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Sexualattitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula. PMID:6906463
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexualknowledge, sexualattitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexualattitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women were administered the Sexual Experiences Inventory, Miller-Fisk
Although the benefits of sex education are often questioned, numerous studies have shown that the more knowledgeable a person is about sexuality, the less likely he or she is to engage in early sexual activities. To compare the differences in sexualknowledge, attitudes, and contraceptive choice between those adolescents who talk to their parents…
|This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
A survey of the sexualattitudes and knowledge of general practitioners in Wessex found that GP trainees and those in practice for less than 10 years were less conservative and better informed than doctors in practice for 20 years or more, The results suggest that the attitudes of the doctors are determined by their early environmental influences rather than their clinical experience.
|Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexualknowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-SexualKnowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexualknowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-SexualKnowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Teachers of human sexuality classes are one of the most important factors in the success of school based programs; until recently, professionals involved in sex education acquired their expertise randomly and informally. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 16 week sexuality education training program on attitudes and knowledge about human sexuality among teachers in a public school district. 39 participants (teachers, school nurses, and psychologists) were enrolled in a University of South Carolina course which consisted of lectures, group discussions, role playing, and films. The evaluation instrument used was the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), and was administered to each participant before and after the course was given. Results show that there are significant changes in knowledge, acceptance and rejection of sexual myths, and attitudes concerning abortion and autoeroticism. The training course resulted in a shift deemed positive and conducive for teacher effectiveness in teaching sex education. There was a significant shift in a more liberal direction in all of the attitudinal scales except heterosexual relations. This positive change in attitudinal scores is essential for teachers who will be instructing students from a variety of family backgrounds. PMID:12314199
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between background and sociodemographic variables, attitudes toward controversial aspects of human sexuality and sex knowledge among medical and nursing students.Method: The study design was a questionnaire-based survey of medical and nursing students in Western Australia. Participants were first-through fifth-year medical students at the University of Western Australia and first-through
Robert S. McKelvey; John A. Webb; Loretta V. Baldassar; Suzanne M. Robinson; Geoff Riley
Current research on sexuality in the aged suffers from a lack of measuring instruments designed to assess the particular aspects of sexualknowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. The present scale is the result of several studies of sexual functioning in the aged, including intervention research, utilizing the Aging SexualityKnowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) with aged
Although the idea that sexuality is a lifelong need is gaining greater research support and greater acceptability to the general public, few consider the institutionalized aged as having sexual needs or being able to benefit from sexual intimacy. The research presented here indicates that sexual activity in the institutionalized aged is related to their attitudes and behavior to ward sexuality
|Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…
Staff of long-term care facilities and other agencies working with the elderly need to be sensitive to the sexual needs and concerns of their residents. Little is known, however, about what this population knows about sexuality, their attitudes about sexual expression and how they want professionals to respond to their needs and concerns. The purpose of this study was to
Health care providers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward sexuality in older adults may have an impact on the overall quality of care they provide to older clients. One place to begin improving the knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals may be health care educators. If educators have accurate knowledge and positive attitudes, they can help their students acquire accurate
|Studies family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in student and adolescent factory workers. Finds female workers at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes included age, schooling…
|The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging SexualityKnowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
A survey was taken to determine pregnant teenagers' knowledge of sexuality and child development and their parenting attitudes relative to comparison groups. The results indicate that the knowledge and attitude base of pregnant teenagers is almost identical to that of never-pregnant teenagers. However, adult mothers scored slightly but significantly higher than the teenagers on a measure of child development knowledge
|The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexualknowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
|Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging SexualityKnowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
The effect of a course in human sexuality on the sexualknowledge and attitudes of a fifth-semester class of Colombian medical students is described. The research design was a quasi-experimental one of the nonequivalent control group type, and the research instrument was Lief and Reed's SKAT. In evaluating the results, emphasis was given to the material, rather than statistical, significance of differences found. The attention of sex education researchers is called to the inconvenience of relying on statistical methods for assessing the effects of instruction in human sexuality. On the whole, the cautious conclusion can be made that the course produced a materially and statistically significant increase in the subjects' sexualknowledge, as well as a further liberalization of their sexualattitudes. Implications for evaluation of sex education programs are briefly discussed. PMID:7138294
Issues concerning sex and sexuality are relevant to nursing practice. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge of and attitude towards sexuality, and nursing practice. Nursing practice in this case was defined as the discussion of sexuality with the patient, with particular reference to taking a sexual history on admission to the ward. A multi-choice questionnaire with sections establishing demographic details and nursing practice, and including the Sex, Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), was administered to 357 registered general nurses (RGNs). Results show a relationship between knowledge and attitude but no relationship between either of these and the nursing practice scale. However, a slight but significant correlation between receiving teaching about sexual history taking and questioning patients about sexuality on admission suggests that nursing practice and knowledge are weakly related. There is evidence that factors other than those within the scope of this study influence all three independent variables, and these are discussed. The implications of the study suggest the need for an improvement in nurse education regarding sexuality at all stages of training. PMID:7930142
|The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
The sexual practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to HIV transmission were investigated in low income Hispanic women in Los Angeles. Data were collected by both quantitative and qualitative methods from two independent samples, one of survey respondents (N = 508) and the other of focus group participants (N = 55). Participants were low income Hispanic women in Los Angeles who
Jacquelyn H. Flaskerud; Gwen Uman; Rosa Lara; Lillian Romero; Karen Taka
|This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
|The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of…
Street children in South Africa are, in the main, between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Rape, prostitution, sexual bartering and exchange, casual sex and romantic sexual relationships all occur in the experiences of young people who live and work on inner-city streets. In this study, the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of 141 street youth, living in seven
Interviewed 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism about sexuality and dating. Sexualknowledge and interest were assessed by a sexuality vocabulary checklist and a multiple-choice questionnaire. Group differences were found in experience, with more sexual experiences among the mentally retarded adults, but not in knowledge or interest. In both groups IQ
|Objective: To provide evidence about the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of an ethnically diverse sample of young people from Secondary/High schools in London. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The sample consisted of students in school Years 11 to 13 (aged 15-18 years), present in school on the day of…
|Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…
Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexualknowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…
|Interviews with 21 high-functioning adults with autism and 20 mildly to moderately mentally retarded adults without autism indicated that the mentally retarded group had more sexual experiences, with no intergroup differences in sexualknowledge or interest. Intelligence quotient was positively correlated with knowledge scores and males had…
|Presents the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and degree of experience in a variety of sexual behaviors, and to be used as a teaching and research instrument. (Author)|
Objectives This study explored sexualknowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexualknowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexualknowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children.
Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of teachers who contribute to secondary school sexual health education in order to determine whether teachers are adequately prepared to implement present government education and public health policies. Design: Results were obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study.…
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an increasing public health problem in Djibouti. The authors have attempted to obtain basic information on the level of knowledge concerning STDs and on the sexual behavior of highly sexually promiscuous individual...
H. H. Wassef E. Fox E. A. Abbatte J.-F. Toledo G. Rodier
Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and degree of experience in a variety of sexual behaviors, and to be used as a teaching and research instrument. The SKAT has been administered to over 35,000 students, approximately two-thirds of whom have been medical students. SKAT has served two major objectives: to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes after a course or program in human sexuality and to demonstrate the deficiencies of medical and nursing education in preparing health professionals to aid patients with sexual problems. Additional types of research using the SKAT are suggested. PMID:513145
The purposes of this study were to measure the nutrition knowledge and attitudes toward nutrition of caregivers in child care programs and relate these to the behaviors of caregivers as they interact with children at mealtime. The relationship between the independent variables: caregiver nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward nutrition, years of teaching experience, prior nutrition training, and level of education was
M. L. Nahikian-Nelms; P. O. Sarvela; C. Mogharreban; S. L. Andersen
Purpose. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship of counselor sex guilt to sex knowledge, sex attitudes, and level of facilitativeness towards the sexual concerns of adolescents.Method. Eighty-six volunteer subjects who had completed a minimum of a master's level practicum in Counseling Psychology were administered the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Scale and the Sex Attitude and
Within a socialization paradigm, a model was developed and tested to examine social network influences on adolescent sexual behavior and contraceptive use. It was hypothesized that the social network influences of parents and peers would affect the contraceptive knowledge and premarital sexualattitudes of adolescents. In turn, knowledge and attitudes were expected to influence sexual behavior and contraceptive use. The
Assessed sexualityattitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…
The incidence and subsequent rise of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is an important public health problem in Turkey, as it is in other parts of the world. Since the mid-1980s, the incidence of STIs among the Turkish population has increased dramatically, particularly in the major urban areas. One hundred and fifty registered sex trade workers were interviewed to examine their
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexualattitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexualattitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
This study examined the relationship between sex role identity and attitudes toward sexuality. The following hypotheses were tested and confirmed: males would have more positive attitudes toward sexuality than females, androgynous females would have more positive attitudes toward sexuality than feminine females, and androgynous males would have more positive attitudes toward sexuality than masculine males. The data suggest that androgynous
Attitudes toward homosexuality, attitudes toward women, sexual conservatism, social desirability, masculinity, femininity, and psychological androgyny were measured in 104 male and female subjects. Both nonfeminist and conservative sexualattitudes independently correlated with antihomosexual attitudes. Antihomosexual individuals held more stereotyped attitudes regarding women and defined acceptable heterosexual behaviors more narrowly than prohomosexual individuals. Psychological androgyny, measured with Bem's Sex-Role Inventory, did
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexualattitudes accounted for differences\\u000a in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges.\\u000a Results indicated differences in sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexualattitudes, religiosity,\\u000a and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual
Raffy R. Luquis; Gina M. Brelsford; Liliana Rojas-Guyler
Summary The overall findings suggest that while attitudes and perceptions of sexual harassment are related, they also differ, in that\\u000a attitudes require value judgments to be made of behavior. This explains the high relationship between attitudes to sexual\\u000a harassment and attitudes regarding gender role stereotypes. Sexist attitudes are associated with acceptance of sexual harassment.\\u000a The impact of age and occupation on
Objectives In South Korea, men who have sex with men (MSM) are rather understudied, but are known to be at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study was to access HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors, and to identify the factors of condom use in HIV prevention. Methods We recruited 1070 MSM in Korea, using the Internet to maximize the confidentiality of the MSM. Results The prevalence of self-reported and sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the total sample was 10.7% and 2.7%, respectively. Factual knowledge and phobias regarding HIV/AIDS and self-efficacy were relatively high among the MSM. After controlling for age, education, marital status, and sexual identity, predictors of condom use at most recent anal sex included knowledge (OR = 1.25; p < 0.0001); self-efficacy (OR = 1.33; p = 0.02), additionally, having HIV testing (OR = 1.45; p = 0.02); and having a regular partner (OR = 0.53; p < 0.0001) were also positively associated with condom use. Conclusion The intervention programs for MSM in Korea may need to take the idiosyncratic societal and cultural pressures of the region into consideration in order to reduce infection risk.
This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
|This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
We undertook a study amongst adolescents from Mabile High School in Bamako, Mali. The goal of the study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of high school students around STI/AIDS and family planning. It was a transversal study using a stratified sampling method. A total of 322 students between ten and 19 years of age were included in the study (191 boys, 131 girls) This study demonstrates that high school students do not often family planning services (only 13.4% of those who knew of the existence of such used them). The method of contraception most often used is still the condom (92.5%). HIV is the most well know STI (97.5%) followed by gonorrhea (45%). An absence of communication between adolescents and their parents around family planning and STI/AIDS was apparent in that information was most often received on these topics through the media (96.3% for family planning, 97.5% for AIDS) followed by friends (72.4% for family planning and 81.7% for AIDS). 59.3% of the students are sexually active. Of sexually active students, 41.3% have had sexual relations with a casual partner and 75.9% with at last two partners. Given their high number of partners and a lack of systematic condom usage, it is apparent that sexually active high school students practice high risk sexual behaviors. It is therefore crucial to develop methods to lead to an improvement in behaviors amongst adolescents. PMID:17390527
Sidibe, T; Sangho, H; Traore, M S; Cissé, M B; Diallo, B; Keîta, M M; Gendrel, D
Four hundred and fifty-one teenagers responded to a sexualattitude survey. Results focus on attitudes and values related to sexual activity and to parental and school involvement and responsibility for sex education. Findings are reported as they relate to six important sexual decisions: to have intercourse or not? to have children or not? to use contraceptives or not? to have
There is a paucity of data regarding sexuality among nursing home residents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate sexualattitudes in a group of independent residents in a large urban nursing home. Ten items covering different aspects of sexualattitude were scored by two board certified psychiatrists following a semistructured interview. The study was undertaken at a
Sex and sexual behaviour are an extremely important aspect of human behaviour, with implications for both individuals and societies. Sexual relationships can give immense pleasure and fulfilment to individuals, create families and ultimately underpin the viability of societies, but they can also have less positive consequences. For example, rates of sexually transmitted infections have been increasing strongly in Ireland since
Richard Layte; James Williams; Amanda Quail; Hannah McGee
Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students’ sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students’ HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers’ failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This training will equip them with self-confidence and interactive teaching skills, including tactics for emphasizing building students’ skills through role plays and interactive assignments. In addition, the HIV interventions themselves should include interactive virtual condom use demonstrations that can be accessed by students themselves.
|Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…
Sexual minority youth (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning youth) must function in a society that condones homophobia. Rendered invisible through the stigma attached to their identification as sexual minorities, they are conveniently forgotten by the institutions charged with facilitating their education. Results from a research study conducted by Sears (1991), indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be
The sexual behaviour, knowledge, attitude and practice for prevention and control measures against STD/HIV are discussed in this paper. In all 867 sex workers, belonging to different red light areas of Kolkata viz. Sonagachi 77.28% (670), Metiabruz 14.07% (122) and 8.65% (75) from Rampurgali, Khidderpore and Bow Bazar were studied. Majority of sex workers 74.28% (644) were under thirty years of age. Around 22.26% (193) were within 20 years and 5.85%(51) were above 40 years of age. Sex workers had more than one habit but commonest were betel nut chewing in 67.59%(586) and alcohol consumption either alone or with the clients in 61.1% (529). Drug abuse (IVD) was not agreed to by any of the sex workers. Around 78.09% (677) were in the trade for last ten years, and 21.91%(190) for more than ten years. The mean duration for which sex workers remain in the trade is 6.71 years. The average number of clients visiting them were 2.67 per sex workers per day. The commonest sexual practice was normal peno-vaginal in 94.1 % (823). Peno-oral sex is practiced by 32.5%(282) sex workers, of which 2.65 % (23) always, 2.31%(20) often and 27.0%(59) sometimes practiced it. Peno-rectal sex was practiced by 5.42% (47), with 2.31% (20) often and 3.11% (27) sometimes. Around 13.96% (121) sex workers participate in the group sex. The knowledge of STD/HIV infection was quite low, 49.48% (429) of CSWs had heard about STD/HIV/AIDS and around 49.6% (430) knew that STD/HIV could be prevented by condom use. PMID:15796410
Men's health awareness, including the research and study of quality of life, sexual desires and risk factors, has increased worldwide. In Thailand, this advancement is made possible by cooperation, research and sponsorship from the local Thai community. This article aims to illustrate the sexualattitudes of Thai people, to determine the degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate how to manage and cope with ED in a Thai community. We reviewed the relevant literature from Thai-based articles and surveys in regard to men's health, sexualattitudes, the prevalence of ED and common risk factors in the Thai community. The primary risk factor for ED in Thai men was age-related health decline and the presence of vascular disease. Most Thai men will seek consultation from their partner in regard to ED. The main presentation of metabolic disease in Thai patients was dyslipidemia. New selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not available for premature ejaculation in Thai communities. The debate in regard to malpractice compensation is an issue that should be closely monitored. There is currently a shortage of home care for the elderly in Thailand. The insights provided by the articles helped recruit the study patients and in turn, helped us gain knowledge that can be translated into improved men's health care in Thailand.
Background: There is a paucity of research in attitudes of care staff in residential and nursing homes regarding sexuality and older people in the United Kingdom. Aims: To investigate the attitudes of care staff in residential and nursing homes regarding residents' sexuality. Design: A descriptive questionnaire survey using the attitudinal part of the Aging SexualKnowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS).
Walter Pierre Bouman; Jon Arcelus; Susan Mary Benbow
The short-term effects of teenage parenting programs upon the knowledge and attitudes of pregnant teenagers were assessed. The programs studied produced a significant change in the teenagers' knowledge of sexuality and child development while having no apparent effect on the teenagers' parenting attitudes. The implications of producing changes in knowledge without accompanying changes in attitudes are discussed. PMID:6507149
Television is often blamed for making sexualknowledge available to children, and thereby for promoting `inappropriate' attitudes and behaviour. This article draws on data gathered as part of a larger research project about the changing nature of the child television audience. It considers how children (aged 6-7 and 10-11) interpret and respond to the representations of sexual behaviour they encounter
We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14- 17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance. We found lower HIV knowledge in sexually inexperienced youth, which suggested an area of vulnerability
This study examines the relationship between traumatic events and attitudes toward sexuality. Our results show that suffering trauma is related to more accepting attitudes concerning sexuality. Generally, people who suffer negative events, many of which are traumatic, are more likely to see both pornography and having a homosexual friend or family member as acceptable. Traumatic events that are sex-related or related to other physical assault proved to be most significant in the prediction of sexualityattitudes for women only. The results are specified by gender: Trauma predicts attitudes toward pornography for women but not for men, and traumatic events are associated with attitudes concerning homosexuality for women. These results are discussed in light of the previous research, and suggestions for future research made. PMID:14735409
This quasi-experimental, before-after study was designed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections, HIV and preventive behaviours among female sex workers in Shiraz, Iran. A single-group pre-post test design was used and the study was done between August and December 2009. The participants were 80 female sex workers recruited from three drop-in centers in Shiraz, with stratified random sampling. Pre-intervention knowledge was assessed by interview with a standard questionnaire. The educational intervention consisted of a lecture, face-to-face education, printed information, an educational movie, role playing and a contest. After 2 months, the effect of the intervention was evaluated (post-test). The average age of the participants was 32.6?±?9.1 years. After the intervention, the mean score for general knowledge about HIV and sexually transmitted infections increased from 13.7?±?0.95 (pre-test) to 19.47?±?11.62 (post-test, p?0.001). There were significant improvements in attitude and the number of participants who self-reported preventive behaviours such as using a condom consistently (from 45 to 63) (p?0.001). The results show that the educational programme was successful in increasing the participants' HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes, and in decreasing their risk behaviours. PMID:23970587
Background Sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are extremely vulnerable to sexual violence. From a public health perspective, the healthcare system is globally considered an important partner in the prevention of sexual violence. The aim of this study is twofold. In a first phase, we aimed to identify the current role and position of the Moroccan healthcare sector in the prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants. In a second phase, we wanted these results and available guidelines to be the topic of a participatory process with local stakeholders in order to formulate recommendations for a more desirable prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants by the Moroccan healthcare sector. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in Morocco concerning sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants and its prevention were firstly explored in semi-structured interviews after which they were discussed in a participatory process resulting in the formulation of recommendations. Results All participants (n=24) acknowledged the need for desirable prevention of sexual violence against transmigrants. Furthermore, important barriers in tertiary prevention practices, i.e. psychosocial and judicial referral and long-term follow-up, and in secondary prevention attitudes, i.e. active identification of victims were identified. Moreover, existing services for Moroccan victims of sexual violence currently do not address the sub-Saharan population. Thus, transmigrants are bound to rely on the aid of civil society. Conclusions This research demonstrates the low accessibility of existing Moroccan services for sub-Saharan migrants. In particular, there is an absence of prevention initiatives addressing sexual violence against the sub-Saharan transmigrant population. Although healthcare workers do wish to develop prevention initiatives, they are dealing with structural difficulties and a lack of expertise. Recommendations adapted to the context of sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are suggested.
Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290
|Research has been conducted on individual's knowledge and attitudes toward older adult sexuality. This includes investigating attitudes and knowledge of nursing home staff, college students, and the elderly themselves. The current experiment sought to replicate previous research findings by comparing college students' attitudes and knowledge of…
Thirty adults with mild mental retardation and 50 first-year psychology students were surveyed regarding their sexualknowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Subjects with mental retardation had less knowledge, more negative attitudes toward sexual issues, and less experience in intimacy and sexual intercourse, but more experience in…
Gender differences in sexualattitudes and behaviors are typically believed to be large, yet recent evidence suggests that some gender differences in sexuality are much smaller than common knowledge would suggest. This article reviews gender differences in sexualattitudes and behaviors as reported by major meta-analyses and large datasets. In particular, this article reviews gender differences in heterosexual intercourse, masturbation,
China is the most populated of any country in the world. Social norms and values pertaining to love and marriage have changed considerably since the launch of its open-door policy and economic reforms of the 1980s. Attitudes to sex have become more open, while the negative consequences of early sexual intercourse have become issues of health and social concern. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the teenage sexualattitudes and behaviour in contemporary China. A literature review was conducted between 2000 and 2010, using both English (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA) and Chinese language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database). Thirty-six studies were included and reviewed. It was found that young people reported poor sexualknowledge, especially in relation to reproductive matters and sexually transmitted infections. The media, such as television, magazines and the Internet, were seen as their main sources of information on sex. Despite the frequently reported liberal attitudes to sexual behaviour, only a small number of young people had already lost their virginity or been involved in pregnancies. Young men were more likely than young women to report having had sex, while respondents at vocational high schools were less likely to remain virgins than those at common/key high schools. Although the prevalence of sexual intercourse among Chinese teenagers was still lower than that reported in studies conducted in most western countries, the findings do reflect some changes in sexual values and behaviour of young people within the country. They also suggest the need to develop more comprehensive sex education programmes in co-operation with young people, schools, health organisations, families and communities and to make sexual and reproductive health services accessible to teenagers and unmarried young people throughout China. PMID:22404303
Although the teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are falling in the 16 to 19 year old range, they are still rising in the 13 to 15 year olds. Overall, they remain one of the highest within Western Europe. Teenagers continue to present a challenge to the health services due to the increase in their sexual risk taking behaviour, the earlier age at which they are starting sexual activity and a reluctance to utilise services available to them. In an attempt to develop current services and make them more 'user friendly', a sexual health needs assessment was carried out on teenagers, part of which looked at their attitudes towards risk taking sexual behaviour and their declared sexual behaviour. A quantitative survey, using a questionnaire in schools, was answered by 1500 pupils aged between 13 and 18 years old, and showed that the majority of teenagers had declared some form of sexual contact with a partner with a degree of sexual activity increasing with age. Twenty per cent of 13 year olds reported that they had already had either full or oral sexual intercourse with a partner. Feeling peer pressure, not knowing the facts about sexual risk taking and a declared intent that would increase the likelihood of putting themselves or others at risk sexually were significantly more likely in the younger teenage boys surveyed. This study confirms that there remain many different factors involved in teenagers' decision-making processes, about their developing attitudes towards sex and their resultant behaviour. Despite a lack of maturity, such opinions and attitudes are bringing about definite views and sexual behaviour patterns in teenagers as young as 12 or 13 years old who are becoming fully sexually active. In particular teenage boys are becoming fully sexually active at a younger age than the girls and are taking risks in doing so. They are being influenced by peer pressure, condoning promiscuity and are declaring the intent to practice unsafe sexual intercourse. Their level of maturity would appear to be inadequate for them to comprehend the implications and consequences of their actions. This study has shown a need for developing adequate education and provision of sexual health services for teenagers, particularly for teenage boys, and that this may go some way in helping to address the imbalances found. PMID:10023100
|This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
This classroom exercise is designed to facilitate insight and understanding of the relationships between sexualattitudes and sexual experiences among college students. First, students complete a 65-item survey on which they indicate their moderate to traditional sexualattitudes and their corresponding sexual experiences. Next, correlations, means, and additional statistics are calculated and discussed with the class. Students discuss the trends
|An overview of the curriculum of a college course entitled "Politics and Sex" and several strategies found to be effective in transforming students' attitudes about sexual violence are presented. The structure of the course rests on two fundamental principles, both associated with feminist theory. First, the personal is political. Second, that…
The Socio-SexualKnowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…
Objective: To assess students’ human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants\\/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior, vaccination status, as well as past and preferred sources of information about HPV and sexual
|This paper evaluates the current information base on sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities, specifically in the areas of sexualknowledge, sexual experience, sexual feelings and attitudes, and sexual need. Consideration of this information is critical in developing appropriate sex education programs that can enhance the quality of…
The objective of this study was to compare health care professionals' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices in providing sexual counselling to physically handicapped patients. Two hundred and twenty-six physicians, registered nurses, physiotherapists and occupational therapists completed mailed questionnaires. Physicians obtained the highest knowledge scores. However, all groups lacked knowledge about sexuality and disability. Although the study sample had very positive views about sexual counselling, the actual provision of counselling did not reflect these views, especially among nurses and therapists. The findings point to the need for health care professionals to obtain more knowledge and competence in counselling about sexuality and disability.
This study examined ethnic differences in sexual behaviors and attitudes, and associations between ethnic identity commitment and sexual behaviors and attitudes. African American (32%), Latino American (29%), and European American (39%) first-year college students (N = 434; 52% female) completed surveys about their sexual behaviors (number of partners, condom use, and alcohol use before intercourse) and attitudes (conservative attitudes, condom-related beliefs, and
This descriptive, exploratory study examined psychiatric nurses' attitudes towards sexuality, sexual assault/rape, and incest, and explored the relationships between these attitudes and the personal characteristics of the nurse. Contrary to previous research on nurses in nonpsychiatric settings, the nurses in this Canadian study had favorable attitudes towards sexuality and did not subscribe to attitudes of victim blaming in sexual assault/rape and incest. The strongest predictor of attitudes was age of the nurse (p < .02); cultural/ethnic background may also be associated with attitudes (p < .02). The results indicate a need to develop more precise measures of attitude for psychiatric nurses. PMID:8687255
|Describes a study measuring 203 students' attitude and behavior changes as a result of college human sexuality and social psychology courses. Findings showed significant attitude change and little behavior change, especially for human sexuality students. Conclusions are that a college sexuality course causes more liberal attitudes. (CK)|
To study reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and practices of youth in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1111 university students completed a questionnaire with 43 closed questions. The overall mean knowledge score was 54%. Knowledge of males and females, and of married and single students, was similar. Of 664 students answering questions about reproductive health behaviour, 54 (8%) reported having sexual intercourse before marriage; 16% of males and 0.6% of females; 48% of them had used condoms. The majority of students believed that the risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections was moderate but that youth had a low ability to practise healthy behaviour. The majority believed in the benefits of reproductive health knowledge for youth but felt that services were inadequate. PMID:16761658
Sexual practices and attitudes to sex have raised concerns among the young and the old alike in India. The topic of sex has become slightly more open following the AIDS\\/HIV epidemic. The present study is aimed at understanding nuances of sexual behaviour and analysing the impact of different life stages on sexualattitudes and practices. Four focus groups and four
Dinesh Bhugra; Reenu Mehra; Padmal de Silva; Vijay Rahul Bhintade
A survey of 458 early adolescents (87% White; 278 females and 280 males; Mage = 13) examined the interacting relationship between family environment and involvement with pop music, and attitudes toward sexual harassment, while also controlling for sex. Attitudes toward sexual harassment were assessed by an eight-item Likert-type scale constructed from common behavioral definitions of sexual harassment (reliability alpha =
Jeremiah S. Strouse; Megan P. Goodwin; Bruce Roscoe
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to sexual music videos and young people's sexualattitudes (i.e., premarital sexual permissiveness and endorsement of the sexual double standard). Items gauging exposure to 75 music videos ranging in sexual explicitness were used to measure sexual video viewing among a sample of 266 undergraduate students. As expected, exposure
This study examined the relationship between sexualattitudes and engagement in sexual activity among a sample of 401 college women. In addition, we investigated the potential role of body image as a mediator of this relationship. Online surveys included self-report measures of sexualattitudes ranging from liberal to conservative, body image satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Results indicated that
Jessica L. Lemer; Elizabeth H. Blodgett Salafia; Kristen E. Benson
This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexualattitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo
|This study investigated relationships between high school counselors' ethical decision-making, gender, attitudes towards gender, and sexualattitudes. Of the 161 respondents, only 157 participants' data sets were included in the data set. Participants completed the Ethical Decision-Making Questionnaire, The Brief SexualAttitudes Scale (Hendrick,…
Gender differences in sexualattitudes and behaviors are typically believed to be large, yet recent evidence suggests that some gender differences in sexuality are much smaller than common knowledge would suggest. This article reviews gender differences in sexualattitudes and behaviors as reported by major meta-analyses and large datasets. In particular, this article reviews gender differences in heterosexual intercourse, masturbation, pornography use, attitudes toward premarital sex, and gender differences in same-gender sexuality. Evolutionary psychology, social cognitive learning theory, and social structural theory are explored as possible explanations for gender differences in sexuality. PMID:21409712
The link between adolescents' exposure to sexual media content and their sexual socialization has hardly been approached from an identity development framework. Moreover, existing research has largely ignored the role of adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit Internet material in that association. This study introduces two characteristics of adolescents' sexual self—sexual uncertainty and attitudes toward sexual exploration—and investigates these characteristics as
|Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…
|A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…
In this research, positive or negative impacts of different parental attitudes on children's sexual identity and character development have been presented. The general object of the research is to determine the impacts of parental attitude towards child's sexual identity development on the sexual identity development of the children during pre-school period. The research, for which the general scanning model is
This paper investigates racial and ethnic differences in sexualattitudes, beliefs about prostitution, childhood victimization, re- lationship issues, and attitudes towards sexual violence against women among men arrested for soliciting sexual favors from sex workers in four American cities. Using ANOVA for means comparison, this project will make an original and significant contribution to criminal justice poli- cies that address
The United States has the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and birth in the Western industrialized world, and research indicates that television and other mass media are important sources of sexual information for young people. The purpose of this study was to determine if a teen-led, media literacy curriculum focused on sexual portrayals in the media would increase adolescents' awareness of media myths concerning sex, decrease the allure of sexualized portrayals, and decrease positive expectancies for sexual activity. A posttest-only quasi-experiment with control groups was conducted at 22 school and community sites in Washington state (N = 532). The intervention, a 5-lesson media literacy curriculum targeted primarily to middle school students, encouraged sexual abstinence because of federal government funding requirements. Adolescents evaluated the program positively, with 85% rating it as better than other sex education programs. Compared to control-group participants, students were less likely to overestimate sexual activity among teens, more likely to think they could delay sexual activity, less likely to expect social benefits from sexual activity, more aware of myths about sex, and less likely to consider sexual media imagery desirable. The results showed that media literacy has promise as part of a sex education program by providing adolescents with a cognitive framework necessary to understand and resist the influence of media on their decision making concerning sex. PMID:18850393
Responds to Krull's conclusions (1994) that higher educational attainment is indirectly related to sexual promiscuity through more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex. Criticizes Krull's omission of certain variables, recoding of variables, and assumption of a one-way causal relationship between sexualattitudes and behaviors. Reanalysis with…
College students were surveyed to determine their knowledge about AIDS and attitudes toward condom use. Overall scores were high, with a mean of 22.5 on the 28-item true-false questionnaire. Of the 81 percent of respondents who indicated they were presently or had been sexually active, only 40 percent reported using condoms; 87 percent expressed an intention to have vaginal intercourse and 18 percent to have rectal intercourse. From the open-ended questions about condoms, 37 beliefs were elicited and the 10 most frequently mentioned were identified. The majority of subjects reported protection against sexually transmitted diseases and preventing pregnancy as the most important reasons for using condoms. Forty-seven percent also believed condoms important for preventing AIDS. Other significant beliefs about condom use included that they cause less worry, interfere with spontaneous sexual response, decrease pleasure for self and/or partner, are inconvenient and uncomfortable, and decrease feeling. The most significant referents for deciding about condom use were mothers in younger subjects and sexual partners for older subjects. These results indicate the need for influencing attitudes and normative beliefs to change condom use behavior. PMID:2780497
The United States has the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and birth in the Western industrialized world, and research indicates that television and other mass media are important sources of sexual information for young people. The purpose of this study was to determine if a teen-led, media literacy curriculum focused on sexual portrayals in the media would increase adolescents' awareness
Bruce E. Pinkleton; Erica Weintraub Austin; Marilyn Cohen; Yi-Chun “Yvonnes” Chen; Erin Fitzgerald
Women are more likely to experience sexual harassment in some work settings than others; specifically, work settings that have a large proportion of male workers, include a predominance of male supervisors, and represent traditional male occupations may be places in which there is greater tolerance for sexual harassment. The focus of the study was to document attitudes toward women among military personnel, to identify demographic and military characteristics associated with more positive attitudes toward women, and to examine associations between attitudes toward women and tolerance for sexual harassment. The study was based on data from 2,037 male and female former Reservists who reported minimal or no experiences of sexual harassment and no sexual assault in the military. Results suggest that attitudes toward women vary across content domains, are associated with several key demographic and military characteristics, and predict tolerance for sexual harassment. Implications of the findings and future directions are discussed. PMID:17704049
Vogt, Dawne; Bruce, Tamara A; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane
The effects of censored versus uncensored sexually explicit music on undergraduate students’ attitudes toward premarital sex, perception of peer sexual activity, and attitudes toward women were examined. Under the guise of a lyrical memory task, the experiment involved groups of participants who were randomly assigned to listen to an uncensored sexually explicit song, a censored version of the same song,
This paper explores Israeli professionals' knowledge about and attitudes towards AIDS. While AIDS in Israel is not generally considered to be a pressing crisis, the aim of the research is to document and analyze what professionals in the helping professions know and how they feel about AIDS. The study also explores thoughts and feelings concerning AIDS-related education and training. The
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced
Ten bilingual West African peer educators conducted a 3-hour workshop on sexual health for small groups of West African refugees (N = 58) who recently had settled in Perth, Western Australia. There were significant increases in the participants’ knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, how these infections are spread, and how to protect against infection. In addition, attitudes toward
Peter D. Drummond; Ayse Mizan; Katie Brocx; Bernadette Wright
Objectives: To explore the knowledge and attitudes of the general public about child sexual abuse (CSA) through a population-based survey.Method: A survey was completed by 246 respondents living in Klamath Falls, a small city in rural eastern Oregon. Specific areas of inquiry included who respondents believed were likely perpetrators of CSA, when a child was most likely to disclose sexual
|Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate three sets of predictors of attitudes toward homosexuality: (a) anti?black and orthodox religious attitudes, (b) sexual permissiveness, and (c) the effect of an introductory human sexuality course. Significantly more positive attitudes were expected for those holding more positive attitudes toward blacks and those who were more sexually permissive. A negative relationship was
|The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…
West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew
As the world's biodiversity is being destroyed, costs for na- ture protection activities increase. One proposed way to increase peo- ple's pro-environmental attitudes is to increase their knowledge base. It has been suggested that knowledge and attitudes are related, but no consensus in this field yet exists. Thus, the investigation of the relationship between attitudes and knowledge has valuable implications
Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important. PMID:14670775
A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstrated. Both males and females showed poor knowledge about and entertained conservative attitudes. Surprisingly, normal subjects were no different from patients with sexual problems.
Sexual assault against women and HIV infection are both prevalent and related social problems in South Africa. The current study examined hostile attitudes toward women, acceptance of violence against women and masculine ideological beliefs in relation to sexual assault history among men in a Cape Town township in South African. Men (n=435) completed anonymous surveys of sexual assault history, HIV
S. C. Kalichman; L. C. Simbayi; D. Cain; C. Cherry; N. Henda; A. Cloete
The impact of a college human sexuality course upon sexualattitudes and behavior was examined. A questionnaire, designed by the authors, was administered to students of a human sexuality course and a social psychology course at the beginning and end of the spring semester, 1975. On six of the seven attitudinal categories measured, students from…
We studied 114 romantically involved women to examine empirically the psychological connections between menstruation and sexuality. As menstruation is a distinctive sign of both reproductive potential and sexual maturity, we hypothesized that the attitudes women have towards menstruation will correlate with their sexualattitudes, desires, and behavior. As predicted, a comfort with personal sexuality was associated with a comfort with menstruation as a normal, publicly acceptable event. This association remained after controlling for liberal attitudes and disgust sensitivity. In addition, women who had engaged in sexual relations with their current partner during menses were significantly more comfortable with menstruation, more aroused by romantic and unconventional sexual activities, and less sensitive to disgust. PMID:12710830
ABSTRACT. Background. Adolescents in the United States are engaging in sexual activity at early ages and with multiple partners. The mass media have been shown to affect a broad range of adolescent health-re- lated attitudes and behaviors including violence, eating disorders, and tobacco and alcohol use. One largely un- explored factor that may contribute to adolescents’ sexual activity is their
Patricia Eitel; Patricia Thickstun; Susan R. Tortolero; Christine M. Markham
For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…
Previous studies have shown the relation of dogmatism to political, religious and racial attitudes, but few have explored if this finding can be extended generally to sexualattitudes. This study explored if the findings can be extended to sexualattitudes by examining if religious fundamentalism, political conservatism, years of education, age and geographic immobility could predict (1) sexualattitudes and
In this paper, we argue that education and the possibility of becoming educated are in tension with sexuality in schools and that, consequently, students tend either to suppress all kinds of knowledges—embodied and otherwise—that are neither welcome nor recognised within the formal contexts of schooling or debar themselves from success in terms of educational achievement. Students embody identities both as
Investigated knowledge, attitudes, and training needs of professionals working with adolescents who deliberately self-harm (DSH). Over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual males and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH; one-third were unaware adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of…
|Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
|Examines the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereotyped music video imagery on the sexualattitudes of male and female viewers. Finds that traditional sexual imagery had a significant effect on attitudes about adversarial sexual relationships and gender had main effects on 3 of 4 sexualattitudes. (CMK)|
Examines the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereotyped music video imagery on the sexualattitudes of male and female viewers. Finds that traditional sexual imagery had a significant effect on attitudes about adversarial sexual relationships and gender had main effects on 3 of 4 sexualattitudes. (CMK)
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome for youth. PYD philosophy and theory, bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1998), and identity development theory (Erikson, 1983, 1968; Marcia, 1980, 1993) provided the foundation for this study and were used to make the connections between PYD, adolescent sexuality (including attitudes and behavior), and aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship. Both self-esteem and sexual experience were significant predictors of attitudes regarding sex, but overall, parents contributed the most influence on the outcome variable. (It should be noted, however, that parental influence was the only factor that was a significant predictor.) Only one of the two involvements in activities variables was a significant predictor of attitudes regarding sex. PMID:19086667
LEARNING OUTCOME: To assess nutrition knowledge and attitudes of former collegiate athletes.participants in this study were 400 University graduates who had participated in intercollegiate athletics within the last 10 years. They were sent a survey on athletic participation and nutrition knowledge and attitudes. The response rate was 3 5%. Scores on the general nutrition knowledge questions were 57% and on
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
|Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…
McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.
|Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…
McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.
Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…
Traditional femininity ideology is associated with diminished sexual agency in women; yet we know little about its connection to sexualknowledge or experiences of one's body during sex. This study examined how femininity ideology related to sexual health knowledge, body comfort during sex, condom self-efficacy, and sexual assertiveness in college-age women. Femininity ideologies were related to decreased sexual-risk knowledge and
Nicola Curtin; L. Monique Ward; Ann Merriwether; Allison Caruthers
To further the understanding of the relationship between social class and sexualattitudes and behavior, we present data from a study of undergraduate students. We look at the education of students' fathers and how it relates to students' sexual profiles. Among the men, some traditional social class differences are found, indicating that class differences persist among some upwardly mobile men.
Martin S. Weinberg; Ilsa L. Lottes; Liahna E. Gordon
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a child and may thus be risk factors for, or the result of
|This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but perceptions of old age were best predicted
|This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…
|The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors…
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
|This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
|This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…
Objectives of this study were to ascertain nutrition attitudes, knowledge, and food pur chasing practices of preschoolers' parents and to compare attitudes, practices, and knowledge of parents by type of child care program, sex, age, education level, family size, residence, occupation, nutrition training, and money spent on food eaten at home and away from home. The target population was parents,
This cross-sectional survey explored the association between functional health literacy and knowledge of, beliefs and attitudes about, and reported usage of colorectal cancer screening tests. The results indicate that functional health literacy, as assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA), is not an independent predictor of colorectal cancer screening knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, or behavior. Latino
Carmen E. Guerra; Francisco Dominguez; Judy A. Shea
This study evaluated the effects of self-other perspective, sexualattitudes, and a sexual victimization history on women’s\\u000a estimates of sexual risk for a set of vignettes describing situations that they may face when interacting socially with men.\\u000a One hundred and twenty-four women from a medium sized southwestern university in the US were assigned to two different conditions\\u000a (imagine self vs.
Elizabeth A. Yeater; Richard J. Viken; Tim Hoyt; Jamie L. Dolan
This study investigated short-term effects of exposure to hip-hop music videos with varying degrees of sexual imagery on viewers' acceptance of the objectification of women, sexual permissiveness, gender attitudes, and rape myth acceptance. Using a posttest-only group experimental design, college undergraduates (N = 195) viewed a set of 5 hip-hop music videos of either high or low sexual content. Male participants who
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child sexual abuse among many professional and other individuals, child sexual abuse myths persist. A Google search produced 119 child sexual abuse myths, some with overlapping themes. Coders grouped myths into four categories: (a) minimizations or exaggerations of the extent of harm child sexual abuse poses, (b) denials of the extent of child sexual abuse, (c) diffusions of perpetrator blame, and (d) perpetrator stereotypes. This review provides available data regarding the prevalence for these myths, empirical research that refutes or confirms myth categories, and considerations of cultural contexts and implications. PMID:21113832
This study examines the premarital sexualattitudes and behavior of black high school girls. An attempt is made to relate family structure, social class, and religious participation to these attitudes and behavior. Analysis of the data supported an hypothesis specifying a relationship between family structure and sexualattitudes and behavior. Social class appears to slightly influence attitudes, but behavior of
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexualknowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related knowledge and reproductive health services to youth aged 15-24 over a period
|Male college students (N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness…
Male college students (N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness…
Attitudes regarding sexuality and older people is a relatively under-researched area, despite its topical relevance as people live longer, remain healthy, and are better educated and well informed. The first part of the literature review examines the attitudes different age groups have about sexuality and old people. The second part describes the existing literature, which has investigated the attitudes of
The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715
The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a sexual assault prevention program on college students' rape-related attitudes and experiences with sexual aggression and victimization. Attitudes and sexual aggression and victimization experiences were assessed both prior to the program and 9 weeks following the program. Results suggested that program participants evidenced less rape myth acceptance at posttest than
CHRISTINE A. GIDYCZ; MELISSA J. LAYMAN; CINDY L. RICH; MARIE CROTHERS; JULIUS GYLYS; ABIGAIL MATORIN; CECILIA DINE JACOBS
|Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…
Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Using a college sample of heterosexual students (n =
|The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…
|Dating behaviors and sexualattitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…
Chinese society is changing rapidly. As a result of the political and economic reforms of the ‘socialist market economy’, for example, people have more choices than before. To examine current attitudes to sexual behaviour and marriage, 1100 university students from different parts of China were asked to talk about their views on marriage and choosing a marriage partner, and to
Dating behaviors and sexualattitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…
|The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use…
|The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…
Nina Thornburg's (1988) Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire was distributed to 326 randomly selected Illinois psychologists. Of 117 usable questionnaires received, the mean score for knowledge questions was 7.5 of a maximum score of 18. Respondents were most knowledgeable about near-death elements of peace, out-of-body transcendence, and tunnel\\/light phenomena. The mean score for the attitude portion of the instrument
Nutrition knowledge and attitude changes were measured in 171 students completing a three-credit hour Nutrition course and 249 students completing a one-credit hour Nutrition Concepts course. Knowledge and attitude were measured on the first class day (pre-test) and at the end of the one semester courses (post-test). Instruments used were the previously validated Nutrition Knowledge Test (NKT) (50 multiple-choice questions)
Thirty-one individuals, 15 with autistic disorder and 16 with developmental delay, male and female, were asked to select from a series of drawings depicting sexually relevant activities and to define them. In addition they were asked to describe their sexual experiences, attitudes, and interests, using a semistructured interview format. Ability to select through pointing out sexually relevant body parts or activities was not different by level of functioning, group, or gender. There were differences in providing a sociosexual label, however, with better performance for those with developmental delay and for the higher functioning. No differences were evident for sexual experiences, likely because of the considerable variability across subjects and types of activity, with some individuals reporting very many and others very few. As to attitudes, individuals with autistic disorder endorsed more sexual activities than those with developmental delay. Higher knowledge of sexuality terms and activities was inversely related to their endorsement. Literalness and perseveration were evident in the responses of some, primarily those with autistic disorder. Results are discussed for their relevance to the reliability and validity of information on sexual awareness among the developmentally disabled. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:9261666
People who attach personal importance to an attitude are especially knowledgeable about the attitude object. This article tests an explanation for this relation: that importance causes the accumulation of knowledge by inspiring selective exposure to and selective elaboration of relevant information. Nine studies showed that (a) after watching televised debates between presidential candidates, viewers were better able to remember the
Allyson L. Holbrook; Matthew K. Berent; Jon A. Krosnick; Penny S. Visser; David S. Boninger
Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students' sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188
Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students’ sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment.
Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17–19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image, lifetime sexual behavior, sexual double standard attitudes, and attitudes about condoms. Males who
Meghan M. Gillen; Eva S. Lefkowitz; Cindy L. Shearer
We conducted a review of literature regarding sexualattitudes and double standards, focusing on participant gender and ethnic\\u000a background. We found that men had more permissive sexualattitudes than women, and that African Americans had the most permissive\\u000a sexualattitudes, followed by White Americans, then by Hispanic Americans and Asian Americans. The literature regarding sexual\\u000a double standards was mixed; some
Madeleine A. Fugère; Carlos Escoto; Alita J. Cousins; Matt L. Riggs; Paul Haerich
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment `sometimes' or `frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be `sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of `zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis.?
Genetic modification remains a controversial issue. The aim of this study is to analyse the attitudes towards genetic modification, the knowledge about it and its acceptability in different application areas among German consumers. Results are based on a survey from spring 2005. An exploratory factor analysis is conducted to identify the attitudes towards genetic modification. The identified factors are used
|The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)|
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775
Male college students ( N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness to intervene, in regression analyses only perceived peer attitudes emerged as a significant predictor of willingness to intervene. Results suggest that personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression are not as relevant to men's willingness to intervene against sexual aggression as are perceived peer norms regarding sexual aggression. Findings are relevant to sexual assault prevention education with men, suggesting that attempts to encourage bystander intervention may be best presented in the context of challenging perceived norms. PMID:19401602
LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will recognize there are gender differences with respect to knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among adolescents.This cross-sectional study compared the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding breastfeeding among male and female adolescents. The study was a convenience sample of N=186 drawn from four metropolitan high schools in Reno, NV. The questionnaire was an 18 item survey with a
Conducted a survey of 288 adolescents to see how their sources of sexual information, sexual interests, and actual knowledge were related to their sex, age, urban or rural residence, and ethnicity. Findings suggest that demographic characteristics of students should be considered by persons interested in adolescent sexualknowledge. (Author)
Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, no evidence of a cause-effect relationship was found.
The relationships among psychopathic personality traits, rape-supportive attitudes, and self-reported sexual aggression were examined (N=191). Both psychopathic traits and rape-supportive attitudes were strongly related to degree of sexual aggression; however, there was no evidence that traits and attitudes as currently measured play different…
Traditional gender role attitudes, which emphasize an unequal distribution of power in the family and stereotypical norms about masculinity, may be associated with unsafe sexual behavior and beliefs in young men and women. This study was designed to examine associations between gender role attitudes including gender-based family role attitudes and masculinity ideology, sexual behaviors, and condom-related beliefs in a sample
Cindy L. Shearer; Shelley J. Hosterman; Meghan M. Gillen; Eva S. Lefkowitz
To explore sexual health knowledge among Latino immigrants in a Southern U.S. city, we conducted 20 qualitative interviews, (10 Women and 10 Men). We explored knowledge and factors associated with sexual health among male and female Latino immigrants in a Southern U.S. city experiencing a major growth of Latino immigrants in the past 10 years. Both genders demonstrated limited knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and risks of sexually transmitted infection (STI) acquisition. Neither gender perceived that they could have an asymptomatic STI, including HPV. Gender differences exist in sexual behaviors and perceptions of STI risk. Females indicated that female Latinas tend to have older sexual initiation age, fewer lifetime sexual partners and more pro-active sexual health than did Latinos when referring to Latino males. Consequently, male and female Latino immigrants could benefit from culturally relevant programs to alleviate STI disparities. PMID:22273804
Seal, Paula S; Garcés-Palacio, Isabel C; Halanych, Jewell H; Scarinci, Isabel C
This research applied attachment theory to the study of sexualattitudes and behaviors in a sample of late adolescents. Four hundred and seventy heterosexual undergraduate students completed questionnaires assessing attachment (discomfort with closeness; anxiety over relationships). relationship history, communication about sex. sexual self-efficacy and locus of control, and attitudes to condoms. Eight weeks later, participants reported on sexual behaviors occurring
Judith A. Feeney; Candida Peterson; Cynthia Gallois; Deborah J. Terry
Women with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are prone to have sexual relationship difficulties and dysfunctional attitudes toward sexuality. A sample of 34 heterosexual couples composed of women meeting BPD criteria was compared to a sample of dating or married women from the general population. A short form of the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire (SAAQ) was used to measure six
While the power of advertisements has long been known, investigations of sociocultural influences on sexualattitudes have been limited primarily to studies of sexually aggressive media. In this study we examined the effects on sexualattitudes of different portrayals of women in advertisements. Male and female white middle-class university students were exposed to one of three groups of advertisements. In
|Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…
PurposeMass media play an important role in the socialization of youth. Given its expanding nature and accessibility, the Internet may be at the forefront of this education. However, the extent of the Internet's impact on adolescent sexualattitudes and behaviors is not yet known.
The current paper examines the frequency of inter-generational disagreement reported by mothers and adolescents as a function of the quality of their interaction, and the match between their sexualattitudes. We expected that the quality of family interaction would act as a ‘family asset’ that would enable members of families to manage and control the tensions caused by differences in
This study was an initial attempt to understand the impact of parents, peers, the media, and sex education curricula on shaping adolescents’ knowledge and attitudes about dating relationships and sexuality. In addition, participants’ descriptions of what constitutes a “good” date and a “bad” date were investigated. One hundred participants (48 females, 52 males) aged thirteen to sixteen participated; half of
The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in Oslo. Some likelihood of having sex with a preadolescent (less than 12 years of age) was reported by 5.9% of the males. The 19.1% of the males who indicated some likelihood of having sex with a 13- to 14-year old, compared to those who did not, reported more high-frequency drinking, more alcohol-related problems, earlier sexual initiation, more conduct problems, and poorer psychosocial adjustment. This subgroup also reported more high-frequency use of pornography, having more friends with an interest in child pornography and violent pornography, and greater use of coercion to obtain sexual favors. PMID:15727404
This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and professional practices of pharmacists regarding addiction and patient use of controlled medications. This research project explored the relationship between pharmacy education, perceived and actual knowledge, and professional interactions as it pertains to problems surrounding dependency and addiction. A questionnaire of 25 items was administered at three separate continuing education programs in Florida in
The purpose of this study was to determine agricultural education undergraduates' knowledge and attitudes about international agricultural issues. A proportional stratified sample of 293 students responded to the study. Only 5% achieved a passing score in the knowledge assessment about agricultural policies, products, peoples, and cultures. More than 40% of the respondents cited watching international news stories on television as
Gary J. Wingenbach; Barry L. Boyd; James R. Lindner; Shanna Dick
The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet\\/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in
Wei Lin; Hsiao-Chi Yang BS; Chi-Ming Hang; Wen-Harn Pan
The study was conducted in a large university-affiliated teaching general hospital, drawing upon the professional health care staff as subjects. 80 subjects were issued questionnaires, 74 (92.5%) of whom returned completed questionnaires. Of these 43 (58.1%) were nursing sisters and 31 (41.9%) were medical doctors; 48 (64.9%) were female and 26 (35.1%) were male; 61 (82.4%) were White, 7 (9.5%) were Colored, 4 (5.4%) were Indian, and 2 (2.7%) were Black. The age range was 22-64 years (X = 38 years). The questionnaire intended to measure: knowledge about AIDS; attitudes toward AIDS; attitudes toward homosexuality; and attitudes toward the sexuality of Black people. The final knowledge scale required respondents to choose between options of right/wrong or true/false. The attitudes were assessed on a 5-point Likert Scale (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree). The range of scores obtained in the knowledge section was from 22% to 100% correct (the mean was 77%). The results indicated a high level of knowledge of AIDS within the group. Items answered with the lowest degree of accuracy included dates, statistics, and specific technical aspects. Some respondents apparently failed to differentiate between HIV infection and full-blown AIDS. Negative attitudes (especially with regard to AIDS patients' rights) were evident. 50.0% of subjects felt that homosexuality is a psychological disorder, and 52.7% agreed that it is immoral. Attitudes to homosexuality reflected general reluctance to comprehend the normality of these people as well as an ambivalence about their life-styles. In response to statements directly relating homosexuality to AIDS, certain respondents did believe in such a direct causal link. Regarding attitudes to the sexuality of Blacks, certain statements measured the degree of blame attached to Black people for the spread of HIV disease. Knowledge about AIDS correlated significantly with attitudes towards the disease, but this correlation was the weakest significant correlation elicited (p 0.05). PMID:12346146
Schlebusch, L; Bedford, R; Bosch, B A; Du Preez, M R
Background Information on the knowledge of, and attitudes and practices towards epilepsy of the general population in Thailand is still limited, particularly with respect to the differences between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample population of 1,000, with 500 participants each from municipal and nonmunicipal areas, in the Khon Kaen district. Results The participants in the municipal area had higher incomes and higher education than did the participants in the nonmunicipal area. Both groups had low knowledge regarding epilepsy definition, causes, and treatment, but participants in the municipal area were more knowledgeable on the causes, types, and treatment of epilepsy. With respect to attitude, there were a significantly higher number of nonmunicipal participants than municipal participants who thought epilepsy was a disgusting disorder or that persons with epilepsy were sinful, had brain damage, and could not attend school. The municipal participants showed greater knowledge of correct practice than did nonmunicipal participants with regard to the following: not driving a car; avoiding acrobatic sports, fighting, or water sport; able to eat pork, not having to resign from work; not having to quit school; and able to have sexual relations. Conclusion The participants from the municipal area had better knowledge, attitudes, and practices than did the participants from the nonmunicipal area. A campaign should be carried out to promote knowledge and understanding of, and practices towards epilepsy. Different emphases should be placed on the two groups of populations and different strategies used.
The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge. PMID:17312628
Reviewed the literature on college students' sexualattitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…
|Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexualattitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was…
BackgroundOncology nurses should possess a high level of sensitivity while dealing with patients’ sexual health needs. However, sexual health care is still inadequately addressed because of barriers such as conservative beliefs and incorrect assumptions regarding sexual issues. Most scales for measuring attitude toward sexual health care were insufficient to establish the instrument's validity and did not focus on oncology nurses.
Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexualattitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…
Eight hundred and ninety six adolescents aged 11-25 years were recruited into this study using a multi-stage random sampling method. Overall, about 33% of them had already had first sexual experience but more males than females reported having experienced first sexual encounter. Only 3.6% of the respondents were married. One half of the sexually experienced adolescents had more than one sexual partner at the time of the study. Majority of the respondents (91.9%) had heard about HIV/AIDS and at least a STD. A wide disparity was found in knowledge and use of the contraceptive methods studied, ranging from 41.9% to 63.8% for knowledge and from 0.7% to 12.5% for use. Knowledge and use of condom was highest. For prevention of HIV/AIDS, more males than females thought condom was useful. More Gwari and Hausa respondents claimed that they did not use any family planning method during their first sexual relationship than Yoruba and Igbo respondents. There is need for reproductive health programmes to intensify efforts towards improving adolescents' attitudes to risky sexual behaviours and motivate them to undertake behaviours that would limit such risks. PMID:12816312
Sunmola, Adegbenga M; Dipeolu, Morenike; Babalola, Sunday; Adebayo, Otu D
Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…
Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.
This research explores and compares primary student teachers’ attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students were more confident, but no more knowledgeable nor more secure in their PCK.
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1041 students in secondary schools and colleges in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania to evaluate the rela- tionship between HIV-risky sexual behaviour and anti-condom bias, as well as with AIDS- related information, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes. Self-reportedly, 54% of students (75% of the boys and 40% of the girls) were sexually active, 39% had a regular
E. S. Maswanya; K. Moji; I. Horiguchi; K. Nagata; K. Aoyagi; S. Honda; T. Takemoto
Grade-related similarities and differences in AIDS knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 441 fifth, seventh, and tenth graders from one school district. Grade level was a significant variable (p less than .01) on 53% of items. Grade-related differences in knowledge were apparent when students responded to questions tapping information not covered widely in the media and in attitudes when personal engagement in behavior was implied. Cognitive and emotional factors related to developmental milestones were postulated to account for these differences. These findings need to be considered in planning and implementing AIDS prevention programs, especially as education is begun for younger children. PMID:2232731
Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663
Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of secondary school pupils in order to ascertain whether the current government public health and education policies are having any impact on pupils' sexual health. Design: Results obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study. Setting: Nineteen mixed-sex, state secondary…
Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexualattitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to the low number of AIDS cases and poor information about the problem, boys do not concern themselves with safer sex behavior. Finally, recent political and economic change in Poland has prompted boys to delay their sexual initiation and avoid permanent relationships and early marriages in the attempt to not ruin any plans for their future which they may have. PMID:12283770
This research has expanded our understanding of the determinants of adolescent sexuality in several directions. We have used a study of mothers and children to construct and estimate a model of the intergenerational transmission of sexualattitudes and behavior. With data collected from both mothers and children, we were able to proceed further than most past research and to consider both the attitudes and behaviors of mothers as reported by the mothers themselves. These data permitted an investigation of the determinants of maternal attitudes concerning adolescent sexuality as well as an examination of the influences of the attitudes and experiences of mothers on the attitudes, perceptions, and behavior of children. Obviously, limiting the study to white families prevents generalization of our findings to other subgroups of the population. The findings demonstrate the importance and relevance of parental and adolescent attitudes in understanding adolescent sexuality. Premarital sexuality is a salient issue to both young people and their parents. There are, however, very important and substantial differences in the attitudes of parents and children. On average, the attitudes of young people today are much less restrictive than those of their parents, reflecting either life cycle differences or the impact of social change. The intergenerational difference is recognized by young people themselves and probably affects the ability of parents to assist their maturing children in adjusting to and dealing with their sexuality--a difficulty likely to be reflected in the relative lack of success sexually active young people have in preventing pregnancy. Our findings also add to the research literature in demonstrating that although children, on average, have more permissive attitudes than their parents, the attitudes of individual parents tend to be reflected in the attitudes of individual children. Children whose mothers have less restrictive attitudes have, on average, less restrictive attitudes themselves. Further, the attitudes of mothers are also reflected in the behavior of their children, so on average, mothers with more permissive attitudes have children who are more sexually active. The influence of maternal attitudes, however, is stronger for children's attitudes than for their behavior. Of course, variability in children's attitudes and behavior--and even their perceptions of maternal attitudes--can only be partially explained by the attitudes of their mothers; but presumably, if the attitudes of other important family members, including fathers and siblings, were known, the prediction of adolescent attitudes would improve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3678537
People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ?50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups. PMID:22533309
|Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexualattitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…
The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative…
Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexualattitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…
Associations between magazine use and sexualattitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexualattitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…
|Associations between magazine use and sexualattitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexualattitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…
|Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students from 12 university campuses (N = 177) participated in this study that examined the relationships between adult attachment, LGB identity, and sexualattitudes. Findings indicated that adult attachment was significantly related to LGB identity and sexualattitudes and that an LGB identity variable…
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Schale, Codi L.; Broz, Kristina K.
|This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
Television provides a wide range of depictions that help to shape people's knowledge, beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviors. In the realm of sexual socialization, television is thought to contribute to young people's knowledge about sexual relationships, their judgments about social norms regarding sexual activity, and their attitudes about sexual behaviors, among other influences. An increasing collection of evidence documents these
Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
This paper presents a critical review of the concept of sexual socialization. A reformulation of conceptions of sexual socialization identifies five components of the developmental process (development of sex-object preference; development of gender roles; development of a gender identity; acquisition of sexual skills, knowledge, and values; and development of sexualattitudes). Sexual socialization, also referred to as sexualization, is defined
Purpose Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation. Results Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60–69per cent) compared to weight lifters (43per cent) who had satisfactory (50–59per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70–79per cent) knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters. Conclusion The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements.
Background. Strategies to prevent adult osteoporosis are best undertaken during childhood and adolescence, when the greatest amount of bone mineral density is acquired. This study examines pediatricians' knowledge and practices regarding osteoporosis prevention.Methods. One hundred eighty-seven primary care pediatricians from San Diego and Imperial Counties responded to a 44-item mailed survey that measured physician knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding osteoporosis
This is a secondary data set of a study conducted in 1996 among 1230 Indian students in the 11th and 12th grades in Bombay. The aim of the study is to examine the relationship of knowledge, health beliefs, attitudes, and risk behaviors to HIV\\/STD risk intentions among Indian adolescents and also to examine predictive utility of the Health Belief Model
Syed N. Khalil; Michael W. Ross; Mathai Rabia; Subhash Hira
Foods teachers in major metropolitan areas of California were surveyed, utilizing a mail questionnaire, to assess their microwave knowledge, attitudes, practices, and needs with regard to microwave educational resources. Results indicated that respondents thoroughly understood basic microwave principles and techniques. Over 90% correctly identified factors critical to successful microwave cooking, such as food shape, amount, density, and starting temperature. Two-thirds
Laura D. Stalder; Miriam Saltmarch; Gregory D. Findley; Lucy M. McProud
|Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Discusses a survey of 149 students at 14 colleges about their knowledge, use of, and attitudes about illegal psychoactive drugs. Finds that low percentages of students use drugs, but with 5.5 million students attending community colleges, even small percentages of users translate into large numbers, with attendant implications for student success…
Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy technicians before and after attending a continuing education program about smoking ces- sation. Design: A pre\\/post survey of a single group. Setting: Two statewide meetings of the Iowa Pharmacy Association. Participants: Pharmacy technicians. Intervention: One 2-hour continuing education (CE) course about smok- ing cessation for pharmacy technicians. Main Outcome Measures: Changes
Alan J. Zillich; Mary L. Aquilino; Karen B. Farris
In this article, the construction and validation of an environmental attitude and knowledge scale designed for children are described. The scale fills a need, expressed by several writers in environmental education, for a research instrument that has sound psychometric properties, can be used in a variety of research settings, and will allow comparisons of results across studies.
Frank C. Leeming; William O. Dwyer; Bruce A. Bracken
Objectives: To describe ?-thalassaemia (thalassaemia) carrier testing behaviour (whether tested or intentions of testing) amongst a sample of UK Pakistani adults; their level of knowledge about thalassaemia, and their attitudes toward thalassaemia carrier testing. Method: In a cross-sectional design semi-structured interviews, data were obtained from 59 Pakistani adults including 19 parents of children with thalassaemia; 20 of their relatives, and
Introduction: A seminar on sleep disorders was recently introduced for third, fourth and final year medical students rotating through the psychiatry posting in the Institute of Mental Health. This survey was conducted to assess the attitudes as well as knowledge of medical students towards sleep medicine. Methods: Verbal consent was taken from the students who were willing to take part
|Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…
|Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…
Objective: To examine knowledge and attitudes about suicide in a New Zealand sample of young people aged 25 years.Method: The sample was a birth cohort of 1265 young people born in New Zealand in 1977 who have been followed in a longitudinal study for 25 years. At age 25, participants were asked a series of questions designed to assess their
Annette L. Beautrais; L. John Horwood; David M. Fergusson
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to learn more about general practititoners' knowledge, attitudes and social distance towards depression which is the most prevalent mental disorder seen in general practice. Method: The survey was conducted in 2002 using face-to-face interviews in offices of 300 general practitioners in Turkey. Data were derived from the questionnaire developed for the survey called
|Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
The aims of this study were to assess nursing students' knowledge of and attitudes towards primaryhealth care using a newly developed Canadian instrument, the Primary Health Care Questionnaire (PHCQ). The instrument was refined for use in the UK prior to collecting data from 427 students in degree, Project 2000, health visitor and district nursing courses. Findings indicate that students in
Karen I. Chalmers; Karen A. Luker; Ina J. Bramadat
This study reports on oncology professionals' knowledge and attitude toward complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), classified according to their primary application as complementary or alternative methods. In June 2002, we conducted a national, multicentre survey of 828 Norwegian oncologists, nurses, clerks and therapeutic radiographers. A response rate of 61% was achieved. Only a few physicians (4%) described their reactions to
T. Risberg; A. Kolstad; Y. Bremnes; H. Holte; E. A. Wist; O. Mella; O. Klepp; T. Wilsgaard; B. R. Cassileth
|The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
BACKGROUND: Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. METHODS: Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. RESULTS: The students identified television as their most important
|Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey…
This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to fill out a questionnaire that assesses four major domains
|Discusses a survey of 149 students at 14 colleges about their knowledge, use of, and attitudes about illegal psychoactive drugs. Finds that low percentages of students use drugs, but with 5.5 million students attending community colleges, even small percentages of users translate into large numbers, with attendant implications for student success…
ObjectiveAfter maltreated children are taken into protective custody, dependency courts determine the children's placements. Many, if not most, maltreated children never attend their dependency court hearings. We had the rare opportunity to interview children in a jurisdiction where children regularly attend their detention hearings in dependency court. Our main goals were to assess maltreated children's knowledge and attitudes about their
Stephanie D. Block; Howard Oran; Diane Oran; Nikki Baumrind; Gail S. Goodman
This study explored the effectiveness of a pain education intervention on Mexican nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pediatric pain. A convenience sample of 106 registered nurses from three hospitals in Mexico City was recruited. A Pediatric Pain Education Program (PPEP) was developed, implemented, and evaluated by a nurse researcher, clinical nurse specialist, and a child life specialist. The 4-hour program,
|This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked…
Objective: Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and
Nhan T. Tran; Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; V. Cuong Pham; Jeffrey C. Lunnen; Youngji Jo; Jonathon Passmore; Phuong N. Nguyen; Adnan A. Hyder
Objective Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes and
Nhan T. Tran; Abdulgafoor M. Bachani; Cuong Pham V; Jeffrey C. Lunnen; Youngji Jo; Jonathon Passmore; Phuong N. Nguyen; Adnan A. Hyder
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832
|This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation\\u000a and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexualattitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed\\u000a differences in sexualattitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation\\u000a to analyze the relative effects of heritage
The purpose of this descriptive, comparative study was to explore differences in sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between teenage girls enrolled at a nursing school and those enrolled at a non-nursing school. A total of 792 students were recruited from one nursing school and one non-nursing school. Compared to non-nursing students, nursing students were more knowledgeable on sex-related issues, held more conservative attitudes toward sex, and had less sexual experience. We found also that the closer an intimate relationship was, the more liberal the sexual activities tended to be. Participants were prone to accept premarital sex, and cared less about the virginity of future spouses. Most perceived having a child before marriage unacceptable. About 23% (n = 179) of participants had intercourse experience, while only 30% of girls surveyed had used contraception every time they had sexual intercourse. Eleven students reported being pregnant, but none chose to take their pregnancy to term. The findings of this study show that nursing education may have a positive influence on teenage girl's sexualknowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to practicing safer sex. This study also suggests that a comprehensive sex-related curriculum, introducing safer sex practices and the health consequences of unprotected sex, should be reinforced in both non-nursing and nursing schools. PMID:19319804
The influence of specific tax knowledge on attitudes towards taxation was examined. The study reports significant changes in attitude to one's own tax evasion and attitude to fairness of the tax system. Following increases in tax knowledge, respondents consider their own tax evasion as more serious, the perceived fairness in taxation increased, and attitudes towards other people's tax evasion became
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ?35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ?5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists.
Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…
Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.
|Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…
Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.
Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (neighborhood N=77; individual N=951), we consider the extent to which African American youth maintain sexual and fertility-related norms that support early sexual activity and childbearing and examine the robustness of racial differences in sexualattitudes to controls for…
|To better understand the relation of feminist identification to sexuality, we compared the attitudes of feminist, egalitarian, and nonfeminist undergraduate women (N= 342) in five domains: (a) erotophilia (one's positive affective or evaluative responses to sexual stimuli), (b) sexual assertiveness, (c) perceived self-efficacy for safer sex, (d)…
This study examined the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereotyped music video imagery on sexualattitudes (adversarial sexual beliefs, acceptance of rape myths, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and gender role stereotyping). A group of 44 U.S. college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that viewed either a video portraying stereotyped sexual imagery or a video that
|Evidence suggests that adults in school settings are doing less than they should to stop student peer sexual harassment. When such behavior persists, it creates an intrusive environment that may interfere with learning. The study was designed to determine teachers' attitudes toward sexual harassment; their perceptions of sexually harassing…
|This study sought to ascertain any differences in sexualattitudes, levels of premarital sexual involvement, and risk-taking sexual practices of college students at four distinctly different universities: a historic Black public university; a predominately white, Southern private university with a religious heritage; a Southwestern public…
Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Earle, John R.; Davis, Robert
Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…
Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter
Examines the relationship of attitudes and cognitions supportive of sexual-aggression perpetration and gender-role conflict to self-reported, sexually aggressive behavior for male college students (N=191). Sexually aggressive students evidenced significantly higher scores on attitudinal measures and the restrictive affectionate behavior between…
Rando, Robert A.; Rogers, James R.; Brittan-Powell, Christopher S.
BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, and orgasm, as well as sexual pain, that leads to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. Social aspects of FSD have been understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the social aspects of FSD and sexualattitudes of Jordanian women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundred thirteen married females were studied between October 2006 and August 2007 at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan. Females were interviewed using a special questionnaire that was suitable to our culture and added to the Arabic translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire. RESULTS: Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm. About 58.5% of women reported that they prepared themselves if they had sexual desire and 68.2% reported wearing special attire for this purpose. Only 37.2% of women could ask their husband for a special excitement. CONCLUSIONS: FSD is prevalent in Jordan. Its social aspects are understudied and need more research in the future.
Abu Ali, Ruba M.; Al Hajeri, Rabaa M.; Khader, Yousef S.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.
Background In recent years, more adolescents are engaging in premarital sex in China. However, only a limited number of studies have explored out-of-school youth's sexualattitudes and behaviors, critical for prevention intervention development. Methods Using data from the baseline survey of a comprehensive sex education program that was conducted in a suburb of Shanghai in 2000–2002, this study describes sexualattitudes, patterns of communication on sexual matters, and premarital sexual behavior among 1,304 out-of-school youth. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with youth's premarital sexual intercourse. Results The majority (60%) of out-of-school youth held favorable attitudes towards premarital sex. Males were more likely to have favorable attitudes compared with females. Male youth generally did not communicate with either parent about sex, while one-third of female youth talked to their mothers about sexual matters. Both males and females chose their friends as the person with whom they were most likely to talk about sexual matters. About 18% of the youth reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. One-fifth of sexually active youth had always used a contraceptive method, and one-quarter had been pregnant (or had impregnated a partner). There were no gender differences in rate of premarital sex or frequency of contraceptive use. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, education, family structure, parent's discipline, attitudes towards premarital sex, pattern of communication and dating were significantly associated with youth premarital sex. Conclusion A substantial proportion of out-of-school youth engage in risky sexual behaviors. Prevention programs that empower communication and sexual negotiation skills, and promote condom use should be implemented for this vulnerable group.
This study was conducted in 1988 among a random sample of 6,625 men and women of reproductive age in all 24 administrative zones of Kinshasa, the capital city of Zaire, to determine existing levels of knowledge regarding AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), sexual behavior, knowledge and use of condoms in marital and extramarital relations; perceived risk of AIDS, and attitudes toward testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Awareness of AIDS is almost universal, and the vast majority know the four main modes of transmission. Almost half believed in transmission by mosquitoes and in a vaccine or cure for AIDS. The majority of male respondents knew of condoms, but negative attitudes toward condom use are widespread, and few respondents perceived them to play a central role in combatting AIDS.
Bertrand, J T; Makani, B; Hassig, S E; Niwembo, K L; Djunghu, B; Muanda, M; Chirhamolekwa, C
|Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled…
Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl
|Examines how children (ages 6-7 and 10-11) interpret and respond to representations of sexual behavior on television and how they define what is appropriate for themselves and for children in general. Examines, through discourse analysis, how children's discussions of these issues serve as a form of "identity work," through which they define what…
Background: The incidence of skin cancer, including melanoma, continues to increase. Teenagers are especially vulnerable, as are young females. The incidence of melanoma among young women in their twenties and thirties has begun to increase again. These young people are also the population that frequent tanning salons. Objective: This voluntary, anonymous, New York University, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was given to students in grades 9 through 12 to ascertain their understanding of what causes skin cancers and the dangers of excessive sun exposure and tanning salons. Methods and materials: An Institutional Review Board-approved, 22-question survey was administered anonymously to more than 450 students with 368 returned responses. The survey was administered to students in grades 9 through 12 at two high schools in New York and New Jersey. Results: More than 80 percent of students view movie stars as tan and almost 60 percent see “tan” people as better looking. In addition, more than 90 percent believe that a tan does not prevent further damage to the skin (as opposed to the customary belief that a “base” tan can protect against extreme sun exposures, such as when on a tropical vacation). There appears to be a disconnect between knowledge and sun tanning behaviors. Most teenagers still believe that tans are attractive and teenage girls continue to use tanning salons and tan naturally. We need to address the connection between sun tanning in youth and skin cancers years later. Legislation to limit access of tanning salons to teenagers needs to be enacted.
In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths. PMID:8406719
Background: The incidence of skin cancer, including melanoma, continues to increase. Teenagers are especially vulnerable, as are young females. The incidence of melanoma among young women in their twenties and thirties has begun to increase again. These young people are also the population that frequent tanning salons. Objective: This voluntary, anonymous, New York University, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was given to students in grades 9 through 12 to ascertain their understanding of what causes skin cancers and the dangers of excessive sun exposure and tanning salons. Methods and materials: An Institutional Review Board-approved, 22-question survey was administered anonymously to more than 450 students with 368 returned responses. The survey was administered to students in grades 9 through 12 at two high schools in New York and New Jersey. Results: More than 80 percent of students view movie stars as tan and almost 60 percent see "tan" people as better looking. In addition, more than 90 percent believe that a tan does not prevent further damage to the skin (as opposed to the customary belief that a "base" tan can protect against extreme sun exposures, such as when on a tropical vacation). There appears to be a disconnect between knowledge and sun tanning behaviors. Most teenagers still believe that tans are attractive and teenage girls continue to use tanning salons and tan naturally. We need to address the connection between sun tanning in youth and skin cancers years later. Legislation to limit access of tanning salons to teenagers needs to be enacted. PMID:20967182
|The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency contraception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Ninety-six percent (n = 588) of the students had heard of emergency contraception, and 19% (n = 111) knew all the situations in which emergency contraception is indicated, with statistical differences between regions of the country. Forty-two percent of sexually active women in the sample had already used emergency contraception; 35% (n = 207) of students equated emergency contraception with abortion; and 81% (n = 473) thought emergency contraception involves health risks. No significant difference was observed between regions of the country regarding use and attitudes towards emergency contraception. Inter-regional differences in knowledge had no impact on students' attitudes and practice in emergency contraception. National awareness-raising campaigns are needed to improve knowledge on emergency contraception. PMID:20877942
Silva, Flávia Calanca da; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza; Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Canuto, Maria Helena Alves; Pires, Maria Marlene de Souza; Fisberg, Mauro
Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88%) of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness.
Walsh, Charlotte Devereaux; Gera, Aradhana; Shah, Meeraj; Sharma, Amit; Powell, Judy E; Wilson, Sue
Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment.
Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range\\u000a of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and\\u000a attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology,\\u000a genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated
Animesh K. Mohapatra; Deepika Priyadarshini; Antara Biswas
Objective To examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data via written survey to postpartum mothers in a large teaching hospital in Connecticut.\\u000a We used multivariable analysis to identify mothers who were less trusting with regard to vaccines. Results Of 228 mothers who participated in the study, 29% of mothers worried about vaccinating
Ann Chen Wu; Daryl J. Wisler-Sher; Katherine Griswold; Eve Colson; Eugene D. Shapiro; Eric S. Holmboe
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Thirty-one individuals, 15 with autistic disorder and 16 with developmental delay, male and female, were asked to select from a series of drawings depicting sexually relevant activities and to define them. In addition they were asked to describe their sexual experiences, attitudes, and interests, using a semistructured interview format. Ability to select through pointing out sexually relevant body parts or
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899
Previous studies of the effects of sexual television content have resulted in mixed findings. Based on the information processing model of media effects, I proposed that the messages embodied n such content, the degree to which viewers perceive television content as realistic, and whether sexual content is conveyed using visual or verbal symbols may influence the nature or degree of such effects. I explored this possibility through an experiment in which 182 college undergraduates were exposed to visual or verbal sexual television content, neutral television content, or no television at all prior to completing measures of sexualattitudes and beliefs. Although exposure to sexual content generally did not produce significant main effects, it did influence the attitudes of those who perceive television to be relatively realistic. Verbal sexual content was found to influence beliefs about women's sexual activity among the same group. PMID:16123843
A survey was carried out to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of female prostitutes In Phnom Penh (Cambodia) in 2000 and 2004. A total of 131 women were included both years. The population was 75% Cambodian and 25% Vietnamese. Average age was 22.9 years in 2000 and 25.5 years in 2004. Sixty-seven percent of the women surveyed stated that prostitution was a "voluntary" choice. The awareness rate for sexual transmitted diseases (STD) including AIDS and its main clinical signs and of the protective value of condoms was 90% in 2000 and 96% in 2004. However 30% reported unprotected sexual relations with at least one of their last 10 clients. Twenty-five percent performed oral sex usually without precaution. Drug use was limited to methamphetamines. Monthly income ranged from 15 dollars to 22.5 dollars (mean, 66 dollars). This amount is higher than the salary of a factory worker. Despite good knowledge of STD and prevention measures, prostitutes in Phnom Penh appear to have unsafe sexual practices. PMID:16775939
Gazin, P; Plard-Rodrigo, C; Uong, C; De Greef, S; Rhis, B; Legros, P
The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.
People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and\\/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and
Padam Simkhada; Edwin R. van Teijlingen; Pramod R. Regmi; Prakash Bhatta
Used variables of gender and parental sexualattitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians’ perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians’ attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of ‘accidents’ and fatalism. Participants were 14–26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah (‘accident’) signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah (‘injury’) was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries.
Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark
Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…
This study reports findings of gender differences in tax attitude changes influenced by better tax knowledge. Male students are more exposed to tax knowledge in a way that makes them reconsider more easily their attitudes towards their own tax evasion, i.e. tax ethics, than their female peers. Male students get a significantly stricter attitude towards their own tax evasion. On
Research in the dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) suggests that practitioners’ knowledge of and attitudes towards\\u000a EBPs influence their decisions to adopt such practices. This study investigated the relationships between practitioner background\\u000a variables and EBP knowledge and attitudes, as well as the relationship between knowledge and attitudes among public sector\\u000a youth direct service providers (n = 240). Findings suggest that knowledge and
Brad J. NakamuraCharmaine; Charmaine K. Higa-McMillan; Kelsie H. Okamura; Scott Shimabukuro
This study explored the link between sorority membership and rape-supportive attitudes and sexual victimization experiences. Data from a random sample of primarily white college women indicated that there were statistically significant differences between sorority women and nonsorority women on two of four rape-supportive attitudes (the acceptance of rape myths and the acceptance of interpersonal violence). Sorority women were also significantly
This article presents findings from a survey conducted in Kenya in 1985 of the reproductive health knowledge, attitudes, and practices among more than 3,000 unmarried Kenyan youth, students and nonstudents, between the ages of 12 and 19. The survey was designed to elicit information that would be useful in gauging the kinds of problems Kenyan adolescents face in order to design programs that meet their needs. The study shows that although a solid majority of adolescents appear to have received information on reproductive health, the quality of the information is generally low. Fewer than 8 percent could correctly identify the fertile period in a woman's menstrual cycle. A substantial proportion of the population surveyed, more than 50 percent, is sexually active, having initiated intercourse some time between 13 and 14 years of age, on average. In spite of a general disapproval of premarital sex (but approval of the use of contraceptives among the sexually active), most of the sexually active population--89 percent--have never used contraceptives. The many contradictions between attitudes and practices pose serious questions and demonstrate the need to reexamine the programs (and policies) that provide access to reproductive health services to adolescents in Kenya. PMID:1949103
Gaining a healthy sexualattitude and behavior and being able to show appropriate approaches to patients in terms of sexual issues are important acquisitions for medical students. The aim of the present study was to determine, compare, and evaluate the sexualattitudes and behaviors of Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine students. An anonymous questionnaire was filled in by first- and sixth-year students in order to determine their sexualattitudes and behaviors. While information sources in the adolescence period for both genders were friends in the first place, these sources were mostly mothers, books, newspapers--magazines for females, and newspapers--magazines and television for males. The opinion of males about having sexual intercourse before marriage for males was positive, and females were more tolerant about males having this experience before marriage as compared to females having sexual experience before marriage. Rates of expression of having sexual intercourse and masturbation were found to be higher for male students. The first sexual experience with a sex worker or sentimentally insignificant partner was high among males. In general, the rate of condom use was lower, and the rate of coitus interruptus was found to be higher than in foreign studies. All the students declared 'my own will and values' as the most frequent factor affecting their sexualattitudes and behaviors, and high rates for 'social factors', 'religious requirements', 'the expectations of families', and 'protection from sexually transmitted diseases' were observed. The findings lead to the conclusions that gender differences exist in the sexualattitudes and behaviors of medical students; the enhancing effect of the traditional structure on gender discrimination is still continuing; students are not provided with sufficient scientific approach or training prior to the university education; and beyond biomedical training, they should receive more support in those fields during their medical education. PMID:16318965
Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…
Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick
|Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)|
|In recent years, leading scholars in the field of sexology have been calling for more professionals who are primarily sexologists rather than professionals in other fields who specialize in sexuality. Such professionals require specialized training that meets their specific needs. The SexualityAttitude Reassessment (SAR) has been established as…
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexualattitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female, high?school adolescents. Regression analyses revealed that earlier learning
|The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexualattitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
|Background: The attitudes of support staff and others in the community towards the sexuality of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have the potential to influence opportunities for normalised life experiences in the area of sexuality. Method: A sample of 169 disability support staff and 50 employees from leisure and service…
This study was conducted to examine factors associated with blaming the target of sexual harassment. Participants' experiences of sexual harassment, sexist attitudes, gender, gender role identity, age, worker or student status, and belief in a just world were included as independent variables. Level of blame was evaluated using a series of 12 vignettes that manipulated the gender of the target
Relationships among sexual harassment experiences, perceptions about harassment (definitions, seriousness ratings, commonness estimates), and attitudes (about both harassment and sex roles) were examined in order to investigate the role of ideology and consciousness in the reporting of sexual harassment experiences. University students responding to a survey were divided by sex (74 males, 136 females) and level of harassment experience (high,
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and can cause several types of cancer, including cervical and anal cancer. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population is an often overlooked subgroup at risk for HPV. The purpose of this research was to describe LGBT college students? knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors pertaining to HPV and
The aims of the present study were to explore the level of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in relation to patients with eating disorders (ED) and evaluate the extent to which patients with ED are identified and/or treated in the dental setting. A postal questionnaire was constructed and sent to all dentists (n = 367) in two Swedish counties during November 2005. The questionnaire comprised 29 questions or statements in the following categories: demographics, general knowledge of ED and its oral consequences, experience of and attitudes towards patients with ED and interaction within the health care system, for example, referrals and treatment options regarding this patient group. The response rate was 70% (n = 258). Perceived knowledge about ED was most commonly obtained from media sources, namely newspapers, television, etc. Few dentists knew that there existed specialized referral units for ED patients in their county. The majority of dentists stated that they had seen only a few such patients during their practice. Even though the perceived level of general knowledge about ED among female dentists appeared to be better than among male dentists, they also found it more difficult to inform the patient/relatives about their suspicion of the condition. Female dentists referred to specialists significantly more frequently than did males. Eighty-six percent of responders reported that they needed more training in dental management of patients with ED. Knowledge and clinical experience of dentists as regards patients with ED were found to be low. The level of education in this area needs to be improved, which would have the potential to encourage dentists to become more involved in secondary and tertiary prevention and management of ED. PMID:19522312
In Nigeria as in other African countries, population growth negatively affects economic development, and high parity affects maternal health. Breastfeeding, a common practice traditionally, is declining in some situations. This study was carried out in Ilorin, Nigeria. A sample population of 932 households stratified to represent different socioeconomic groups was used. 913 currently married women aged 15-35, who were in their prime childbearing ages, were interviewed on their contraceptive knowledge and on their attitudes towards modern contraception. In a bivariate statistical analysis, of 8 variables examined (i.e. ownership of a television, radio, religion, and other) only the woman's education, age, and area of residence within the city have significant independent effects on contraceptive knowledge. A linear logistic regression technic was also applied. 90% of the women interviewed thought that women should be free to practise family planning. Also, 95% of all the women believed that too frequent births could endanger the health of the mother and her children. Only the women with previous contraceptive knowledge overwhelmingly (80%) thought that the best way to prevent too frequent births is by family planning. 66.5% of those without previous contraceptive knowledge before this study suggested that traditional abstinence should be used and only 28.9% suggested family planning. Adequate awareness of the availability and usefulness of family planning methods can influence attitudes of women towards contraception and may also enhance contraceptive use. Better use can be made of broadcasting media, and efforts should be made to target younger, more fecund women, since there was evidence that more knowledge of family planning existed among women 30+ years old. PMID:3745229
OBJECTIVES:: The recently enacted Israeli Dying Patient Act was designed to strike balance between enhancing patient autonomy in end-of-life decision making and cultural/religious norms that are in opposition to active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). The current study evaluated physician attitudes regarding active and passive euthanasia, and their knowledge of specific aspects of the law. METHODS:: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of hospital-based physicians treating terminal patients. Physicians were queried about their attitudes regarding euthanasia and PAS. Physicians were also queried about specific aspects of the law and whether they had sufficient resources to uphold the law. RESULTS:: Surveys were distributed to 270 physicians and 100 were returned and evaluated (37%). Nearly all physicians supported passive euthanasia (withholding treatment), whereas over 40% maintained that active forms of euthanasia should be allowed for terminal patients in severe physical pain. Multivariate analysis showed a negative relationship between support for more active forms of euthanasia and physicians' self-reported religiosity. Physicians cited lack of time as a reason for not complying with the new law. Physicians had a familiarity with the general aspects of the new legislation, but a large proportion was not aware of the specifics of the law. CONCLUSIONS:: Compared with previous surveys, a larger number of physicians support passive euthanasia. A sizable percentage of physicians would be willing to participate in active euthanasia and even PAS. Attitudes toward euthanasia are influenced by religious factors. PMID:23660598
Doron, Dana; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shabtai, Esther; Corn, Benjamin W
Correlates of use and subsequent sexualattitudes and behaviors predicted by exposure to sexually explicit content (i.e., pornography and erotica) in adult magazines, X-rated movies, and the Internet were examined in a prospective survey of a diverse sample of early adolescents (average age at baseline = 13.6 years; N = 967). Two-thirds (66%) of males and more than one-third (39%)
BACKGROUND: In recent years, more adolescents are engaging in premarital sex in China. However, only a limited number of studies have explored out-of-school youth's sexualattitudes and behaviors, critical for prevention intervention development. METHODS: Using data from the baseline survey of a comprehensive sex education program that was conducted in a suburb of Shanghai in 2000–2002, this study describes sexual
Bo Wang; Xiaoming Li; Bonita Stanton; Vafa Kamali; Sylvie Naar-King; Iqbal Shah; Ronald Thomas
Background Despite awareness of condom efficacy, in protecting against both human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases (HIV/STDs) and unintended pregnancy; some females find it difficult to use or permit condom use consistently because of the power imbalances or other dynamics operating in their relationships with males. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that predict the frequency of condom use and attitudes among sexually active female military personnel in Nigeria. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design in which a total of 346 responses were obtained from consenting female military personnel in two cantonments in Southwestern Nigeria between 2006 and 2008. The study instrument was designed to assess HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge (HAK), HIV risk behaviors (HRB), alcohol and drug use, condom attitudes and barriers (CAS) condom use self-efficacy (CUS) and social support to condom use (SSC). The sociodemographic characteristics of participants were also captured. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used for modeling the predictors of condom use. Results The results showed that 63% of the respondents reported using condoms always, 26% sometimes used condoms and 11% never used condoms during a sexual encounter in the past three months. Univariate analysis revealed that significant associations existed between CAB (P < 0.05), HRB (P < 0.01) and SSC (P < 0.01) with the frequency of condom use. The following sociodemographic variables: age, marital status, number of children, employment status and type of sexual relationship were also significantly (P ? 0.05) associated with consistent condom use in the study group. Multivariate analysis indicated that marital status, type of relationship and CAB were the only significant predictors (r2 = 0.37; P ? 0.05) of condom use behaviors after adjusting for all other factors in the model. Conclusions Findings indicate that consistent condom use could be enhanced through gender-specific intervention programs that incorporate the predictor variables identified. These are likely to be successful in decreasing sexual risk behaviors in the subpopulation.
Essien, E James; Mgbere, Osaro; Monjok, Emmanuel; Ekong, Ernest; Abughosh, Susan; Holstad, Marcia M
A study of 116 subjects examined the relationships among subject sex, experimenter sex, sex roles, and sexualattitudes as predictors of drawing the same-sex figure on the Draw-A-Person test (DAP). Results indicate that subject and experimenter sex are consistent and significant predictors of picture sex. Masculinity and sexualattitudes also predict but only for female picture attributes. The subjects' response to current, historically determined attitudes toward gender and gender roles must be seen as strong influences on the sex of the drawn picture. A model of some determinants of the sex of the drawn figure is offered. PMID:8656330
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
The aim of this study was three-fold: (1) to determine 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' environmental knowledge and attitudes in Turkey; (2) to investigate the effect of the grade level and gender on students' environmental knowledge and attitudes; (3) to explore how environmentally responsible behaviour is related to environmental knowledge,…
Informed consent for BRCA1 mutation testing will require adequate knowledge of patterns of inheritance of cancer and the benefits, limitations, and risks of DNA testing. This study examined knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast–ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk. Knowledge and attitudes were measured in 407 African American and Caucasian
Chanita Hughes; Andres Gomez-Caminero; Judith Benkendorf; Jon Kerner; Claudine Isaacs; James Barter; Caryn Lerman
This study examined knowledge of and attitudes toward services among 268 17-year olds with psychiatric diagnoses preparing\\u000a to exit foster care. A structured interview assessed knowledge of services with vignette scenarios and attitudes with a standardized\\u000a scale. Descriptive statistics described the extent of knowledge and attitudes among this population and regression analyses\\u000a examined predictors of these dimensions of literacy. Most
Michelle R. MunsonSarah; Sarah Carter Narendorf; J. Curtis McMillen
I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death
Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…
The current paper examines the frequency of inter?generational disagreement reported by mothers and adolescents as a function of the quality of their interaction, and the match between their sexualattitudes. We expected that the quality of family interaction would act as a “family asset” that would enable members of families to manage and control the tensions caused by differences in
A study on sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV risk was undertaken amongst 511 male students in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted amongst pupils aged 11 to 19 years drawn from urban and rural secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Thirty seven pc of the students reported that they had experienced sexual intercourse, with up to 63 pc reporting having had more than one partner. Twenty one pc of boys aged 12 years reported having had intercourse and the proportion increased with age. Knowledge about AIDS was high (93 pc) with up to 75 pc of the boys reporting that they received the information through the media and only 31 pc got it from their teachers. Logistic regression used to analyse reasons for variation in HIV/AIDS knowledge and of modes of its transmission determined that educational level, actual school attended, access to information from magazines and educational aspirations were significant predictors (p values = 0,005) of knowledge. Individual risk assessment was higher amongst students who reported sexual experience (p = 0,0001). Sixty pc of the sexually experienced boys reported having used condoms. Six pc of the boys reported having intercourse with a commercial sex worker and of these, 85 pc used condoms. Compared with previous studies there appeared to be a reduction in high risk behaviours amongst male secondary school students. However, there is need for increased HIV preventive information through school educational programmes, as increase and variation in HIV information and modes of transmission was seen depending on access to information. PMID:7834713
This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students’ pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency of climate change. The results from the pilot and the final study show the questionnaire
Subjective sexual well-being refers to the cognitive and emotional evaluation of an individual's sexuality. This study examined subjective sexual well-being, explored its various aspects, examined predictors across different cultures, and investigated its possible associations with overall happiness and selected correlates, including sexual dysfunction. Data were drawn from the Global Study of SexualAttitudes and Behaviors, a survey of 27,500 men
Edward O. Laumann; Anthony Paik; Dale B. Glasser; Jeong-Han Kang; Tianfu Wang; Bernard Levinson; Edson D. Moreira; Alfredo Nicolosi; Clive Gingell
Early in the epidemic, HIV infection and AIDS were rarely diagnosed in women. Today, the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic represents a growing and persistent health threat to women, especially young women. The purpose of the current study was to conduct an international study with female undergraduate college students to assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV\\/AIDS, current and future sexual behaviors, and condom
Cindy Davis; Lesley Hughes; Melissa Sloan; Catherine Tang; Samuel MacMaster
|This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…
National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.
This study was conducted with 705 high school students (360 ninth graders and 345 11th graders; 305 female, 400 male) for the purpose of determining their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Data were obtained using a self-completed questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. Section A included questions about descriptive characteristics of the students. Section B included questions about HIV/AIDS knowledge. Section C included questions about students' attitudes towards AIDS and their information sources. The percentage, correlation, and one-way analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Research findings showed moderate knowledge levels (59.15 +/- 14.22 out of 100 points) in a sample group of 705 Turkish high school students on all AIDS-related questions. Students in private schools had higher scores than those in public schools; boys had higher scores than girls; 11th graders had higher scores than ninth graders, and the methods of transmission were better known than methods of nontransmission. Scores increased in parallel with student age. Knowledge scores of students were also positively correlated with a higher level of parent education and the ease with which sexuality-related subjects were discussed at home. About half of the students believed that people with HIV/AIDS should be able to attend school and should not have to stop working. Most of the students were informed about HIV/AIDS by media. To prevent the illness, the most important role of the nurses is to focus on education and information for individuals, families, and communities. PMID:12492828
Objective To examine attitudes and knowledge about vaccinations in postpartum mothers. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data via written survey to postpartum mothers in a large teaching hospital in Connecticut. We used multivariable analysis to identify mothers who were less trusting with regard to vaccines. Results Of 228 mothers who participated in the study, 29% of mothers worried about vaccinating their infants: 23% were worried the vaccines would not work, 11% were worried the doctor would give the wrong vaccine, and 8% worried that “they” are experimenting when they give vaccines. Mothers reported that the most important reasons to vaccinate were to prevent disease in the baby (74%) and in society (11%). Knowledge about vaccination was poor; e.g., 33% correctly matched chicken pox with varicella vaccine. Mothers who were planning to breastfeed (P = .01), were primiparous (P = .01), or had an income <$40,000 but did not receive support from the women, infants, and children (WIC) program were less trusting with regard to vaccines (P = .03). Although 70% wanted information about vaccines during pregnancy, only 18% reported receiving such information during prenatal care. Conclusion Although the majority of infants receive vaccines, their mothers have concerns and would like to receive immunization information earlier. Mothers who are primiparous, have low family incomes but do not qualify for the WIC program, or are breastfeeding may need special attention to develop a trusting relationship around vaccination. Mothers would benefit from additional knowledge regarding the risks and benefits of vaccines particularly during prenatal care.
Wisler-Sher, Daryl J.; Griswold, Katherine; Colson, Eve; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Holmboe, Eric S.; Benin, Andrea L.
Background This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. Methods A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Results Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. Conclusions Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease.
Pelullo, Concetta P.; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F.
Dementia is a prevalent syndrome in ageing societies and therefore of significant medical and social importance for the general population. We have studied knowledge and attitudes towards Alzheimer's dementia (AD) of 1245 epidemiologically representative individuals between 14 and 99 years. Only 13% mentioned memory disturbances, e.g. forgetfulness, as hallmarks of AD; 54% knew that age was a major risk factor; 47% felt that "brain-jogging" was therapeutically useful. In case of developing AD, more than 70% wished to be informed together with a close relative or friend; 7% felt that nobody else should know about their problem; and many more than 50% expected information on treatment, course, symptoms and causes. These results demonstrate, that there is a remarkable lack of relevant information on AD in the general population, and that most individuals wished to be informed about a potential diagnosis of AD together with their family and friends. PMID:18381055
Abstract Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents (M age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533 females, and 34 who did not report sex. Methods: An anonymous online questionnaire was completed by respondents. Results: In this sample, 42.9% of college students had tried hookah, and 40% of those individuals had used it in the past 30 days. Students perceived fewer negative consequences of hookah smoking compared with cigarette smoking. Age, sex, racial background, marijuana/cigarette use, and perceptions of side effects were significantly associated with hookah use. Conclusions: University students are misinformed regarding the health consequences of hookah smoking. Programs aimed at education, prevention, and intervention for hookah use are needed to address this growing public health concern. PMID:23930750
The research goal was to develop a battery of reliable and valid questions that measure the self-care knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of diabetic patients in content areas specified by experts as most important. Questionnaires were developed and admini...
The knowledge, attitudes, and backgrounds of 215 nurses employed in the nurseries of six hospitals were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. The nurses' attitudes toward the mothers of cocaine-addicted infants were found to be generally negative and/or judgmental and their knowledge to be low. More experience with nursing cocaine-addicted infants and greater acuity of the neonatal unit in which the nurse worked correlated with more positive attitudes toward the infants but not toward their mothers. Knowledge and attitude correlated positively with formal education, inservice education, and self-education, but the correlations were weak. PMID:8699370
Ludwig, M A; Marecki, M; Wooldridge, P J; Sherman, L M
The purpose of this study was to examine college students' attitudes on a variety of sexual issues over the past ten years. The study focused on attitudes toward virginity, premarital sex, homosexuality, abortion, oral sex, and the role of love in a sexual relationship for 2,039 college students attending a large state university in the northeast during the 1990s. Results
Young people's need for sex education is evidenced by their typically early initiation of sexual activity, the often involuntary context within which they have sexual intercourse, high?risk sexual behaviours and the inadequate levels of knowledge of means of protecting their sexual health. The earliness of initiation of sexual intercourse has implications for the age by which sexuality education should be
Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
|Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method:…
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Based on a survey of 1,124 social workers in the United States, this article examines how practitioners' attitudes towards immigrants and their general knowledge of immigration varied according to the content of their social work education. Although the majority of practitioners reported receiving coursework on practice with immigrants, this showed no effect on their attitudes or knowledge. In contrast, coursework
|Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…
|Discusses research suggesting that television viewing contributes to negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge about older people. Using the same data set and measurements, concludes that the effect of television viewing on knowledge and attitudes about older people is small and restricted to younger people. (NRB)|
This article describes a telephone survey of attitudes and behavior relevant to exercise adoption among 286 Australian women aged 50 to 64. Stages of change identified by the transtheoretical model of behavior change were related to attitudes, knowledge, and demographic variables. In comparison with exercisers, precontemplators were older, had lower exercise knowledge, perceived lower levels of family support for exercise,
BackgroundTo analyze whether internists are suited for their role in treating the growing numbers of obese patients, we surveyed residents about their knowledge and attitudes regarding obesity. Previous assessments have not analyzed familiarity with obesity measurement tools or the correlation between knowledge and attitudes.
Background. Student nurses are an important target group for smoking prevention. This study analyzes (a) the relation between student nurses' smoking behavior and their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward smoking prevention and (b) the effect of targeted health education in improving student nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior.Methods. A controlled trial was performed with school classes as the randomization unit.
Background. Little information exists regarding the impact of universal precautions training programs on preclinical students? knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Methods. We developed, implemented, and assessed an educational program in universal precautions for and year medical and preclinical physician assistant students. Students (n = 170) completed pre- and posttraining questionnaires to assess universal precautions knowledge and to evaluate attitudes about their
D. J. Diekema; S. S. Schuldt; M. A. Albanese; B. N. Doebbeling
The purpose of the present study was to identify factors associated with attitudes, knowledge, and fear of age-related vision impairment in a representative sample of US adults age 55 and older. Data were obtained from a national telephone survey. Attitudes toward vision impairment and aging were positive, but fears were extensive and knowledge was lacking. Higher socioeconomic status and experience
Our purpose was to assess the knowledge and attitudes, source of HIV and AIDS information, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan and to explore the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes of HIV and AIDS among female college students in Taiwan. We employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Using a mail survey, the investigators
Wei-Chen Tung; Jie Hu; Cindy Davis; Wei-Kang Tung; Yin-Mei Lin
We examined knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to skin cancer, sun exposure, sunscreen use, and use of tanning booths in 903 female and 800 male adolescents. The effectiveness of a brief, school-based intervention designed to increase teens’ knowledge and preventive attitudes about skin cancer was also evaluated. Females, older students, and those with high-risk skin types were most likely to
|The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…
|The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…
Concerns over threats to the integrity of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) have increasingly led to calls for coordinated management of the region. To be most effective, GYE management requires an understanding of the attitudes and knowledge of local people. A structured knowledge and attitude survey of 308 people living within the GYE was conducted. A large majority of respondents
Richard P. Reading; Tim W. Clark; Stephen R. Kellert
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. METHODS: A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration
Daniela Anastasi; Gabriella Di Giuseppe; Paolo Marinelli; Italo F Angelillo
Discusses research suggesting that television viewing contributes to negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge about older people. Using the same data set and measurements, concludes that the effect of television viewing on knowledge and attitudes about older people is small and restricted to younger people. (NRB)
Objective: To assess women's knowledge, practice, and attitude towards family planning methods, and the factors that could affect their use. Methods: A total of 600 married women (44-60 years.) from Tafila city in the south of Jordan were interviewed and they filled a semi structured interview form consisting of demographic data, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practice of different
|Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
This study examines inservice elementary school teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge toward inquiry-based science instruction and the influence of an inquiry-based elementary science course on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge regarding inquiry. Both surveys and a case study were administered to the 14…
This cross sectional investigation describes the knowledge and attitudes of health care social workers regarding advance directives and explores factors that influence them. As major contributors to quality patient care, the level of knowledge and attitudes held by health care social workers regarding health care policy mandates are important. Mail survey methods were used to collect data from a systematic
|Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali
|Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined,…
Objectives: A pilot study to evaluate the knowledge about haemophilia in the families enrolled in the Lucknow Haemophilia Society (India), and to assess their attitudes towards prenatal diagnosis (PND). Methods: A questionnaire to assess the knowledge about haemophilia (questionnaire A) and another questionnaire to assess the attitude towards PND (questionnaire B) were distributed. PND was performed by DNA-based linkage analysis.
Gouri Shanker Pandey; Inusha Panigrahi; Shubha R. Phadke; Balraj Mittal
The purpose of this study was to assess social work students' attitudes about sexual contact with clients and their perceptions about their training and education in this area. The sample included 349 social work students in their final semester of an MSW program. There were relatively high levels of approval for sexual contact between social workers and clients in certain circumstances. Approval was not limited to circumstances in which professional relationships were terminated, were brief, or had involved only concrete services. Students with less social work experience and who thought class content on sexual ethics was inadequate were more likely to approve of sexual contact between social worker and client. Students did not feel that they had received adequate education or training on sexual ethics, and many felt unprepared to handle sexual feelings from or toward a client. Implications for education, training, and practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:10803077
Berkman, C S; Turner, S G; Cooper, M; Polnerow, D; Swartz, M
This study examines the relationship between popular media consumption and sexualattitudes and behavior for 475 college students, while controlling for commonly related social-psychological variables. Results indicate that females consume more sexually suggestive media (TV soap operas and pop music) than males. General media consumption was not a powerful predictor of permissiveness. Regression analyses revealed that Music Television consumption was the only media variable significantly associated with permissiveness for females. Self-esteem was positively associated with permissive attitudes and behavior for both males and females. Soap opera consumption was significantly associated with permissive behavior for males but not for females. Sexual permissiveness for females was more significantly related to religiosity but less significantly related to self-esteem than for males. No important extraneous variable influences were found. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences, the normative context hypothesis, social scripts, the double standard, the sexual revolution, and the cultivation hypothesis. PMID:12143703
Past research has revealed associations between television viewing and sexualattitudes and behaviors. We examined a burgeoning\\u000a new television genre, reality dating programs (RDPs). Undergraduate students (ages 18–24) reported their overall television\\u000a viewing, their RDP viewing, and their involvement with RDPs (watching in order to learn and watching in order to be entertained).\\u000a They also completed measures of attitudes toward
Summary. interviewed with questionnaires on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations about blood donations. It was found that a large number of them (92.9%) donated because of the benefits they will obtain from the hospital. Such benefits include antenatal registration (67.1%) and saving the lives of relations (25.8%). Even though many of the donors are educated (98.9%), majority of whom have university degrees (36.1%) and have heard about blood donation before, 52.4% of them believe they can contact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis infection from blood donation. A good number (47.0%) are afraid of what they regard as side effects, such as weight loss (23.8%), sexual failure (5.9%), high blood pressure (5.2%), sudden death (3.3%), and convulsion (1.47%). About 41.0% prefers certificates as an incentive for donation, whereas 13.6% prefers money; less than 3% will like their names announced or published on the media and 2.58% will donate for nothing. It is recommended that an intensive blood donation campaign should be maintained. This will allow people to be well informed, turning the positive attitude of saving life through blood donation to a regular practice. PMID:15043588
Objective: The present study examined how sex of the child and the adult and age of the child influence perceptions regarding the abusiveness of adult-child sexual interactions and attributions of blame and responsibility to the adult in such incidents. The relationship of gender-role attitudes to perceptions of child sexual abuse was also investigated.Method: Undergraduate students (N = 404) read one
This study presents educators’ attitudes and beliefs towards the sexuality of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities.\\u000a Open-ended, structured interviews were conducted with five Teachers in a School Program and five Instructors in an Adult Day\\u000a Services Program at an educational facility for individuals with medically complex developmental disabilities. Results indicate\\u000a that educators hold a positive view towards providing sexuality
Decades of increases in premarital sexual involvement of college students have been related to numerous variables, one of\\u000a which is religiosity. This investigation sought to determine any change in the premarital sexualattitudes and behaviors of\\u000a students enrolled at a private religiously-affiliated university over a two-decade period of time. Using anonymous questionnaires\\u000a administered in social science classes in 1981, 1991,
John R. Earle; Philip J. Perricone; J. Kenneth Davidson Sr; Nelwyn B. Moore; Catherine T. Harris; Shelia R. Cotten
Summary This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
Objective: The objective of the study was to assess public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic utilization in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among public attending a local hospital. The four-part questionnaire collected responses on demographic characteristics, recent use of antibiotics, knowledge and attitude statements. Cronbach’s alpha for knowledge and attitude statements were 0.68 and 0.74 respectively. Only questionnaires with complete responses were analysed. General linear modelling was used to identify demographic characteristics which contributed significantly to knowledge and attitude. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of obtaining an inappropriate response for each knowledge and attitude statement. The relationship between antibiotic knowledge and attitude was examined using Pearson’s correlation and correlation between related statements was performed using the Chi-square test. In all statistical analyses, a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was positive correlation (p<0.001) between mean knowledge (6.07±2.52) and attitude scores (5.59±1.67). Highest education level (p<0.001) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.001) contributed significantly to knowledge. Gender (p=0.010), race (p=0.005), highest education level (p<0.001), employment status (p=0.016) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.005) contributed significantly to attitude. The differences in score between demographic groups were small. Misconceptions that antibiotics would work on both bacterial and viral infections were reported. Approximately three quarters of respondents expected antibiotics for treatment of coughs and colds. Close to two thirds (60%) believed that taking antibiotics would improve recovery. Several demographic groups were identified as ‘high risk’ with respect to gaps in knowledge and attitude. Conclusions: This study has identified important knowledge and attitude gaps as well as people ‘at risk’. These findings would be useful in strategizing targeted antibiotic awareness campaigns and patient counselling.
Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;
Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexualattitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexualattitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3 % girls) reported on permissive sexualattitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexualattitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media. PMID:23192452
The effects of three abstinence sex education programs on student attitudes toward sexual activity were studied. The programs were administered to 7th- and 10th-grade students in three school districts in the State of Utah. All students were administered a pre- and posttest survey to determine attitude change. The independent variables were program, grade level, gender, and pre/posttest. The dependent variable was the combined and averaged response to 12 questions taken from the survey. There was a four-way interaction between the independent variables. The Sex Respect program produced the most positive attitude change. PMID:1962546
|This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…
Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan
The influence of sexual experience and gender on the attitudes of medical students to the methods of teaching the gynecological examination was studied. Data were obtained by questionnaire from students who had completed their obstetric/gynecological and family medicine clinical terms. Two hundred and eighty-six students agreed to participate. Ninety of the male students (53%) and 63 (54%) of the female students had experienced sexual intercourse. Students, male and female, who were sexually experienced felt they were more able to conduct a gynecological examination with sensitivity, put the woman at ease and to explain to the women what was being done and why. Male students who had not experienced sexual intercourse felt less able to perform a speculum examination, to do a Papanicolaou smear or be able to detect an abnormality. There were no gender differences between the preferred methods of learning to conduct a gynecological examination but non-sexually experienced students ranked higher the examination of a woman under anesthesia. The suggestion of student volunteers was more acceptable to sexually experienced women and non-sexually experienced male students. Students varied in their response to being volunteers for students learning to conduct vaginal or rectal (if male) examinations. If only the same sex were present 31% of non-sexually experienced male students would possibly volunteer for rectal examination and 39% of sexually experienced female students for vaginal examination. Sexual experience influences students' choice of methods for learning to conduct a gynecological examination. PMID:8860882
A sexual health course was offered and taught by academic staff from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya during semester II of every year as a university elective course to other university students apart from medical students. The course covered a wide range of topics: adolescent sexuality, family planning and pregnancy, violence against women, alternative sexual behavior, physiology of sex, sex and the disabled, gender bias in sexuality, relationship and marriage, sexual dysfunctions, clarification of sexualattitudes and STDs and AIDS. The SexualKnowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT-II) was used to measure students' pre- and post-course scores on sexualknowledge and attitudes. Fifty-four students who completed both the pre- and post-course tests showed a significant change in sexualknowledge and their attitudes towards sexual myths and autoeroticism. Sexualknowledge was also positively correlated with age, heterosexual relations, autoeroticism and sexual myths scores. However, sexualknowledge is negatively related to religiosity and the influence of religious beliefs on one's attitudes towards sexual matters. This study showed that the sexual health course offered does have a positive impact in increasing one's knowledge and changing one's attitudes towards sexual issues. PMID:15779575
Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility. PMID:23565127
Despite extensive research examining the correlates of unintended fertility, it remains a puzzle as to why racial and ethnic minorities are more likely to experience an unintended birth than non-Hispanic whites. This paper focuses on sexual literacy, a potential precursor of unintended fertility. Analyses use a unique dataset of unmarried young adults aged 18-29, the 2009 Survey of Unmarried Young Adults’ Contraceptive Knowledge and Practices, to examine beliefs regarding pregnancy risks, pregnancy fatalism, and contraceptive side effects. At the bivariate level, foreign-born Hispanics hold more erroneous beliefs about the risk of pregnancy than other groups, and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely to believe in contraceptive side effects than non-Hispanic whites. Both foreign-born Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks are more likely than non-Hispanic whites to hold a fatalistic view towards pregnancy. Race-ethnic differences are attenuated for pregnancy misperceptions and fatalism in multivariate models controlling for sources of health information, sexual and fertility experiences, and sociodemographic characteristics. However, non-Hispanic blacks remain more likely than non-Hispanic whites to believe there is a high chance of reduced sexual desire and serious health consequences when using hormonal contraceptives. These differences may contribute to race-ethnic variation in contraceptive use and, ultimately, unintended fertility.
Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum. PMID:19889360
Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A
The current study examined attitudes about inmate-on-inmate sexual assault among a sample of correctional officers. The study uniquely surveyed a jail sample of correctional officers, a context that has been ignored in the research on correctional officer perceptions of sexual victimization. The study measured officer attitudes toward victim blaming, credibility of inmates who report sexual assault, definitions of sexual assault,
This study aims to describe nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards the management of fever in one children's hospital in Ireland. A descriptive, quantitative research design was employed. One hundred and nineteen nurses working in one children's hospital completed a self-report questionnaire. Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, fever management and antipyretics was 51 per cent (n = 119), which was lower than expected. Nurses had both appropriate and inappropriate attitudes towards fever and fever management. Inconsistent attitudes between nurses were identified. Nurses who participated in this study are not expert managers of fever. Their lack of knowledge and inconsistent attitudes are affecting the care of febrile children, and may be fuelling parents' fever phobia. Further education is required to improve nurses' knowledge of fever and fever management. Inappropriate attitudes need to be challenged and addressed in an effort to promote evidence-based care for febrile children. PMID:23455871
To assess knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, 960 people aged 13-58 years who were approached in the street and agreed to participate completed an anonymous questionnaire. The mean of knowledge and attitudes scores were 9.8 (SD 3.0) and 6.1 (SD 3.0) of a total 14 and 10 respectively. People with greater knowledge of HIV/AIDS had more positive attitudes to individuals with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.01). There were important misconceptions about HIV transmission such as through hugging, food, clothing, public places and insect bites. Regression analysis indicted that women had more tolerant attitudes than men (P < 0.01) and the more educated respondents had higher knowledge and attitudes scores (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001 respectively). PMID:19161107
Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)
Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
This document reviews research concerning the factors affecting premarital sexualattitudes and behaviors of adolescents and young adults. Trends in the literature prior to 1980 are discussed briefly together with summaries of literature reviews from the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Studies from 1980 to the present are reviewed in some…
|The aim of the study was to survey the needs for HIV/AIDS educational interventions and attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV infection, including sexual relationships, among 17-year-old Polish adolescents. A total of 761 students who attended schools located in urban and rural areas was surveyed. The study, based on the voluntary, self-completed,…
Ganczak, Maria; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Szych, Zbigniew
|Investigates the role of ideology and consciousness in the reporting of sexual harassment experiences. Analyzes responses of 74 male and 136 female university students to a survey that included two attitude scales. Findings indicate that reporting was independent of either ideology or consciousness. (FMW)|
A study compared sociosexual attitudes of 31 adults with developmental disability, 15 with autism, and 16 with mental retardation, and 25 typical Canadians and 28 Americans. Most differences were contributed by the individuals with mental retardation who endorsed significantly fewer than 50% of sexual activities presented. (Author/CR)
|Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexualattitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…
This article examines the use of pornographic media by Taiwanese high school students, and explores the effects of exposure to such on their attitudes and behaviour in terms of sexual permissiveness. The results of this research indicate that more than 90 per cent of the students interviewed had at least some exposure to a variety of pornography, with males reporting
|Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social–cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers' sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In Study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile
Mina Cikara; Jennifer L. Eberhardt; Susan T. Fiske
Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social–cognition processestypicallyelicitedbyhumantargets.Thecurrentstudies examine the effect of perceivers? sexist attitudes on associations ofagencywith,andneuralresponsesto,imagesofsexualizedand clothed men and women. In Study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs (\\
Mina Cikara; Jennifer L. Eberhardt; Susan T. Fiske
|A study compared sociosexual attitudes of 31 adults with developmental disability, 15 with autism, and 16 with mental retardation, and 25 typical Canadians and 28 Americans. Most differences were contributed by the individuals with mental retardation who endorsed significantly fewer than 50% of sexual activities presented. (Author/CR)|
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors
Bryan N. Cochran; K. Michelle Peavy; Ana Mari Cauce
This study sought to determine if there was a relationship between heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their affective orientation toward sexuality (erotophiliaerotophobia) and sex guilt. Subjects were 72 male and 57 female heterosexual college undergraduates. A self-report questionnaire was administered in a health education class and mailed to campus dormitories. The variables were measured by four scales:
This paper describes a research study which aimed to investigate preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs on certain matters of sexual development and sex education in early years. A questionnaire with closed and open questions was answered by 284 experienced nursery school teachers in Greece, working with children 3+ to 5+ years of age. Answers to closed questions were elaborated by
Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.
The aim of the present study was to obtain information about a group of young drug addicts' dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions based on well-defined hypotheses were obtained with 20 intravenous drug addicts attending a Danish addiction clinic. All the interviews were taped and typed out verbatim. The analysis of the interviews was primarily carried out qualitatively. Almost all the addicts had been enrolled in the Public Child Dental Care system and the majority vividly remembered this as an unpleasant experience. None of the addicts attended a dentist regularly after having finished school, when the drug abuse usually started. Only a need for acute relief could generally motivate the addicts to visit a dentist, and in the few instances they were questioned about any drug abuse or viral hepatitis infection they usually concealed this. They evidenced very limited knowledge concerning the causes and prevention of dental decay and periodontal disease, and the high prevalence of dental caries was often believed to be caused solely or partly by the ascorbic acid or citric acid that is mixed and injected together with the drugs. A distinct behaviour with a neglected oral hygiene and an excessive intake of candy, soft drinks, and other food with a high sugar content was common. The dietary habits were related to the injection of the drugs in a ritual manner. The drug addicts only realized how deplorable their dental health had become during periods of abstinence, and then they were often embarrassed or ashamed of their esthetic appearance, although this was not perceived to have a negative influence on attempts at resocialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3992214
Changes in pharmacology teaching are being driven by various pressures. These originate: from changes in the discipline itself; from government; from professional bodies; from students; from changes in teaching styles and opportunities; from academic staff; from ethical/animal rights considerations; from employers and from higher education institutions. These changes will require an alteration in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of academic pharmacologists as much as they will require changes in the way teaching is delivered and learning is facilitated. Pharmacology courses will be provided in a changed environment and must prepare students to work in a changed discipline as well as being appropriate for students who will take employment in non-pharmacology areas. Change is likely to centre around the curriculum, problem based learning, simulated practicals, peer assessment, use of the internet, information technology and interactive computer based learning, virtual learning environments and integrated medical courses. The most effective strategy to achieve the necessary changes is likely to involve collaboration between pharmacology teachers on a global scale and a general consciousness among current academic pharmacologists that we need to ensure tomorrow's academics are well prepared for the changed environment in which they will have to work. PMID:14569160
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502
Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge of TB patients about symptoms, ways of transmission and treatment of tuberculosis, and their perception of the illness. Between March and August 2008, 762 adult TB patients were interviewed at selected DOTS centre of Dhaka city. Male and female distribution was 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. One quarter of them were illiterate, and more than half had extended family and live in a congested situation. Night fever was the most common symptom known (89.9%), and 56% were aware that it could spread through sneezing/coughing. Television was mentioned as a source of information about TB. The majority expressed a helping attitude towards other TB patients. Although most of them were positive about getting family support, 46.6% mentioned discrimination of separate utensils for food or drink. About 50.5% expressed increased sadness, 39.8% had fear of loss of job/wedges, and 21.4% felt socially neglected. Along with drug treatment the psychosocial reactions of TB patients should be addressed at DOTS centers for better control of the disease.
Tasnim, Saria; Rahman, Aminur; Hoque, F. M. Anamul
Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.1–9.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.5–27.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.9–8.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.6–6.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky practices were also present. Educational programmes with specific interventions are recommended to increase KAPs and to prevent new HIV infections among students in Lao PDR.
AIM: To study knowledge levels and attitudes of health care providers toward patients with hepatitis C virus infection in Guilan, a northern province of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 239 health care professionals from the Razi Hospital, including doctors, nurses, and operating room technicians. The questionnaires consisted of questions on demographic characteristics, knowledge levels, and attitudes toward hepatitis C patients. The questionnaire was tested in a pilot study and validated by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software. RESULTS: The mean ± SD knowledge score was 17.43 ± 2.65 (from a total of 22). 51.9% of the participants achieved scores higher than the mean. There was a significant relationship between knowledge score and age (P = 0.001), gender (P = 0.0001), occupational history (P = 0.0001), and educational history (P = 0.027). There was also a significant relationship between attitude level and age (P = 0.002), gender (P = 0.0001), occupational history (P = 0.0001), and educational history (P = 0.035). Physicians were significantly more knowledgeable and showed more positive attitudes. There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Discriminatory attitudes are common among health care providers toward hepatitis C patients. It is therefore necessary to improve their knowledge level and attitude toward this disease.
Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations.
Nurena, Cesar R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sanchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.
This study aims to detect opinions about what and when should be talked about in sexual education in schools respecting the role of parents. This study was conducted in 23 elementary schools in the town Rijeka, Croatia from March to May 2010. The sample consisted of parents of sixth grade elementary school pupils. There were 1,673 respondents, divided in groups of mothers and fathers. Both groups had answered what is the majority of topics to be talked about in the higher grades of elementary school. In lower elementary school grades children should be taught about the structure and differences of male and female genitalia. Topics that most parents find inappropriate to be talked about in sexual education, are sexual satisfaction and pleasure, masturbation, pornography and prostitution (5.01-7.7%). Results of this study can help in creating sexual education programs in schools where parents are considered of being equal accomplices. PMID:23697245
Although attitudes to premarital sex may be influenced by several factors, the importance of religion to that discourse cannot be underestimated. By providing standards to judge and guide behaviour, religion provides a social control function such that religious persons are expected to act in ways that conform to certain norms. This study investigated the interconnectedness of several dimensions of religion and premarital sexualattitudes among young people in the informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. Using reference group as the theoretical base, it was found that those affiliated with Pentecostal/Evangelical faiths had more conservative attitudes towards premarital sex than those of other Christian faiths. Additionally, while a high level of religiosity was found to associate with more conservative views on premarital sex, the effect was more pronounced among Pentecostal groups. The findings are discussed in relation to programmes on adolescent sexuality. PMID:22716919
Gyimah, Stephen Obeng; Kodzi, Ivy; Emina, Jacques; Cofie, Nicholas; Ezeh, Alex
In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexualattitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes.
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique
Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.
In the first study of nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward near-death phenomena and patients who have experienced them (NDErs), 20 registered nurses in Intensive or Cardiac Care Units completed a questionaire containing 29 true\\/false\\/undecided statements about near-death phenomena (alpha reliability .83), 29 Likert items concerning attitudes toward such phenomena (alpha .84), and 25 Likert items concerning attitudes toward care
Objectives To assess pharmacy students' knowledge, attitudes, and evaluation of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA). Methods A cross sectional, self-administered, 106-item survey instrument was used to assess first, second, and third professional year pharmacy students' knowledge about DTCA regulations, attitudes toward DTCA, and evaluation of DTC advertisements with different brief summary formats (professional labeling and patient labeling) and in different media sources (print and television). Results One hundred twenty (51.3%) of the 234 students enrolled participated in the study. The mean percentage knowledge score was 48.7% ± 12.5%. Based on the mean scores per item, pharmacy students had an overall negative attitude toward DTC advertisements. Students had an overall negative attitude toward television and print advertisements using the professional labeling format but an overall positive attitude toward the print advertisement using the patient labeling format. Conclusions Lectures discussing DTC advertising should be included in the pharmacy curriculum.
Borrego, Matthew E.; Gupchup, Gireesh V.; Dodd, Melanie; Sather, Mike R.
Two fully national samples of 1000 New Zealanders aged 16-60 were interviewed in 1987 and in 1989 about their sexual practices and related attitudes to HIV/AIDS matters. The data were gathered by means of a self completed questionnaire which was part of a larger interview undertaken in the respondents' own homes. Precautions were taken to ensure confidentiality, anonymity and privacy. There were significant differences in the reporting of sexual behaviour during the two year study period. The proportion of the sexually active reporting three or more sex partners in the previous year fell from 12% to 8%. The proportion reporting "always" or "often" using condoms rose from 13% to 18% and those reporting permanent changes to sexual behaviour because of AIDS rose from 16% to 26%. Changes towards safer sexual practices were more common amongst males, the young, the unmarried and those with multiple sex partners. Findings concerning attitudes to HIV/AIDS related matters showed an increase in the population's perceived risk of the virus to both themselves and others. For example the proportion who felt everyone was at risk rose from 71% in 1987 to 80% in 1989. There was also evidence of increased victim blaming of the person who caught HIV infection or other sexually transmitted diseases. Finally there was evidence of the need for more action on AIDS. In 1987 35% felt that enough was being done whereas this had dropped to 27% by 1989. PMID:1620499
Previous sex education research has neglected to examine systematically the effects of different types of instruction formats. In the present study, 193 undergraduates were assigned to one of the following conditions: (1) lecture only; (2) small group discussion only; (3) lecture + small group discussion; (4) lecture + extra lecture/review; and (5) no intervention control. Pre- and posttest measures assessed the dimensions of sexual guilt, sexualattitudes, and sexual anxiety. Results revealed significantly greater reductions in sexual guilt for the lecture only, lecture + small group discussion, and lecture + extra lecture/review conditions than for the no intervention control condition. Significantly greater changes in the direction of more tolerant sexualattitudes were found for the small group discussion only and lecture + extra lecture/review conditions than for the no intervention control condition. No other significant results were found. Contrary to expectation, the addition of 9 hours of small group discussion to a semester-long lecture format course did not result in significantly greater positive changes on the dimensions assessed than those achieved by lecture alone. The implications of these findings for the design of sex education courses are discussed. Recommendations for future research include assessment of the long-term effects of sex education on dimensions such as quality of sexual adjustment and consistency of contraceptive usage. PMID:6667108
Wanlass, R L; Kilmann, P R; Bella, B S; Tarnowski, K J
BACKGROUND: The epidemic of HIV continues to grow in Nigeria. Personnel in the military are at increased risk of HIV infection. Although HIV-risk related sexual behavior of Nigerian police officers has been studied, little is known about the sexual behavior of their counterparts in the Navy. This study describes knowledge of AIDS, and HIV-risk sexual behavior of naval personnel in
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of Surface Warfare Officers (SWOs) regarding human factors issues that have been identified as causal to mishaps in high-risk organizations. Attitudes to the human factors that are cri...
The aims of the study were to describe the relationship between all three of Kohlberg's levels of moral development and attitudes towards software piracy as well as to determine if an individual's Knowledge of Intellectual Property Laws moderated this relationship. The research exploring moral development and attitudes towards software piracy is limited in that the results are inconclusive and often
|This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
SUMMARY Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed on their attitudes towards appropriateness of self-medication with antibiotics and situational use of antibiotics, beliefs about antibiotics for
Larissa Grigoryan; Johannes G. M. Burgerhof; John E. Degener; Reginald Deschepper; Cecilia Stalsby Lundborg; Dominique L. Monnet; Elizabeth A. Scicluna
This study examined community-based clinicians' (N = 294) attitudes, background/experiences, values, and knowledge relating to issues of co-occurring disorders, which occur at a high rate among adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Study results reveal that clinicians self-rate their clinical values and attitudes at or above the…
|The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)|
Demographic trends in the United States indicate that the population is increasingly growing older. The literature suggests that the attitudes of others are critical for the adjustment of the elderly in society. A study was conducted to determine adolescents' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with older adults. Subjects were 790…
Attitudes about genetic testing are likely to be an important determinant of uptake of predictive genetic tests among the general public. Several prior studies have suggested that positive attitudes about genetic testing may be inversely related to knowledge about genetic testing. We conducted a random-digit-dialing (RDD) telephone survey of 961 adults in the continental United States to determine the associations
Abigail Rose; Nikki Peters; Judy A. Shea; Katrina Armstrong
This study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding infection control of dental hygienists in Italy. Among the 185 responders to the self-administered mailed questionnaire, 91.3% agreed with the correct responses to the three questions on knowledge about infection prevention and control procedures chosen as an indicator of ‘good’ knowledge. However, 21% were uncertain whether, or disagreed that, dental instruments should
I. F. Angelillo; G. Nardi; C. F. Rizzo; N. M. A. Viggiani
This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images
BackgroundThis study aimed to assess adolescent (aged 14–18 years) and young adult (aged 19–24 years) women's knowledge of and attitudes toward intrauterine devices (IUDs) before and after a brief educational intervention.
Amy K. Whitaker; Lisa M. Johnson; Bryna Harwood; Laurel Chiappetta; Mitchell D. Creinin; Melanie A. Gold
The report presents research undertaken to identify or develop reliable, valid measures of diabetic patient self-care in the areas of management tasks, patient knowledge of drug self-administration, and patient attitudes about compliance. Self-care topics...
The purpose of the study was to provide qualitative and quantitative information on democracy knowledge, attitudes, and practices to: inform USAID/Bangladeshs strategic planning process; establish a baseline to measure the progress of USAID/Bangladeshs DG...
Argues that research on the public understanding of science has measured knowledge as acquaintance with scientific facts and methods, and attitudes as evaluations of societal consequences of science and technology. (Author/CCM)
Bauer, Martin W.; Petkova, Kristina; Boyadjieva, Pepka
The purpose of this study was to determine if relationships existed between levels of knowledge about heart failure, attitude towards adhering to prescribed medical care and frequency of hospitalization among heart failure patients. The study also tested ...
|Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…
To assess primary care resident and faculty knowledge and attitudes concerning interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical\\u000a representatives (PRs) and to measure changes in residents’ knowledge and attitudes after an educational intervention, we conducted\\u000a preintervention and postintervention surveys with a causal-comparative group in a universitybased primary care residency program.\\u000a All primary care internal medicine and internal medicine-pediatrics residents and faculty were
I distributed Nina Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire to 750 nurses in three Verona hospitals, and received 476 completed questionnaires. Questionnaire respondents had a modest knowledge of near-death experiences (NDEs). Nevertheless, respondents expressed a positive attitude towards NDEs in general, and towards patients who had had NDEs. Thirty-four percent of the nurses had personally encountered NDErs, and those
|Children's access to sexualknowledge has always been considered "risky" and controversial due to the fraught relationship between childhood and sexuality. Based on focus groups with children and their parents, the authors explore the relationship between risk and regulation associated with providing children with accurate knowledge about…
This study examined preschoolers' knowledge, skills, and perceptions of child sexual abuse. Seventy-five preschoolers were pretested, randomly assigned to participate in either a personal safety program or a general safety control program, and then posttested. The personal safety program produced significant gains in knowledge and skills thought to be useful in helping children avoid sexual victimization. Program participants improved significantly
These studies investigate connections between magazine reading and involvement and young people's sexual health knowledge, self-efficacy, intentions, and contraception use. Study 1 assessed sexual health behaviors and magazine reading among 579 undergraduate students (69% were female; 68% were White; Mage = 19.73). As expected, more frequent reading of mainstream magazines was associated with greater sexual health knowledge, safe-sex self-efficacy, and consistency of
Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.
Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers’ sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs (“handle”) and clothed women with third-person action verbs (“handles”) than the inverse, as compared to their less sexist peers. In study 2, hostile sexism correlated negatively with activation of regions associated with mental state attribution—mPFC, posterior cingulate, temporal poles—but only when viewing sexualized women. Heterosexual men best recognized images of sexualized female bodies (but not faces), as compared with other targets’ bodies; however, neither face nor body recognition were related to hostile sexism, suggesting the fMRI findings are not explained by more or less attention to sexualized female targets. Diminished mental-state attribution is not unique to targets that people prefer to avoid, as in dehumanization of stigmatized people. The current studies demonstrate that appetitive social targets may elicit a similar response depending on perceivers’ attitudes toward them.
Cikara, Mina; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Fiske, Susan T.
We compared nutritional knowledge, eating attitudes and chronic dietary restraint scores among 17 men (10 with bulimia nervosa and 7 with anorexia nervosa) and 50 women (20 with bulimia nervosa and 30 with anorexia nervosa), who were consecutive patients at a major treatment center in Brazil. There were no differences in nutritional knowledge and concern with food between men and women. For both genders, chronic dietary restraint scores were higher among bulimics. Men with eating disorders had better eating attitudes scores than women. Anorexic men tended to have worse eating attitudes scores than bulimic men, while the opposite was observed for women, suggesting an interaction between gender and diagnosis. PMID:19733200
A recent questionnaire-based study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that although sexually active adolescents both believe that the use of condoms offers protection against sexually transmitted diseases and value such protection, they do not intend to use (or have their partners use) condoms. This attitude/behavior discrepancy is more apparent than real. Six methodological problems in the study are discussed in detail in order to demonstrate how the overly simplified treatment of a complex behavior can lead to invalid conclusions.
The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education. PMID:21706952
Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin
In a large, nationally representative survey of 2,626 adult Americans, men and women who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse involving penetration were also more likely to report a disrupted marriage, dissatisfaction in their sexual relationship, and a tendency to be a religious nonpractitioner. Victims of abuse were also more likely to have read or talked about the problem
DAVID FINKELHOR; GERALD T. HOTALING; I. A. LEWIS; CHRISTINE SMITH
Research has found that men impute more sexual meaning to others' behavior than do women. However, little research has examined the possibility that men and women share perceptions of the sexual connotativeness of certain behaviors but diverge in their perceptions of other behaviors. In Study 1, 162 male and 186 female undergraduates, predominantly Caucasian, rated the degree to which each
Nursing students' noncompliance with infection control precautions has its effects not only on patients, but also on nursing students themselves. Little is known about the actual status of infection control knowledge and compliance among Jordanian nursing students. This correlational descriptive study used a cross-sectional survey design to explore Jordanian nursing students' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and compliance with infection control precautions. The target population was all nursing students at the faculty of nursing-University of Jordan. Participants were found to have inadequate knowledge about infection control precautions (M=49.64%), positive attitudes (M=89.8%), and moderate compliance (M=75.91%). Participants' attitudes toward infection control precautions was the only variable that predicts (B=.410, p=0.000) and correlates (r=.51, p<0.01) with their compliance score. Special courses for infection control precautions within nursing schools in Jordan are recommended with special focus on students' attitudes. PMID:22789874
Background This study assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling services and the predictor characteristics of these outcomes among individuals who presented for the first time to Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) public services. Methods A sample of 244 subjects in the geographic area of Naples (Italy) received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes relating to HIV infection, and practices relating to access to VCT service. Results Only 25% correctly identified the main modes of transmission and the main preventative measures of HIV and this knowledge was significantly higher in who had had more than one sexual partner and have not always used a condom during the intercourse in the last year, in those who have received information about HIV/AIDS through physician, and in those who have received middle school or lower educational level. The perceived risk of contracting HIV/AIDS was significantly higher in respondents of lower age, in those who perceived a better personal health status, and in those unmarried. Only 20.9% reported that they had received the HIV test and males and those who visited a physician or participated in preventive activities about HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to have had an HIV test. Conclusions This study supports the need to disseminate information and interventions to this population.
The aim of the study was to survey the needs for HIV\\/AIDS educational interventions and attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV infection, including sexual relationships, among 17?year?old Polish adolescents. A total of 761 students who attended schools located in urban and rural areas was surveyed. The study, based on the voluntary, self?completed, anonymous questionnaire designed by World Health Organization (WHO), was
Research on children of lesbian parents has suggested that such children are developing well, but questions have been raised\\u000a about their gender development. In this study, we explored associations among parental sexual orientation, parental gender-related\\u000a attitudes, parental division of labor, and children’s gender development. Participants were 66 preschool children and their\\u000a 132 parents from the East Coast of the United
Megan Fulcher; Erin L. Sutfin; Charlotte J. Patterson
In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles\\/music TV, internet) were examined\\u000a in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexualattitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough,\\u000a and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old\\u000a Dutch students revealed
Tom F. M. ter Bogt; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Sanne Bogers; Monique Kloosterman
The help-seeking attitudes for sexual health of Indian men living in Australia was explored. Of all survey respondents (n=225), many preferred to seek help from medical doctors. Young (18-25 years) Indian men were three times more likely to prefer a specialist medical doctor than older men. Ethnicity and gender of the medical doctor was 'not important' for the majority of men. Most men preferred to seek help from their regular general practitioner. PMID:23618230
The purpose of the study was to investigate current sexualattitudes and behavior patterns of rural Chinese elderly and to\\u000a assess the effects of spouse relationships. The subjects were interviewed by village doctors and social workers in six villages\\u000a selected along the Yellow River in central China utilizing a structured questionnaire. The symbolic interaction perspective\\u000a and ecological developmental approach provide
|There is a need for systematic comparisons and replications of research on questions concerning students' sexual behaviors and attitudes. To examine whether or not students' attitudes and behaviors toward sex and sex-related issues changed over a decade, 435 incoming freshmen in 1973 and 460 freshmen in 1983 were administered an anonymous…
Sexual, child rearing, and family attitudes of 160 Iranian immigrants in the United States (61 men, 99 women) and 97 Iranians (55 men, 42 women) in Iran were compared. Iranians in the United States in general, and women in particular, compared with their counterparts in Iran, expressed more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex and sex education, more tolerance toward homosexuality,
This project examines several ways in which television viewing might relate to adolescents ‘ sexualattitudes and expectations. Although previous findings have indicated significant associations between viewing amounts and various sexual outcomes, contributions of viewer involvement in this equation have been underemphasized. Drawing on the premises of several theoretical approaches, viewer involvement was defined to include viewing motivation, active viewing,
Purpose Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) has become a widely accepted procedure in most of the large cardiac centers throughout the world. However, little is known regarding the knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) of AF patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Our purpose is to investigate the status and influencing factors of KAB in these patients. Methods We conducted a KAB survey utilizing specifically designed questionnaires among hospitalized AF patients undergoing RFCA from July 2008 to April 2009. Results A total of 116 AF participants were enrolled and 113 were effective sample, the response rate was 97%. Only 47% of the participants answered questions regarding knowledge about AF correctly. Knowledge deficits were greater in male patients, poorly educated and first-time RFCA patients. With regard to attitude, 45% of participants considered daily pulse examination to be unnecessary. Higher knowledge scores, persistent AF and AF recurrence were positive predictors of attitude. Despite adherence to take medication was high, more than half of the participants demonstrated poor monitor behavior. Knowledge, attitude, and the number of previous attempts at RFCA were factors affecting the self-management behavior. Conclusions AF patients undergoing RFCA have knowledge deficits in general and there is a lack of consistency among their KAB. In order to establish a better attitude and self-management behavior, AF patients undergoing RFCA need comprehensive education by the KAB questionnaire according to the KAB theory.
|Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Is television an effective medium for communicating environmental information to the general public? This study made use of a “two-way television” cable system to evaluate knowledge and attitude changes among viewers of a new Cousteau documentary. The experiment consisted of a televised pretest, posttest, and delayed posttest among randomly selected viewers and nonviewers of the documentary. Viewer knowledge increased significantly
We compared privacy attitudes of knowledge workers from the U.S. and India who were involved in a collaborative software development project distributed across five sites of a multinational corporation. Prior studies on consumer privacy suggest that privacy concerns in India are lower than those in the U.S. While our work largely confirmed these findings, we found unexpectedly that knowledge workers
Sameer Patil; Alfred Kobsa; Ajita John; Doree Seligmann
The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitudes of physical education undergraduate students towards children with special needs. A questionnaire of seven questions was submitted to 140 physical education students. Questions concerned the knowledge about the different kinds of disability, the acceptance of children with…
Mousouli, Maria; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Angelopoulou-Sakadami, Nicoletta; Aristotelous, Maria
Analysis of data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey examined relationships among knowledge, attitude, and behaviors related to interpersonal and self-directed violence. Results found significant relationships among self-directed violence and knowledge, belief, feeling, and intention to act and between interpersonal violent…
|The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported…
Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.
|Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
This study examined the disinfection and sterilization practices used by hospital operating theatres and evaluated the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of nursing staff with regard to infection control. Of the 216 nurses responding, knowledge concerning such practices was not consistent since 10% did not believe that items should be rinsed in water after contact with glutaraldehyde and more than 25%
|General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
|Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…
Our study describes khat behavior, knowledge and attitudes among Yemeni medical students (MS) and the effects of a seminar. MS completed a survey (n = 62); a subgroup participated in a discussion-based seminar and follow-up survey (n = 18). Although they demonstrated knowledge about khat's health effects and considered it unacceptable for health professionals (HP) to chew khat, they disagreed
Paul H. Yi; John S. Kim; Khalil I. Hussein; Richard Saitz
|Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
We compared nutritional knowledge, eating attitudes and chronic dietary restraint scores among 17 men (10 with bulimia nervosa and 7 with anorexia nervosa) and 50 women (20 with bulimia nervosa and 30 with anorexia nervosa), who were consecutive patients at a major treatment center in Brazil. There were no differences in nutritional knowledge and concern with food between men and
|Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
This pilot study explored the effect that respite care training had on volunteers' knowledge about Alzheimer's disease (AD), their attitudes toward the cognitively impaired, and their self-esteem. Volunteer respite providers (n = 52) were recruited and participated in four different day (seven-hour) respite care training programs. The sample was predominantly female (85 percent) and white (90 percent). Knowledge about AD
Karen M. Robinson; Kay F. Kiesler; Stephen W. Looney
This study examined the effect of a hypermedia-enhanced problem-based learning environment in astronomy on sixth-graders' science knowledge, attitude toward learning science, and motivation toward learning. It was found that the students had significantly increased their science knowledge from pretest to post test and also retained much of what…
|A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)|
A survey of 500 California secondary foods teachers (172 responses) indicated their understanding of microwave cooking principles and techniques and positive attitudes toward microwave cooking and safety. A majority used microwave instruction in their classrooms, although many indicated a need for ovens and microwave educational materials. (SK)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the nurses' ain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills. Three instruments were used in the study: (1) Nurses' Introduction Form, (2) The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire and (3) Clinical Decision Making Survey Questionnaire developed by McCaffery and Ferrell was translated into Turkish and used with permission. The results showed that many nurses have inadequate knowledge about pain assessment and management, nurses' (% 47.4) did not observe patient's behaviors to determine/assess the patient's intensity of pain and % 74.5 of nurses' did not use pain assessment scales to measure the patient's pain. PMID:17457712
|The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…
Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.
The knowledge level about HIV\\/AIDS among American adolescents aged 16 to 19 has been assessed on several occasions, showing\\u000a that in recent years their knowledge base has improved. The knowledge bases of British adolescents and of adolescents younger\\u000a than 16 have been largely ignored. In attempting to assess the likely impact on present or future behaviors of increasing\\u000a adolescents’ knowledge
David G. White; Keith C. Phillips; Brian R. Clifford; Marie M. Davies; Joseph R. Elliott; Marian K. Pitts
People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour. PMID:19813118
This article examines how a group of public health physicians in the urban Amazon values medicinal plant knowledge. As biomedical health care providers, physicians routinely draw on scientific plant knowledge. At the same time, as residents of the Amazon and health care providers to the poor, they are aware of and sometimes participate in local systems of plant knowledge. When discussing medicinal plant use, physicians repeatedly mention three themes: science, superstition, and biopiracy. The way in which physicians construct and negotiate these themes is part of the process of maintaining and legitimating their expertise and authority. This analysis finds that context is key to understanding whether, when, and why physicians value certain bodies of knowledge. Locally, in clinics, scientific plant knowledge is constructed as superior. In a global context, however, local plant knowledge is explicitly valued. This situational valuation/devaluation of plant knowledge relates to the positions of power physicians occupy in each context. PMID:14716920
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1041 students in secondary schools and colleges in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania to evaluate the relationship between HIV-risky sexual behaviour and anti-condom bias, as well as with AIDS-related information, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes. Self-reportedly, 54% of students (75% of the boys and 40% of the girls) were sexually active, 39% had a regular sexual partner and 13% had multiple partners in the previous year. The condom use rate was higher than previous reports. However, 30% of sexually active respondents did not always use condoms (Risk-1 behaviour) and 35% of those with multiple partners in the previous year did not always use condoms (Risk-2 behaviour). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that 'sex partner hates condom' had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.58-3.85) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.10-5.48). 'Use of condom prevents HIV infection' also had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.19-3.67) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 3.73; 95% CI 1.28-11.03). Students engaging in risky behaviour were aware of the risk, even though they failed to change their behaviour. Reasons for the AIDS epidemic among Tanzanian students and the importance of more effective AIDS education are also discussed. PMID:10387499
Maswanya, E S; Moji, K; Horiguchi, I; Nagata, K; Aoyagi, K; Honda, S; Takemoto, T
Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one among different approaches which have been implemented as an attempt to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact at the individual, family and society level. VCT is perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people like tertiary level students. Ethiopia as a country with high burden of HIV started responding to the epidemic by preparing and updating guidelines on VCT. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among university students in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 using a stratified sampling method to enroll students from different faculties into the study. A total of 330 university students filled in a self-administered questionnaire with response rate of 97.3%. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV. A chi-square test was used to determine an association between a number of independent factors and dependant variables. Result About 66.1% of the study participants were males with a mean age of 20 years. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents were Orthodox with 63% reported living in urban areas before joining the university. From the study participants 86.3% were knowledgeable on VCT, 73.3% had positive attitude towards VCT for HIV and 61.8% had had VCT for HIV in the past. Previous residence before joining the university, level of education, sex and religion were among the sociodemographic variables that showed statistically significant association with the one or more of the outcome variables. Fear of positive results, stigma and discrimination following the positive results were reported as main barriers for VCT uptake. Conclusion The findings reveal important barriers for VCT uptake and suggest strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination.
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Studies suggest that knowledge and attitudes about the vaccine are likely to influence uptake. One limitation of most studies assessing HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes and acceptability is their under representation of ethnic minorities. It is important to ensure that our understanding of HPV knowledge and attitudes include all ethnic groups in the UK. This article reviews research that has considered knowledge, acceptability and attitudes about HPV and the HPV vaccine among ethnic minorities in the UK. Methods: Articles in Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO (January 2000–March 2010) were searched. Results: A total of 17 UK-based papers examined knowledge, attitudes or acceptability related to HPV vaccination in the ‘lay' population (parents, adolescents or the general population as opposed to health professionals) and reported findings by ethnicity. Conclusion: Findings seem to suggest lower awareness of HPV and lower acceptability of the vaccination, which could be important if they are reflected in uptake. More research is needed with ethnic minority groups, particularly in the context of the vaccination programme.
Introduction Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. Methods A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006–2007, and their knowledgeattitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. Results Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA1c levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA1c. Conclusions The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease.
Al-Maskari, Fatma; El-Sadig, Mohamed; Al-Kaabi, Juma M.; Afandi, Bachar; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Yeatts, Karin B.
Objective: To describe the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices of French general practitioners (GPs) in the field of adult overweight and obesity management.Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed a sample of 600 GPs, rep