian, and 54 Turkish) with respect to their attitudes toward environmental education (EE) and instructional practices. The instrument employed explored how teachers' knowledge, instructional practices,…

Campbell, Todd; Medina-Jerez, William; Erdogan, Ibrahim; Zhang, Danhui

2010-01-01

336

Effectiveness of Diversity Infusion Modules on Students' Attitudes, Behavior, and Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…

Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice

2011-01-01

337

A Comparative Study of Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among University Students in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…

He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John

2011-01-01

338

Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Cervical Cancer Screening among Women with Physical Disabilities Living in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…

Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

2012-01-01

339

Increasing Access to Evidence-Based Practices and Knowledge and Attitudes: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of increasing field instructors access to information about evidence-based practices (EBPs) on their level of knowledge and attitudes about EBPs. Method: Eighteen field instructors received training and access to a library with extensive online journals. Half were randomly selected to also receive a…

Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

2013-01-01

340

Effects of a Geriatrics Interdisciplinary Experience on Learners' Knowledge and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the impact of an interdisciplinary training program on knowledge and attitudes of learners from four health care programs: medicine, pharmacy, social work, and nursing. Sixty-two learners participated in a 4-day educational program (one day each week for 4 weeks) focusing on interdisciplinary geriatric care. After completing…

Fitzgerald, James T.; Williams, Brent C.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Persky, Neal W.; Shay, Barbara R.

2006-01-01

341

Development of the BACKIE questionnaire: A measure of children's behaviors, attitudes, cognitions, knowledge, and injury experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.

Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele

2010-01-01

342

The drug abuse problem in Peninsular Malaysia: parent and child differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out to gather information on knowledge, attitudes and perception of parents and their children in relation to drug abuse matters. Significantly more teenagers knew more of the causes of drug addiction, as well as places for treatment and rehabilitation. Both teenagers and parents were also aware of reasons why drug addicts find it difficult to change

Wah Yun Low; Siti Norazah Zulkifli; Khairuddin Yusof; Saroja Batumalail; Khin Win Aye

1996-01-01

343

Do More Knowledgeable Adolescents Have More Rationally Based Civic Attitudes? Analysis of 38 Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…

Lauglo, Jon

2013-01-01

344

Knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians  

PubMed Central

Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria. PMID:24766930

2014-01-01

345

Student teachers’ development of a positive attitude towards research and research knowledge and skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A questionnaire (N = 81) was used to measure the

Wietse van der Linden; Anouke Bakx; Anje Ros; Douwe Beijaard; Marc Vermeulen

2012-01-01

346

Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

2009-01-01

347

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours. Concerning Education for Sustainable Development: Two Exploratory Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Celebrating the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014), this paper presents results of two exploratory surveys taken in the province of Manitoba, Canada in January to March 2008. A random sample of 506 adults completed a mailed out questionnaire designed to measure respondents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning…

Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; McDonald, Christina; Kahlke, P. Maurine Hatch

2011-01-01

348

Student Teachers' Development of a Positive Attitude towards Research and Research Knowledge and Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…

van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc

2012-01-01

349

A Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey of Water and Sanitation in Swaziland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…

Green, Edward C.

350

An Investigation on the Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior of Maltese Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…

Mifsud, Mark C.

2011-01-01

351

Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research.  

PubMed

Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

Metzger, Mitchell M

2015-01-01

352

Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

2011-01-01

353

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Whole Body Donation Among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article supports the body of literature documenting the need for increased education in body donation for medical education and the attitudes of medical practitioners towards donation (self and stranger). This article also contributes to the growing statistics about physician knowledge about the rules and regulations of cadaver donation.

2011-05-05

354

First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

2010-01-01

355

Greek Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environmental Behavior toward Marine Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…

Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros

2013-01-01

356

A Meta-Analysis of Global Youth Environmental Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…

Mifsud, Mark C.

2012-01-01

357

Knowledge, Attitudes of Human Papillomavirus Vaccine, and Intention to Obtain Vaccine Among Korean Female Undergraduate Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine knowledge about the human papillomavirus and attitudes toward human papillomavirus and human papillomavirus vaccination among Korean female undergraduate students. Moreover, this study sought to identify factors associated with intention to obtain the human papillomavirus vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 297 Korean female undergraduate students. Data were collected using a self-administered

Hee-Young Kang; Jin-Sun Kim

2011-01-01

358

The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

2010-01-01

359

The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

1998-01-01

360

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs About Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination Among Puerto Rican Mothers and Daughters, 2010: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by increasing vaccination for HPV. Yet vaccination uptake and completion of the 3-dose series remain low among Puerto Rican females. This study explored psychosocial factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake decisions among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters. Methods We conducted 7 focus groups with young women aged 16 to 24 (n = 21) and their mothers (n = 9) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to cervical cancer, HPV, and HPV vaccination. We analyzed the focus group transcripts and identified themes by using a constant comparison method of qualitative data analysis and interpretation, guided by a grounded theory approach. Results The analysis identified several emergent themes related to vaccine uptake: 1) low knowledge about cervical cancer, HPV, and the HPV vaccine; 2) inconsistent beliefs about susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer; 3) vaccine effectiveness; 4) vaccine safety and side effects; 5) concerns that the vaccine promotes sexual disinhibition; and 6) availability of insurance coverage and overall cost of the vaccine. Conclusion Our study found that adolescent girls and young women in Puerto Rico have low levels of knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer, low perceived susceptibility to HPV, and concerns about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine, and these factors may influence uptake and completion of HPV vaccination. Interventions are needed for both mothers and daughters that address these psychosocial factors and increase access to vaccination. PMID:25474384

Le, Yen-Chi L.; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Calo, William A.; Savas, Lara S.; Vélez, Camille; Aragon, Angela Pattatucci; Colón-López, Vivian

2014-01-01

361

Knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing and counselling among adolescent girls in some selected secondary schools in Malawi.  

PubMed

The major objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing services and the uptake of this service amongst girls aged 15-19 in selected secondary schools in Malawi. A questionnaire was administered to 457 students and 18 focus group discussions and 45 in-depth interviews were conducted. The study found that almost every student knew about HTC but uptake was low as only about a third of the students reported having been tested. The uptake of this service also increased with age. Most of those tested wanted to know their sero-status. Others were tested because it was a requirement. Sixty nine per cent of the girls who did not go for the HIV test was mainly because either they were not sexually active or they felt they were not at risk. During FGDs some students did not test because they feared their parents would think they were sexually promiscuous. This study demonstrates the need for intensive campaigns among adolescent girls and their parents to create awareness about the importance of HIV testing as this is an entry point for all HIV and AIDS services. PMID:24689317

Munthali, Alister C; Mvula, Peter M; Maluwa-Banda, Dixie

2013-12-01

362

Senior dental student's attitudes toward older adults and knowledge of geriatric dental care in the Islamic Republic of Iran.  

PubMed

Dental students should have knowledge of geriatric dental care and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. This study assessed senior dental students' knowledge of geriatric dental care and their attitude towards elderly patients. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on volunteer senior students in all dental schools (n = 512) in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The completed questionnaires (n = 464) were analysed. The mean scores of respondents' knowledge and attitudes were 12.7 (SD 2.9) and 48 (SD 6.1) respectively. Female and male students' knowledge did not differ significantly but their attitudes score was different. The majority of dental students had low to moderate levels of knowledge of geriatric dental care and attitudes toward elderly people; therefore, an intervention programme is indicated. We conducted the study to use the findings to incorporate geriatric dental care programmes into dental school curricula in the Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:24995742

Hatami, B; Ahmady, A Ebn; Khoshnevisan, M H; Lando, H A

2014-01-01

363

Infant oral health: Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents in Udaipur, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents in Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's test were used for the statistical analysis (P ? 0.05). Results: Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7%) and development of caries (48.5%). Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93), attitude (15.71 ± 2.23), and practice (20.09 ± 2.50) scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27) and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15) than the male parents. Conclusion: Parent's knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants. PMID:24348626

Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Kakatkar, Gauri; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa

2013-01-01

364

Predictors of attitude and intention to use knowledge management system among Korean nurses.  

PubMed

Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings. PMID:23806194

Yun, Eun Kyoung

2013-12-01

365

Student Heart Health Knowledge, Smoking Attitudes, and Self-Esteem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chicago Heart Health Curriculum Program (CHHCP) is a cardiovascular disease risk reduction program designed for students and families. Results of a study of CHHCP suggest that future programs conveying heart health knowledge should consider student learning in the context of self-esteem, independence of peers, and teacher humanism. (Author/MT)

Allendorff, Sibylle; And Others

1985-01-01

366

Psychiatric and Psychotherapeutic Literacy: Attitudes To, and Knowledge of, Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whereas there is now a rapidly emerging literature on psychiatric literacy (Jorm, 2000), there is much less work on the public’s knowledge of, and beliefs about the purpose of, and processes involved in, psychotherapy. This study looked at what lay people think happens during psychotherapy; what the processes and aims are; and the aetiology, treatment and prognosis for a

Adrian Furnham

2009-01-01

367

Predictors of nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain in Greece.  

PubMed

Undertreatment of postoperative pain can aggravate patient outcomes and is associated with attending nurses' knowledge deficits or negative attitudes toward pain. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain of surgical department nurses and to identify predictors of their knowledge and attitudes. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey that took place in the departments of general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear-nose-throat surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology at five Greek hospitals. Participants were a convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses. Nurses were asked to complete a three-section questionnaire, which included demographics, a Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) tool modified for postoperative pain, and seven questions capturing personal characteristics, working conditions, and feelings about work. One hundred eighty-two questionnaires were completed. Average scores were 45.35% for modified KASRP tool; 28.57% for pain assessment; 55.44% for general pain management; and 47.13% for use of analgesics. Four of the five most commonly missed items referred to use of analgesics. More previous personal experience of postoperative pain (p = .002) and being a registered nurse (p = .015) predicted higher modified KASRP tool score. Participation in continuing education programs and department of employment were also associated with differences in the modified tool score. The knowledge deficits and negative attitudes of the nurses toward postoperative pain highlight the role of pregraduate and continuing education, appropriately specialized for each surgical department, in the development of empathy toward patients in pain and of clinical competency regarding pain assessment and administration of analgesics. PMID:24981120

Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Gardeli, Panagiota; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Adamopoulou, Katerina; Avdulla, Christos; Tzourala, Georgia; Konstantinou, Evangelos

2015-02-01

368

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Related to AIDS among Prisoners: Implications for Social Work Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)

Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael

1995-01-01

369

Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women in Zaria, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women. A total of 260 women were administered with questionnaires which were both self and interviewer administered. These were analysed using SPSS version 11. Results: Respondents exhibited a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening (43.5%); however, their knowledge of risk factors was poor. There was generally good attitude to cervical cancer screening (80.4%), but their level of practice was low (15.4%). Conclusions: There was a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Nigerian market women in this study, their practice of cervical cancer screening was poor. PMID:24403709

Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Sabitu, Kabiru; Idris, Suleiman Hadejia; Ahmed, Rukaiya

2013-01-01

370

Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public  

PubMed Central

Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected. PMID:18803842

Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L

2008-01-01

371

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Tuberculosis among Maasai in Simanjiro District, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study are to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practice among Maasai concerning tuberculosis (TB), and to gain insight into the role of traditional healers in diagnosis and treatment. We conducted a descriptive-explorative study using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews collating information to assess and compare TB knowledge, attitudes, and practice. The study population consisted of the Maasai population. The Maasai have insufficient understanding concerning TB. Schooling has a significant positive effect on knowledge. The Maasai believe TB is manifest as a punishment from god and is treatable with herbs, roots, and bark. The Maasai have numerous other erroneous health assumptions and beliefs concerning TB. Traditional healers act as family doctors and play a key role in TB treatment initiation and adherence. Traditional healers have substantial influence over primary diagnosis and treatment of TB. Education could positively affect initiation of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better TB control. PMID:20889888

Haasnoot, Pieter Jacob; Boeting, Tijs Evert; Kuney, Moignet Ole; van Roosmalen, Jos

2010-01-01

372

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with menopause: a multi-ethnic, qualitative study in Singapore.  

PubMed

We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals. PMID:23862640

Mackey, Sandra; Teo, Stephanie Swee Hong; Dramusic, Vesna; Lee, Hwee Khim; Boughton, Maureen

2014-05-01

373

The Reformulation of Sexual Knowledge in Eighteenth-Century England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the current literature on the histories of eighteenth-century British demography, the family and affect, pornography, and sexuality and gender and argues that they are superficially contradictory. It suggests that demography and the histories of the family, affect, and pornography present a liberationist narrative in which relations between men and women became more emotionally fulfilling, leading to more

Tim Hitchcock

2012-01-01

374

HIV knowledge and sexual risk behaviors of street children in Takoradi, Ghana.  

PubMed

A pilot survey was conducted among 100 street children aged 11-19 years and data collected regarding HIV knowledge, risk behaviors, home and sexual experiences, and factors that contributed to their relocation to the street environment. Data indicated that 80% of the street children had at least minimal knowledge of HIV and 54% perceived themselves to be at risk for contracting HIV. More than three-fourths of the females, and over half of the boys reported ever having sex. There were significant differences between males and females for sexual activity, physical and sexual abuse, and prostitution, as girls were more likely to be sexually active, physically abused, and involved in prostitution. PMID:16365697

Wutoh, Anthony K; Kumoji, E Kuor; Xue, Zhenyi; Campusano, Gregorina; Wutoh, Rita D; Ofosu, Joseph R

2006-03-01

375

Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among pre-clinical medical students in Israel  

PubMed Central

Background Today’s medical students are the future physicians of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is therefore essential that medical students possess the appropriate knowledge and attitudes regarding PLWHA. This study aims to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of pre-clinical Israeli medical students and to assess whether their knowledge and attitudes change throughout their pre-clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pre-clinical medical students from the four medical schools in Israel during the academic year of 2010/2011 (a total of 1,470 students). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire sought student responses pertaining to knowledge of HIV transmission and non-transmission routes, basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS treatment and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Results The study’s response rate was 62.24 percent. Knowledge among pre-clinical medical students was generally high and showed a statistically significant improvement as students progressed through their pre-clinical studies. However, there were some misconceptions, mostly regarding HIV transmission via breastfeeding and knowledge of HIV prevention after exposure to the virus. Students’ attitudes were found to include stigmatizing notions. Furthermore, the majority of medical students correlated HIV with shame and fear. In addition, students’ attitudes toward HIV testing and providing confidential medical information were contradictory to health laws, protocols and guidelines. Overall, no positive changes in students’ attitudes were observed during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Conclusion The knowledge of pre-clinical medical students in Israel is generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies that require more emphasis in the curricula of the medical schools. Contrary to HIV-related knowledge, medical students’ attitudes are unaffected by their progression through medical school. Therefore, medical schools in Israel should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving HIV-related attitudes and adherence to medical professionalism. PMID:24650351

2014-01-01

376

Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.  

PubMed

Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922

Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

2014-12-01

377

['How Much Sex do Medical Studies Need?' - A Survey of the Knowledge and Interest in Sexual Medicine of Medical Students.  

PubMed

Background: Because of the increasing need for medical care of problems concerning human sexuality, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2010 suggested to include sexual medicine in the current curricula of medical studies. Based on the ISSM's suggestions sexual medicine should be taught on a multidisciplinary basis throughout the whole study process. Furthermore, health care providers have repeatedly indicated that they have lacking knowledge concerning sexual medicine and patients have criticized that their health care providers only infrequently address their sexuality. Methods: 404 medical students from 2 German university medical centers answered an online questionnaire assessing the quality of sexual medicine education. The students were asked about their interest in and their knowledge about different issues concerning human sexuality in the following 4 domains: Sexual development, Sexual behavior, Sexual physiology and psychology, Sexual medicine and therapy of sexual disorders. Results: The great majority of students were interested in education about sexual medicine within medical studies, whereby most students were of the opinion that sexual medicine should be included in the already existing subjects. Furthermore, students mostly evaluated the current quality of sexual medicine education as insufficient and more than half of the students thought that they do not have enough knowledge about human sexuality for their future profession as medical health care providers. On average the students correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions, however they showed some knowledge gaps especially in the domains of sexual development and sexual physiology and psychology. Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that medical students have lacking knowledge concerning important parts of human sexuality but at the same time express great interest in the field. Therefore, in Germany more structured educational programs in sexual medicine should be developed taking the suggestion of the ISSM into account. Conclusion: Besides medical education about pathological sexuality future educational efforts should also address healthy sexuality and its sociocultural meaning more frequently. Thereby, the students' wishes would be met and moreover, health care providers of all fields would be enabled to provide an unbiased, holistic and sensitive treatment of sexual problems. PMID:25494185

Turner, Daniel; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Nieder, Timo Ole; Scherbaum, Norbert; Briken, Peer

2014-12-01

378

Knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani medical students towards HIV-positive and/or AIDS patients.  

PubMed

As the incidence of HIV increases, one of the major steps in preventing a widespread epidemic is to make certain that medical students are prepared to recognize and treat HIV infections and their related conditions, and to counsel patients about avoiding risks that might lead to infections. This cross-sectional study assessed the knowledge level of 357 medical students and their attitudes about AIDS and HIV enrolled in a Medical College in Karachi, Pakistan. Only 6% of the students had complete knowledge on symptoms of HIV/AIDS and 7% of the students had complete knowledge on the modes of transmission of HIV. Statistical analysis of demographic factors affecting knowledge was done. Linear regression and Maentel-Haenszel tests showed that older and clinical students were more knowledgeable of symptoms and modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Ten attitudes were correlated with knowledge and none of these showed an association. These results on knowledge indicate that education about HIV/AIDS should be incorporated in the curriculum and interventions must be taken by public health professionals to avoid poor treatment outcomes. PMID:17129929

Shaikh, Farah D; Khan, Shahzad A; Ross, Michael W; Grimes, Richard M

2007-01-01

379

Sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes to chlamydia testing among a unique national sample of young Australians: baseline data from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 – 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 – 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459 PMID:24400743

2014-01-01

380

Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding folic acid deficiency; A hidden hunger  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To find the Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique. After taking informed verbal consent, a closed ended interviewer administered questionnaire was filled. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 30.31 + 5.280 years. Illiterate and literate were 165 (41.25%) and 235 (58.75%) respectively. The knowledge regarding folic acid need was 172 (43%). Only 161 (40.25%) thought that folic acid deficiency in pregnant women results in abnormality in newborn. In pregnancy, 205 (51.25%) had received folic acid supplementation. Association between education level and practice of folic acid was significant (p= 0.009) at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding folic acid deficiency among WOCBA was low along with the poor attitude. Practice was also not satisfactory. Education status plays important role in preventing micronutrient deficiency. PMID:24948984

Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad

2014-01-01

381

Knowledge and attitudes of 52 UK pet rabbit owners at the point of sale.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit. PMID:21498237

Edgar, J L; Mullan, S M

2011-04-01

382

Health workers’ knowledge of and attitudes towards computer applications in rural African health facilities  

PubMed Central

Background The QUALMAT (Quality of Maternal and Prenatal Care: Bridging the Know-do Gap) project has introduced an electronic clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pre-natal and maternal care services in rural primary health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. Objective To report an assessment of health providers’ computer knowledge, experience, and attitudes prior to the implementation of the QUALMAT electronic CDSS. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted with providers in 24 QUALMAT project sites. Information was collected using structured questionnaires. Chi-squared tests and one-way ANOVA describe the association between computer knowledge, attitudes, and other factors. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted to gain further insights. Results A total of 108 providers responded, 63% were from Tanzania and 37% from Ghana. The mean age was 37.6 years, and 79% were female. Only 40% had ever used computers, and 29% had prior computer training. About 80% were computer illiterate or beginners. Educational level, age, and years of work experience were significantly associated with computer knowledge (p<0.01). Most (95.3%) had positive attitudes towards computers – average score (±SD) of 37.2 (±4.9). Females had significantly lower scores than males. Interviews and group discussions showed that although most were lacking computer knowledge and experience, they were optimistic about overcoming challenges associated with the introduction of computers in their workplace. Conclusions Given the low levels of computer knowledge among rural health workers in Africa, it is important to provide adequate training and support to ensure the successful uptake of electronic CDSSs in these settings. The positive attitudes to computers found in this study underscore that also rural care providers are ready to use such technology. PMID:25361721

Sukums, Felix; Mensah, Nathan; Mpembeni, Rose; Kaltschmidt, Jens; Haefeli, Walter E.; Blank, Antje

2014-01-01

383

Knowledge on Sexual Abuse and Self-Protection Skills: A Study on Female Chinese Adolescents with Mild Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the level of sexual-abuse knowledge and self-protection skills in 77 female Chinese adolescents with mild mental retardation. Participants were more able to recognize inappropriate than appropriate touches and sexual requests. Also, they were inadequate in protecting themselves and had difficulty in reporting sexual abuse.…

Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Lee, Yvonne Kit-Shan

1999-01-01

384

Athlete support personnel and anti-doping: Knowledge, attitudes, and ethical stance.  

PubMed

Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367

Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F

2014-10-01

385

Knowledge, attitudes and competence in nursing practice of typhoon disaster relief work among Chinese nurses: A questionnaire survey.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the relationships among nurses' knowledge of, attitudes towards and level of competence in nursing practice, as well as factors influencing nurses' competence in nursing practice, in typhoon disaster relief work. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using a self-developed questionnaire to obtain data from 607 nurses working in four tertiary hospitals and two secondary hospitals in Fujian, China, in November 2011. Our findings show that the nurses' average percentage scores on their responses to questions in the domains of knowledge, attitudes and practice were 66.33%, 68.87% and 67.60%, respectively. The findings demonstrated a significant positive relationship between nurses' attitudes and their practice. Nurses' working unit, prior training in typhoon disaster relief, current position of employment and attitudes were significant predictors of nurses' competence in practice. The results indicate that strategies need to be developed for nurses to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practice. PMID:24219840

Jiang, Lin; He, Hong-Gu; Zhou, Wen-Guang; Shi, Su-Hua; Yin, Ting-Ting; Kong, Yue

2015-02-01

386

Nurse/family caregiver intervention for delirium increases delirium knowledge and improves attitudes toward partnership.  

PubMed

Delirium is highly prevalent, especially in hospitalized older adults and is a costly, significant predictor of poor outcomes, including mortality and institutionalization. Partnership between family caregivers and staff nurses could be a cost-neutral preventive strategy. The Nurse/Family Caregiver Partnership for Delirium Prevention (NFCPM) is an innovative educational program that concurrently teaches family caregivers and nurses about delirium and partnering in prevention. The purpose of this feasibility study was to examine the effect of the NFCPM on knowledge of delirium, attitudes toward partnership, and satisfaction with the NFCPM. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design was used to enroll 28 patients, 28 family caregivers, and 28 staff nurses. The intervention group significantly improved knowledge of delirium and attitudes toward partnership. Key to satisfaction were participation in decision making, communication, and respect. The NFCPM appears feasible for clinical practice and provides an innovative strategy for family and nurses to improve hospital outcomes for older adults. PMID:24582390

Rosenbloom, Deborah A; Fick, Donna M

2014-01-01

387

Measuring Student Attitude and Knowledge in Technology-Rich Biology Classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of technology in schools is now ubiquitous, but the effectiveness on the learning environment has mixed results. This paper describes the development and validation of an instrument to measure students' attitudes toward and knowledge of technology with the aim of investigating any differences based on gender after a course where the science department made use of technology as an integral part of teaching biology. In this study, conducted in one school in the state of New York, in the United States of America, the Students' Attitudes Toward and Knowledge of Technology Questionnaire was administered to nearly 700 high school science students. A principal component and principal factor analysis resulted in new scales from the validation of the instrument that demonstrated high reliabilities. There were statistically significant gender differences in all the scales of the questionnaire in favor of males.

Incantalupo, Lisa; Treagust, David F.; Koul, Rekha

2013-06-01

388

Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management: A Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor communities concerning solid waste management are adequate and satisfactory. Hence, the low socio-economic profile of the urban poor has not been proven as causal to environmental degradation. The study suggests that it is inherent to improve the quality of lifestyles of the poor to enable them to come out of poverty threshold, even though an adequate and satisfactory solid waste management system exists amongst the communities.

Wahid Murad, M. D.; Siwar, Chamhuri

389

The Moderating Roles of Race and Gender-Role Attitudes in the Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Psychological Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although previous research has linked sexual harassment to negative psychological outcomes, few studies have focused on moderators of these relationships. The present study surveyed Black (n = 88) and White (n = 170) female undergraduates who endorsed experiences of sexual harassment to examine whether traditional gender attitudes differentially…

Rederstorff, Juliette C.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Settles, Isis H.

2007-01-01

390

The knowledge and attitudes of psychiatrists towards antipsychotic long-acting injections in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) reduce covert nonadherence with medication in the clinical management of psychotic disorders. However, they are variably utilised by clinicians, especially in the long term. Factors including poor knowledge, stigma and perceived coercion can all adversely influence LAI utilisation. Previous research has emanated almost exclusively from developed countries. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of psychiatrists and trainees in Nigeria towards LAIs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among mental health professionals in Nigeria using a pre-existing questionnaire. Results: Participant psychiatrists (n = 128) expressed positive attitudes towards LAIs. Their knowledge concerning LAIs and its side effects was fair. The participants reported that nearly half (41.7%) of their patients with a psychotic illness were on LAIs. Those who reported a high prescribing rate for LAIs (>40%) were more likely to endorse more positive ‘patient-centred attitudes’ (p < 0.04). In contrast to previous reports, psychiatrists reported that patients were less likely to feel ashamed when on LAIs, though most endorsed the statement that force was required during LAI administration. Conclusion: The desirability of treatment by injections differs in Africa in comparison to Western cultures, possibly due to the increased potency that injections are perceived to have. This is perhaps evidenced by high rates reported for use of LAIs. Nigerian psychiatrists had positive attitudes to LAIs but their knowledge, particularly regarding side effects, was fair and needs to be improved. Providing information to patients prior to antipsychotic treatment may enhance informed consent in a country where medical paternalism is still relatively strong. PMID:23983972

Omoaregba, Joyce O.; Okonoda, Kingsley M.; Otefe, Edebi U.; Patel, Maxine X.

2012-01-01

391

Citizen knowledge of and attitudes toward black-tailed prairie dogs: completion report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the late summer of 2000, we canvassed a random sample of residents in the 11-sate short grass prairie region of the United States. We asked about peoplea??s attitude toward and knowledge of black-tailed prairie dogs and their management. The survey received 1,933 useable responses with a response rate of 56.4% (margin of error 2.2%). We developed a questionnaire (OMB Control Number: 1028-0073; see Appendix B) to answer the following questions: * What is the level of citizen knowledge regarding black-tailed prairie dogs? * What are citizensa?? attitudes and preferences regarding black-tailed prairie dogs and the environment in general? * What are the factors that explain difference in attitudes and knowledge about prairie dogs? * What are the factors that explain citizen participation in these types of issues? * What are the important differences between rural and urban citizens regarding their political participation and their knowledge and attitude about prairie dogs? In general, we found that citizens do not have a high regard for black-tailed prairie dogs. Citizens generally have a positive orientation towards the environment and favor a balanced or somewhat environmental approach on questions--like prairie dog management--that involve environmental protection and economic considerations. People having direct experience with prairie dogs are less inclined to view them as beneficial to society than are those who infrequently see or come in contact with the animals. When asked about prairie dogs specifically, most citizens did not believe the question of what to do about these animals was a highly important environmental issue.

Lamb, B.L.; Cline, Kurt; Brinson, Ayeisha; Sexton, N.R.; Ponds, P.D.

2001-01-01

392

Food and nutrient intake, nutritional knowledge and diet-related attitudes in European adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and objective:To provide an overview of methods used to assess food and nutrient intake, nutritional knowledge and diet-related attitudes in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS), with selected results from the feasibility study.Material and Methods:To assess food intake in 13- to 16-year-old adolescents, a previously developed computer-assisted and self-administered 24-h recall was adapted

M Kersting; W Sichert-Hellert; C A Vereecken; J Diehl; L Béghin; S De Henauw; E Grammatikaki; Y Manios; M I Mesana; A Papadaki; K Phillipp; M Plada; E Poortvliet; S Sette

2008-01-01

393

Language Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs, Professional Knowledge, and Views on Professional Development: An Exploratory Study at a Preschool TEFL Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…

Lin, Zheng

2013-01-01

394

The National Report Card on Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors: The Seventh Annual Survey of Adult Americans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. Public attitudes as they exist today and how they have changed over the past seven years are evaluated. A nationally representative sample of 2,000 Americans aged 18 and older were surveyed by Roper Starch Worldwide in May, 1998. Part 1 presents…

National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

395

Family Medicine residents' knowledge and attitudes about end-of-life care.  

PubMed

The medical management of end-of-life symptoms, and the psychosocial care of the dying and their families have not been a specific part of the curriculum for undergraduate medical students or residency training programs. The purpose of our research was to assess family medicine residents' knowledge of and attitudes toward care of the dying. All entering (PGY1) and exiting (PGY2) residents of the Dalhousie University Family Medicine Residency Program were given a 50-item survey on end-of-life care. They survey contains two 25-item subscales concerning attitudes/opinions toward end-of-life care, and knowledge about care. Thirty-one of the 33 entering PGY1s 94%) and 26 of the 30 exiting PGY2s (86%) completed the surveys. Overall attitude scores were felt to be high among both groups, with little difference between them. Areas of concern regarding the adequacy of knowledge were found in relation to managing opioid drugs and the symptom of dyspnea. Interventions are now in development to address these issues in the residency program. In an era of subspecialties, the challenge of integrating these areas into the curriculum without creating rotations in specialist palliative care is an issue faced by most family medicine residency programs. PMID:11019501

Burge, F; McIntyre, P; Kaufman, D; Cummings, I; Frager, G; Pollett, A

2000-01-01

396

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population  

PubMed Central

Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended. PMID:25431668

2014-01-01

397

Knowledge, attitude and practices among Gynecologists regarding Oral Health of expectant mothers of Vadodara City, Gujarat  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among Gynecologists’ regarding oral health of expectant mothers of Vadodara city, by using self designed, structured, pre-tested close ended questionnaire. Methodology Total of 130 gynaecologists are included in the study. Ethical approval was obtained by the Ethics committee, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara. Prior to study, questionnaire was pre-tested and validated. Those individuals who participated in the pilot study were not considered for the main study to prevent possible bias. The informed consent was obtained and information sheet was given. The questionnaire was administered on first day of visit and on the next day it was collected back. For statistical analysis SPSS package version 17 and Pearson’s Chi Square test was used. Results The study revealed that majority of gynecologists had good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding oral health of expectant mothers and there is no significant difference in relation with age, sex and years in practice. Conclusion Majority of gynecologists had good knowledge, attitude and practices but still there is a need for more active participation and involvement of medical specialists like gynecologists and pediatricians, in continuing education programs and forums on dentistry. PMID:24421742

Shah, Harsh G.; Ajithkrishnan, CG; Sodani, Vasudha; Chaudhary, Nisarg J

2013-01-01

398

Safety in numbers? Investigating Australian driver behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards cyclists.  

PubMed

A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, p<0.01). Cyclist-drivers had better knowledge of the road rules related to cycling infrastructure than drivers; however knowledge of road rules related to bike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists. PMID:24769133

Johnson, Marilyn; Oxley, Jennie; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith

2014-09-01

399

The Impact of Parental Knowledge and Tanning Attitudes on Sun Protection Practice for Young Children in Germany  

PubMed Central

Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior. PMID:24802677

Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B.

2014-01-01

400

College student attitudes concerning the sexuality of persons with mental retardation: Development of the perceptions of sexuality scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

As persons with mental retardation become increasingly integrated into community settings, their right to sexual expression\\u000a is an ever more important focus of education and habilitation. The perceptions of service providers of the sexual behavior\\u000a of persons with mental retardation can have a significant impact on access to these services. Thus, the Perceptions of Sexuality\\u000a Scale (POS) was developed as

Joseph R. Scotti; Brenda S. Slack; Rachel A. Bowman; Tracy L. Morris

1996-01-01

401

CHANGES IN KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND WORK PREFERENCES FOLLOWING COURSES IN GERONTOLOGY AMONG MEDICAL, NURSING, AND SOCIAL WORK STUDENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated shortand long?term effects of courses in gerontology and geriatrics on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and work preferences among medical, nursing, and social work students in Israel. The results showed that nursing and social work students increased their knowledge measured by Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz. No significant changes were found in the level of knowledge of medical

Sara Carmel; Julie Cwikel; David Galinsky

1992-01-01

402

Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

2012-01-01

403

The impact of a curriculum course on pre-service primary teachers' science content knowledge and attitudes towards teaching science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many primary school teachers have insufficient content and pedagogical knowledge of science. This lack of knowledge can often lead to a lack of confidence and competence in teaching science. This article explores the impact of a year-long science methodology (curriculum science) course on second year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students' conceptual and pedagogical knowledge of science and on their attitudes

Clíona Murphy; Greg Smith

2012-01-01

404

High School Students' Attitudes and Knowledge of Food Consumption and Body Image: Implications for School Based Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional habits, body image, knowledge of nutrition, and attitudes toward obesity, overweight people, and dieting were studied in high school students (N=141) using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics are presented. The students knowledge and sources of knowledge about nutrition are discussed. Recommendations for an…

Brook, U.; Tepper, I.

1997-01-01

405

The attitude and knowledge relationships between secondary agriculture and science students' participation in multidisciplinary education and environmental/wetland restoration  

E-print Network

The objective of this research project was to test student knowledge and attitude changes towards wetland ecosystems, Environmental Science and Horticulture after the completion of an interdisciplinary mini-unit and propagation experiment...

Campbell, Amy Noelle

1994-01-01

406

The Effect of Set Induction on student knowledge, attitude, and engagement levels of high school agricultural science students  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to determine if applying set induction to the beginning of a lesson would have an effect on student knowledge, attitude, and/or engagement levels throughout the lesson. Researchers addressed specific objectives...

Johnston, Tiffany Sarah Lavern

2010-01-14

407

A cross-sectional assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among Hepatitis-B patients in Quetta, Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis-B is a life threatening infection resulting in 0.6 million deaths annually. The prevalence of Hepatitis-B is rising in Pakistan and furthermore, there is paucity of information about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Hepatitis-B patients. Better disease related knowledge is important to have positive attitude and that will bring the good practices which will prevent the further spread of infection. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B Patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 Hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hepatitis-B were assessed using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 20, 7 and 8 questions for knowledge, attitude and practice, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients’ demographic characteristics and mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B patients. Inferential statistics (Mann–Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p?knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Results Out of 390 patients, 223 (57.2%) were males, with the majority (136, 34.9%) in the age group of 38–47 years. Mean age of the study cohort was 32.6?±?9.5 years. One hundred and four (26.7%) had primary level education, with 110 (28.2%) working in the private sector. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.48?±?2.7, 3.87?±?1.2 and 2.37?±?1.0, respectively. Education, locality and occupation were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Significant positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.466, p?knowledge-practice (r?=?0.221, p?attitude-practice (r?=?0.224, p?

2013-01-01

408

Determinants of the Knowledge of and Attitude towards Tuberculosis in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Globally, Nigeria had the fourth highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2009. Datasets of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) were used for examining factors associated with respondents’ knowledge of and attitude towards TB in Nigeria. With the same age-group of males and females, the sample included 47,193 respondents aged 15-49 years. Factors associated with the knowledge of and attitude towards TB were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level variables, using multiple binary logistic regression analyses. Respondents who reported having ever heard of TB was 74.7%. Of those who ever heard of TB, 76.9% believed that TB can be cured, and 19.6% would want a family member's TB to be kept secret. Of those who ever heard of TB, 63.1% believed that TB was spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing. Multivariate analysis indicated that the probability of having poor knowledge of and negative attitude towards TB was consistently significant among the poorest household (lowest wealth quintile), geopolitical regions (North Central), respondents with no schooling, non-working respondents, youngest age-group (15-19 years), and rural areas [adjusted odds ratios (AOR)=0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86 for respondents who had ever heard of TB; AOR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99 for respondents who had ever heard of TB and believed that TB can be cured; AOR=0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.94 for those who had ever heard of TB and concealed the fact that a family member had TB; and AOR=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99 for those who had ever heard of TB and believed TB was spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing]. Efforts to improve the knowledge of and attitude towards TB in Nigeria should focus on the youngest age-group (15-19 years), the poorest households, and respondents with no schooling. Improving the knowledge and attitude of these groups of individuals may result in an increase in the number of people who will seek early treatment. PMID:25395915

Hall, J.; Ewald, B.

2014-01-01

409

Determinants of the knowledge of and attitude towards tuberculosis in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Globally, Nigeria had the fourth highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) cases in 2009. Datasets of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) were used for examining factors associated with respondents' knowledge of and attitude towards TB in Nigeria. With the same age-group of males and females, the sample included 47,193 respondents aged 15-49 years. Factors associated with the knowledge of and attitude towards TB were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level variables, using multiple binary logistic regression analyses. Respondents who reported having ever heard of TB was 74.7%. Of those who ever heard of TB, 76.9% believed that TB can be cured, and 19.6% would want a family member's TB to be kept secret. Of those who ever heard of TB, 63.1% believed that TB was spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing. Multivariate analysis indicated that the probability of having poor knowledge of and negative attitude towards TB was consistently significant among the poorest household (lowest wealth quintile), geopolitical regions (North Central), respondents with no schooling, non-working respondents, youngest age-group (15-19 years), and rural areas [adjusted odds ratios (AOR)=0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86 for respondents who had ever heard of TB; AOR=0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.99 for respondents who had ever heard of TB and believed that TB can be cured; AOR=0.83, 95% CI 0.73-0.94 for those who had ever heard of TB and concealed the fact that a family member had TB; and AOR=0.88, 95% CI 0.78-0.99 for those who had ever heard of TB and believed TB was spread from person to person through the air by coughing or sneezing]. Efforts to improve the knowledge of and attitude towards TB in Nigeria should focus on the youngest age-group (15-19 years), the poorest households, and respondents with no schooling. Improving the knowledge and attitude of these groups of individuals may result in an increase in the number of people who will seek early treatment. PMID:25395915

Agho, K E; Hall, J; Ewald, B

2014-09-01

410

Does Familiarity Breed Complacency? HIV Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Sexual Risk Behavior of Psychiatrically Referred Latino Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the association between sexual risk behaviors of 110 psychiatrically referred Latino girls aged 13-18 and their HIV knowledge. Questionnaires completed by the girls indicated that girls engaging in higher levels of sexual activity had clearly acquired accurate knowledge concerning HIV transmission but had not integrated it into…

Dudley, Cheryl; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Moreau, Donna

2002-01-01

411

Online Social Networking Technologies, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk and Testing Behaviors Among Homeless Youth  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge, sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One set of results suggests that using online social networks for partner seeking (compared to not using the networks for seeking partners) is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Supporting data suggest that (1) using online social networks to talk about safe sex is associated with an increased likelihood of having met a recent sex partner online, and (2) having online sex partners and talking to friends on online social networks about drugs and partying is associated with increased exchange sex. However, results also suggest that online social network usage is associated with increased knowledge and HIV/STI prevention among homeless youth: (1) using online social networks to talk about love and safe sex is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, (2) using the networks to talk about love is associated with decreased exchange sex, and (3) merely being a member of an online social network is associated with increased likelihood of having previously tested for STIs. Taken together, this study suggests that online social networking and the topics discussed on these networks can potentially increase and decrease sexual risk behaviors depending on how the networks are used. Developing sexual health services and interventions on online social networks could reduce sexual risk behaviors. PMID:20848305

Rice, Eric

2010-01-01

412

Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan: Gender Differences in HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors.  

PubMed

This study compares sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. From the Barakholka Market, 209 male and 213 female market vendors were randomly recruited. Self-reported data were collected through standardized face-to-face interviews. Dry blood spot was used as specimen for syphilis testing. Propensity score stratification was used to estimate adjusted prevalence or rate ratios by gender. Compared to male migrant workers, females had lower HIV knowledge and were less likely to have multiple sexual partners. There was no evidence of a gender difference for prevalence of syphilis, condom use with unsteady partners, and safe sex communication between couples. Associations between mobility patterns and engagement in multiple sexual partnerships were stronger among women than men. Efforts should be made to mitigate the gender differential in HIV knowledge among migrants, especially women. Such efforts need to be implemented in both home and host countries. PMID:25294629

Zhussupov, Baurzhan; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; El-Bassel, Nabila

2014-10-01

413

Knowledge and attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine among medical students in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to examine knowledge and attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among medical students in Turkey, and find out whether they want to be trained in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2010 among medical students. Data were collected from a total of seven medical schools. Findings The study included 943 medical students. The most well known methods among the students were herbal treatment (81.2?%), acupuncture (80.8?%), hypnosis (78.8?%), body-based practices including massage (77?%) and meditation (65.2?%), respectively. Acupuncture, aromatherapy, herbal treatment and meditation were better known among female participants compared to males (p?attitudes. A larger proportion of female students compared to male students reported that a doctor should be knowledgeable about CAM (p?=?0.001), and this knowledge would be helpful in their future professional lives (p?=?0.015). Positive attitudes towards and willingness to receive training declined as the number of years spent in the faculty of medicine increased. Conclusions Majority of the medical students were familiar with the CAM methods widely used in Turkey, while most of them had positive attitudes towards CAM as well as willingness to receive training on the subject, and they were likely to recommend CAM methods to their patients in their future professional lives. With its gradual scientific development and increasing popularity, there appears a need for a coordinated policy in integrating CAM into the medical curriculum, by taking expectations of and feedback from medical students into consideration in setting educational standards. PMID:22862993

2012-01-01

414

Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among women seeking induced abortion in Kathmandu, Nepal  

PubMed Central

Objective To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between women seeking an induced abortion and a control group. Method This was a cross-sectional cohort study with matched controls. Women aged 15–49 years seeking medical care at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Kathmandu Medical College were included and interviewed. A case was defined as a woman who sought an elective medical or surgical abortion. A control was defined as a woman who sought medical care at the outpatient department or had already been admitted to the ward for reasons other than elective abortion. A questionnaire developed for the study – dealing with different demographic characteristics as well as knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives – was filled out based on the interview. Results A total of 153 women were included: 64 women seeking an abortion and 89 controls. Women seeking an abortion had been pregnant more times than the control group and were more likely to have been informed about contraceptives. Women with higher education were less likely to seek an abortion than women with lower education. There was no significant difference in knowledge about and attitudes toward contraceptives between cases and controls. The women considered highest possible effectiveness to be the most important feature when deciding on a birth control method. Conclusion Women seeking abortion in Kathmandu had shorter education and a history of more pregnancies and deliveries than women in the control group. Education and counseling on sex and reproduction as well as on contraceptive methods probably need to be improved in Nepal to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Attitudes about contraceptives need to be further investigated to develop better and more effective methods to educate women about family planning in order to increase reproductive health. PMID:24672261

Berin, Emilia; Sundell, Micaela; Karki, Chanda; Brynhildsen, Jan; Hammar, Mats

2014-01-01

415

Does Knowledge about Sexuality Prevent Adolescents from Developing Rape-Supportive Beliefs?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal

Pascal Mallet; Dominique Herbé

2011-01-01

416

Informal coercion in acute inpatient setting-Knowledge and attitudes held by mental health professionals.  

PubMed

This pilot study aimed at investigating how mental health professionals on acute psychiatric wards recognize different levels of formal and informal coercions and treatment pressures as well as their attitude towards these interventions. An explorative cross-sectional survey among mental health professionals (N=39) was conducted using a questionnaire that consisted of 15 vignettes describing typical clinical situations on five different stages of the continuum of coercion. Low levels of coercion are recognized adequately while higher levels are grossly underestimated. The degree of coercion inherent to interventions comprising persuasion and leverage was underestimated by professionals with a positive attitude and overestimated by those with a negative attitude towards the respective interventions. No associations of the ability to recognize different levels of coercion with ward or staff related variables were found. Higher knowledge on ambiguous variations of coercive interventions seems to foster more balanced reflections about their ethical implications. Advanced understanding of influencing factors of professionals? attitudes towards coercion could lead to improved training of professionals in utilizing interventions to enhance treatment adherence in an informed and ethical way. PMID:25249438

Jaeger, Matthias; Ketteler, Daniel; Rabenschlag, Franziska; Theodoridou, Anastasia

2014-12-30

417

Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about epilepsy and their predictors among university students in Jordan.  

PubMed

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223

Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid

2014-12-01

418

The Evolution of Sex Education and Students' Sexual Knowledge in Finland in the 2000s  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finland is probably the only country where sex education has been studied in two consecutive national surveys, in 1996 and 2006 directed at biology and health education teachers, and in 2000 and 2006 by measuring adolescents' sexual knowledge. In 2006, responses from teachers and students could be combined for 339 schools. The most important…

Kontula, Osmo

2010-01-01

419

HIV and STD Knowledge, Sexual Behaviors and Drug Taking Behaviors of Adolescents in Southern Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several years, HIV infection has increasing rapidly in Eastern Europe and Russia (UNAIDS, 2000, 2003). The purpose of the study was to investigate the HIV and STD knowledge, sexual behaviors and drug taking behaviors of adolescents in southern Russia. The instrument was compiled by the authors, professionally translated, and pilot tested. Most…

Kelley, R. Mark; Ball, Marcia; Cerullo, Jennie; Trunova, Elena

2004-01-01

420

The evolution of sex education and students' sexual knowledge in Finland in the 2000s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finland is probably the only country where sex education has been studied in two consecutive national surveys, in 1996 and 2006 directed at biology and health education teachers, and in 2000 and 2006 by measuring adolescents' sexual knowledge. In 2006, responses from teachers and students could be combined for 339 schools. The most important educational objectives of sex education in

Osmo Kontula

2010-01-01

421

Nature-based science and its effect on early childhood teachers' (K--3) attitudes toward science content knowledge and science instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that early childhood teachers often hold negative attitudes toward science content knowledge and instruction. This study sought to examine the effect of a nature-based professional development course on early childhood teacher attitudes toward science content knowledge and science instruction. Exploratory case study design was utilized to study change in participant attitudes over a five month period. Open

Roxanne Sorrick

2007-01-01

422

The Effects of Thrust Uncertainty and Attitude Knowledge Errors on the MMS Formation Maintenance Maneuver  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission will use a formation of four spinning spacecraft to study the Earth s magnetosphere. The science objectives of MMS require a near-regular tetrahedron formation to be maintained with side lengths ranging from ten kilometers to several thousand kilometers at orbit apogee. To reduce spacecraft complexity and cost, the current mission concept assumes MMS can achieve its formation goals through open-loop orbit control from the ground, rather than in-flight, closed-loop formation control that has been the subject of recent study. Significant analysis has been performed to provide optimal reference orbit and relative orbit designs. However, the feasibility of achieving these orbits, and maintaining them for an extended period of time in the presence of real world errors and perturbations has not been investigated. In particular, attitude knowledge and control errors, which may have a negligible effect on orbit control for conventional missions with spinning spacecraft, can contribute significant errors to the MMS orbits. In this work, a 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF) simulation is developed and used to analyze the effects of realistic errors on formation maintenance maneuver accuracy. Several realistic considerations including a finite-burn model, attitude perturbations, and thrust uncertainty are studied. The primary objective is to quantify the effects of realistic attitude and orbit control, knowledge, and actuator errors on the formation geometry by observing representative maneuver errors of a single spacecraft.

Tsai, Dean C.

2005-01-01

423

Dissecting the dissectors: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of body bequests by Nigerian anatomists.  

PubMed

Anatomy education in most African countries is limited by an insufficient number of cadavers for students to undertake dissection. This already significant shortage is exacerbated by an increasing number of medical schools and students. Virtual dissections are impractical in alleviating such a shortfall in African anatomy education, and further cadaver supply is challenged by unethical and dubious sources. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of whole body and organ donation by Nigerian anatomists with the aim of finding solutions to the problems associated with the availability of cadavers in Nigerian medical schools. Out of 46 anatomists that participated in the survey, only 23.9% would consider donating their whole bodies and 60.9% their organs. More than 95% of respondents did not believe that body bequests could become the sole source of cadavers for anatomic dissection in Nigeria. Age and gender were not statistically significant in the choice of being a body or organ donor. The unacceptability to one's family members regarding body donation was the major reason for respondents' unwillingness to make a whole body donation. None of the 14 medical schools sampled in this study have yet instituted a body registration and donation program. The anatomists showed a high level of knowledge and awareness of body bequest programs, which were not reflected by their attitudes and practice. The authors recommend proactive measures aimed at improving the perception and attitudes of Nigerian anatomists. PMID:22753151

Anyanwu, Emeka G; Obikili, Emmanuel N

2012-01-01

424

Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitude, Social Pressure, and Environmental Constraints among New Undergraduates in Chongqing, China  

PubMed Central

Background: Smoking has resulted in numerous deaths in China. Data indicate that 21% of college students in China are smokers. Objective: This study aimed to examine the smoking-related behaviors of undergraduates, as influenced by knowledge, attitude, social pressure, and environmental constraints. Method: A convenience sampling of 412 fresh undergraduates from two universities in the University Town in Chongqing, China was recruited. Chi-square tests were used to compare the smoking-related variables between smokers and non-smokers. Moreover, logistic regression was used to examine the factors that associated with smoking status in undergraduates. Results: Smokers and non-smokers differ in terms of knowledge, attitudes toward smoking, participation in tobacco promotional activities, and sources of social pressure. Logistic regression model identified that sex, living cost, five smoking-related attitudes of “Smoking is pleasurable, Smoking relaxes me, Smoking makes me look strong, Smoking is a waste of money, Smoking can help me study better”, the social pressure “Smoking brings comfort during celebration”, and the environmental constraints “How did you get your cigarettes in the past 30 days?” are significantly associated with smoking. Conclusions: The findings provide a better understanding of the epidemic of smoking among fresh undergraduates in Chongqing, China. This study provides more detailed consideration of the implications for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially on restriction of retail sales outlets and tobacco promotion activities near universities in China. PMID:25607600

Xu, Xianglong; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Li, Bing; Wang, Pengfei; Zhao, Yong

2015-01-01

425

The effects of evolution education: Examining attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution in college courses.  

PubMed

The present study examined changes in university students' attitudes toward and knowledge of evolution measured by the previously validated Evolutionary Attitudes and Literacy Survey (EALS) in response to curricular content. Specifically, student responses on the survey were compared across an evolutionary psychology course, an introductory biology course with significant evolutionary content, and a political science course with no evolutionary content. To this end, 868 students were assessed at a large Midwestern U.S. university prior to and following completion of one of the three courses. A multiple group repeated measures confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine latent mean differences in self-reported Evolution Knowledge/Relevance, Creationist Reasoning, Evolutionary Misconceptions, and Exposure to Evolution. A significant and notable increase in Knowledge/Relevance, as well as decreases in Creationist Reasoning and Evolutionary Misconceptions, was observed for the evolutionary psychology course, whereas the biology course demonstrated no change in Knowledge/Relevance and a significant increase in Evolutionary Misconceptions. The implications of these findings for evolution education are discussed. PMID:25603558

Short, Stephen D; Hawley, Patricia H

2015-01-01

426

Knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners towards abortion and post abortion care in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, on abortion and post-abortion care. It was a cross-sectional study of private medical practitioners in the study area using self-administered structured questionnaires. The results showed that 32.3% of the doctors terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so. The majority of them (51.6%) use D&C in combination with manual vacuum aspiration for the termination of pregnancies in the first trimester. A total of 61 (63.5%) respondents offered various types of post-abortal care (PAC) services, while 42 (43.8%) of them screened women with abortion complications for sexually transmitted infections. For the doctors who do not terminate unwanted pregnancies, their main reasons were religious and moral considerations rather than obedience to the Nigerian abortion laws. We conclude that the majority of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, do not terminate unwanted pregnancies because of their religious beliefs. PMID:19603321

Onah, H E; Ogbuokiri, C M; Obi, S N; Oguanuo, T C

2009-07-01

427

Sexual experience and HIV-related knowledge among Belgian university students: a questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. Results There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19–21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Conclusions Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex). PMID:24886447

2014-01-01

428

Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among the health care professionals working at KFMC, Riyadh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 161 health professionals consisting of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and medical students was carried out using a structured, self-administered, close-ended questionnaire. Responses were collected and descriptive statistics, ANOVA, Chi square tests and z-tests were performed. Results: Doctors showed a high mean knowledge score as compared with other health professionals. Comparison of oral health knowledge scores among the different types of health professionals yielded statistically significant differences (P < 0.05). The attitude toward visit to the dentist varied; 52.7% of nurses and 50% of technicians said that they would like to visit the dentist regularly. 66.7% of the medical students visit the dentist whenever they get pain in their tooth. 54.5% doctors and 45.8% pharmacists are likely to visit the dentist occasionally. For 60% medical students, tooth ache was the driving factor for their last visit. Majority of the health professionals said that the fear of drilling was the main reason for avoiding the dentist. Almost all the health professionals said that they cleaned their tooth by toothbrush and toothpaste. Less than 50% of the health professionals used mouth wash and dental floss. Less than 10% used Miswak and toothpick as part of their oral hygiene. Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care. PMID:23162577

Baseer, Mohammad Abdul; Alenazy, Mohammed Suliman; AlAsqah, Mohammad; AlGabbani, Mansoor; Mehkari, Aleemullah

2012-01-01

429

Knowledge of and Attitudes Regarding Postoperative Pain among the Pediatric Cardiac Nursing Staff: An Indian Experience.  

PubMed

Pain following cardiac intervention in children is a common, but complex phenomenon. Identifying and reporting pain is the responsibility of the nursing staff, who are the primary caregivers and spend the most time with the patients. Inadequately managed pain in children may lead to multiple short- and long-term adverse effects. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes regarding postoperative pain in children among the nursing staff at B.M. Patel Cardiac Center, Karamsad, Anand, Gujarat, India. The study included 42 of the 45 nurses employed in the cardiac center. The nurses participating in the study were responsible for the care of the pediatric patients. A modified Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain and a sociodemographic questionnaire were administered after obtaining written informed consent. The study was approved by the institutional Human Research Ethics Committee. Mean (SD) experience in years of the nursing staff was 2.32 (1.69) years (range 1 month to 5 years). Of the nurses, 67% were posted in the cardiac surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The mean (SD) score for true/false questions was 11.48 (2.95; range 7,19). The average correct response rate of the true/false questions was 45.9%. Knowledge about pain was only affected by the ward in which the nurse was posted. In first (asymptomatic) and second (symptomatic) case scenarios, 78.6% and 59.5% underestimated pain, respectively. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management is poor among nurses. Targeted training sessions and repeated reinforcement sessions are essential for holistic patient care. PMID:25439124

Dongara, Ashish R; Shah, Shail N; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M; Phatak, Ajay G; Nimbalkar, Archana S

2014-10-31

430

Internalizing Knowledge and Changing Attitudes to Female Genital Cutting/Mutilation  

PubMed Central

The process of paradigmatic attitudinal change has been analyzed by the use of multimethods and multileveled internalization theories. Forty-six informants (a network of activists and a group of Gambian women) have described their change of attitude to female genital cutting. This study shows that internalizing a packet of information as adults, that contradicts an old schema of knowledge internalized as children, can be experienced as epistemologically very painful. Activists in Norway who have changed their attitude to FGC have got information from different educational institutions, from seminars and conferences, from work as interpreters in hospitals, and from discussions among families and friends. Information can be received, listened to and subsequently discarded. In order to design FGC-abandonment campaigns, the importance of the internalization process in order for the individual to make an attitudinal change must be understood. PMID:23843795

2013-01-01

431

Change in Physician Knowledge and Attitudes After Implementation of a Pneumonia Practice Guideline  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess physicians' response to implementation of an emergency department (ED) pneumonia practice guideline and determine if the guideline changed physicians' knowledge and attitudes about pneumonia care. DESIGN Prospective intervention study with cross-sectional and longitudinal physician surveys. SETTING An urban, university teaching hospital ED. PARTICIPANTS One hundred forty physicians who were responsible for the triage of at least one of 166 patients presenting to the ED with community-acquired pneumonia. MEASUREMENTS Physician characteristics, attitudes about pneumonia care and guidelines, and ratings of guideline helpfulness and effects on patient care were obtained by self administered questionnaire before, during, and after a yearlong intervention. MAIN RESULTS More than 73% of the physicians reported the guideline as helpful and more than 94% wanted it to be continued in the future. Most reported that the guideline would decrease costs and improve quality without any increase in adverse outcomes. Two thirds said they were more likely to treat patients with pneumonia as outpatients in the future because of the guideline. Among the 58 physicians with matching preintervention and postintervention survey data, the guideline decreased the beliefs that “all patients>65 years old with pneumonia should be admitted,” from 52% to 14% (p < .001), and that “patients with pneumonia have a>15% mortality rate,” from 11% to 5% (p < .007). The intervention did not significantly change general attitudes about practice guidelines. House officers rated the guideline as more helpful than attending physicians (p < .02). CONCLUSIONS This locally developed, actively implemented guideline was well regarded by physicians. Guidelines can change practice and also alter underlying knowledge and attitudes about disease management. They may be most useful to those with less experience. PMID:10571717

Halm, Ethan A; Atlas, Steven J; Borowsky, Leila H; Benzer, Theodore I; Singer, Daniel E

1999-01-01

432

Cervical cancer and HPV: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors among women living in Guatemala.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, human papillomavirus (HPV), and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. A purposive sample of 40 women was interviewed during August 2012. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate differences among rural and urban women, and open-ended questions were coded independently by two individuals (Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.816). Among the 22 rural and 18 urban women, there was limited knowledge about cervical cancer, screening, HPV, and the HPV vaccine. Cervical cancer was described in language related to gender, science, severity, or associated with having children, a uterus, or menstruation. All rural and most urban participants were interested in the HPV vaccine for themselves and their daughters. Limited awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV was common among Guatemalan women, highlighting the need for additional information prior to developing cancer prevention educational materials and programs. PMID:24858872

Petrocy, Amy; Katz, Mira L

2014-05-01

433

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.  

PubMed

It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

2014-11-01

434

Financial attitudes, knowledge, and habits of chiropractic students: A descriptive survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: Our purpose was to describe the financial knowledge, habits and attitudes of chiropractic students. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey to measure basic financial knowledge, current financial habits, risk tolerance, and beliefs about future income among 250 students enrolled in business courses at one US chiropractic college. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We received 57 questionnaires (23% response rate). Most respondents would accumulate over $125,000 in student loan debt by graduation. Financial knowledge was low (mean 77%). Most respondents (72%) scored as average financial risk takers. Chiropractic students reported recommended short-term habits such as having checking accounts (90%) and health insurance (63%) or paying monthly bills (88%) and credit cards (60%). Few saved money for unplanned expenses (39%) or long-term goals (26%), kept written budgets (32%), or had retirement accounts (19%). Conclusion: These chiropractic students demonstrated inadequate financial literacy and did not engage in many recommended financial habits. PMID:24587498

Lorence, Julie; Lawrence, Dana J.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.

2014-01-01

435

Changes in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Across Generations and Gender Among a Population-Based Probability Sample From an Urbanizing Province in Thailand.  

PubMed

Thailand has undergone rapid modernization with implications for changes in sexual norms. We investigated sexual behavior and attitudes across generations and gender among a probability sample of the general population of Nonthaburi province located near Bangkok in 2012. A tablet-based survey was performed among 2,138 men and women aged 15-59 years identified through a three-stage, stratified, probability proportional to size, clustered sampling. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out accounting for the effects of multistage sampling. Relationship of age and gender to sexual behavior and attitudes was analyzed by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for possible confounding. Patterns of sexual behavior and attitudes varied substantially across generations and gender. We found strong evidence for a decline in the age of sexual initiation, a shift in the type of the first sexual partner, and a greater rate of acceptance of adolescent premarital sex among younger generations. The study highlighted profound changes among young women as evidenced by a higher number of lifetime sexual partners as compared to older women. In contrast to the significant gender gap in older generations, sexual profiles of Thai young women have evolved to resemble those of young men with attitudes gradually converging to similar sexual standards. Our data suggest that higher education, being never-married, and an urban lifestyle may have been associated with these changes. Our study found that Thai sexual norms are changing dramatically. It is vital to continue monitoring such changes, considering the potential impact on the HIV/STIs epidemic and unintended pregnancies. PMID:25403321

Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Musumari, Patou Masika; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; El-Saaidi, Christina; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Feldman, Mitchell D; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

2014-11-18

436

Knowledge and attitudes of doctor of pharmacy students regarding the appropriate use of antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Pharmacists are key partners in antimicrobial stewardship efforts, yet their degree of education on and attitudes toward this topic during training are not well documented. An electronic survey measuring knowledge and attitudes regarding antimicrobial use and resistance was administered to graduating pharmacy students at 12 US schools of pharmacy. Of 1445 pharmacy students, 579 (40%) completed the survey. The vast majority (94%) believed that strong knowledge of antimicrobials was important for their pharmacy careers, and 89% desired more education on appropriate antimicrobial use. Most students (84%) considered their pharmacy education regarding antimicrobials useful or very useful, but there was significant variability on perceptions of preparation for most antimicrobial stewardship activities according to the students' school. The mean number of correct answers on a section of 11 knowledge questions was 5.8 (standard deviation 2.0; P value for score between schools <.001). On multivariable linear regression analysis, significant predictors of a higher knowledge score were pharmacy school attended, planned postgraduate training, completion of a clinical rotation in infectious diseases, perception of pharmacy school education as useful, use of resources to answer the knowledge questions, and use of Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines and smartphone applications as frequent resources for learning about antimicrobials. Pharmacy students perceive antimicrobial stewardship to be an important healthcare issue and desire more education on the subject. Student perceptions of antimicrobial coursework and actual antimicrobial knowledge scores significantly varied by the school of pharmacy attended. Sharing of best practices among institutions may enhance the preparation of future pharmacists to contribute to effective antimicrobial stewardship. PMID:25261543

Justo, Julie Ann; Gauthier, Timothy P; Scheetz, Marc H; Chahine, Elias B; Bookstaver, P Brandon; Gallagher, Jason C; Hermsen, Elizabeth D; DePestel, Daryl D; Ernst, Erika J; Jacobs, David M; Esterly, John S; Suda, Katie J; Olsen, Keith M; Abbo, Lilian M; MacDougall, Conan

2014-10-15

437

Study of knowledge, perception and attitude of adolescent girls towards STIs/HIV, safer sex and sex education: (A cross sectional survey of urban adolescent school girls in South Delhi, India)  

PubMed Central

Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's), including HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) mainly affects sexually active young people. Young adults aged 15–29 years, account for 32% of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) cases reported in India and the number of young women living with HIV/AIDS is twice that of young men. The aim of the study was to evaluate adolescent school girls' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes towards STIs/HIV and safer sex practice and sex education and to explore their current sexual behaviour in India. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in 2007 in South Delhi, India to investigate the perception, knowledge and attitude of adolescent urban schoolgirls towards sexually transmitted Infections (STIs), HIV/AIDS, safer sex practice and sex education. the self-administered questionnaire was completed by 251 female students from two senior secondary schools. Results More than one third of students in this study had no accurate understanding about the signs and symptoms of STIs other than HIV/AIDS. About 30% of respondents considered HIV/AIDS could be cured, 49% felt that condoms should not be available to youth, 41% were confused about whether the contraceptive pill could protect against HIV infection and 32% thought it should only be taken by married women. Conclusion Though controversial, there is an immense need to implement gender-based sex education regarding STIs, safe sex options and contraceptives in schools in India PMID:18647417

McManus, Alexandra; Dhar, Lipi

2008-01-01

438

Changes in Primary School Children's Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Environments Related to Nutrition and Physical Activity.  

PubMed

Rigorous evaluation of large-scale community-based obesity interventions can provide important guidance to policy and decision makers. The eat well be active (ewba) Community Programs, a five-year multilevel, multistrategy community-based obesity intervention targeting children in a range of settings, was delivered in two communities. A comprehensive mixed-methods evaluation using a quasiexperimental design with nonmatched comparison communities was undertaken. This paper describes the changes in primary school children's attitudes, behaviours, knowledge, and environments associated with healthy eating and physical activity, based on data from six questionnaires completed pre- and postintervention by students, parents, and school representatives. As self-reported by students in years from five to seven there were few significant improvements over time in healthy eating and physical activity behaviours, attitudes, knowledge, and perceived environments, and there were few changes in the home environment (parent report). Overall there were considerably more improvements in intervention compared with comparison schools affecting all environmental areas, namely, policy, physical, financial, and sociocultural, in addition to improvements in teacher skill and knowledge. These improvements in children's learning environments are important and likely to be sustainable as they reflect a change of school culture. More sensitive evaluation tools may detect behaviour changes. PMID:24555153

Magarey, Anthea Margaret; Pettman, Tahna Lee; Wilson, Annabelle; Mastersson, Nadia

2013-01-01

439

Assessing deaf awareness training: knowledge and attitudes of recent genetic counseling graduates.  

PubMed

Research suggests that when healthcare providers lack cultural competence, minority groups, including the Deaf community, are adversely affected. Although most genetic counseling programs incorporate cultural competency training into their curricula, the extent and impact of Deaf awareness training is unknown. The purpose of this study is to assess Deaf awareness training of recent graduates and its impact on knowledge of deafness and Deaf culture, and attitudes toward deaf people. Genetic counselors who graduated within the past 5 years were invited to participate in an anonymous, online survey. Of the 135 respondents, 26 % reported no Deaf awareness training and 51 % reported limited training (1-2 h) conducted primarily by program instructors. Nearly one-third felt their Deaf awareness training was insufficient. Respondents lacked knowledge regarding effects of cochlear implants on residual hearing, communication between deaf children and hearing parents, and working with sign language interpreters. However, scores on knowledge of deafness and Deaf culture items and scores on attitudes toward deaf people scale did not differ significantly between respondents who had Deaf awareness training and those who did not. These findings suggest that genetic counseling students may not receive adequate Deaf awareness training. Future efforts should focus on increasing Deaf awareness in genetic counseling students, and investigating whether this change improves genetic counseling experiences for Deaf individuals. PMID:25030269

Nagakura, Honey; Schneider, Gretchen; Morris, James; Lafferty, Katherine A; Palmer, Christina G S

2015-02-01

440

Rabies menace and control – An insight into knowledge, attitude and practices  

PubMed Central

Background There are very few community-based epidemiological studies on knowledge, attitude and practice about rabies prevention and control. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the same in an urban slum area. Methods A random sample of 200 people was selected from an urban slum area. A pre-tested pro-forma was used to collect the data. Result All study participants had knowledge of rabies transmission by dog bite compared to only 23% having knowledge about its transmission by scratches and licks. Only 40% of the participants were aware that the disease would cause fatal illness. As a first aid measure after dog bite, 66% of the participants responded that they would wash the wound with water, 24% said that they would visit a doctor and the rest responded that either they would do nothing (3%) or would adopt some unconventional methods/religious practices (7%) to prevent the development of rabies. 55.5% of participants were aware about the role of vaccine in preventing rabies. Conclusion The level of awareness about rabies and its control measures is not high. The attitudes and practices of the respondents reflect the lack of IEC activities, inaccessibility of treatment facilities and the lack of services that would enable community participation in rabies control. PMID:24532936

Prakash, M.; Bhatti, V.K.; Venkatesh, G.

2012-01-01

441

Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

2014-01-01

442

Survey of knowledge-attitude-practice concerning insulin use in adult diabetic patients in eastern India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding insulin use among diabetic patients in tertiary care hospitals. Materials and Methods: Type 1 and 2 diabetic patients, aged 18 years and above, attending the Medicine/Endocrinology out-patient department or admitted as in-patients in three hospitals in and around Kolkata were enrolled. A pretested structured questionnaire comprising of 51 items was administered through face-to-face interview. Responses from 385 subjects were analyzed. Results: Both higher educational and higher economic standards were associated with better understanding of insulin use. Longer duration of diabetes and its treatment (oral anti-diabetic drugs and insulin) were associated with better knowledge of some parameters. Female subjects were less aware of HbA1c as a monitoring tool. Among current insulin users, 70% had never used a glucometer; only 27.33% carried simple carbohydrates for use in hypoglycemic attacks; and 32% failed to rotate sites for insulin injection. Conclusion: Knowledge and attitude were satisfactory on the whole but deficiencies in practice were pronounced, which can potentially be removed through appropriate counseling. PMID:25097283

Choudhury, Sourav Das; Das, Somak Kumar; Hazra, Avijit

2014-01-01

443

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of School Teachers Towards Oral Health in Pondicherry  

PubMed Central

Background: School teachers by virtue of their training can influence a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health preventive programs. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of school teachers towards oral health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers of the city of Pondicherry. A structured questionnaire was used and 212 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude and practice regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding oral health of children and status of oral health education at the schools. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 21.0. Results: Around 47% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugar are the main causes of dental caries, while 42% felt that plaque and calculus are the main agents for periodontal disease. Around 82.5% teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers felt that children’s teeth should be checked by dentist, only 51% agreed that it is their duty to impart oral health education to the students. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding oral health among school teachers was fair. Oral Health education must be imparted to preschool and primary school teachers as a part of National Oral Health care Program on a regular basis and further studies must be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules. PMID:25302258

P., Sivsankar; M.A., Easwaran; L., Subitha; N., Bharath; K., Rajeswary; S., Jeyalakshmi

2014-01-01

444

Feedback on and knowledge, attitude, and skills at the end of pharmacology practical sessions  

PubMed Central

Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacology practical learning sessions in a private medical school in Nepal. The effectiveness of the sessions and strengths and suggestions to further improve the sessions were also obtained. The median total knowledge, attitude, skills and overall scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents. The median effectiveness score was also calculated. Eighty of the 100 students participated; 37 were male and 43 female. The median knowledge, attitude, and skills scores were 24, 39, and 23, respectively (maximum scores being 27, 45, and 36). The median total score was 86 (maximum score being 108). The effectiveness score for most subject areas was 3 (maximum 4). The strengths were the activity-based nature of the session, use of videos and role-plays, and repeated practice. Students wanted more sessions and practice in certain areas. They also wanted more resources and an internet connection in the practical room. The skills scores were relatively low. The immediate impact of the sessions was positive. Studies may be needed to assess the long term impact. Similar programs should be considered in other medical schools in Nepal and other developing countries. PMID:22232708

Jha, Nisha; Bajracharya, Omi; Gurung, Sukh B; Singh, Kundan K.

2011-01-01

445

Feedback on and knowledge, attitude, and skills at the end of pharmacology practical sessions.  

PubMed

Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacology practical learning sessions in a private medical school in Nepal. The effectiveness of the sessions and strengths and suggestions to further improve the sessions were also obtained. The median total knowledge, attitude, skills and overall scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents. The median effectiveness score was also calculated. Eighty of the 100 students participated; 37 were male and 43 female. The median knowledge, attitude, and skills scores were 24, 39, and 23, respectively (maximum scores being 27, 45, and 36). The median total score was 86 (maximum score being 108). The effectiveness score for most subject areas was 3 (maximum 4). The strengths were the activity-based nature of the session, use of videos and role-plays, and repeated practice. Students wanted more sessions and practice in certain areas. They also wanted more resources and an internet connection in the practical room. The skills scores were relatively low. The immediate impact of the sessions was positive. Studies may be needed to assess the long term impact. Similar programs should be considered in other medical schools in Nepal and other developing countries. PMID:22232708

Shankar, P Ravi; Jha, Nisha; Bajracharya, Omi; Gurung, Sukh B; Singh, Kundan K

2011-01-01

446

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals and women towards medication use in breastfeeding: A review  

PubMed Central

Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice. PMID:21867562

2011-01-01

447

Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.  

PubMed

Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595

Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

2013-06-01

448

Does Television Exposure Affect Emerging Adults' Attitudes and Assumptions About Sexual Relationships? Correlational and Experimental Confirmation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because concern is frequently raised that TV's abundant yet stereotypical portrayals of sexual relationships may mislead young viewers, this study examined the effects of both regular viewing habits and experimental exposure on students' conceptions about sexual relationships. A multiethnic sample of 259 undergraduates aged 18–22 was assigned to view a set of clips depicting either 1 of 3 sexual stereotypes

L. Monique Ward

2002-01-01

449

Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

2014-01-01

450

Evidence-based medicine knowledge, attitudes, and skills of community faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONTEXT: As medical schools turn to community physicians for ambulatory care teaching, assessing the preparation of these faculty\\u000a in principles of evidence-based medicine (EBM) becomes important.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge and attitudes of community faculty concerning EBM and their use of EBM in patient care and teaching.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducted from January to March of 2000.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: A

Brent W. Beasley; Douglas C. Woolley

2002-01-01

451

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Substance Use Practices Among Street Children in Western Kenya  

PubMed Central

The study describes the knowledge of and attitudes toward substance use among street-involved youth in Kenya, and how they relate to their substance use practices. In 2011, 146 children and youth ages 10–19 years, classified as either children on the street or children of the street were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey in Eldoret, Kenya. Bivariate analysis using ?2 or Fisher’s Exact Test was used to test the associations between variables, and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent covariates associated with lifetime and current drug use. The study’s limitations and source of funding are noted. PMID:22780841

Embleton, Lonnie; Ayuku, David; Atwoli, Lukoye; Vreeman, Rachel; Braitstein, Paula

2013-01-01

452

Effects of an inpatient geriatrics rotation on internal medicine residents’ knowledge and attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of a geriatrics-focused acute medicine inpatient rotation and the presence\\u000a or absence of a geriatrician as attending physician on knowledge about and attitudes toward older patients and the field of\\u000a geriatrics.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Randomized trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a INTERVENTION: A 4-week acute care inpatient internal medicine rotation at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs Medical

Michael C. Lindberg; Gail M. Sullivan

1996-01-01

453

Change in physician knowledge and attitudes after implementation of a pneumonia practice guideline  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians’ response to implementation of an emergency department (ED) pneumonia practice guideline and determine\\u000a if the guideline changed physicians’ knowledge and attitudes about pneumonia care.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective intervention study with cross-sectional and longitudinal physician surveys.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: An urban, university teaching hospital ED.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: One hundred forty physicians who were responsible for the triage of at least one

Ethan A. Halm; Steven J. Atlas; Leila H. Borowsky; Theodore I. Benzer; Daniel E. Singer

1999-01-01

454

Confidentiality in health care. A survey of knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes among high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To assess adolescent knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes about health care confidentiality.\\u000aDESIGN--Anonymous self-report survey with 64 items addressing confidentiality issues in health care.\\u000aSETTING--Rural, suburban, and urban high schools in central Massachusetts.\\u000aPARTICIPANTS--Students in ninth through 12th grades from three schools.\\u000aRESULTS--A total of 1295 students (87%) completed the survey: 58% had health concerns that they wished to keep private

Tina L. Cheng; Judith A. Savageau; Ann L. Sattler; Thomas G. DeWitt

1993-01-01

455

Surveying the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of District of Columbia ACOG Members Related to Breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, only 14.6% of babies born in the District of Columbia (DC) reached this goal. Breastfeeding support from providers has been shown to increase exclusive breastfeeding. We aim (1) to describe breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, (2) to determine the presence of breastfeeding in routine prenatal discussions, and (3) to determine the knowledge of facility adoption of the Perinatal Care (PC) Core Measure Set among DC ACOG members. A survey sent to DC ACOG members assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breastfeeding and evaluated participants' barriers to breastfeeding counseling, management of breastfeeding challenges, and awareness of facility adoption of the PC Core Measure Set. All 29 respondents reported breastfeeding as the best infant nutrition and that physicians should encourage breastfeeding. However, despite 75% reporting counseling most of their patients regarding breastfeeding, only 27% reported that most of their patients were breastfeeding at the postpartum visit. Participants scored 83% correct on knowledge-based questions. Perceived barriers to breastfeeding counseling included lack of time (66%), reimbursement (10%), and competence in managing breastfeeding problems (7%). Most respondents were unsure of both adoption of, and breastfeeding data collection for, the PC Core Measure Set (52% and 55%, respectively). Participants had knowledge gaps and identified barriers to discussing breastfeeding. There was limited awareness of hospital data collection about breastfeeding. These results indicate a need for more breastfeeding education among DC obstetricians-gynecologists and better outreach about the PC Core Measure Set. PMID:25389912

Sims, Alexandra M; Long, Sahira A; Tender, Jennifer A F; Young, Michal A

2015-01-01

456

A Cross-Country Exploration: Dietetic Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Intentions to Provide Services to the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study identified dietetic students' knowledge of aging, attitudes, and intentions to provide services to the elderly and compared the cross-cultural differences between the United States and South Korea. The results show that knowledge about aging and the elderly, coursework experiences, and internship experiences are much greater among…

Cha, Myeonghwa; Seo, Sunhee

2009-01-01

457

Assessing Knowledge and Attitudes of U.S. Healthcare Providers about Benefits and Risks of Consuming Seafood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An online needs assessment survey of healthcare providers was developed and implemented to determine