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Sample records for sexual knowledge attitudes

  1. Sexual Behavior, Sexual Knowledge, and Sexual Attitudes of Emerging Adult Women: Implications for Working with Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…

  2. Human Sexuality: Faculty Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Karen Lee

    1976-01-01

    A knowledge of human sexuality is necessary in order to answer inquiries from patients regarding their sexual problems. A survey of faculty knowledge levels in the area of human sexuality reveals that more attention should be given to teaching human sexuality as part of the nursing curriculum. (EC)

  3. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

  4. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  5. Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, and Clinical Behaviors: Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elizabeth B.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…

  6. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

  7. Adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases: attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L S; Rozmus, C; Edmisson, K

    1999-06-01

    This study described rural adolescents' attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and values with regard to sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Rotter's Social Learning Theory (1954) provided the theoretical framework for this descriptive, correlational design. The convenience sample consisted of 170 students from one rural high school. Consistent with past studies, results included the following: participants had more correct than incorrect knowledge related to sexual intercourse and STDs; the majority had positive attitudes toward condom use and believed it was OK for peers to have sex with a "steady;" the value of an exciting life correlated positively with attitudes toward sex; knowledge of sexual intercourse correlated positively with attitudes toward condom use; and the value health correlated positively with knowledge of sex and attitudes toward condom use, and negatively with attitudes toward sex. The findings in this study suggest the need for ongoing research with adolescents in the area of sexuality and STDs. Additionally, the findings support past studies, which revealed that knowledge of sexual intercourse and STDs has little impact on attitudes toward sexual intercourse. With the serious nature of some of the undesired consequences of adolescent sexual behavior, current and accurate information on this population is needed to assist health educators in developing interventions in this area. PMID:10394221

  8. Sexual knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of medical students in Kunming, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, X Q; He, Q W; Lui, Z P; Yang, Y H; Ji, Y

    1998-02-01

    422 medical students at a conservative campus in Yunnan reported their sexual knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of reproductive health service to help students acquire necessary sexual knowledge and avoid unwanted pregnancy, abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:9520554

  9. The effect of comprehensive sexual education program on sexual health knowledge and sexual attitude among college students in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T; Winter, Sam; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a comprehensive sexual education program for college students in Southwest China (a) improved sexual health knowledge in reproduction, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV; (b) increased accepting attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual individuals; and (c) altered participants' attitudes toward premarital sex and monogamy. The program used diverse teaching methods, providing 6 sessions over a period of 9 weeks about sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes to college students (age 18-26 years) in Southwest China. Sexual health knowledge and sexual attitudes of 80 comprehensive sexual education class students (education group) and 92 general mental health education class students (control group) were measured at baseline, the end of course (posttest), and 3 weeks after the end of course (follow-up). There were significant effects of the program on (a) sexual health knowledge, including reproductive health, contraception, condom use, and HIV/AIDS and (b) positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, although these changes may require further reinforcement. In contrast, the program did not alter students' attitudes about premarital sex or monogamy. The results are discussed in terms of recommendations of sex education in China and future directions for research. PMID:23417908

  10. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  11. Disability and Sexuality: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Level of Comfort among Certified Rehabilitation Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…

  12. The Effectiveness of a Sexuality Education Newsletter in Influencing Teenagers' Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexual Involvement and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Catherine A.

    2000-01-01

    Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…

  13. A Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding Sexuality in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles B.

    This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…

  14. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes of Health-Care Providers toward Sexuality in the Institutionalized Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home caretakers toward elderly sexuality, looking at certain sociodemographic and institutional factors. The more knowledge providers possessed, the more restrictive their attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Education, religiosity, position, nursing education, time in current…

  16. Handling Sexuality Concerns in Women with Gynecological Cancer: Egyptian Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansour, Suzan E.; Mohamed, Hanan E.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is an important part of normal human functioning. Gynecological cancer diagnosis and treatment has devastating effect on Sexual issues. Study aim was to investigate Oncology Nurses knowledge and attitudes in Relation to Provision of Sexual Health Care to Women Diagnosed with Gynecological Cancer. The study setting was conducted at…

  17. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and activity of men conscripted into the military

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education PMID:20875121

  18. Sexual Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p < 0.05). Approximately 13% of participants held a favorable attitude towards premarital sexual intercourse, and youths from the east/central were more likely to have favorable attitudes compared with those from the west (p < 0.05). About 17.0% of the unmarried female workers reported having engaged in premarital sexual intercourse, and females from the east/central were more likely to have experienced premarital sexual intercourse than those from the west (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that age, education, current residential type, dating, sexual knowledge, attitudes, and pattern of communication were significantly associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed. PMID:22151661

  19. AIDS Knowledge, Condom Attitudes, and Risk-Taking Sexual Behavior of Substance-Abusing Juvenile Offenders on Probation or Parole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…

  20. Sexuality and People with Intellectual Disabilities: Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, Experiences, and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo

    2006-01-01

    The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…

  1. Effects of Staff Training on Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bonnie L.; Harrington, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Four learning modules on elderly sexuality were pilot tested with 109 long-term care staff. On pretests men and whites scored higher than women and African-Americans. Knowledge and attitude improvements resulted from use of modules on the need for sexuality/intimacy, sex and dementia, and sex and aging, but not the family/personal issues module.…

  2. Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

  3. Students Enrolled in an Introductory Gerontology Course: Their Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Sexual Expression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…

  4. Students' Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes toward Sex, and Willingness to Treat Sexual Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, William A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The relation of medical students' feelings about sex to their level of sexual knowledge, willingness to treat patients with sexual concerns, and participation in an elective sex education course was examined. Erotophobic students (those with negative feelings about sexuality) and erotophilic students (those with positive feelings about sexuality

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices in reproductive and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    To help support and direct the Lions Club's construction of a Community Health Clinic specializing in Reproductive and Sexual Health, this descriptive study began in November of 2004 and was completed in May 2005. The sample consists of 552 high school students in Rumiñahui County, and surveys were used to study four principle themes: reproductive and sexual health education, family planning, sexually transmitted infections, and domestic violence. The results show a widespread lack of accurate and adequate information about reproductive and sexual health. Statistically significant variables studied include sex, age, monthly income, and age of first sexual experience. Female sex, younger age, lower monthly income, and younger age of first sexual experience all contribute to a lower quality of reproductive and sexual health, in terms of having less information about and access to these four aspects of reproductive and sexual health. PMID:18523623

  6. School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

  7. School Psychology and Issues of Sexual Orientation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…

  8. Sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in a school going population of Sri Lankan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath

    2015-03-01

    The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean=16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. PMID:25637417

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent negotiation among college women.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A

    2014-01-01

    College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women. PMID:25411811

  10. Is a Little Knowledge a Good Thing? College Students Gain Knowledge, but Knowledge Increase Does Not Equal Attitude Change regarding Same-Sex Sexual Orientation and Gender Reassignment Surgery in Sexuality Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Ramona M.; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Rosanne S.; Miller, Rowland

    2009-01-01

    The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of the…

  11. [Knowledge and attitudes of a public school's adolescents on sexual transmission of HIV].

    PubMed

    Chaves, Ana Clara Patriota; Bezerra, Elys Oliveira; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Wolfgang, Wagner

    2014-01-01

    The research objectives were to describe the knowledge about the transmission of HIV/AIDS, analyze the sexual behavior and attitudes towards condom use among adolescents. Exploratory survey conducted in 2009 with 234 students of a school in Fortaleza, Brazil. We used semi - structured questionnaire and Likert Scale. The results showed that 46.6% of the sample have already initiated sexual life, 40.7% and 29.5% did not use condoms at the first or last intercourse, respectively, due to various reasons like not having a condom at the time (27.3%), use of contraceptive pill (15.2%) and trust in their partner (15.2%). These teenagers have questions about HIV transmission. Women were more favorable to condom use than men. One conclude that early initiation of sexual life, doubts about HIV transmission and ineffective condom use are factors that make young people's vulnerability. PMID:24676068

  12. Knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health in adults in Shiraz: a need for further education.

    PubMed

    Khajehei, M; Ziyadlou, S; Ghanizadeh, A

    2013-12-01

    Sexual health influences general well-being and the overall quality of life of all men and women. This study in Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran, aimed to assess the level of knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health among adults. In a cross-sectional study in 2010, 276 men and 281 women were recruited at pre-marital counselling courses and completed a 33-item anonymous questionnaire in private. The overall level of knowledge of men and women was low. Both men and women had low scores on knowledge of genital anatomy, sexually transmitted infections and contraceptive use. The majority of participants had positive attitudes towards implementing educational programmes on sexual and reproductive health issues for young adults and prior to marriage. Efficient educational programmes providing up-to-date information about sexual and reproductive health are needed in the Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:24684095

  13. Sexual and Reproductive Health: Knowledge, Attitude, and Perceptions among Young Unmarried Male Residents of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Jitendra Kumar; Verma, Anjana; Kishore, Jugal; Ingle, Gopal Krishan

    2015-01-01

    Context. Men play a significant role in all spheres of domestic life including reproduction. Youth is a period of critical development and ignoring sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of young men ought to have wider social and health consequences. Aims and Objectives. To assess the knowledge, attitude, and perceptions regarding SRH among young unmarried men (18–25 years). Settings and Design. A semiqualitative study conducted across four health centers (2 rural, 2 urban) across Delhi. Materials and Methods. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held among sixty-four participants regarding various aspects of SRH. Data Analysis. The data generated were analyzed using free listing and thematic content analysis along with simple quantitative proportions for different variable groups. Results. Good knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS was observed though found poor regarding other STIs/RTIs. Inadequate knowledge and negative attitude towards SRH and condom use were observed among rural participants. Peer group and mass media were the commonest SRH information sources among rural and urban participants, respectively. Conclusions. Poor SRH knowledge, perceptions, and available nonformal, unreliable information sources expose young men to poor SRH outcomes. Early, comprehensive SRH information provision can have life-long protective benefits to them and their partners. PMID:26346646

  14. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Sexual Behavior of High-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…

  15. The knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards patients with sexually transmitted infections: exploring changes to the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment. PMID:24875840

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of health care workers towards clients of sexual health services in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Lui, Paraniala Silas; Sarangapany, Jeganathan; Begley, Kim; Musson, Rachel; Ram, Sharan; Kishore, Kamal

    2012-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to identify the attitudes and behaviours of health care workers (HCWs) in health care settings (HCS) in Fiji involving 369 participants. Self-rated knowledge of HIV and sexually transmissible infections (STIs) varied depending on whether the HCS was divisional or sub-divisional, and varied between the various national divisions. HCWs with experience in HIV, reproductive health and antenatal clinics had higher self-rated HIV knowledge. A high proportion had a fear of catching HIV from HIV-positive clients. This study found high levels of negative attitudes towards clients from vulnerable groups with regards to the transmission and spread of HIV. Study participants also reported observing differential treatment by their colleagues if a client was known to have or was suspected of having HIV. There is a need for further HIV education of HCWs, with training focussed on occupational risk, and on reducing stigma and discrimination of those living with or vulnerable to HIV in Fiji. PMID:22877590

  17. Sexual Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Testa, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide evidence about the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of an ethnically diverse sample of young people from Secondary/High schools in London. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The sample consisted of students in school Years 11 to 13 (aged 15-18 years), present in school on the day of…

  18. Cross-sectional survey on the knowledge, attitude and practice of male Filipino seafarers on sexual health.

    PubMed

    Guevara, N; Pineda, M; Dorotan, M; Ghimire, K; Co, M; Guzman, A; Postrano, L

    2010-01-01

    The Philippines is currently the world's leading supplier of seafarers aboard foreign vessels, accounting for nearly a quarter of the world's maritime industry. Seafarers, being mobile, have a significant contribution impact on the worldwide spread of infectious diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, as well as the attitudes and practices (KAP) of male Filipino seafarers regarding sexual health. A cross-sectional survey was administered through convenience sampling of male Filipino seafarers. The respondents showed the least knowledge about prevention, followed by transmission of STIs. The respondents showed adequate knowledge about risk factors such as multiple sex partners, and about transmission such as vertical spread. In addition, the respondents indicated their attitude and level of responsibility in informing their sexual partners in case they contract STIs and avoidance of high-risk partners. They also showed attitudes that predispose them to high-risk behaviour such as decreased sexual sensation caused by use of condoms and added pleasure in having intercourse with strangers. The majority of respondents were sexually active. Most have STI/HIV screening as part of their pre-employment medical exam. Positive practices include use of condoms, voluntary medical evaluation for STI's, and avoidance of high-risk partners. Negative practices include going to bars closely linked with prostitution, and most of the respondents had had sexual intercourse with sex workers overseas. Male seafarers appear to have double standards regarding women as sexual partners - about half had intercourse outside their stable relationships. They perceive protection as their sole discretion. PMID:21348016

  19. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Female Undergraduate Students in Wuhan, China: The Only-Child versus Students with Siblings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905

  20. Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers regarding Sexual Health Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of teachers who contribute to secondary school sexual health education in order to determine whether teachers are adequately prepared to implement present government education and public health policies. Design: Results were obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study.…

  1. College Student Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Tolerance toward Safe and Unsafe Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Richard W.; And Others

    Preventing the spread of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among sexually active adolescents and adults has become a primary social concern. This study was designed to investigate the following areas relevant to safer and unsafe sexual behavior among college students: knowledge and practice; personal risk assessment; and risk…

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Secondary School Teachers regarding Sexual Health Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of teachers who contribute to secondary school sexual health education in order to determine whether teachers are adequately prepared to implement present government education and public health policies. Design: Results were obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study.…

  3. Media’s Contribution to Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors for Adolescents and Young Adults in Three Asian Cities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and 32–41% of the variance in sex-related behaviors. Media variables explained 13–24% of the variance in sexual knowledge, 3–13% in premarital sexual permissiveness and 3–13% in sex-related behaviors, which was comparable to that of family, peer and school variables. These associations differed by city and gender. Conclusion Access to and use of mass media and the messages it presents are influential factors on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of unmarried Asian adolescents and young adults, and should be considered in future research and intervention programs attempting to improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:22340853

  4. A Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey regarding Sex, Contraception and Sexually Transmitted Diseases among Commerce College Students in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Mutha, Sonali A; Baghel, Paritosh J; Patil, Ramanand J; Bhagat, Sagar B; Patel, Sadiq B; Watsa, Mahinder C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One in four Indians is a juvenile. Sexual crimes, pre marital sex, sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies are on the rise. It has been shown that lack of sexuality education can significantly contribute to the above. Aim: We conducted this study to determine the knowledge and awareness of college students regarding sex and related matters and the factors affecting the prevalent outlook and practices of youth towards the same. Methodology: A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 500 students of the K.P.B. Hinduja College of Commerce from December 2012 to March 2013 as per the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: 1. Sex knowledge scores of males and females regarding contraception, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2. Percentage response of males and females to questions depicting attitudes and perceptions regarding premarital sex and promiscuity, sexual fantasy and masturbation, unwanted pregnancies and contraception. 3. Responses depicting participant’s premarital and high risk sexual activities. Results: The mean age was 18.6 ±1.6 years, 46% of participants were female. The total sex related knowledge scores of males and females were 8.2±1.2 and 6.2±2.4 (p<0.0001), respectively. 84% males and 72% females disagree that virginity should be preserved till marriage. Premarital sex was reported by 48% males and 18% females. Out of those who had premarital sex, 68% males and none of the females had more than one sex partner and 21% males and 12% females had used a contraceptive during their sexual encounter. 87% males and 82% females disagree that sex education in secondary schools will cause a rise in premarital intercourse. 40% males and 13% females are of the view that birth control is primarily a female’s responsibility. 14% of males and 21% of females (p = 0.2) reported being forced to have sex. Conclusion: Participants, especially females, lacked basic information about sexuality and related concepts. Male participants had a very casual attitude towards having sex with multiple partners. Premarital sex is more common than once believed. In the light of our finds and the current scenario, sexuality education is indispensable in order to guide the youth to develop and adopt healthy and appropriate sexual practices. PMID:25302214

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  7. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among South African street youth: reflections on power, sexuality and the autonomous self.

    PubMed

    Swart-Kruger, J; Richter, L M

    1997-09-01

    Street children in South Africa are, in the main, between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Rape, prostitution, sexual bartering and exchange, casual sex and romantic sexual relationships all occur in the experiences of young people who live and work on inner-city streets. In this study, the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of 141 street youth, living in seven large cities in South Africa, were elicited in focus group discussions. At the time of the study, 79 boys (56%) were living in shelters run by nongovernmental and welfare organisations, while 62 boys (44%) were sleeping "rough". The results, both qualitative and quantitative, indicated that the AIDS knowledge of South African street children was comparable to levels reported for groups of "hard-to-reach" youth in other parts of the world. Fear of HIV infection did not appear in a list of day-to-day priorities constructed by the children, a list dominated by survival concerns with food, money and clothes. However, more than half of the boys conceded that they engaged in sex for money, goods or protection, several boys indicated that they had been raped, and most reported being sexually active with "girlfriends", who themselves frequently engaged in transactional sex. The findings are interpreted in terms of the relationships between power dynamics surrounding race and age, and how they affect self-initiated controls over sexuality and sexual protection. PMID:9255928

  8. HIV/AIDS - Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sexual Practices among Migrant Wives in Rural Anhui Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (p<0.001) answered “Yes” for the question “Can an apparently healthy person be HIV-infected?”), and stigma and prejudice towards HIV/AIDS among migrant wives were more common than those among local women (e.g. 73.2% vs 65.7% (p=0.006) answered “No” for the question “If a shopkeeper or food seller had the HIV, would you buy food from them?”). Compared to local women, migrant wives were more likely to have ever had sex during menstruation (6.8% vs 3.4%, p=0.065) and extramarital sex (17.5% vs 10.1%, p=0.01), and were less likely to consistently use condoms with their husbands (45.8% vs 57.5%, p<0.001) or extramarital sex partners (48.8% vs 58.95, p<0.001). Conclusions Migrant wives in rural China had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population. PMID:25844269

  9. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues. PMID:23057505

  10. Do African-American men and women differ in their knowledge about AIDS, attitudes about condoms, and sexual behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E. H.; Gant, L.; Hinkle, Y. A.; Gilbert, D.; Willis, C.; Hoopwood, T.

    1992-01-01

    This study identified a sample of young African-American men and women classified as having multiple sex partners or one sex partner. Of the 149 men, 71 (47%) were classified as having multiple sex partners and 78 (53%) as having one sex partner. Of the 165 women, 29 (19%) were classified as having multiple sex partners and 126 (81%) as having one sex partner. Results indicated that the groups did not differ in their knowledge about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, attitudes about condom use differed significantly by gender (P less than .01) and by multiple sex status (P less than .001). Angry reactions regarding the negotiation of condom use occurred more with men than with women (P less than .05). Men and members of the multiple sex partners group tended to engage in more risky sexual behavior. These two groups also had a significantly (P less than .001) higher incidence of gonorrhea. While the multiple sex partners group had significantly more smokers (P less than .01), drinkers (P less than .01), and crack users (P less than .05), men were significantly higher consumers of marijuana (P less than .001) and alcohol (P less than .01). Overall, the results indicate that African Americans are knowledgeable about AIDS, but there appears to be a gap between knowledge and risky sexual behaviors. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the factors that determine the relationship (or lack of) between knowledge and risky sexual behaviors. Without such studies, a major part of the foundation that is needed for the development of sensitive and effective AIDS prevention programs for African Americans will be missing. PMID:1602502

  11. Changes in HIV knowledge, and socio-cultural and sexual attitudes in South India from 2003-2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As communities face serious pressures on traditional values, such as those posed by HIV infection, cultural inertia may result, whereby existing trends towards more liberalized views of sexuality are stalled. We examined changes in attitudes around HIV in Bagalkot district, south India, between 2003 and 2009. Methods General population surveys were conducted in 2003 and 2009, among approximately 6,600 randomly sampled men and women in 10 villages and 20 urban blocks of Bagalkot. Questions about HIV knowledge, sexuality, gender and condoms were included. We compared responses in the two surveys using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Awareness of HIV increased significantly from 76.9% in 2003 to 87.8% in 2009, and condom awareness increased significantly (37.4% to 65.4%) in all groups studied. However, in 2009, only 23% of people mentioned condoms as a means of prevention, an improvement from 8% in 2003 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.3; 95%CI 2.6-4.1, p <0.001). There was a significant increase in the number of women believing sex workers should be compulsorily tested for HIV (76.3%-86.4%%, AOR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4-2.4, p<0.001). An increasing number agreed that “it is wrong to talk about sex” (p=0.05), especially women (21.9% vs. 32.4%, p<0.01). There was an increase in women who thought it “wrong to talk about AIDS in a respectable family”, and more respondents in 2009 thought it improper to discuss condoms (15.6% vs. 27.4%, AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, p=0.001). In 2003, 31.4% agreed that “access to condoms promotes promiscuity”, increasing to 45.2% in 2009 (AOR 1.7; 95%CI 1.3-2.3, p<0.001). Educated and young urban women were the most likely to believe this. In 2003, 19.3% and in 2009 30.2% (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.4-2.3, p<0.001) thought that sex education promotes sexual activity and promiscuity. Conclusions Despite increases over time in HIV-related knowledge and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes, resistance to changing cultural mores was apparent, with less willingness to embrace openness and discuss sexuality. Young and female respondents appeared to be the most resistant to change, reflecting a cultural inertia that mirrors studies of other pressures on traditional societal values. More effort is required to advocate among women and young people for healthy sexuality, openness and safe sex practices. PMID:22376184

  12. A direct mailing to teenage males about condom use: its impact on knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Kirby, D; Harvey, P D; Claussenius, D; Novar, M

    1989-01-01

    In August 1987, a letter, informational pamphlet and order coupon for free mail-order condoms were sent to an experimental group of teenage males 16-17 years of age. An experimental design was used to measure the impact of the mailing on teenagers' knowledge, attitudes and behavior. Approximately five weeks after the mailing, 985 members of this group and 1,033 members of the control group (who received no mailing) were interviewed by telephone. About seven months after the mailing, members of the experimental group who claimed they had ordered the free condoms were reinterviewed by phone. The results of the initial interviews revealed that about three-fourths of the teenagers in the experimental group had received the materials, and about two-thirds had read them. Moreover, males in the experimental group, particularly those who reported having received and read the pamphlet, were slightly but statistically significantly more knowledgeable about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), pregnancy and contraceptives. On the other hand, there were no differences between males in the experimental and control groups in attitudes toward STDs or birth control, nor were there differences in actual sexual activity or in the use of birth control. However, the experimental group was significantly more likely to have ordered condoms by mail, presumably as a result of having received the free mail-order condom offer. Many of those who ordered condoms had previously had sex and had used condoms. However, a sizeable portion of those who ordered condoms did so prior to first intercourse, suggesting a possibly important early intervention. PMID:2703031

  13. Relationship between Teachers' Motivation Teaching HIV/AIDS Education and Students' Knowledge and Attitude towards Sexual Behaviour in Secondary Schools in Coast Region, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Daniel Njane; Nyaga, Veronica K.; Bururia, David N.; Barchok, Hilary K.

    2016-01-01

    Education plays an important role in curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS among the youth. However, there is little known how teachers' motivation in teaching HIV/AIDS education affects students' knowledge and attitudes towards sexual behaviour. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between teachers' level of motivation in…

  14. Sexuality Attitudes of Black Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Constance A.; Carpenter, Wayne D.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed sexuality attitudes of black middle-class sample (N=124) concerning communication regarding sexuality information, adolescent contraception, adolescent pregnancy, nonmarital intercourse, responsibility for contraception and pregnancy, abortion, pornography, and masturbation. Results suggest that participants were well-informed, moderate,…

  15. Quality of life, socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitude toward sexuality from the perspectives of individuals living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus1

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Gosuen, Gisele Cristina; Campanharo, Cássia Regina Vancini; Fram, Dayana Souza; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag; Belasco, Angélica Gonçalves Silva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to analyze the quality of life of "patients" with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and relate it to their socioeconomic profile, knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality. Method: crosssectional and analytical study with 201 individuals who are 50 years old or older. The Targeted Quality of Life and Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scales were applied during interviews. Multiple Linear Regression was used in data analysis. Results: dimensions of quality of life more strongly compromised were disclosure worries (39.0), sexual function (45.9), and financial worries (55.6). Scores concerning knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality were 31.7 and 14.8, respectively. There was significant correlation between attitudes and the domains of overall function, health worries, medication worries, and HIV mastery. Conclusion: guidance concerning how the disease is transmitted, treated and how it progresses, in addition to providing social and psychological support, could minimize the negative effects of the disease on the quality of life of patients living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. PMID:26039288

  16. Is It Bullying or Sexual Harassment? Knowledge, Attitudes, and Professional Development Experiences of Middle School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charmaraman, Linda; Jones, Ashleigh E.; Stein, Nan; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study fills a gap in the literature by examining how school staff members view bullying and sexual harassment and their role in preventing both. Given recent legislation, increasingly more attention is paid to bully prevention; however, student-on-student sexual harassment is less addressed. Methods: Four focus groups were…

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and perception of AIDS in rural Senegal: relationship to sexual behaviour and behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Lagarde, E; Pison, G; Enel, C

    1996-03-01

    240 men and 242 women, randomly selected, aged 15-59 years were questioned by local interviewers about their sexual behavior in this study on the determinants of risky sexual behavior and the perception of AIDS-related prevention messages in rural Africa. 28% of the sexually active men and 27% of the sexually active women reported having at least one casual sex partner during the 12 months preceding the interview. Among these, 27% of men and 30% of women reported having used a condom in most acts of sexual intercourse with casual partners. Male seasonal migrant workers and widowed and divorced women were more likely to report engaging in casual sex. These individuals in the area of study are particularly at risk for exposure to HIV infection. Casual sex was motivated by material needs among 66% of women who experienced it. Women who reported engaging in such behavior were less likely to feel at risk of AIDS. The perception of a real threat of personal vulnerability to contracting HIV lead men to adopt protective behaviors. PMID:8882673

  18. College Students' Attitudes toward Elderly Sexuality: A Two Factor Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jennifer L.; Stricker, George

    1996-01-01

    Factor analysis of scores of 458 college students on the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitude Scale revealed a two-factor structure. Religious affiliation and ethnicity uniquely predicted permissive/restrictive attitudes. Death anxiety and salience of elderly sexuality uniquely predicted empathic/indifferent attitudes. Students of different ages…

  19. College Students' Attitudes toward Elderly Sexuality: A Two Factor Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillman, Jennifer L.; Stricker, George

    1996-01-01

    Factor analysis of scores of 458 college students on the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitude Scale revealed a two-factor structure. Religious affiliation and ethnicity uniquely predicted permissive/restrictive attitudes. Death anxiety and salience of elderly sexuality uniquely predicted empathic/indifferent attitudes. Students of different ages…

  20. Clinical care for sexual assault survivors multimedia training: a mixed-methods study of effect on healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practice in humanitarian settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual assault is a threat to public health in refugee and conflict affected settings, placing survivors at risk for unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortion, STIs, HIV, psychological trauma, and social stigma. In response, the International Rescue Committee developed a multimedia training tool to encourage competent, compassionate, and confidential clinical care for sexual assault survivors in low-resource settings. This study evaluated the effect of the training on healthcare providers’ attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practices in four countries. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a purposive sample of 106 healthcare providers before and 3 months after training to measure attitudes, knowledge, and confidence. In-depth interviews with 40 providers elaborated on survey findings. Medical record audits were conducted in 35 health facilities before and 3 months after the intervention to measure healthcare providers’ practice. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent statistical and thematic analysis. Results While negative attitudes, including blaming and disbelieving women who report sexual assault, did not significantly decrease among healthcare providers after training, respect for patient rights to self-determination and non-discrimination increased from 76% to 91% (p?knowledge and confidence in clinical care for sexual assault survivors increased from 49% to 62% (p?sexual assault are hard to change, training can improve healthcare providers’ respect for patient rights and knowledge and confidence in direct patient care, resulting in more competent and compassionate clinical care for sexual assault survivors. PMID:23819561

  1. Religiosity, spirituality, sexual attitudes, and sexual behaviors among college students.

    PubMed

    Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexual attitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexual attitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743

  2. Freshman Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutt, Roberta L.; Sedlacek, William E.

    At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexual attitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…

  3. The knowledge and attitudes of a female at-risk population towards the prevention of AIDS and sexually transmitted infections in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Rastegarpour, Ali; Abadi, Ali-Reza; Nabavi, Mahmood; Sayyarifard, Azadeh; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The female at-risk population represents a subgroup that is both a crucial determining factor in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission and a gap in the existing literature in Iran. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of sex workers’ knowledge towards to safe procedures of sexually transmitted infection and AIDS prevention as well as attitudes towards AIDS. METHODS: A sample of 256 female sex workers working in Tehran was obtained by a variety of methods. Appropriate questions for the assessment of knowledge and attitude were developed based on previous studies. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 26.8 ± 6.1 years (ranging from 16 to 45). Methods of transmission were widely recognized, despite the exception that few realized oral (23.4%) and anal (44.9%) intercourse as methods of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Most subjects knew that AIDS currently has no cure (81.2%) and no vaccine (73.4%). Most also acknowledged that HIV is transmissible from people who do not know they are HIV positive (59.4%), proper condom use can reduce the possibility of infection (78.1%), and so can having a single sexual partner (68.8%). Of the participants, 43.4% knew that an HIV-positive person can seem perfectly healthy. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge towards sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and condom use is still inadequate, especially regarding risky behaviors such as anal sex, and attitudes are mainly negative. Identifying at-risk populations, HIV-positive sex workers, education and campaigns to change the attitudes towards AIDS should be regarded a high priority in Iran. PMID:22973347

  4. Knowledge and attitudes to HIV and AIDS and sexual practices among university students in Lusaka, Zambia and London, England: are they so different?

    PubMed

    Baggaley, R; Drobniewski, F; Pozniak, A; Chipanta, D; Tembo, M; Godfrey-Faussett, P

    1997-04-01

    Surveys conducted among university students in Lusaka, Zambia, and London, England, in 1993-94 revealed comparable AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices, despite vast differences between the two countries in AIDS prevalence. Questionnaires were completed by 946 seniors and 294 new students from the University of Zambia in 1993 and 1994 and by 100 seniors and 117 new students from London University in 1994. Both groups of students were quite knowledgeable about transmission of HIV through semen, blood, and vaginal fluid; however, 50% in both settings believed saliva transmits HIV. Although more than two-thirds of Lusaka students, compared with one-fourth of London students, knew or had known someone with HIV, British students had more compassionate, less judgmental attitudes toward AIDS patients. 90% of Lusakan but under 50% of London students worried about catching HIV. By their senior year, 61% of female and 85% of male students in Zambia had had one or more sexual partner compared with 73% and 76%, respectively, in London. 66% of Lusakan and 75% of London students used condoms most of the time with casual partners; with regular partners, these rates were only 23% and 35%, respectively. Lusakan students were less likely than their London counterparts to discuss HIV with their partners. 75% of students in both countries had received some type of AIDS education, but the majority expressed an interest in additional counseling. Recommended, in both settings, are university-based AIDS education programs, with particular emphasis on the importance of condom use with all sexual partners. PMID:9223847

  5. The effects of a systematically developed photo-novella on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections among secondary school learners in South Africa.

    PubMed

    James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champaklal C; Van Empelen, Pepijn; Van den Borne, Bart

    2005-06-01

    A pre-post test follow-up design was used to test the effects of a systematically developed photo-novella (Laduma) on knowledge, attitudes, communication and behavioural intentions with respect to sexually transmitted infections, after a single reading by 1168 secondary school learners in South Africa. The reading resulted in an increase in knowledge on the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), change in attitude to condom use and towards people with STIs and/or HIV/AIDS, as well as increased intention to practice safe sex. Laduma did not influence communication about sexually transmitted infections and reported sexual behaviour and condom use. While print media proved to be an effective strategy to reach large numbers of youth and prepare them for adequate preventive behaviours, the study also identified the need to combine print media with other planned theory-based interventions that build confidence and skills to initiate the preventive behaviour. PMID:15764686

  6. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  7. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

  8. College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors regarding Sex and Contraceptives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…

  9. Knowledge and attitudes about AIDS: a comparative study of Thais involved in sexual occupations, university students and immigrants living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tori, C D; Amawattana, T

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge about AIDS among: (a) 89 individuals involved in prostitution related occupations, (b) 465 university students, and (c) 220 Thais living in the United States was assessed to further evaluate the efficacy of Thailand's AIDS educational programs. While the average number of items answered correctly by the three groups were not equivalent (p < 0.001), all participants possessed substantial factual AIDS knowledge. As predicted, those involved in prostitution had the least accurate information (92% correct). Contrary to initial hypothesizing, however, AIDS knowledge was identical (95%) for the samples of university students living in Thailand and Thais who have been exposed to intensive AIDS information campaigns in the United States. Taken together, these findings suggest that Thailand's AIDS educational efforts have achieved considerable success. Television, newspapers, and radio provided information for most participants while a few learned about AIDS from their physician or in educational institutions. A majority expressed interest in improving their understanding about AIDS. The extent of infection among prostitutes appears to be high with nearly one-quarter of those in the sexual occupations group reporting that they knew someone with the disease. Techniques to better inform prostitutes about AIDS are discussed and a common outcome instrument to measure AIDS knowledge and attitudes is recommended. PMID:8228694

  10. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  11. Impact of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Education Program on the Knowledge and Attitude of High School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Fajemilehin, Reuben B.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate…

  12. Thai men's health and sexual attitude

    PubMed Central

    Kongkanand, Apichat; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Tantiwongse, Kavirach

    2011-01-01

    Men's health awareness, including the research and study of quality of life, sexual desires and risk factors, has increased worldwide. In Thailand, this advancement is made possible by cooperation, research and sponsorship from the local Thai community. This article aims to illustrate the sexual attitudes of Thai people, to determine the degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate how to manage and cope with ED in a Thai community. We reviewed the relevant literature from Thai-based articles and surveys in regard to men's health, sexual attitudes, the prevalence of ED and common risk factors in the Thai community. The primary risk factor for ED in Thai men was age-related health decline and the presence of vascular disease. Most Thai men will seek consultation from their partner in regard to ED. The main presentation of metabolic disease in Thai patients was dyslipidemia. New selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not available for premature ejaculation in Thai communities. The debate in regard to malpractice compensation is an issue that should be closely monitored. There is currently a shortage of home care for the elderly in Thailand. The insights provided by the articles helped recruit the study patients and in turn, helped us gain knowledge that can be translated into improved men's health care in Thailand. PMID:21666699

  13. The relationship among sexual attitudes, sexual fantasy, and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Ahrold, Tierney K; Farmer, Melissa; Trapnell, Paul D; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-06-01

    Recent research on the impact of religiosity on sexuality has highlighted the role of the individual, and suggests that the effects of religious group and sexual attitudes and fantasy may be mediated through individual differences in spirituality. The present study investigated the role of religion in an ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 1413, 69% women) using religious group as well as several religiosity domains: spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and fundamentalism. Differences between religious groups in conservative sexual attitudes were statistically significant but small; as predicted, spirituality mediated these effects. In contrast to the weak effects of religious group, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism were strong predictors of women's conservative sexual attitudes; for men, intrinsic religiosity predicted sexual attitude conservatism but spirituality predicted attitudinal liberalism. For women, both religious group and religiosity domains were significant predictors of frequency of sexual fantasies while, for men, only religiosity domains were significant predictors. These results indicate that individual differences in religiosity domains were better predictors of sexual attitudes and fantasy than religious group and that these associations are moderated by gender. PMID:20364304

  14. The Relationship Among Sexual Attitudes, Sexual Fantasy, and Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Ahrold, Tierney K.; Farmer, Melissa; Trapnell, Paul D.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research on the impact of religiosity on sexuality has highlighted the role of the individual, and suggests that the effects of religious group and sexual attitudes and fantasy may be mediated through individual differences in spirituality. The present study investigated the role of religion in an ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 1413, 69% women) using religious group as well as several religiosity domains: spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and fundamentalism. Differences between religious groups in conservative sexual attitudes were statistically significant but small; as predicted, spirituality mediated these effects. In contrast to the weak effects of religious group, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism were strong predictors of women’s conservative sexual attitudes; for men, intrinsic religiosity predicted sexual attitude conservatism but spirituality predicted attitudinal liberalism. For women, both religious group and religiosity domains were significant predictors of frequency of sexual fantasies while, for men, only religiosity domains were significant predictors. These results indicate that individual differences in religiosity domains were better predictors of sexual attitudes and fantasy than religious group and that these associations are moderated by gender. PMID:20364304

  15. The role of the healthcare sector in the prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco: a study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are extremely vulnerable to sexual violence. From a public health perspective, the healthcare system is globally considered an important partner in the prevention of sexual violence. The aim of this study is twofold. In a first phase, we aimed to identify the current role and position of the Moroccan healthcare sector in the prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants. In a second phase, we wanted these results and available guidelines to be the topic of a participatory process with local stakeholders in order to formulate recommendations for a more desirable prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants by the Moroccan healthcare sector. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in Morocco concerning sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants and its prevention were firstly explored in semi-structured interviews after which they were discussed in a participatory process resulting in the formulation of recommendations. Results All participants (n=24) acknowledged the need for desirable prevention of sexual violence against transmigrants. Furthermore, important barriers in tertiary prevention practices, i.e. psychosocial and judicial referral and long-term follow-up, and in secondary prevention attitudes, i.e. active identification of victims were identified. Moreover, existing services for Moroccan victims of sexual violence currently do not address the sub-Saharan population. Thus, transmigrants are bound to rely on the aid of civil society. Conclusions This research demonstrates the low accessibility of existing Moroccan services for sub-Saharan migrants. In particular, there is an absence of prevention initiatives addressing sexual violence against the sub-Saharan transmigrant population. Although healthcare workers do wish to develop prevention initiatives, they are dealing with structural difficulties and a lack of expertise. Recommendations adapted to the context of sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are suggested. PMID:23442386

  16. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior Regarding Condom Use in Urban Black Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Michele D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…

  17. Comorbidity, knowledge and attitude towards sex among patients with Dhat syndrome: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Gupta, Sunil; Mehra, Aseem; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge about sex, attitude towards sex, prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity and relationship of the comorbidity with onset of symptoms of Dhat syndrome. Treatment records of 264 patients diagnosed with Dhat syndrome were reviewed for clinical profile including psychiatric comorbidity and sexual dysfunction and information on sexual knowledge and attitude using Sex Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire (SKAQ-II). None of the patients gave all the correct responses on the SKAQ-II. Poor knowledge about sexual matters was not limited to the semen formation only, but also involved other aspects of sexuality, like masturbation, relationship of pregnancy with orgasm in women, breast feeding and pregnancy, relationship of sexual desire with addictive drugs and sexually transmitted diseases can be cured by having sex with a virgin girl. Higher level of education showed significant association with better sexual knowledge and liberal attitude. There was significant positive correlation between sexual knowledge and attitude. About half (51.9%) of patients had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder and/or sexual dysfunction. Among the psychiatric disorders, depressive disorders were the most common and premature ejaculation was the most common comorbid sexual dysfunction. Among those with comorbidity, symptoms of Dhat syndrome preceded the onset of other disorders. Patients with Dhat syndrome have high rates of comorbidity and poor sexual knowledge and less liberal attitude, which was not only limited to loss of semen but also involves other spheres of sexuality. Accordingly psychoeducation in patients of Dhat syndrome should not be limited to addressing the myths and lack of knowledge about semen formation, but also should address poor sexual knowledge on all the aspects related to sexuality and the negative attitude towards sex. PMID:26259894

  18. Parental attitudes toward adolescent sexuality: transcultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, L; Thomas, J T

    1987-08-01

    The problem of teenage pregnancy continues to impact private and public resources, affecting all socioeconomic and cultural groups. A key factor for nurse practitioners to consider when planning sex education programs is the differing parental attitudes toward teenage sexuality. These attitudes are especially important to keep in mind when dealing with parents from minority cultural groups, as these groups are often highly influential in determining the nature of adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes toward reproduction. A study of Cuban and Haitian child-rearing practices clearly demonstrates two divergent parental views of adolescent sexuality. Nurse practitioners must recognize these differing views, and individualize their approach, in order to develop culturally sensitive sex education programs for adolescents and their parents. Suggestions are provided for development of such programs for Cuban and Haitian parents and children. PMID:3658246

  19. Sexual behavior and attitudes of university students in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sneddon, I; Kremer, J

    1992-06-01

    Two surveys of a Northern Ireland student sample were conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 419 female and 201 male subjects completed self-administered anonymous questionnaires concerning their behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards sex, AIDS, homosexuality, contraception, and relationships. Results indicated a relatively low level of sexual experience, and for those with experience, relatively few partners. The possible influences of gender and religiosity on sexual behavior and attitudes, in the context of Northern Ireland, are discussed. Subjects reported considerable variation in the amount of sex education, but the majority received little or none. This student sample held relatively conservative attitudes towards love, sex, and marriage and this was particularly true for females and for regular churchgoers. In addition, attitudes towards homosexuality were negative (particularly among regular churchgoers). Attitudes towards contraception were more positive than expected among Catholic subjects, and few indicated that they would refuse to use contraceptives on principle. Responses to items about AIDS were highly uniform, suggesting that much of the information made available to the public has been absorbed. However, the lack of uniformity of response to more general items about sex, relationships, and contraception may indicate that fundamental changes in sexual behavior are unlikely to be brought about by influencing a rather narrowly defined set of attitudes about AIDS. PMID:1610290

  20. Teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in China: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juping

    2012-11-01

    China is the most populated of any country in the world. Social norms and values pertaining to love and marriage have changed considerably since the launch of its open-door policy and economic reforms of the 1980s. Attitudes to sex have become more open, while the negative consequences of early sexual intercourse have become issues of health and social concern. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in contemporary China. A literature review was conducted between 2000 and 2010, using both English (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA) and Chinese language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database). Thirty-six studies were included and reviewed. It was found that young people reported poor sexual knowledge, especially in relation to reproductive matters and sexually transmitted infections. The media, such as television, magazines and the Internet, were seen as their main sources of information on sex. Despite the frequently reported liberal attitudes to sexual behaviour, only a small number of young people had already lost their virginity or been involved in pregnancies. Young men were more likely than young women to report having had sex, while respondents at vocational high schools were less likely to remain virgins than those at common/key high schools. Although the prevalence of sexual intercourse among Chinese teenagers was still lower than that reported in studies conducted in most western countries, the findings do reflect some changes in sexual values and behaviour of young people within the country. They also suggest the need to develop more comprehensive sex education programmes in co-operation with young people, schools, health organisations, families and communities and to make sexual and reproductive health services accessible to teenagers and unmarried young people throughout China. PMID:22404303

  1. A Revised Sexual Knowledge Assessment Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Is Sexual Knowledge Related to Sexual Offending Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, T. J.; Langdon, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to update an existing short measure of sexual knowledge and generate some initial reliability and normative data. Comparisons of sexual knowledge across several groups were made to examine whether or not a lack of sexual knowledge is related to sexual offending. Methods: The Bender Sexual Knowledge…

  2. Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

  3. The Sexual Knowledge, Experience, Feelings and Needs of People with Mild Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Cummins, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty adults with mild mental retardation and 50 first-year psychology students were surveyed regarding their sexual knowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Subjects with mental retardation had less knowledge, more negative attitudes toward sexual issues, and less experience in intimacy and sexual intercourse, but more experience in…

  4. Examining the Relationship between Degree of Religiousness and Attitudes toward Elderly Sexual Activity in Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.; Raacke, John

    2011-01-01

    Research has been conducted on individual's knowledge and attitudes toward older adult sexuality. This includes investigating attitudes and knowledge of nursing home staff, college students, and the elderly themselves. The current experiment sought to replicate previous research findings by comparing college students' attitudes and knowledge of…

  5. Transforming Students' Attitudes about Sexual Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Carole J.

    An overview of the curriculum of a college course entitled "Politics and Sex" and several strategies found to be effective in transforming students' attitudes about sexual violence are presented. The structure of the course rests on two fundamental principles, both associated with feminist theory. First, the personal is political. Second, that…

  6. Implicit and Explicit Sexual Attitudes: How Are They Related to Sexual Desire and Sexual Satisfaction in Men and Women?

    PubMed

    Dosch, Alessandra; Belayachi, Sanaâ; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-02-01

    This article examines individual variability in sexual desire and sexual satisfaction by exploring the relation between these sexual aspects and sexual attitudes (implicit and explicit) and by taking gender into account, as this has been shown to be an influential factor. A total of 28 men and 33 women living in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), sexual satisfaction, and explicit sexual attitudes. An adapted version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure was used to assess implicit sexual attitudes. Results showed higher levels of dyadic and solitary sexual desire in men than in women. No gender differences were found regarding sexual satisfaction or sexual attitudes. High dyadic sexual desire was associated with positive implicit and explicit sexual attitudes, regardless of gender. However, solitary sexual desire was significantly higher in men than women and was associated, in women only, with positive implicit sexual attitudes, suggesting that solitary sexual desire may fulfill different functions in men and women. Finally, sexual satisfaction depended on the combination of explicit and implicit sexual attitudes in both men and women. This study highlights the importance of considering both implicit and explicit sexual attitudes to better understand the mechanisms underlying individual variability in sexual desire and satisfaction. PMID:26147194

  7. Before Sex Education: An Evaluation of the Sexual Knowledge, Experience, Feelings and Needs of People with Mild Intellectual Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Schreck, Agi

    1992-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current information base on sexuality of people with intellectual disabilities, specifically in the areas of sexual knowledge, sexual experience, sexual feelings and attitudes, and sexual need. Consideration of this information is critical in developing appropriate sex education programs that can enhance the quality of…

  8. Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pebdani, Roxanna N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

  9. Rehabilitation Counselor Knowledge, Comfort, Approach, and Attitude toward Sex and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pebdani, Roxanna N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…

  10. Differences in HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior among Psychiatric Outpatients With and Without a History of a Sexually Transmitted Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Carey, Kate B.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    HIV infection among the mentally ill is estimated to be at least eight times the prevalence in the general population. Psychiatric patients may also be disproportionately vulnerable to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), but this has not been well studied. We sought to characterize the prevalence and correlates of STIs in a sample of psychiatric outpatients (N = 464). Over one-third of the sample (38%) reported a lifetime history of one or more STIs. Multivariate analyses showed that, relative to those without an STI history, patients with a lifetime STI history were more knowledgeable about HIV, expressed stronger intentions to use condoms, and perceived themselves to be at greater risk for HIV. However, those with a past STI were also more likely to report sex with multiple partners and reported more frequent unprotected sex in the past 3 months. Treatment for an STI may increase HIV knowledge and risk reduction motivation, but does not necessarily lead to changes in sexual risk behavior among psychiatric patients. Findings highlight the need for STI/HIV risk reduction interventions in psychiatric settings, particularly for patients with high-risk profiles. PMID:17298932

  11. The Relationship between Gender, Sexual Attitudes, Attitudes towards Gender and High School Counselors' Ethical Decision-Making regarding Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Donald, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between high school counselors' ethical decision-making, gender, attitudes towards gender, and sexual attitudes. Of the 161 respondents, only 157 participants' data sets were included in the data set. Participants completed the Ethical Decision-Making Questionnaire, The Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hendrick,…

  12. The Relationship between Gender, Sexual Attitudes, Attitudes towards Gender and High School Counselors' Ethical Decision-Making regarding Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Donald, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between high school counselors' ethical decision-making, gender, attitudes towards gender, and sexual attitudes. Of the 161 respondents, only 157 participants' data sets were included in the data set. Participants completed the Ethical Decision-Making Questionnaire, The Brief Sexual Attitudes Scale (Hendrick,…

  13. Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

  14. AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior: A Comparison of Dutch Students and Dropouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogels, Ton; Brugman, Emily; van Zessen, Gertjan

    1999-01-01

    Compares Dutch secondary school students and dropouts about their knowledge of AIDS prevention, attitude toward condom use, intention to use condoms, sexual history, and condom use. Reports that contrary to expectations, few differences were found. Concludes that knowledge and attitudes of dropouts was similar to students. (Author/JDM)

  15. Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

  16. Tanzanian men’s gender attitudes, HIV knowledge, and risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Jordan, Lucy P.; Nsimba, Stephen E.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses data from the 2004-05 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey to examine whether men’s traditional gender role attitudes contribute to their sexual risk behaviours for HIV. Logistic regression with random effects were used to analyze effects on risk behaviours at last sex (partners being drunk and condom use) with the three most recent sexual relationships. Men’s traditional gender attitudes increased risky sexual behaviours (e.g., not using a condom) even when they had accurate knowledge regarding HIV risks. The impact of men’s gender attitudes and HIV knowledge on risky sexual behaviours did not vary by relationship type. Unexpectedly, condom use was more likely when either partner was drunk compared to neither being drunk, though the protective impact of HIV knowledge remained. Overall, these findings suggest that traditional gender attitudes present barriers to preventing HIV/AIDS that even increased knowledge about HIV risks may not overcome. PMID:26633916

  17. The Association of Sexual Experience with Attitudes, Beliefs, and Risk Behaviors of Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance.…

  18. The Association of Sexual Experience with Attitudes, Beliefs, and Risk Behaviors of Inner-City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2006-01-01

    We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance.…

  19. Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana

    2009-01-01

    Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…

  20. Sexuality related attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Askun, Duysal; Ataca, Bilge

    2007-10-01

    In this study, sexual attitudes and behaviors of Turkish university students were explored by taking many influential agents both at the distal and the proximal levels into consideration. A total of 563 students from three universities located in three cities completed a questionnaire that assessed their virginity status, first intercourse, sexual permissiveness, pornography usage, endorsement of traditional sexual double standards, and the perception of parental attitudes about sexuality. The results showed that women and students from rural areas were more traditional and conservative in their attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality. The perception of maternal restriction about sexuality was related to sexual conservatism, negative affective reaction at first coitus, and endorsing traditional sexual double standards. The results are discussed in terms of various degrees of influences originating from proximal and distal variables in the Turkish context. PMID:17629783

  1. Education Level, Liberal Attitudes, and Sexual Behavior: A Reinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Mark A.

    1996-01-01

    Responds to Krull's conclusions (1994) that higher educational attainment is indirectly related to sexual promiscuity through more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex. Criticizes Krull's omission of certain variables, recoding of variables, and assumption of a one-way causal relationship between sexual attitudes and behaviors. Reanalysis with…

  2. Effects of a peer-led media literacy curriculum on adolescents' knowledge and attitudes toward sexual behavior and media portrayals of sex.

    PubMed

    Pinkleton, Bruce E; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Cohen, Marilyn; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; Fitzgerald, Erin

    2008-09-01

    The United States has the highest rates of teenage pregnancy and birth in the Western industrialized world, and research indicates that television and other mass media are important sources of sexual information for young people. The purpose of this study was to determine if a teen-led, media literacy curriculum focused on sexual portrayals in the media would increase adolescents' awareness of media myths concerning sex, decrease the allure of sexualized portrayals, and decrease positive expectancies for sexual activity. A posttest-only quasi-experiment with control groups was conducted at 22 school and community sites in Washington state (N = 532). The intervention, a 5-lesson media literacy curriculum targeted primarily to middle school students, encouraged sexual abstinence because of federal government funding requirements. Adolescents evaluated the program positively, with 85% rating it as better than other sex education programs. Compared to control-group participants, students were less likely to overestimate sexual activity among teens, more likely to think they could delay sexual activity, less likely to expect social benefits from sexual activity, more aware of myths about sex, and less likely to consider sexual media imagery desirable. The results showed that media literacy has promise as part of a sex education program by providing adolescents with a cognitive framework necessary to understand and resist the influence of media on their decision making concerning sex. PMID:18850393

  3. The Sexuality Education and Attitudes of College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the type and quality of sexuality education received by college students in Hangzhou, China. Their attitudes towards sex and sexuality were also explored. To set the broader context the regulations and laws governing the provision of sexuality education in China have also been examined.…

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger

    2009-01-01

    A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Rural Migrants in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger

    2009-01-01

    A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…

  6. A Snapshot: South African University Students' Attitudes, Perceptions and Knowledge of HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raijmakers, L. R.; Pretorius, J. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…

  7. Relationships between attitudes toward sexuality, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive practices among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yingchun; Luo, Taizhen; Zhou, Ying

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated attitudes toward sexuality, the prevalence of sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates, and relationships between attitudes toward sexuality and sexual and contraceptive practices among these participants. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out by using a Personal Attitude toward Sexuality Scale and Sexual and Contraceptive Questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the researcher's lectures. A total of 158 participants joined this study. Overall, Chinese medical and nursing undergraduates in this study held relatively conservative attitudes toward sexuality. The prevalence of sexually-active students was relatively low, and the percentage of contraceptive use among those sexually-active students was also low. Participants' attitudes toward sexuality had statistically-significant effects on their sexual and contraceptive practices. Nearly half of the sexually-active participants reported never using any contraceptive method during sexual intercourse. This finding has important public health implications, as young people represent the group with the largest rate of new infections of HIV/AIDS in China. A more comprehensive sexual education program that extends to college undergraduates and promotes the social acceptability of using contraception, specifically condoms, is needed. PMID:25491444

  8. Exploring AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Female Mexican Migrant Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organista, Pamela Balls; Organista, Kurt C.; Soloff, Pearl R.

    1998-01-01

    AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed among female migrant laborers (N=32). Results are reported regarding knowledge and beliefs about AIDS transmission, knowledge and beliefs about condom use, and actual use of condoms. Needs for health education and services, sexual power, and other implications of findings are…

  9. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  10. Asian and Non-Asian Attitudes toward Rape, Sexual Harassment, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, M. Alexis; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Explored potential differences between Asian and non-Asian Canadian university students regarding their attitudes toward coercive and noncoercive sexual behavior. Student surveys indicated that Asian students' attitudes were significantly more conservative. Asian students were more tolerant of rape myths and sexual harassment. They demonstrated…

  11. The role of ethnicity, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior in sexual revictimization during the transition to emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Rinehart, Jenny K; Yeater, Elizabeth A; Musci, Rashelle J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Lenberg, Kathryn L

    2014-01-01

    An experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) substantially increases women's risk of adult sexual assault (ASA), but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. Previous research often has not examined the full range of ASA experiences or included the influence of ethnicity, sexual behavior, and sexual attitudes on CSA and severity of ASA. The current study utilized path analysis to explore the relationships among ethnicity, sexual attitudes, number of lifetime sexual partners, CSA, and severity of ASA in emerging adult women. Results indicated a significant relationship between CSA and more severe ASA that was partially explained by having more lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, European American women, relative to Hispanic women, reported more severe victimization, which was fully explained by more positive attitudes toward casual sex and having more lifetime sexual partners. These results have implications in the design and implementation of universal and selective prevention programs aimed at reducing ASA and revictimization among emerging adult women. PMID:25258422

  12. It's "Supposed" to Be Personal: Personal and Educational Factors Associated with Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, Comfort and Skill in Health Profession Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…

  13. It's "Supposed" to Be Personal: Personal and Educational Factors Associated with Sexual Health Attitudes, Knowledge, Comfort and Skill in Health Profession Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…

  14. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  15. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  16. The Impact of a College Course in Human Sexuality Upon Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godow, Annette G.; LaFave, Francis

    The impact of a college human sexuality course upon sexual attitudes and behavior was examined. A questionnaire, designed by the authors, was administered to students of a human sexuality course and a social psychology course at the beginning and end of the spring semester, 1975. On six of the seven attitudinal categories measured, students from…

  17. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  19. Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnett, Barbara M.; Zettle, Thomas E.

    For seven consecutive semesters, questionnaires were administered to the students enrolled in Illinois Central College's human sexuality course to determine their sexual experience, practices, and orientation. The surveys also sought to assess the students' attitudes toward homosexuality, pornography, masturbation, extramarital relations,…

  20. Religious Participation and Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Arland; Camburn, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed longitudinal survey data for relationship between adolescent sexuality and adolescents' religious affiliation and participation among Detroit area families (N=916). Confirmed previous findings which showed strong correlation between religious involvement and adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior, i.e., religious adolescents had least…

  1. Parents' Attitudes toward Comprehensive and Inclusive Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are sometimes perceived as barriers to providing comprehensive and inclusive sexuality education to young people. However, little is known about parents' actual attitudes towards providing such broad information to young people. The purpose of this paper is to examine two different approaches to measuring parents' attitudes…

  2. Sexual behavior and AIDS-related knowledge among community college students in Orange County, California.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, J; Radecki, S; Charchian, A S; Josephson, V

    1999-02-01

    Whereas college students are not identified as a high-risk group for acquiring the HIV infection, they exhibit high-risk behaviors consistent with their age group, including multiple sexual partners and high rates of unprotected intercourse. This study was conducted to determine levels of HIV-related sexual behavior, along with knowledge and attitudes among students attending community colleges in a relatively affluent multiethnic community. This study used a random sample survey (N = 319) of students attending selected classes at four community colleges in Orange County, California, to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and patterns of past and present sexual behavior. The level of student knowledge concerning HIV disease was found to be relatively high, and pronounced differences in knowledge and sexual permissiveness were identified as a function of ethnicity and religion, with Asians showing lower knowledge and lower concern about HIV, and religion/religiosity related to these variables and also to levels of sexual permissiveness. Respondents' comfort in asking a partner about his/her sexual history was positively associated with their level of self-esteem, and negatively related to peer pressure in this population. As in previous studies of college populations, HIV knowledge per se does not confer a protective effect against high-risk behavior. However, knowledge was found to be an enabling factor with regard to students' comfort levels in asking about their partner's sexual histories, and in requesting that partners take an AIDS test. PMID:10036646

  3. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  5. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  6. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  7. Religious Orientation and Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Eileen K.; Helm, Herbert W., Jr.; McBride, Duane C.

    2011-01-01

    Religion is one of the major forces of control over sexuality, and many studies have observed an inverse relationship between religiosity and sexual permissiveness. The Religious Orientation Scale has been used to study the relationship between religious orientation and sexuality. It has been found that those with intrinsic views are more…

  8. ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR AMONG RURAL THAI ADOLESCENTS REGARDING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.

    PubMed

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Guptarak, Marisa; Wichajarn, Monjun; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Khampan, Ratchaneekorn; Grimes, Deanna E; Grimes, Richard M

    2014-11-01

    Early initiation of sexual intercourse has been associated with negative consequences, such as higher rates of unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection. This study examined the attitudes and behavior of rural Thai adolescent students aged 16 to 20 years from northern Thailand regarding sexual intercourse. Differences between participants who previously had sexual intercourse and those who had not were explored. Those who had not previously had sexual intercourse were asked about the reasons why they had not had sex, their future plans for having sex and their dating experiences. More than 70% of participants stated they had not previously had sexual intercourse but one third of this group reported engaging in other sexual behavior. There were significant differences by gender, religion, ethnicity, and household income between those who had previously had sex and those who had not. Among those who had not previously had sexual intercourse, concern for their parents' feelings was the most common reason for delaying intercourse. About two-thirds of this group had plans not to have sexual intercourse until after marriage; nearly half of them reported currently having a boyfriend/girlfriend. Interventions aimed at delaying sexual intercourse should involve adolescents in their design and include their attitudes for delaying intercourse. Because of many gender differences seen in our study, interventions should be designed differently for males and females in rural northern Thailand. PMID:26466430

  9. Chinese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex: implications for promoting sexual health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0. Adolescent attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sexual behavior comprise the following three dimensions: (1) external incentives, (2) the developmental process, and (3) internal control. External incentives include the normalization of sexual behavior between peers, the desire to feel included in a group, parental influence, and media influence. The developmental process includes imagining the sexual experience and onset of sexual activity. Internal control includes the fear of pregnancy, the fear of parental rejection, and the fear of being judged. These findings can provide a reference for designing future sex education curricula and counseling programs for adolescents. PMID:24502972

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of a University Human Sexuality Course on Sexual Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Marilyn D.

    A comparison of sexual attitudes was made between 127 human sexuality class students and 114 control class students at the University of Northern Iowa at the beginning of class (pretest), the end of class, (posttest), and two years after the end of class (follow-up). The pretest displayed no differences between the treatment and control groups on…

  11. Staff Knowledge and Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Tanya; Geraghty, Wendy; Street, Karen; Simonoff, Emily

    2003-01-01

    Investigated knowledge, attitudes, and training needs of professionals working with adolescents who deliberately self-harm (DSH). Over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual males and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH; one-third were unaware adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of…

  12. Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

  13. The Impact of a Community-Based Comprehensive Sex Education Program on Chinese Adolescents' Sex-Related Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bo; Meier, Ann; Shah, Iqbal; Li, Xiaoming

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexual knowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related…

  14. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  15. Personal and Perceived Peer Attitudes Supporting Sexual Aggression as Predictors of Male College Students' Willingness to Intervene against Sexual Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amy L.; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2010-01-01

    Male college students (N = 395) completed anonymous surveys to report personal attitudes supporting sexual aggression and estimated the attitudes of their peers. Participants also indicated their willingness to intervene against a peer if they witnessed sexual aggression. Although both personal and peer attitudes were correlated with willingness…

  16. Heterosexual College Student Sexual Experiences, Feminist Identity, and Attitudes toward LGBT Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…

  17. Heterosexual College Student Sexual Experiences, Feminist Identity, and Attitudes toward LGBT Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Meredith G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…

  18. Masculinity Femininity, Personality and Sexual Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    1971-01-01

    The study suggests that sexuality constitutes a continuum which is largely colinear with P (psychoticism) and with masculinity. The P Scale appears to be closely related with the masculinity femininity dimension. (Author)

  19. Attitudes to sex and sexual behaviour in rural Matabeleland, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Vos, T

    1994-01-01

    Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudes to sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast. PMID:8061079

  20. Does Positive Youth Development Predict Adolescent Attitudes about Sexuality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Erin N.; Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…

  1. Young People, Pornography, and Sexuality: Sources and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…

  2. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  3. Older Adolescents' Positive Attitudes toward Younger Adolescents as Sexual Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegna, Kristinn; Mossige, Svein; Wichstrom, Lars

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of older adolescents' positive attitudes toward younger sexual partners was investigated through three measures of self-reported hypothetical likelihood of having sex with preadolescents and younger adolescents (LSA), using a school-based cluster sample of 710 Norwegian 18- to 19-year-olds attending nonvocational high schools in…

  4. Parents' Attitudes toward Comprehensive and Inclusive Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Parents are sometimes perceived as barriers to providing comprehensive and inclusive sexuality education to young people. However, little is known about parents' actual attitudes towards providing such broad information to young people. The purpose of this paper is to examine two different approaches to measuring parents' attitudes…

  5. Young People, Pornography, and Sexuality: Sources and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…

  6. Dating and Sexual Attitudes in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, May; Markham, Christine; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn; Chacko, Mariam R.

    2009-01-01

    Dating behaviors and sexual attitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…

  7. [The medical history taking in sexual health: skills and attitudes].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, F; González-Correales, R; Jurado-López, A R; San Martín-Blanco, C; Montaña-Hernández, R M; Tijeras-Úbeda, M J; Benitez-Moreno, J M; Brenes-Bermúdez, F; Mir Pizà, J; Villalba-Quintana, E

    2013-01-01

    A sexual satisfactory life favourably affects quality of life, there being evidence that shows there are multiple organic processes of which sexual dysfunction is often a precocious sign of underlying organic disease (cardiovascular, endocrinological or neurological). Difficulties exist in recording the sexual anamnesis on the part of the professional, the patient, or by the health system. Nevertheless, given its importance, it is necessary for the doctor to adopt an attitude of active search, especially among the population of risk. To do this, it is necessary that the situation is propitious (sense of the opportunity), preserving the confidentiality of the meeting, and it will be carried out naturally and with empathy, adopting a listening attitude, taking into account the non-verbal language, without issuing valued judgments, and resorting to assertivity to overcome the resistances. This article proposes guidelines to perform an anamnesis adequately. PMID:23953149

  8. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  9. Familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Nuran

    2011-02-01

    The aims of the study described here were to investigate familiarity with, knowledge of, and attitudes toward epilepsy and to assess indicators of positive attitudes toward epilepsy. Questionnaires previously developed for the Turkish population were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Data were collected from 1354 randomly selected adults. Three-quarters of the sample had heard something about epilepsy, and almost half of the sample personally knew someone with epilepsy. The sample had a moderate level of knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward epilepsy in general. Variables that predicted positive attitudes were young age, male gender, and high level of knowledge of epilepsy. The results for both knowledge and attitudes indicate that the findings of the study are largely in line with previous studies, but where there is wide variability among previous findings, the findings for the Turkish population lie, just as Turkey does geographically, between those of the East and West. PMID:21277263

  10. Using peer education to increase sexual health knowledge among West African refugees in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Peter D; Mizan, Ayse; Brocx, Katie; Wright, Bernadette

    2011-03-01

    Ten bilingual West African peer educators conducted a 3-hour workshop on sexual health for small groups of West African refugees (N = 58) who recently had settled in Perth, Western Australia. There were significant increases in the participants' knowledge of sexually transmitted infections and HIV, how these infections are spread, and how to protect against infection. In addition, attitudes toward condom use became more positive. We conclude that the peer-education approach was successful in assisting a new and emerging community to work effectively on sexual health topics generally considered "taboo" or too sensitive to discuss. PMID:21337242

  11. Adolescent knowledge and attitudes about abortion.

    PubMed

    Stone, R; Waszak, C

    1992-01-01

    A focus-group study of adolescents from cities across the United States revealed that they lacked accurate knowledge about abortion and the laws governing it. Most expressed erroneous beliefs about abortion, describing it as medically dangerous, emotionally damaging and widely illegal. The study also revealed that antiabortion views, conservative morality and religious beliefs were the primary sources of these adolescents' attitudes toward abortion. In general, the participants in the study said they were personally opposed to abortion, but supported its continued legality as a woman's choice. Although most of the teenagers expressed positive feelings toward parents, they did not feel that mandatory parental involvement would be helpful, and in some cases could cause harm. PMID:1612143

  12. Survey of attitude and knowledge of reproductive health among middle school students in Luoyang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Zhang, Y J; Pan, X J; Xia, X Y; Lv, S Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of AIDS and sexual behavior of middle school students. Structural questionnaires were designed to interview 1980 junior and senior middle school students about their basic knowledge, attitude, and behavior with respect to AIDS and sexual behavior. Students were recruited from the six most common middle schools of the six regions in Luoyang City of the Henan Province of China by cluster sampling from September to December of 2004. Results showed that 54.5% of students had not learned about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in school, and 38.3% of students did not have any knowledge about the route of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, 91.2% of students were reluctant to share a classroom with HIV/AIDS patients. Approximately 21.7% of students had read books, watched videos, and consulted other media related to sex, 1.1% of students had had sexual intercourse during high school, and 80.5% believed that health education on HIV/AIDS and sex was necessary. The results of this survey showed that middle school students have little knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sex. Therefore, health education programs for HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual health should be developed as soon as possible to help students peacefully get through a sexually puzzling period of life. PMID:24737509

  13. The effects of school poverty on adolescents’ sexual health knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Robert; Sulik, Michael J.; Hart, Daniel; Ayres, Cynthia; Read, Nichole

    2012-01-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, hierarchical linear modeling was conducted to estimate the association of school poverty concentration to the sexual health knowledge of 6,718 adolescents. Controlling for individual socio-economic status, school poverty had modest negative effects on sexual health knowledge. Although not directly associated with sexual health knowledge, after controlling for demographic characteristics, school poverty interactions showed that sexual health knowledge was associated with higher grade point average (GPA) and age. The combination of low GPA and high-levels of school poverty was especially detrimental for students’ sexual health knowledge. There are differences in the sexual health knowledge of adolescents attending low poverty and high poverty schools that can be attributed to the school environment. PMID:22431188

  14. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions1

    PubMed Central

    Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635

  15. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  16. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  17. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  18. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  19. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  20. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  1. Combating Ageism: Change in Student Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…

  2. Slovakian Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…

  3. Slovakian Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Leskova, Andrea; Kubiatko, Milan; Diran, Carla

    2007-01-01

    This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnology in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology…

  4. Sexual knowledge of Canadian adolescents after completion of high school sexual education requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Maya M; Lim, Rodrick; Langford, Cindy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Speechley, Kathy N; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexual knowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontario’s minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canada’s age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexual knowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation. PMID:24421660

  5. Attitudes Toward Restricting the Sexual and Reproductive Rights of Women Living With HIV Infection in Yemen.

    PubMed

    Badahdah, Abdallah M

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of research has demonstrated the pervasive and destructive power of discrimination against people living with HIV, which limits their full and equal participation in society. This study surveyed 613 young adults from Yemen about their attitudes toward the sexual and reproductive rights of women living with HIV (WLWH). Among survey respondents, 80% believed that WLWH should be sterilized and not allowed to get married. Furthermore, 62% thought that WLWH should be forced to have abortions if they became pregnant. Men were more likely than women to impose restrictions on the sexual and reproductive rights of WLWH. HIV stigma predicted respondent attitudes toward WLWH, but religiosity and knowledge about HIV did not. The results of the study have implications for developing programs to protect and promote the rights of WLWH in Yemen. PMID:26613828

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.

    PubMed

    Durongritichai, Vanida

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715

  7. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  8. A Study of Sexual Attitudes of Western Kansas High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Lyndel E.

    Sexually liberal attitudes have been found to relate strongly to sexual behavior, primarily first intercourse, of both males and females. This study focused on sexual attitudes of adolescents aged 14 to 19. The variables considered include: gender, classification, religious affiliation, family type, educational ability, autonomy, and aggression.…

  9. Parental Attitudes and Young People's Online Sexual Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése

    2015-01-01

    Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also…

  10. Chinese Adolescents' Attitudes toward Sexual Relationships and Premarital Sex: Implications for Promoting Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…

  11. Chinese Adolescents' Attitudes toward Sexual Relationships and Premarital Sex: Implications for Promoting Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore Taiwanese school students' attitudes toward sexual relationships and premarital sex. This was an exploratory descriptive, qualitative study. Focus groups (N = 8) were conducted with 47 adolescents from three high schools in Taiwan. Transcripts were transcribed and thematically analyzed using Atlas V 5.0.…

  12. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  13. Adolescents' Sexually Transmitted Disease Protective Attitudes Predict Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Danner, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…

  14. Sexual Attitudes and Knowldge Among Black Inner-City Elementary School Students in Philadelphia: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Walter C., Jr.; And Others

    Teenage and/or adolescent pregnancy is on the increase in most American cities and age of first pregnancy within this group is declining rapidly. In this study, sexual attitudes and knowledge among black inner-city elementary school students is documented. The effectiveness of a six week sex education class designed to provide these students with…

  15. Associations Between Nonverbal Behaviors and Subsequent Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Noll, Jennie G.; Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study examined a sample of sexually abused and comparison girls to determine (a) whether there were patterns of behavior that differed between the groups and (b) whether nonverbal behaviors assessed at the initial visit (n = 147; M= 11.11 years; SD = 3.02) might predict sexual attitudes and behaviors at a later point in development (n = 144; M = 18.52 years; SD = 3.52). At the initial assessment, nonverbal behaviors during an interaction with an unknown male interviewer were factor analyzed revealing 3 factors: wary (e.g., pouting), affiliative (e.g., chin resting on hand), and coy (e.g., tongue show). Abused girls scored higher on the coy factor that was related to earlier age at first voluntary intercourse later in development (approximately 7 years later). High scores on the affiliative factor were related to higher sexual permissiveness and less negative attitudes toward sex. Results indicate that sexually abused girls showed early maladaptive patterns in interpersonal interactions, which were subsequently related to risky sexual attitudes and behaviors. PMID:20410025

  16. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Adrien, A; Cayemittes, M; Bergevin, Y

    1993-01-01

    AIDS constitutes an important public health problem in Haiti, where it appears to be spread mainly through heterosexual encounters. The study reported here employed in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a national cross-sectional survey of 1,300 men and 1,300 women 15 to 49 years old to assess AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti. According to criteria established for the study, 38.1% of the 1,118 sexually active male survey respondents were found to engage in high-risk behavior. In general, the women were found to have better knowledge of AIDS than the men. Significant obstacles to condom use included the inability of women to choose whether condoms would be used and a belief that condom lubricant could cause health problems. The study also found a tendency to ostracize people with AIDS, especially in areas outside Port-au-Prince, and a belief that AIDS was imposed on people by fate--which could partially explain the tendency to persist in high-risk behavior. PMID:8220518

  17. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  18. Adolescents' Use of Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Their Sexual Attitudes and Behavior: Parallel Development and Directional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doornwaard, Suzan M.; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling,…

  19. Sexual Assault Awareness Handbook. Knowledge is Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Emily

    The purpose of this handbook, created as a component of a sexual assault awareness program at Millikin University, is to provide information needed to assist victims of sexual assault. Information is included on several aspects of sexual assault, as well as references and websites available for additional information. Topics covered include:…

  20. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  1. Association of "Macho Man" Sexual Attitudes and Behavioral Risks in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Ellen Johnson; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether sexual attitudes of adolescents were related to their self-reported sexual risk behavior by analyzing survey data from 1,052 boys and girls aged 14 to 17 years from a low income, urban community. Sexual behavior norms that may increase sexually transmitted infection/HIV risks in youth were sanctioned more by males and by…

  2. College Students' Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors, 1974-1985: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spees, Emil R.

    1987-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on college students' sexual attitudes and behaviors from 1974 through 1985. Found a rise in sexual activity and in openness to discuss sexual issues, a relationship between soft drugs and sexual activity, greater concern for rape, and greater male student awareness of male responsibility for contraceptive behavior.…

  3. Sexual Attitudes and Risk-Taking Behaviors of High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…

  4. Sexual Attitudes and Risk-Taking Behaviors of High School Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aras, Sahbal; Semin, Semih; Gunay, Turkan; Orcin, Esmahan; Ozan, Sema

    2007-01-01

    Background: The risk of sexually transmitted diseases is high but opportunities of sexual education for adolescents are limited in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate sexual attitudes and behaviors and to determine the predictors of sexual initiation among adolescents. Methods: A questionnaire designed by the researchers was administered…

  5. Adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material and their sexual attitudes and behavior: Parallel development and directional effects.

    PubMed

    Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2015-10-01

    Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26376287

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV/AIDS among Iranian at-risk sub-populations.

    PubMed

    Ramezani Tehrani, F; Malek-Afzali, H

    2008-01-01

    This study in 2003 looked at knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning HIV among 3 high-risk groups (201 cross-border truck drivers, 50 female sex workers and 754 youths) in 4 cities in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The level of knowledge about HIV was low on average, especially among individuals with high-risk behaviours. Truck drivers and female sex workers had higher knowledge about sexually transmitted infections than youths but their knowledge came primarily from personal experience rather than public awareness programmes. Truck drivers had a more positive attitude to temporary marriage and pre- and extramarital sex than youths. Condom use was low in all groups. Better targeted education of high-risk groups is needed. PMID:18557462

  7. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  8. Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted infections among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among senior high school students in north Gonder.

    PubMed

    Fantahun, M; Chala, F; Loha, M

    1995-01-01

    Sexual experience, knowledge, attitude and practice on contraception was studied among 991 senior high school students in north Gonder in May 1993 using anonymous questionnaire. Three-hundred-four students (30.7%) answered that they had experienced sexual intercourse. Out of 83 sexually active female students 25(30.1%) reported to have been pregnant. Only four students admitted to have had abortion. Seven-hundred-fifty (75.7%) students claimed that they know at least one method of modern contraception. Of the variables considered in the study reported knowledge of pills and positive attitude to contraception were significantly associated with modern contraceptive use. The most common reason for not using modern contraceptive methods among sexually active respondents was little or no knowledge of contraceptives followed by no access to contraceptives and harmful effects of contraceptives. It is recommended that family life education should be conducted in high schools. Counselling and clinical services on family planning in high schools and places where adolescents gather for recreation and other purposes may also be considered. PMID:7895743

  10. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination and Adolescent Girls' Knowledge and Sexuality in Western Uganda: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on adolescent girls’ knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine, perception of sexual risk and intentions for sexual debut. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Ibanda and Mbarara districts. Data was collected using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences computer software. Univariate, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were conducted with significance level set at p < .05. Results showed that HPV vaccination was associated with being knowledgeable (Crude OR: 5.26, CI: 2.32–11.93; p = 0.000). Vaccination against HPV did not predict perception of sexual risk. Knowledge was low (only 87/385 or 22.6% of vaccinated girls were knowledgeable), but predicted perception of a high sexual risk (Adjusted OR: 3.12, CI: 1.37–3.63; p = 0.008). HPV vaccination, knowledge and perceived sexual risk did not predict sexual behaviour intentions. High parental communication was associated with adolescent attitudes that support postponement of sexual debut in both bivariate and multiple regression analyses. In conclusion, findings of this study suggest that HPV vaccination is not likely to encourage adolescent sexual activity. Influence of knowledge on sexual behaviour intentions was not definitively explained. Prospective cohort studies were proposed to address the emerging questions. PMID:26327322

  11. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  12. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  13. Identifying knowledge-attitude-practice gaps to enhance HPV vaccine diffusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J

    2013-01-01

    To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775

  14. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  15. A factor-analytic examination of sexual behaviors and attitudes and marihuana usage.

    PubMed

    Burdsal, C; Greenberg, G; Bell, M; Reynolds, S

    1975-07-01

    A questionnaire that pertains to sexual attitudes and behaviors, family relationships, and marihuana usage was administered to 358 undergraduates at Wichita State University. A factor analysis performed upon the results yielded 12 factors related to sexual behavior: (1) Liberal vs. Conservative Attitudes; (2) Age-Experience; (3) Symbolic Sexual Preoccupation; (4) Romantic Love vs. Cynicism; (5) Experience-linked Drug Effects; (6) Affectual Dependence; (7) Mature Satisfaction; (8) Conservative vs. Liberal Sexual Practices; (9) High vs. Low Sexual Activity; (10) Sexual Revolution; (11) Sex; (12) Traditional vs. Cynical Love Roles. PMID:1165290

  16. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to the low number of AIDS cases and poor information about the problem, boys do not concern themselves with safer sex behavior. Finally, recent political and economic change in Poland has prompted boys to delay their sexual initiation and avoid permanent relationships and early marriages in the attempt to not ruin any plans for their future which they may have. PMID:12283770

  17. Sexual Fluidity and Related Attitudes and Beliefs Among Young Adults with a Same-Gender Orientation.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-07-01

    Little research has examined whether experiencing sexual fluidity--changes over time in attractions and sexual orientation identity--is related to specific cognitions. This study explored attitudes and beliefs among sexually fluid and non-sexually fluid individuals and developed two new measures of sexuality beliefs based on Diamond's sexual fluidity research and Dweck's psychological theory of intelligence beliefs. Participants were 188 female and male young adults in the United States with a same-gender orientation, ages 18-26 years. Participants completed an online questionnaire which assessed sexual fluidity in attractions and sexual orientation identity, attitudes toward bisexuality, sexuality beliefs, and demographics. Sexual fluidity in attractions was reported by 63 % of females and 50 % of males, with 48 % of those females and 34 % of those males reporting fluidity in sexual orientation identity. No significant gender differences in frequency of sexual fluidity were observed. Sexually fluid females had more positive attitudes toward bisexuality than non-sexually fluid females; however, no significant difference was observed for males. Females were more likely than males to endorse sexual fluidity beliefs and to believe that sexuality is changeable; and sexually fluid persons were more likely than non-sexually fluid persons to hold those two beliefs. Among males, non-sexually fluid individuals were more likely than sexually fluid individuals to believe that sexuality is something an individual is born with. Females were more likely than males to endorse the belief that sexuality is influenced by the environment. Findings from this research link sexual fluidity with specific cognitions. PMID:25378265

  18. The effects of gender and music video imagery on sexual attitudes.

    PubMed

    Kalof, L

    1999-06-01

    This study examined the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereo-typed music video imagery on sexual attitudes (adversarial sexual beliefs, acceptance of rape myths, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and gender role stereotyping). A group of 44 U.S. college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that viewed either a video portraying stereotyped sexual imagery or a video that excluded all sexual images. Exposure to traditional sexual imagery had a significant main effect on attitudes about adversarial sexual relationships, and gender had main effects on 3 of 4 sexual attitudes. There was some evidence of an interaction between gender and exposure to traditional sexual imagery on the acceptance of interpersonal violence. PMID:10410622

  19. Is sexual racism really racism? Distinguishing attitudes toward sexual racism and generic racism among gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Callander, Denton; Newman, Christy E; Holt, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Sexual racism is a specific form of racial prejudice enacted in the context of sex or romance. Online, people use sex and dating profiles to describe racialized attraction through language such as "Not attracted to Asians." Among gay and bisexual men, sexual racism is a highly contentious issue. Although some characterize discrimination among partners on the basis of race as a form of racism, others present it as a matter of preference. In May 2011, 2177 gay and bisexual men in Australia participated in an online survey that assessed how acceptably they viewed online sexual racism. Although the men sampled displayed diverse attitudes, many were remarkably tolerant of sexual racism. We conducted two multiple linear regression analyses to compare factors related to men's attitudes toward sexual racism online and their racist attitudes more broadly. Almost every identified factor associated with men's racist attitudes was also related to their attitudes toward sexual racism. The only differences were between men who identified as Asian or Indian. Sexual racism, therefore, is closely associated with generic racist attitudes, which challenges the idea of racial attraction as solely a matter of personal preference. PMID:26149367

  20. Research on AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and practices among street youth.

    PubMed

    Barker, G

    1993-01-01

    CHILDHOPE (with funding from the United Nations Children's Fund and the aid of nongovernmental organizations in the Philippines, Thailand, Colombia, and Kenya) conducted surveys of street youth in order to ascertain their knowledge, attitudes, and practices in regard to sex and the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The youth also participated in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention and sex education activities. Youth from all 4 sites reported early sexual activity and multiple partners. Sex was used in all 4 sites to obtain pleasure (recreation), income (prostitution), food or shelter (survival sex), and power (gang rape). Philippine youth reported prostitution and survival sex, including homosexual sex, with foreigners and locals. Kenyan girls reported both prostitution (their main occupation) and survival sex. Kenyan males reported prostitution with foreigners and locals, and rapes of girls. In Bogota, males reported rapes of girls, and gang rapes of females for punishment or initiation. They also reported using sex workers and exchanging sex with men or women for food and shelter. Females from Bogota reported that their "friends" sometimes used survival sex to support their children; nearly all had been previously involved in survival sex on the street. Sexual abuse was common in Kenya and the Philippines; some youth in Manila were abused at shelters. In all 4 sites, there was a high awareness of AIDS and STDs, but information was often incorrect, especially in regard to transmission and treatment of STDs. Although nearly all of the youth knew about modes of transmission of HIV, those from the Philippines and Colombia did not have a personal realization or fear that they could contract it, while those from Kenya and Thailand believed they were at high risk and wanted assistance. 20/21 Kenyan girls were tested by the Undugu Society for HIV after detection of current STD infections in 7 of them; 4 were HIV positive. 2 of these have returned home, and 2 are being provided shelter, counseling and support by the Society. Without changing the problems that create a need for survival sex among youth, little can be done about promoting safe sex and healthy lifestyles. PMID:12179310

  1. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  2. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  3. Instrument Development for Measuring Teachers' Attitudes and Comfort in Teaching Human Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Miguel A.; Luquis, Raffy; Allison, Laura

    2004-01-01

    School based sexuality education remains a hotly debated topic in the United States. Two key areas of this debate focus on teacher preparation to instruct sexuality education and teachers' attitudes and comfort with the subject matter. This article describes the development and psychometric testing of the Teachers' Attitude and Comfort Scale. This…

  4. High School Counselors' Attitudes toward the Sexuality of Students with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Latofia P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school counselors' attitudes toward the sexuality of students with intellectual disabilities. One hundred and twenty-two high school counselors in Alabama were the participants for this study. Participants completed the "Attitudes towards Sexuality and Students with Intellectual Disability…

  5. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

  6. Pleasure Reading: Associations between Young Women's Sexual Attitudes and Their Reading of Contemporary Women's Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Janna L.; Ward, L. Monique

    2004-01-01

    Associations between magazine use and sexual attitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexual attitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…

  7. Using TV as a Guide: Associations between Television Viewing and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…

  8. Sexual Coercion Attitudes among High School Students: The Influence of Gender and Rape Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltey, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Attitudes of adolescents about the justifiability of sexual coercion under certain circumstances are examined for 118 suburban high school students (65 percent females) who heard a date rape lecture and completed pretest and posttest surveys. Gender is the most salient variable explaining attitude about sexual coercion and rape. (SLD)

  9. Knowledge of Secondary School Pupils regarding Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westwood, Jo; Mullan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sexual health knowledge of secondary school pupils in order to ascertain whether the current government public health and education policies are having any impact on pupils' sexual health. Design: Results obtained from a questionnaire as part of a two-phase intervention study. Setting: Nineteen mixed-sex, state secondary…

  10. Planned Parenthood Harris Poll Findings: Teens' Sexuality Knowledge and Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haignere, Clara S.

    Planned Parenthood conducted a national public opinion poll, asking 1,000 12- through 17-year-olds about their knowledge and beliefs on the problem of teenage pregnancy. The results showed that over 50% of the adolescents had sexual intercourse before their 18th birthday. Those teenagers most likely to be sexually active fell into certain at-risk…

  11. ATTITUDES TOWARDS AND PRACTICE OF SEXUALITY AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN LEBANON.

    PubMed

    Salameh, P; Zeenny, R; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2016-03-01

    Sexuality is still a taboo in Middle Eastern countries, and Lebanon is no exception. This study's objective was to evaluate attitudes towards sexuality and its practice among university students in Lebanon and assess their respective correlates. The cross-sectional study was carried out among students selected from seventeen universities across Lebanon. The participants received a self-administered standardized questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards sexuality. It included questions on socio-demographic factors, risk-taking, risky behaviours and sexuality-related questions. Among 3384 students, 2700 (79.8%) answered the questions on sexuality. Around 15% had engaged in sexual activity, while 20% were regularly sexually active. Among males, 34.8% had never had sexual activity, 29.9% had tried it and 35.3% were regularly sexually active. Among females the results were respectively 85.1%, 5.3% and 9.6% (p<0.001). Only 36% regularly used condoms during their relationships. A liberal attitude towards sex, male sex, motives for risky behaviours, current cigarette smoking and problematic alcohol consumption were associated with sexual activity. Realizing that risky behaviours are dangerous, health concerns related to sexual relationships and a liberal attitude towards sex were associated with regular condom use. However, being bothered by condoms and female sex were inversely associated with condom use. Finally, participants who had motives for, and those who felt excited about risky behaviours, and those reporting current cigarette and waterpipe smoking and problematic alcohol consumption (β=0.600; p=0.002) embraced a more liberal attitude towards sex. Conversely, females (β=-7.58; p<0.001) and individuals who considered risky behaviours as dangerous reported an unfavourable attitude towards sexuality. A substantial proportion of Lebanese university students have regular sexual activity, but a low percentage use condoms for protection. Interventions are required among males in particular in view of these attitude and behavioural changes towards sexuality. PMID:26040203

  12. Beyond "born this way?" reconsidering sexual orientation beliefs and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Grzanka, Patrick R; Zeiders, Katharine H; Miles, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) has been limited in that it has generally examined heterosexuals' beliefs from an essentialist perspective. The recently developed Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS; Arseneau, Grzanka, Miles, & Fassinger, 2013) assesses multifarious "lay beliefs" about SO from essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist perspectives. This study used the SOBS to explore latent group-based patterns in endorsement of these beliefs in 2 samples of undergraduate students: a mixed-gender sample (n = 379) and an all-women sample (n = 266). While previous research has posited that essentialist beliefs about the innateness of SO predict positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, our research contributes to a growing body of scholarship that suggests that biological essentialism should be considered in the context of other beliefs. Using a person-centered analytic strategy, we found that that college students fell into distinct patterns of SO beliefs that are more different on beliefs about the homogeneity, discreteness, and informativeness of SO categories than on beliefs about the naturalness of SO. Individuals with higher levels of endorsement on all 4 SOBS subscales (a group we named multidimensional essentialism) and those who were highest in discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness beliefs (i.e., high-DHI) reported higher levels of homonegativity when compared with those who were high only in naturalness beliefs. We discuss the implications of these findings for counseling and psychotherapy about SO, as well educational and social interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26575349

  13. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808

  14. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25300588

  15. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior at Four Universities: Do Region, Race, and/or Religion Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Earle, John R.; Davis, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain any differences in sexual attitudes, levels of premarital sexual involvement, and risk-taking sexual practices of college students at four distinctly different universities: a historic Black public university; a predominately white, Southern private university with a religious heritage; a Southwestern public…

  16. Sexual Aggression against Women by Men Acquaintances: Attitudes and Experiences among Spanish University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…

  17. Sexual Aggression against Women by Men Acquaintances: Attitudes and Experiences among Spanish University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipsma, Eric; Isabel, Jose-Antonio Carrobles; Cerrato, Ignacio Montorio; Everaerd, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Assessed Spanish college students' attitudes about forced sex and actual experiences with male-against-female sexual aggression. Students analyzed a date rape story discussed their coercive sexual activities and help-seeking behaviors. Acceptance of forced sex significantly related to sex, age, and experience with sexual aggression. Only 39…

  18. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior at Four Universities: Do Region, Race, and/or Religion Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Earle, John R.; Davis, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain any differences in sexual attitudes, levels of premarital sexual involvement, and risk-taking sexual practices of college students at four distinctly different universities: a historic Black public university; a predominately white, Southern private university with a religious heritage; a Southwestern public…

  19. Teachers' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexuality and Life Skills Education in Rural South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes…

  20. Differences of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards epilepsy between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas

    PubMed Central

    Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Singhpoo, Karnchanasri; Ariyanuchitkul, Sukanda; Ngamroop, Ratchada

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on the knowledge of, and attitudes and practices towards epilepsy of the general population in Thailand is still limited, particularly with respect to the differences between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample population of 1,000, with 500 participants each from municipal and nonmunicipal areas, in the Khon Kaen district. Results The participants in the municipal area had higher incomes and higher education than did the participants in the nonmunicipal area. Both groups had low knowledge regarding epilepsy definition, causes, and treatment, but participants in the municipal area were more knowledgeable on the causes, types, and treatment of epilepsy. With respect to attitude, there were a significantly higher number of nonmunicipal participants than municipal participants who thought epilepsy was a disgusting disorder or that persons with epilepsy were sinful, had brain damage, and could not attend school. The municipal participants showed greater knowledge of correct practice than did nonmunicipal participants with regard to the following: not driving a car; avoiding acrobatic sports, fighting, or water sport; able to eat pork, not having to resign from work; not having to quit school; and able to have sexual relations. Conclusion The participants from the municipal area had better knowledge, attitudes, and practices than did the participants from the nonmunicipal area. A campaign should be carried out to promote knowledge and understanding of, and practices towards epilepsy. Different emphases should be placed on the two groups of populations and different strategies used. PMID:24174885

  1. On the relationship between automatic attitudes and self-reported sexual assault in men.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; Olson, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119

  2. Assessing Changes in Medical Student Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Human Sexual Behaviors Using a Confidential Audience Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…

  3. Assessing Changes in Medical Student Attitudes toward Non-Traditional Human Sexual Behaviors Using a Confidential Audience Response System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Phebe; Candler, Chris; Hamm, Robert M.; Smith, E. Michael; Hudson, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Medical students encountering patients with unfamiliar, unconventional sexual practices may have attitudes that can affect open communication during sexual history-taking. We measured changes in first-year US medical student attitudes toward 22 non-traditional sexual behaviors before and after exposure to human sexuality instruction. An…

  4. Sexual Knowledge among High School Students in Northwestern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Ayyoub; Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool; Abbasi-Shokoohi, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Regarding the importance of sexual desire in adolescence period and public and parental concerns about it and considering the lack of studies on sexual knowledge especially in adolescents in Iran, this study was conducted to evaluate the sexual issues in high school girls and boys. Patients and Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed on 2700 high school students. Students were selected through a multi-staged randomized sampling method in Tabriz and by the convenience method in Ardabil and Urmia. Data collection tool was a questionnaire including knowledge questions and measured by a three-point scale. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS version 11.5 software. Results. 11.8% of the students had a low sexual knowledge, 46.7% had average and 41.5% had a high one. There was no significant difference between male and female students' general sexual knowledge. The highest knowledge was about being aware of the religious rules concerning sex. Conclusion. Adolescents should be trained and acquire information about the different aspects of sexual issues. Female adolescents especially need to be educated about puberty physiology, fertility physiology and STDs. PMID:22970385

  5. Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Curaçao women. Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception and abortion and reasons for ineffective use of contraceptives among women, visiting general practitioners. Results Of 158 women, 146 (92%) participated and 82% reported that their education on sexuality and about contraception was of good quality. However 'knowledge of reliable contraceptive methods' appeared to be - in almost 50% of the cases - false information, misjudgements or erroneous views on the chance of getting pregnant using coitus interruptus and about the reliability and health effects of oral contraceptive pills. Almost half of the interviewed women had incorrect or no knowledge about reliability of condom use and IUD. 42% of the respondents risked by their behavior an unplanned pregnancy. Most respondents considered abortion as an emergency procedure, not as contraception. Almost two third experienced emotional, physical or social problems after the abortion. Conclusions Respondents had a negative attitude toward reliable contraceptives due to socio-cultural determined ideas about health consequences and limited sexual education. Main economic factors were costs of contraceptive methods, because most health insurances in Curaçao do not cover contraceptives. To improve the effective use of reliable contraceptives, more adequate information should be given, targeting the wrong beliefs and false information. The government should encourage health insurance companies to reimburse contraceptives. Furthermore, improvement of counseling during the abortion procedure is important. PMID:21699701

  6. Training Peer Sexual Health Educators: Changes in Knowledge, Counseling Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…

  7. Health Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Among Iranian Pilgrims

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Mortazavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Shamspour, Navvab; Shushtarizadeh, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iran has the highest number of Umrah pilgrims among Islamic countries. Health care plays a major role in fulfilling the Umrah rites. Pilgrims' health situation depends on their health knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP). Objectives: In this study, we aimed to determine the health KAP among Iranian Umrah pilgrims. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 157 Iranian Umrah pilgrims were randomly selected in Mecca, Saudi Arabia in June 2011. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of demographic information (sex, age, degree of education, and resource of health knowledge), health knowledge (5 questions), health attitude (5 questions) and health practice (10 questions). Results: Level of knowledge were very low in 12.1%, low in 25.2%, average in 38.1%, good in 20.4% and very good in 4.2% of respondents. Mean and standard deviation of attitude score was 18.58 ± 2.20 out of 25 (ranged between 13.00 and 25.00). The pilgrims were given 74.2 % out of total score. The Mean and standard deviation of practice score was 8.19 ± 1.32 out of 10 (ranged between 3 and 10). Although the old and low educated pilgrims had little knowledge of health tips, they had a good health attitude and practice. Conclusions: Educational strategy to improve knowledge regarding health-related problems and to develop health practices among pilgrims is needed. PMID:25838929

  8. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663

  9. Knowledge and attitudes of physicians in private practice towards HIV/AIDS in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Moradi Marjaneh, M; Mashhadi, I Eftekharzadeh

    2012-08-01

    Being responsible for providing care for HIV/AIDS in a society, physicians should be knowledgeable and have favourable attitudes. We designed a cross-sectional study to assess knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of private practicing physicians in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 346 general practitioners and specialists completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires with response rate of 91.1%. For knowledge questions, the mean proportion of correct responses was 53.5% (±13.2). Misconceptions about HIV transmission were the main areas of insufficient knowledge. Surprisingly only 20% knew how to manage a patient who had experienced sexual contact with an HIV-positive partner. While 84% disagreed that 'HIV-infected individuals deserved to catch infection' owing to high-risk behaviours, 38% sympathized less with people who were infected via extramarital sex. It seems that knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among the studied physicians is not favourable and is an area that requires attention to enable effective management of the disease in Iran. PMID:22930308

  10. High School Knowledge and Attitudes towards Thalassemia in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Motaharitabar, Eisa; Erfannia, Leila; Dashipour, Alireza; Houshvar, Marziyeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Thalassemia (thal) is the most single gene disorders in southeast of Iran. About one quarter of total Iranian new thal cases were born in the Sistan and Balouchistan province so the aim of this study is to assess knowledge level and attitudes towards thal in high school students in Zahedan, capital of Sistan and Balouchistan province in Iran. Study design Cross-sectional descriptive survey. Methods This study was conducted on 762 Zahedan high school boys and girls students in 2009. The structured questionnaires were completed by students which consisted of three parts, namely demographic characteristics, knowledge part by 20 multiple choice questions and attitude part by 9 questions. Results The results indicated that only 14.7% students had good knowledge, good knowledge towards thal was 16.2% in boys and 29.1% in girls (P-value<0.001), positive attitude was 76.7% in boys and 84.7% in girls (P-value<0.029). Negative attitude in students who were born in villages and cities were 33.3% and 20.7% respectively (P-value=0.04). Good knowledge level in experimental field studied was between 2-4-fold more than other field students. Students in the last year high school had more knowledge and more positive attitude. Students’ knowledge score had no significant relationship with father education level (P-value=0.11) but had considerable difference with mother educational level (P-value=0.03). Conclusions It is concluded that long term and target based programs are suggested for high school students and local population of Sistan and Balouchistan where the trend of family marriages is quite high. These programs would impart valuable education and improve knowledge of people towards thal being couples in pre-marriage period and then after becoming parents thereby reducing the effects of disease. PMID:24505548

  11. Knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in Mongolian nurses.

    PubMed

    Lunsford, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Shriner's Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p < .0001). Pediatric nurses in Mongolia demonstrate insufficient knowledge of pediatric pain management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes. PMID:25439122

  12. Ethnic Differences in Sexual Attitudes of U.S. College Students: Gender, Acculturation, and Religiosity Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahrold, Tierney K.

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been hypothesized that culture and religion play an important role in sexuality, the relative roles of acculturation and religiosity on ethnic differences in sexual attitudes have not been often empirically explored. The present study assessed differences in sexual attitudes in Euro-American, Asian, and Hispanic American populations using measures of acculturation to analyze the relative effects of heritage and mainstream cultures, as well as religiosity, within each ethnic group. A total of 1,415 college students (67% Euro-American, 16% Hispanic, 17% Asian; 32% men, 68% women) completed questionnaires which assessed attitudes towards homosexuality, gender role traditionality, casual sex, and extramarital sex. In concordance with previous studies, Asians reported more conservative sexual attitudes than did their Hispanic and Euro-American peers. Hispanics reported sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For both Hispanic and Asians, higher acculturation predicted sexual attitudes similar to that of Euro-Americans. For Asian, Hispanic, and Euro-American women, there was a significant interaction between intrinsic religiosity and spirituality such that the relationship between conservativism of sexual attitudes and intrinsic religiosity was stronger at higher levels of spirituality. In Euro-Americans and Asians, intrinsic religiosity and religious fundamentalism strongly predicted conservative sexual attitudes; while still significant, these relationships were not as pronounced in the Hispanic sample, implying an ethnic-by-religious effect. Novel to this study, acculturation did not mediate the relationship between religiosity and sexual attitudes, indicating that ethnic differences in religiosity effects were distinct from acculturation. PMID:18839302

  13. Effects of Knowledge and Persuasion on High-School Students' Attitudes toward Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and…

  14. Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities in Hong Kong: Implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer. PMID:26569635

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Patients with Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Brett; Wallington, Sherrie; Jillson, Irene A.; Trandafili, Holta; Shetty, Kirti; Wang, Judy; Loffredo, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers to care among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Methods Three separate, one-time-only, 60-minutes focus group sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an editing style of analysis. Results In total, 13 focus group participants provided 254 discrete comments. Emerging themes included: negative lifestyles/behaviors, lack of CLD knowledge, negative attitudes/emotions, stigma and negativity, health insurance, inaccessible/high cost medical care, drug/alcohol abuse, and discriminately sharing CLD diagnoses. Conclusions Participants felt lack of CLD knowledge was a key factor in how patients perceived prevention, risks, causes, and treatment. These findings contribute to the important, yet limited, base of knowledge about CLD and provide a benchmark for future, more extensive studies and interventions. PMID:24933143

  16. Palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan: knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2016-02-11

    This study examined factors contributing to the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff regarding palliative care for advanced dementia in Japan. A cross-sectional survey of 275 nurses and other care workers from 74 long-term care facilities was conducted across three prefectures in August 2014. The Japanese versions of the Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) and Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying scale, Form B (FATCOD-B-J) were used. Greater knowledge was exhibited among nursing home staff in facilities that established a manual for end-of-life care. Higher levels of positive attitudes were observed among nursing home staff in facilities that had established a manual and those in facilities with a physician's written opinions on end-of-life care. An organisational effort should be explored to establish end-of-life care policies among nursing home staff for advanced dementia. PMID:26878406

  17. Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Nahid; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism. PMID:23723614

  18. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  19. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  20. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  1. Pollution Attitudes, Knowledge and Behavior of Farmers and Urban Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronus, Carol L.; van Es, J. C.

    Data were gathered through telephone survey of a random sample of 91 urban men and 97 farm operators to study pollution attitudes, knowledge, and household pollution abatement behavior among urban residents and farmers. The results indicate that urban men are more concerned about pollution, more willing to allocate tax money to clean up pollution,…

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  3. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  4. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  5. Drug Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Barry; Reid, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 149 students at 14 colleges about their knowledge, use of, and attitudes about illegal psychoactive drugs. Finds that low percentages of students use drugs, but with 5.5 million students attending community colleges, even small percentages of users translate into large numbers, with attendant implications for student success…

  6. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  7. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  8. Teachers' Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…

  9. Sunbathing: College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Felts, W. Michael

    1993-01-01

    This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)

  10. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  11. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  12. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  13. News Reading, Knowledge about, and Attitudes toward Foreign Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, David K.

    1990-01-01

    Finds that a sample of adults in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, found that consumption of news about five countries generally leads to greater knowledge and more favorable attitudes toward those countries. Suggests that the mass media may have an important role in reducing ethnocentrism. (MG)

  14. Computer Attitudes and Computer Knowledge of Adult Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, Samia L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that used a computer survey to investigate the relationship between computer attitudes and the selected variables of age, gender, and computer knowledge among adult basic education students in Texas. Hypotheses tested are explained, comparisons are made with a national sample, and recommendations for further studies are…

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  16. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  17. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  18. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  19. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  20. Drug Education Based on a Knowledge, Attitude, and Experience Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, John A.

    1971-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)

  1. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dietary restriction behaviour of Taiwanese elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Sea Turtles in Elementary Students on Zakynthos, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…

  3. Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Sea Turtles in Elementary Students on Zakynthos, Greece.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimopoulos, Dimitrios I.; Pantis, John D.

    2003-01-01

    Utilizes a 32-item survey instrument to measure knowledge and attitudes of 5th and 6th grade students regarding sea turtle conservation on Zakynthos, Greece. Results indicate low knowledge scores and high scores for attitudes, but an overall positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge, understanding and/or concern, and locus of…

  4. The role of romantic attachment security and dating identity exploration in understanding adolescents' sexual attitudes and cumulative sexual risk-taking.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Alyssa D; Kerpelman, Jennifer L; Pittman, Joe F

    2015-02-01

    This study addressed how two normative developmental factors, attachment and identity, are associated with adolescents' sexual attitudes and sexual risk-taking behavior. The sample consisted of 2029 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years) living in the Southeast United States. Path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Higher levels of attachment anxiety predicted more dating identity exploration and less healthy sexual attitudes. Higher levels of attachment avoidance predicted less dating identity exploration and indirectly predicted less healthy sexual attitudes through dating identity exploration. Females with dating or sexual experience showed the weakest associations between the attachment dimensions and dating identity exploration. More dating identity exploration predicted healthier sexual attitudes; this association was strongest for non-virgins. Finally, higher levels of attachment avoidance were associated with higher cumulative sexual risk scores, but only among non-virgin males. Results are interpreted in light of theory and research on attachment, identity exploration, and adolescent sexual relationships. PMID:25598388

  5. Cultural, contextual, and intrapersonal predictors of risky sexual attitudes among urban African American girls in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, F Z; Van Oss Marin, B; Chambers, D B

    2000-08-01

    The role of cultural factors in explaining sexual attitudes among African American urban girls, aged 10-13 years, was investigated in this study. The authors predicted that girls with higher school interest, family cohesion, religiosity, and behavioral self-esteem would endorse less risky sexual attitudes. Also, older girls were expected to have more risky sexual attitudes than younger girls, and girls from 1- rather than 2-parent households were expected to have more risky sexual attitudes. The authors hypothesized that ethnic identity and gender role orientations would contribute to explaining variability in sexual attitudes after controlling for contextual and intrapersonal variables. A questionnaire containing measures of the study constructs was administered to 214 girls who were participants in a substance abuse prevention program. Pretest data were used in analyses. A final regression model accounted for 23% of the variance in sexual attitudes. Age and behavioral self-esteem were significant predictors, with younger teens and teens with higher behavioral self-esteem having less risky sexual attitudes. Cultural variables contributed to explaining variation in sexual attitudes after other variables were controlled for. Higher levels of ethnic identity were associated with less risky sexual attitudes. A masculine gender role orientation was associated with more risky sexual attitudes. PMID:10938638

  6. Stem cells in Dentistry: knowledge and attitude of Nigerian Dentists

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several controversies exist about the methods of harvesting and eventual utilization of stem cells in Medicine and Dentistry. The objective of the study was to investigate the awareness, attitude and knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among Nigerian Dentists. Methods This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among dentists selected from both private and public health sectors, in some of the major cities in Nigeria. Results The majority of the participants were ?35 years in age, male, Pentecostal Christians, possessed a postgraduate qualification, had practiced for ?5 years and were specialists or specializing. In this study, 153(81.0%) of the participants reported awareness about the use of stem cells in dentistry which was significantly associated with qualification and type of practice. Most of the respondents 114 (60.3%) had a poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry. This was significantly associated with type of practice and awareness about stem cell use in dentistry but binary logistic regression showed awareness as the only determinant of knowledge. About three-quarters 142 (75.1%) of the participants exhibited positive attitude towards stem cell use. This had a positive non-significant association with knowledge and reported awareness. Conclusion Data from this study revealed a high level of awareness, positive attitude to and poor knowledge of the use of stem cells in Dentistry among a cross section of Nigerian Dentists. PMID:23767980

  7. Skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Courtney; Nahar, Vinayak K; Ford, M Allison; Bass, Martha A; Brodell, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one's overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities. PMID:24782927

  8. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Eid, Thurayya; Manias, Elizabeth; Bucknall, Tracey; Almazrooa, Adnan

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved pain is a worldwide health care problem that can lead to unnecessary complications and increased health care expenditure. The aim of this study was to examine nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pain in Saudi Arabia. A descriptive design was employed using the Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey regarding pain. The study took place in a tertiary teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. All nurses employed in the hospital were eligible to participate. A total of 775 questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in acute care, intensive care, and nursing education and administration settings. In all, 593 respondents completed the questionnaires, representing a response rate of 76.5%. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Most participants were from overseas (97.5%), speaking 23 different languages; 36.5% of nurses held a bachelors of science degree in nursing or the equivalent. The mean score of correctly answered items in was 16.9 (95% confidence interval, 16.6-17.31) out of a total possible score of 40. Nurses demonstrated some misconceived attitudes such as not giving the required dose of morphine to a smiling patient despite the patient being in pain. It is of concern that the findings identified problems of inadequate knowledge and inappropriate attitudes regarding pain assessment and management in Saudi Arabia. Considering these problems, the development of pain programs and policies affecting national and international nurses is highly imperative. PMID:25179424

  9. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  10. An Extension of the Findings of Moore, Peterson, and Furstenberg (1986) regarding Family Sexual Communication and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    1989-01-01

    Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…

  11. Does Body Image Play a Role in Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.

    2006-01-01

    Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…

  12. Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

    1993-01-01

    Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)

  13. Sexuality and Sex Education of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…

  14. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  15. Sexuality and Sex Education of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…

  16. Punitive attitudes against pedophiles or persons with sexual interest in children: does the label matter?

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland

    2015-01-01

    In the present research, we addressed the question of whether people harbor punitive attitudes against individuals sexually interested in children even if no sexual offense is mentioned and whether this effect is amplified by the clinical label pedophilia. In two online studies (total N = 345), participants rated the extent to which they saw individuals sexually interested in children as necessarily committing child sexual abuse (dangerousness), responsible for their sexual interest (intentionality), and clinically disordered (deviance) before judging their endorsement of means of punishment (punitive attitudes). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions in which either the "pedophilia" label or the descriptive term "sexual interest in (prepubescent) children" was included in all items. Across both studies, results showed high degrees of punitive attitudes against sexually deviant men, an effect that was particularly pronounced if the pedophilia label was present. Whereas this was only latently observable in Study 1 (concealed by a suppression effect of reduced ascriptions of intentionality), in Study 2 no such suppression was observed. Unlike any other stigma we know of, punitive attitudes against pedophiles were associated positively with social desirability, suggesting that participants saw it as particularly socially desirable to condemn someone based on their deviant sexual interest. PMID:25501864

  17. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  18. Sexuality Attitudes Reassessment (SAR): Historical and New Considerations for Measuring Its Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitron, Justin A.; Dyson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, leading scholars in the field of sexology have been calling for more professionals who are primarily sexologists rather than professionals in other fields who specialize in sexuality. Such professionals require specialized training that meets their specific needs. The Sexuality Attitude Reassessment (SAR) has been established as a…

  19. Intellectual Disability and Sexuality: Attitudes of Disability Support Staff and Leisure Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Linda; Chambers, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Background: The attitudes of support staff and others in the community towards the sexuality of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have the potential to influence opportunities for normalised life experiences in the area of sexuality. Method: A sample of 169 disability support staff and 50 employees from leisure and service…

  20. Sexual Contact with Clients: Assessment of Social Workers' Attitudes and Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkman, Cathy S.; Turner, Sandra G.; Cooper, Marlene; Polnerow, Dara; Swartz, Marlene

    2000-01-01

    Assesses social work students' (N=349) attitudes about sexual contact with clients and their perceptions about their training and education in this area. Results reveal relatively high levels of approval for sexual contact between social workers and clients, and that students did not feel that they had received adequate education or training on…

  1. Sources and Timing of Sex Education: Relations with American Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Surmann, Amy T.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…

  2. Using TV as a Guide: Associations between Television Viewing and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…

  3. Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

  4. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  5. Attitudes to Sexuality Questionnaire (Individuals with an Intellectual Disability): Scale Development and Community Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Gilmore, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…

  6. Heterosexuals' Attitudes toward Lesbianism and Male Homosexuality: Their Affective Orientation toward Sexuality and Sex Guilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarber, William L.; Yee, Bernadette

    1983-01-01

    A study sought to determine if a relationship existed between heterosexual college students' attitudes toward lesbianism and male homosexuality and their feelings about their own sexuality, including sex guilt. High sex guilt proved to be related to negative attitudes toward homosexuals of both sexes. (Authors/PP)

  7. Staff Attitudes towards Sexuality in Relation to Gender of People with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rhea; Gore, Nick; McCarthy, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has found staff attitudes regarding the sexuality of people with intellectual disability (ID) to be negative but influenced by several factors. The current study aimed to examine whether gender of people with ID affects such attitudes. Method: Semistructured interviews were completed with 10 staff members and analysed using…

  8. Teachers' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexuality and Life Skills Education in Rural South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kelley Alison; Harrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people's sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes…

  9. Maternal knowledge, attitudes and practice in diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths. PMID:8406719

  10. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  11. Does Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Training Affect Attitudes of Emergency Department Nurses Toward Sexual Assault Survivors?

    PubMed

    Nielson, Mary Hugo; Strong, Linda; Stewart, Julie G

    2015-01-01

    There are over 243,800 female sexual assaults in the United States annually. Of those who seek healthcare services after being sexually assaulted, 90% present to hospitals. Unfortunately, care and services for women who have been sexually assaulted are inconsistent. Increased burnout, frustration, and feelings of inadequacy can lead healthcare providers to exhibit personal biases or negative attitudes toward their patients. The Joint Commission, responsible for accreditation of healthcare organizations, has stated that nurses must provide competent care to all patients. Therefore, Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) training needs to be available for emergency department (ED) nurses who care for patients who have been sexually assaulted. A survey using the Attitude Toward Rape Victims Scale was sent to 1503 ED nurses throughout the United States, from the Emergency Nursing Association's mailing list. The results of the survey showed that there was a significant difference in attitudes toward the patients between SANE-trained emergency nurses and those without training. This study also showed that 35.5% of hospitals represented by the respondents did not have SANE services available for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted, and furthermore, 85.5% of the respondents who cared for adult patients who had been sexually assaulted were not SANE trained. The negative attitudes held toward such patients as found in this study, coupled with a lack of training provides evidence that ED nurses may benefit from education related to appropriate treatment for patients who have been sexually assaulted. As evidence-based practice becomes the gold standard of care, ensuring that nurses are properly trained to care for all patients must be the goal. PMID:26291848

  12. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  13. Young Male Prostitutes: Their Knowledge of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Thomas; Pickerill, Brian

    1988-01-01

    Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…

  14. Gender Comparisons of College Students' Attitudes toward Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Medora, Nilufer P.

    1990-01-01

    Found significant differences between male and female college students' (n=641) attitudes toward premarital sex among casual acquaintances and attitudes toward extramarital, oral-genital, and anal sex, with males expressing more liberal attitudes. Found no significant differences between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when…

  15. Gender Comparisons of College Students' Attitudes toward Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Medora, Nilufer P.

    1990-01-01

    Found significant differences between male and female college students' (n=641) attitudes toward premarital sex among casual acquaintances and attitudes toward extramarital, oral-genital, and anal sex, with males expressing more liberal attitudes. Found no significant differences between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when…

  16. Knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) study regarding facts for life.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Prakash; Dhungel, Sunil; Shrestha, Rajendra; Khanal, Shankar

    2006-06-01

    This knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) study was done in the married women of age 18-38 years in Jorpati and Gokarna village development committees of Katmandu district to evaluate the knowledge of "Facts for Life". There were 510 married women involved in this study. Altogether 28 questions were asked to each of them regarding the "Facts for Life". It includes the following five subjects: Safe motherhood, Childhood Immunization, Childhood diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) in childhood and hygiene. There was a significant increase in knowledge about hygiene and knowledge regarding childhood immunization than diarrhea, ARI and Safe motherhood. Results showed that the overall knowledge was at 62.8%. This shows that still more attention is needed to Nepalese women. PMID:17017397

  17. Racial differences in rural adults' attitudes toward issues of adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Horner, R D; Kolasa, K M; Irons, T G; Wilson, K

    1994-03-01

    This study, based on a random sample of adults in a rural North Carolina county, demonstrates racial differences in rural adults' attitudes relating to adolescent sexual issues. Blacks were 50% more likely than Whites to indicate that public schools should provide general health care services, including pregnancy testing and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, to teenagers; however, they were only half as likely as Whites to approve of sexual experimentation by adolescents. The local community's attitudes must be considered in the implementation of rural adolescent health programs, including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome education. PMID:8129065

  18. Factorial validation of the Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) in assessing sexual behaviour patterns in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jaruseviciene, Lina; De Meyer, Sara; Decat, Peter; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Degomme, Olivier; Rojas, Mildrett; Hagens, Salazar Arnold; Auquilla, Nancy; Vega, Bernardo; Gorter, Anna C.; Orozco, Miguel; Lazarus, Jeffrey V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents’ health is greatly influenced by social determinants, including gender norms. Although research has shown that there is an association between gender attitudes and adolescents’ sexual behaviour, few studies have assessed this relationship carefully. The Attitudes toward Women Scale for Adolescents (AWSA) is widely used to assess gender attitudes among adolescents; however, to our knowledge it has not been applied in Latin America. Objective To apply AWSA in Latin America for the first time, to perform a factorial validation of this scale and to assess the relationship of gender attitudes and sexual behaviour in Bolivian and Ecuadorian adolescents. Design This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2011 among 14–18 year olds in 20 high schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and six in Cuenca (Ecuador) as a part of a larger project. Schools were purposively selected. A Spanish version of the 12-item AWSA was employed for this study. The assessed aspects of adolescent sexual behaviour were: reported sexual intercourse, reported positive experience during last sexual intercourse and reported current use of contraception. The psychometric properties of AWSA were investigated, and both explanatory and confirmatory factorial analyses were performed. Results The number of questionnaires included in the analysis was 3,518 in Bolivia and 2,401 in Ecuador. A factorial analysis of AWSA resulted in three factors: power dimension (PD), equality dimension (ED) and behavioural dimension (BD). ED showed the highest correlates with adolescent sexual behaviour. Higher scores of this dimension were associated with a more positive experience of sexual relationships, a higher current use of modern contraception and greater sexual activity among girls. Conclusions This study revealed a three-factorial structure of AWSA and demonstrated that by employing factors, the sensitivity of AWSA increases as compared to using the scale as a whole to assess sexual behaviour. This could have important implications for future research on gender and the sexual experiences of adolescents. PMID:24461355

  19. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  20. The Knowledge About Drugs, Attitudes Towards Them And Drug Use Rates Of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejer, Dianne; Smart, Reginald G.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about them and the use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit and psychoactive drugs was conducted among 4,693 high school students. Knowledge level and permissive attitudes tended to increase with grade level. Knowledge scores also increased, but attitudes became less permissive with increasing academic…

  1. Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Alternative Conceptions of Primary School Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…

  2. The Relationship between Attitudes, Knowledge, and Demographic Variables of High School Teachers Regarding Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…

  3. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  4. The Relationship between Attitudes, Knowledge, and Demographic Variables of High School Teachers Regarding Food Irradiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…

  5. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers. PMID:25761364

  6. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  7. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  8. Attitudes Toward Male and Female Sexuality Among Men and Women With Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing the sexual attitudes of men and women with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been limited. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore attitudes toward sexuality among men and women with ID in Taiwan and to ascertain the disparities between attitudes among men and women with ID. First, fifty-six men and forty-four women with mild and moderate ID completed a face-to-face interview survey. After this, focus groups were conducted for men and women with ID. Results indicated that women with ID were more likely to have negative attitudes toward parenting and non-reproductive sexual behavior than their male counterparts. Qualitative data indicated that men and women with ID had different sexual attitudes and experiences and were subject to different expectations from people around them. Both men and women with ID had very limited opportunities to develop romantic relationships and a healthy sexual identity. Sexual rights awareness and practice should be matters of concern for this group of adults and women with ID in particular. PMID:26020162

  9. Development and psychometric testing of a semantic differential scale of sexual attitude for the older person.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyojung; Shin, Sunhwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a semantic differential scale of sexual attitudes for older people in Korea. The scale was based on items derived from a literature review and focus group interviews. A methodological study was used to test the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 368 older men and women were recruited to complete the semantic differential scale. Fifteen pairs of adjective ratings were extracted through factor analysis. Total variance explained was 63.40%. To test for construct validity, group comparisons were implemented. The total score of sexual attitudes showed significant differences depending on gender and availability of sexual activity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency was 0.96. The findings of this study demonstrate that the semantic differential scale of sexual attitude is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:26275235

  10. Subjective and objective measures of attractiveness and their relation to sexual behavior and sexual attitudes in university students.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2007-02-01

    This study examined both self-rated and objectively measured attractiveness in relation to sexual behaviors and attitudes in an undergraduate sample (N=456). About a quarter of the variance in self-ratings of attractiveness was predicted from combining standard objective measures of attractiveness, including face photo ratings, body mass index, and chest-to-waist ratio for men, and face photo ratings, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio for women. Correlations were investigated among self-rated attractiveness, measured attractiveness, the residual component of self-rated attractiveness (controlling for measured attractiveness), and a number of sexual and related variables. Measured attractiveness correlated moderately with sexual behaviors but not with sociosexuality or sexual moral attitudes, indicating that higher levels of observable attractiveness may serve to increase opportunities for sex with multiple desirable partners without affecting interests in or moral acceptance of casual sex. Self-rated attractiveness correlated positively with sexual behaviors and with sociosexuality, but the correlation with sociosexuality was based entirely on residual factors beyond the objective measures of attractiveness. Other predictors of sexual behavior were discussed in terms of their variable roles in affecting interest in, opportunities for, and social costs of promiscuous sexual activity. PMID:17136591

  11. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  12. A Comparison of HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Sources of STI Information Between Female and Male College Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Cook, Daniel M; Lu, Minggen; Ding, Kele

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan withdrew from the United Nations in 1971, which led to missed opportunities for participating in global HIV/AIDS programs and made Taiwan more vulnerable to HIV. Employing a questionnaire of 996 college students in Taiwan, the authors assessed and compared female and male HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sources of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) information. Students reported moderate knowledge and attitudes. Females had more positive attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS than males. Most participants reported learning about HIV and STIs from traditional media, school teachers, and the Internet. We suggest evidence-based educational interventions for students should include targeted electronic and cultural awareness strategies. PMID:25271399

  13. AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among inner city, junior high school students.

    PubMed

    Siegel, D; Lazarus, N; Krasnovsky, F; Durbin, M; Chesney, M

    1991-04-01

    To gain information about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of junior high school students, 1,967 students in three junior high schools in an inner city school district were surveyed. Ages of the participants ranged from 11-16 years, and 48% were male. Ethnically, 33% were Asian, 31% African-American, 24% Latino, and 5% white. African-American students had greater AIDS general knowledge than Asians and similar general knowledge to Latinos and whites. Most students wanted to be taught about AIDS in school. Misconceptions about casual contagion of AIDS were common. Students with these misconceptions were more likely to believe that students with AIDS should not be allowed to attend school. A high proportion of students had engaged in high-risk behavior including sexual intercourse, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using street drugs. More boys than girls reported each of these activities. Of individuals having had sexual intercourse, a positive association was found between the belief that condoms are effective in preventing HIV infection and use of condoms. These findings support the possibility that improving knowledge about HIV transmission would result in more tolerance toward students with HIV infection and would result in less high-risk behavior. PMID:1857106

  14. Attitudes Towards the Sexuality of Adults with an Intellectual Disability: Parents, Support Staff, and a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuskelly, Monica; Bryde, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Attitudes toward the sexuality of adults with intellectual disability were assessed in parents and carers of adults with intellectual disability and in a community sample. An instrument that contained items relating to eight aspects of sexuality (sexual feelings, sex education, masturbation, personal relationships, sexual intercourse,…

  15. A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide. PMID:25024066

  16. Dentists' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding oral cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Doost, Mostafa Emami; Tahani, Bahareh

    2013-06-01

    Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899

  17. [Validation of a scale of attitudes towards sexuality in a sample of Puerto Rican elderly].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Benítez, Rosa Janet; Rodríguez Gómez, José; Sayers Montalvo, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The literature indicates that elderly population is at high risk that affects their sexual activity; however, this is not the end of sexuality expression in this population. Elderly (people 65 years and older) who are healthy and active has more opportunities of sexual expression and activity in all forms, (including masturbation, and oral sex), and these activities can continue until 74 years or older. This study tries to explore if the Scale of Attitudes towards Sexuality Behavior in the Elderly develop in Puerto Rico, is a valid and reliable instrument to measure attitudes towards the sexuality in an elderly sample. In addition, the research tries to contribute to the progress and development of instruments that measure, and screen, sexuality aspects and risk behaviors that focus in the elderly population. This may help to promote future studies and the development of preventive programs that help to fulfill specific necessities in elderly. The research subjects consist of a secondary database sample of 265 adults of 65 years or older. The design of this study was an ex post facto type. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and factorial analyses to establish an association between the study variables (i.e., attitudes towards the sexuality and sexuality) using SPSS-X program version 14; also was concluded that the instrument is a valid and reliable (Alpha Cronbach = 0.95), which is considered adequate. It's expected that the scale will be valuable for future research in this area. PMID:20939198

  18. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Determinants Emergency Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Abortion Services in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Meskerem; Assefa, Nega; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Background Unplanned pregnancy from casual sex, unplanned sexual activity, and sexual violence are increasing. Emergency Contraceptives (EC) are used to prevent unplanned pregnancies thereby preventing the occurrence and consequences of unplanned pregnancy. Emergency contraception is widely available in Ethiopia particularly in major cities. Yet the use of EC is very low and abortion rate in cities is high compared to the national average. Objectives To assess knowledge, attitude and practice and determinants on the use of emergency contraception among women obtaining abortion service at selected health institutions in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted on 390 women selected by multi-stage random sampling technique. The samples were generated from government and private for non profit health facilities. Participant’s knowledge and attitude towards emergency contraception were measured using composite index based on 7 and 9 questions, respectively and analyzed using mean score to classify them as knowledgeable or not, and have positive attitude or not. Practice was assessed if the women reported ever use of emergency contraception. Determinants of use of emergency contraception were analyzed using logistic regression. Result Out of 390 women interviewed, 162 women (41.5%) heard about EC, only 133 (34.1%) had good knowledge, and 200 (51.3%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards to EC. Ever use of EC was reported by 38 (9.7%). Age, living arrangement, education, marital status, religion were found to be significantly associated with the use of emergency contraceptives. Women with poor knowledge were less likely to use EC compared to the knowledgeable ones [AOR = 0.027, 95% CI (0.007, 0.105)]. Conclusion The study identified that most respondents lack adequate knowledge on the method of EC. In addition ever use of EC is very low. Recommendations Health professions should give attention in increasing knowledge and uptake of Emergency Contraception. PMID:25330229

  19. Attitudes toward Sexuality and Sexual Behaviors of Asian-American Adolescents. Implications for Risk of HIV Infection. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Connie S.

    There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…

  20. The Relationship of Sexual Knowledge to Sexual Behavior among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Robert H.; Brown, Idalyn S.

    Current data on the widespread nature of sexual activity among unmarried teenagers and young adults and the rise in unplanned pregnancy among these groups offer evidence of a lack of knowledge about reproduction and contraception. Male (N=75) and female (N=78) university students participated in a study of the effects of authoritarianism,…

  1. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population. PMID:25211255

  2. The Relationship of Sexual Knowledge to Sexual Behavior among University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Robert H.; Brown, Idalyn S.

    Current data on the widespread nature of sexual activity among unmarried teenagers and young adults and the rise in unplanned pregnancy among these groups offer evidence of a lack of knowledge about reproduction and contraception. Male (N=75) and female (N=78) university students participated in a study of the effects of authoritarianism,…

  3. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643

  4. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Mario I.; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A.; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C.; O'Brien, Jessica P.; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643

  5. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community. PMID:17273338

  6. The sexual behaviour and knowledge about AIDS in a group of young adolescent girls in Leeds.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, J; Abram, R; Monteiro, E F

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was given to 56 sexually active girls 12-16 years old, in a juvenile assessment centre or attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Sexual behaviour, drug use, contraceptive practice and knowledge and attitudes about AIDS were evaluated. The girls were similar in demographic characteristics from both centres and were regarded as one group. Sexual experience ranged from 1 partner ever to 70 clients/week; 19 girls had contracted a sexually transmitted disease at some time. Half had never used a contraceptive. Twenty eight had used illicit drugs, with two girls experimenting with intravenous misuse. Misconceptions about modes of transmission of HIV were common, but most girls knew some basic facts about the virus. Most girls realised they were at risk, were anxious about contracting HIV infection in the future, but had not modified their behaviour in terms of condom usage. This study indicates that high risk adolescents need to be targeted for effective health education in order to modify behaviour patterns which put them at risk of acquiring HIV in the future. PMID:2370062

  7. Parental knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding infant basic life support

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Patricia Ching Yen; Lian, Wee Bin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in children is rare but significant, with poor survival rates and high morbidity. Asystole is the most common dysrhythmia, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is of great importance in such cases. We aimed to survey the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of parents in Singapore regarding infant basic life support (IBLS). METHODS A questionnaire survey was administered to parents of children managed at the Neonatal Department of Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, between 1 September and 31 December 2008. The questionnaire consisted of three sections – section A collected demographic data, section B included questions on knowledge, and section C explored attitudes and perceptions. Knowledge T-scores were analysed for the entire cohort and subanalysed with respect to prior IBLS training. RESULTS In our study cohort (n = 375), the median Basic Knowledge (BK) T-score was 7 (range 1–9) and the pass rate was 55%. Median BK T-scores were significantly different between untrained (6; range 3 –9) and previously trained (8; range 3–9) participants. A majority of the trained participants obtained pass marks. Median Total Knowledge T-score, involving advanced questions, for previously trained participants was 11 (range 3–14), but pass rate was low (35.7%). Higher educational qualification was a significant factor impacting all scores. Untrained participants indicated interest in attending IBLS courses, while trained participants were interested in refresher courses. CONCLUSION IBLS training, as part of basic cardiac life support training, is important given that CPR can significantly alter the outcome in children with CPA. Our survey revealed knowledge gaps that could be bridged through formal training. Refresher courses to regularly update parents’ knowledge are recommended. PMID:24664380

  8. Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431

  9. Attitudes among adolescents in a Swedish city toward some sexual crimes.

    PubMed

    Lewin, B

    1983-01-01

    Using data from a representative sample of adolescents in grade ten in Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden, attitudes toward a number of (criminal) sexual acts are studied. These data are contrasted with those from a sample of patients at a school gynecological clinic. It is found that for both samples, only a very limited number of the eight discussed acts are considered to be criminal by the adolescents. Although at least seven or eight acts are criminal in Swedish law, only two acts are considered criminal by about half of the respondents. These acts are pedophilia and rape after petting. The same questions were used by Kutchinsky in 1969 when on behalf of the U.S. Congress Commission on Obscenity and Pornography he studied inhabitants in Copenhagen, Denmark. When comparing data from Uppsala Sweden 1978 with data from Copenhagen, Denmark 1969 we find that Swedish adolescents in the late seventies, on the whole are much less likely to call the discussed acts criminal. The only exception is rape after petting, which in Copenhagen in the late sixties was the act least often seen as criminal but in the Uppsala study in the late seventies it was one of the two acts most often claimed to be criminal. Finally, the effects of coital experience and the effect of sexual knowledge on the percieved criminality of the acts are considered. PMID:6858741

  10. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  11. Sexual Practices, Risk Perception and Knowledge Of Sexually Transmitted Disease Risk Among Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    PubMed Central

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Coffey, Patricia; Bingham, Allison

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be spread between female sex partners, probably through the exchange of cervicovaginal fluid and direct mucosal contact. Additionally, lesbians have a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, which may represent an STD in this population. However, few data on sexual practices or perceived STD risk among lesbians are available to guide development of interventions aimed at reducing the risk. METHODS To inform the development of a safer-sex intervention for women who have sex with women, focus group discussions were conducted with 23 lesbian and bisexual women aged 18–29. Topics included sexual practices, STD transmission and prevention, and knowledge about bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS Although six participants had had bacterial vaginosis and three an STD, women reported little use of preventive measures with female partners (washing hands, using rubber gloves and cleaning sex toys). Participants said that vaginal penetrative practices using sex toys and fingers or hands are common, and that partners frequently share sex toys during a sexual encounter, generally without condoms. Knowledge of potential for STD transmission between women, and of bacterial vaginosis, was limited. Participants viewed use of barrier methods (gloves or condoms) as acceptable, provided that there is a reason (usually STD-focused) to use them and that they are promoted in the context of sexual health and pleasure. CONCLUSIONS Safer-sex messages aimed at lesbian and bisexual women should emphasize the plausibility of STD transmission between women, personal responsibility and care for partners’well-being; should target common sexual practices; and should promote healthy sexuality. PMID:15888397

  12. Gender differences in HIV-related self-reported knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college students.

    PubMed

    Dekin, B

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 265 college students was conducted to determine HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and perceived self-efficacy with regard to engaging in HIV-protective behaviors. A self-administered 52-item survey was completed by 265 college students (60% response rate). Resident advisors in college dormitories distributed the survey, returned anonymously. Data were analyzed using SPSS to identify differential responses by gender. Although HIV knowledge was high, perceived self-efficacy differed significantly by gender, with men describing themselves as less able to insist upon condom use (P < .00001). Men were also significantly more likely to report using drugs or alcohol in situations likely to lead to a sexual encounter (P < .001) and to having lower self-efficacy in relation to HIV protection than women in such situations (P < .02). Men were also significantly more likely to believe that monogamy obviates the need to use condoms (P < .01). A substantial number of men (13) and women (14.6) say they do not use condoms because they are protected from unwanted pregnancy by pill. Gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs may improve the success of AIDS prevention efforts by confronting and addressing gender differences. The reliance on hormonal methods of birth control alone may be a barrier to condom use for both male and female adolescents and young adults. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): AIDS; HIV; knowledge, attitudes, and practice; gender; condoms; birth control; family planning; teenage pregnancy. PMID:8874706

  13. Sociosexual attitudes and dyadic sexual desire independently predict women's preferences for male vocal masculinity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jillian J M; Jones, Benedict C; Fraccaro, Paul J; Tigue, Cara C; Pisanski, Katarzyna; Feinberg, David R

    2014-10-01

    Research suggests that the desire to behave sexually with a partner (dyadic sexual desire) may reflect desire for intimacy whereas solitary sexual desire may reflect pleasure seeking motivations more generally. Because direct reproductive success can only be increased with a sexual partner, we tested whether dyadic sexual desire was a better predictor of women's preferences for lower pitched men's voices (a marker of relatively high reproductive success) than was solitary sexual desire. In Study 1, women (N = 95) with higher dyadic sexual desire scores on the Sexual Desire Inventory-2 preferred masculinized male voices more than did women with lower dyadic sexual desire scores. We did not find a significant relationship between women's vocal masculinity preferences and their solitary sexual desire scores. In Study 2, we tested whether the relationship between voice preferences and dyadic sexual desire scores was related to differences in sociosexual orientation. Women (N = 80) with more positive attitudes towards uncommitted sex had stronger vocal masculinity preferences regardless of whether men's attractiveness was judged for short-term or long-term relationships. Independent of the effect of sociosexual attitudes, dyadic sexual desire positively predicted women's masculinity preferences when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term but not long-term relationships. These effects were independent of women's own relationship status and hormonal contraceptive use. Our results provide further evidence that women's mate preferences may independently reflect individual differences in both sexual desire and openness to short-term relationships, potentially with the ultimate function of maximizing the fitness benefits of women's mate choices. PMID:24830906

  14. Australian gay men's satisfaction with sexual agreements: the roles of relationship quality, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Warwick

    2014-05-01

    This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally. PMID:24287963

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding dengue infection in Westmoreland, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Faisal; Todd, Dana; Campbell-Stennett, Dianne; Ehiri, John; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality in most tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Dengue fever is endemic in Jamaica and continues to be a public health concern. There is a paucity of information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Jamaicans regarding dengue infection. Objective To describe dengue related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of residents of Westmoreland, Jamaica. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 192 parents attending child health clinics in the Parish of Westmoreland was conducted. Results More than half of the parents (54%) had good knowledge about signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission of dengue. Approximately 47% considered dengue to be a serious but preventable disease to which they are vulnerable. Nevertheless, a majority (77%) did not use effective dengue preventive methods such as screening of homes and 51% did not use bed nets. Educational attainment (OR, 2.98; CI, 1.23–7.23) was positively associated with knowledge of dengue. There was no correlation between knowledge about dengue and preventive practices (p=0.34). Radio and TV were the predominant sources of information about dengue fever. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the good knowledge about dengue fever among residents of Westmoreland did not translate to adoption of preventive measures. Health program planners and practitioners need to identify and facilitate removal of barriers to behavior change related to control of dengue fever among the population. Future campaigns should focus on educating and encouraging individuals and families to adopt such simple, inexpensive preventive actions, such as, use of insecticide treated bed nets and screening of homes. PMID:21132094

  16. Knowledge and Attitudes about HIV/AIDS in Illegal Residents in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Memish, Ziad A.; Filemban, Sanaa M.; Kasule, Sabirah N.; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in illegal residents, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Materials and Methods: A questionnaire study was conducted among the illegal residents from four regions in Saudi Arabia: Jeddah, Makkah, Riyadh, and Jazan. Results: The survey enrolled 5,000 participants, 79%male (39.6% from Jeddah; 20% from Riyadh; and 20% from Jazan), aged between 15 and 45 years. Of the total, 1288 (25.8%) had not heard about HIV/AIDS. Knowledge of HIV transmission was poor in 90% of the respondents. Of the total, 737 had read about HIV/AIDS materials and 649 participants had been previously tested for HIV. The majority of participants (85%) held a negative attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Those who were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS expressed more a positive attitude. One-fifth (968, majority were men; single 55%, married 45%) had engaged in non-marital sexual activity. The largest proportion of the individuals who had engaged in non-marital sex were single (54.9%) followed by the married ones (40.4%). Men cited pleasure as the main reason for such activity (84.6%), whereas women (73.4%) cited financial gain. Of the respondents, 53.9 and 32.1% believed that TV and schools were the best media through which information with regard to HIV/AIDS could be imparted. Conclusions: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, its mode of transmission, and prevention measures was poor. Educational programs specifically targeted toward this group were required. PMID:26392717

  17. Reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of secondary school students in akure, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladapo, M M; Brieger, W R

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents are subject to many life changes as their secondary sexual characteristics emerge. Contrary to parents' and society's wishes, these young people are more sexually active then previous generations and thus at greater risk of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and related problems. Adolescents enrolled in school have the potential opportunity to learn ways to prevent these reproductive and sexual health problems, but there is concern whether schools are living up to this challenge. Therefore, this study was designed to learn whether adolescents in secondary school in the Ondo State capital of Akure have reproductive health education and are practicing healthy sexual behaviors. The study was based on a sample of six of the twenty-eight secondary schools in Akure that fell under the jurisdiction of the Ondo State Post-Primary Schools' Management Board. Focus was placed on pupils in the final years of both Junior Secondary School (JSS 3) and Senior Secondary School (SSS 3). Overall, 30 percent of the young people reported having sexual intercourse: 21 percent of females and 38 percent of males. Also 39 percent in SSS 3 reported having had sex compared to 21 percent in JSS 3. Forty percent of students in coeducational school compared to 19 percent in boy's school and 8 percent in girl's school had sex. Respondents averaged only 11 points on a 33-point scale of reproductive health knowledge. Students in the senior classes and those in single sex schools scored higher. The mass media was stated to be the major source of reproductive health knowledge; only one-third reported that they had actually talked with someone about their reproductive health concerns. Attitudes toward pre-marital sex were more favorable among male students, pupils in mixed sex schools and those whose parents had lower levels of education. These findings suggest not only that the schools must take a more active role in providing reproductive health education, but that this should be done in the junior secondary years before most pupils become sexually active. PMID:20841055

  18. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Georgia R; Ryujin, Lisa T; Ko, Celine Marie; Nguyen, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123) completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information. PMID:11553321

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of oncology nurses regarding pharmacogenomic testing.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Crystal

    2014-08-01

    More than 20 different pharmacogenomic tests are being used in the oncology field. The current descriptive study was conducted with 368 oncology nurses in North Carolina to identify and test key elements of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory that play a role in the adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. Oncology nurses who participated in this study had limited knowledge of genomics and pharmacogenomic testing. Attitudes toward pharmacogenomic testing were positive overall, and the study revealed that oncology nurses in this study routinely use pharmacogenomic testing information. Variable selection methods revealed that total genomic knowledge was more accurately predicted by prior experience and personality variables, pharmacogenomic knowledge was more accurately predicted by personality variables, and attitude was more accurately predicted by prior experience and perceived need of innovation. Based on these findings, several factors play key roles in the diffusion of pharmacogenomic testing within the oncology nursing field. Therefore, assessment of these variables may benefit the widespread adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. Further research should be conducted with these variables to assess the adoption of the innovation. PMID:25095306

  20. Impact of community-based interventions on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, women’s groups, peer leadership, and street outreach activities in community settings that aimed to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS risk factors and ensure treatment adherence. Our review findings suggest that CBIs to increase HIV awareness and risk reduction are effective in improving knowledge, attitudes, and practice outcomes as evidenced by the increased knowledge scores for HIV/AIDS (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.25, 1.07), protected sexual encounters (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.25), condom use (SMD: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.03, 1.58), and decreased frequency of sexual intercourse (RR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.96). Analysis shows that CBIs did not have any significant impact on scores for self-efficacy and communication. We found very limited evidence on community-based management for HIV infected population and prevention of mother- to-child transmission (MTCT) for HIV-infected pregnant women. Qualitative synthesis suggests that establishment of community support at the onset of HIV prevention programs leads to community acceptance and engagement. School-based delivery of HIV prevention education and contraceptive distribution have also been advocated as potential strategies to target high-risk youth group. Future studies should focus on evaluating the effectiveness of community delivery platforms for prevention of MTCT, and various emerging models of care to improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. PMID:25126420

  1. Knowledge and attitude of schoolgirls about illegal abortions in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mabuza, Langalibalele H.; Maduna, Patrick M.H.; Ndimande, John V.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Adolescent sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortion and the increase in HIV infection have become major concerns in sub-Saharan Africa and understanding adolescent sexual behaviour remains a challenge. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the practice of illegal abortions is prevalent among school-going adolescent girls with unplanned pregnancies. Assessing their attitude and knowledge on the subject could be a starting point from which to address the problem. Objectives To determine the knowledge of schoolgirls in Goma, DRC about the health consequences of illegal abortions and to assess their attitude towards these abortions. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected sample of 328 high school girls aged 16 to 20 years. A pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Nine out of 55 (11 public and 44 private) secondary schools were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. The Epi-Info 2000 computer program was used for data capturing and analysis. Results The different sources of information were the radio (66.2%, 217), friends (31.7%, 104), parents (1.5%, 5), and the church (0.5%, 2). The health consequences of illegal abortion mentioned were death, infertility, infection and bleeding. Of the participants, 9.8% (32) had committed an abortion before and 46% (151) knew where to obtain it; 76.2% (250) of participants were against illegal abortion, while 23.8% (78) supported it. Conclusion Girls in secondary school in Goma had good knowledge of the illegal abortion practice and its consequences. A fifth of them were in support of the procedure. The DRC government may need to consider legalising abortion to secure a healthy future for affected girls.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although Colombia has witnessed an important decrease in malaria transmission, the disease remains a public health problem with an estimated ~10 million people currently living in areas with malaria risk and ~61,000 cases reported in 2012. This study aimed to determine and compare the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about malaria in three endemic communities of Colombia to provide the knowledge framework for development of new intervention strategies for malaria elimination. Methods A cross-sectional KAP survey was conducted in the municipalities of Tierralta, Buenaventura and Tumaco, categorized according to high risk (HR) and moderate risk (MR) based on the annual parasite index (API). Surveys were managed using REDCap and analysed using MATLAB and GraphPad Prism. Results A total of 267 residents, mostly women (74%) were surveyed. Although no differences were observed on the knowledge of classical malaria symptoms between HR and MR regions, significant differences were found in knowledge and attitudes about transmission mechanisms, anti-malarial use and malaria diagnosis. Most responders in both regions (93.5% in MR, and 94.3% in HR areas) indicated use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) to protect themselves from malaria, and 75.5% of responders in HR indicated they did nothing to prevent malaria transmission outdoors. Despite a high level of knowledge in the study regions, significant gaps persisted relating to practices. Self-medication and poor adherence to treatment, as well as lack of both indoor and outdoor vector control measures, were significantly associated with higher malaria risk. Conclusions Although significant efforts are currently being made by the Ministry of Health to use community education as one of the main components of the control strategy, these generic education programmes may not be applicable to all endemic regions of Colombia given the substantial geographic, ethnic and cultural diversity. PMID:24885909

  3. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to HIV transmission in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Han, Mei; Holzemer, William L

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses know about HIV/AIDS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Jiamusi University, Heilongjiang Province, China. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Only 7.9% of the nurse (n = 177) used condoms during their first experience of sexual intercourse. Eight-six percent of the nurses had been stuck by sharps while working, and 76% of them had been splashed by patient fluids. For 12 basic HIV/AIDS questions, the mean score was 6.66. The mean score is 6.28 for 9 HIV/AIDS attitude questions. Knowledge and attitude are negatively related (r = -0.215, p < 0.005). Training in reducing the risk for occupational exposures in this sample is important. Nurses who have a better understanding of HIV/AIDS prevention are more likely to have negative attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. This study suggests the necessity of increasing HIV/AIDS education for nurses, family members, friends, and all health care providers. PMID:15307930

  4. Response Patterns on the Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offending in Groups of Sex Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek

    2006-01-01

    Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…

  5. The Relationship of Childhood Sexual Abuse to the Marital Attitudes and Readiness for Marriage of Single Young Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffry H.; LaMont, Craig

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…

  6. Media exposure and the sexual attitudes and behaviors of college students.

    PubMed

    Strouse, J S; Buerkel-rothfuss, N L

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between popular media consumption and sexual attitudes and behavior for 475 college students, while controlling for commonly related social-psychological variables. Results indicate that females consume more sexually suggestive media (TV soap operas and pop music) than males. General media consumption was not a powerful predictor of permissiveness. Regression analyses revealed that Music Television consumption was the only media variable significantly associated with permissiveness for females. Self-esteem was positively associated with permissive attitudes and behavior for both males and females. Soap opera consumption was significantly associated with permissive behavior for males but not for females. Sexual permissiveness for females was more significantly related to religiosity but less significantly related to self-esteem than for males. No important extraneous variable influences were found. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences, the normative context hypothesis, social scripts, the double standard, the sexual revolution, and the cultivation hypothesis. PMID:12143703

  7. A dangerous boomerang: Injunctive norms, hostile sexist attitudes, and male-to-female sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Parrott, Dominic J; Swan, Suzanne C; Kuchynka, Sophie L; Schramm, Andrew T

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of injunctive norm exposure and hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on men's sexually aggressive responses during a behavioral analogue paradigm in which they interacted online with a bogus female partner. Heterosexual adult men (n = 201), recruited from an online sample, read fictional information regarding other men's approval of misogynistic, paternalistic, or egalitarian treatment of women, or non-gender-relevant control information. Through a media preference survey, men then learned that their female partner disliked sexual content in films, after which they had an opportunity to send her up to 120 sec' worth of either a sexually explicit or nonsexual film clip. Validating the online sexual aggression paradigm, men with a 1-year history of sexual assault exhibited more sexually aggressive responding during the film selection paradigm. Moreover, exposure to injunctive norm information produced a boomerang effect, such that men high in hostile sexist attitudes showed an increase in sexual aggression when confronted with paternalism and gender equality norms. Conversely, exposure to paternalism and gender equality norms suppressed the otherwise protective function of high benevolent sexism in reducing men's sexually aggressive tendencies. The implications of these results for social norms interventions are discussed. PMID:26174353

  8. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  9. Public Attitudes toward Sexual Offenders and Sex Offender Registration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…

  10. Faculty Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Education and Practice.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Katherine A; Klima, Dennis; Truong, Hoai-An; Rangel, Adriana G; Brown, Voncelia; Talley, William; Dougherty, Patrick; Joyner, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    As interprofessional education (IPE) is incorporated into health professions programs, it is essential to understand faculty perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes about IPE and interprofessional practice (IPP). A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Seventy-one faculty from three campuses of two rural public universities representing seven different programs participated. Despite limited IPE experience, faculty appreciated IPE and IPP. Notably, many felt undervalued by other professions. Participants acknowledged the importance of working with other professions (mean 2.69±0.53), participating on IP teams (2.61±0.52), and integrating IPP in patient care (2.60±0.52). Faculty reported low IPE knowledge (1.74±0.66) and confidence in IPE teaching ability (1.74±0.67). These findings demonstrate a need for faculty development in both IPE and IPP across all health disciplines. PMID:26937886

  11. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537

  12. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.

  13. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    PubMed

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474

  14. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Resident Doctors Toward Antihistamines

    PubMed Central

    Chainani, Esha; Godse, Kiran; Agarwal, Shweta; Patil, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergic rhinitis and urticaria are chronic persistent allergic conditions that need proper management as they significantly reduce quality of life measures. Of the many pharmacological options of allergic rhinitis and urticaria, second-generation antihistamines are the mainstay of therapy. Aims: This review focuses on the knowledge of medical residents toward prescribing antihistamines, according to the new ARIA and GA2LEN guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria, attempting to find the cause of less prescription of newer second-generation antihistamines by finding out the knowledge and attitude of the doctors prescribing them to the patients. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among resident doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Primary data from 100 resident doctors, who gave their informed consent, was collected. A prevalidated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of antihistamines was filled up. The data was then analyzed with suitable statistical tests. Every question was first validated using the Chi-square test, and significance was below 10% hence proving validity of the questions. Results: Out of the doctors surveyed, 82% of doctors said they prescribed second-generation antihistamines, while 18% still prescribed first-generation antihistamines. Out of the 82% that prescribed second-generation antihistamines, 8.9% also prescribed first-generation antihistamines as well. 23% of doctors surveyed had heard about the ARIA and GAL2EN guidelines and their recommendations for prescribing second-generation antihistamines over the older first-generation antihistamines, while 77% of them had not heard of these position papers. Conclusion: First-generation or classic antihistamines are still overused due to the lack of knowledge of various guidelines that have been published. The main reason for not prescribing the second-generation antihistamines was due to the increased cost per tablet compared to the more economical first-generation antihistamines. PMID:26677294

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students regarding 'mad cow disease'.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Steve; Soweid, Rema Adel Afifi; Nassar, Nabil T; Zananiri, Nathalie S; Tfaily, Rania; Rola, Ali Hassan; Allam, Shirine; Bassim, Mark; Aram, Bouraa Bou; Harkous, Bissan; Nashawi, Tarek

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of students enrolled at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in Lebanon, towards mad cow disease (MCD). Three hundred and fifty-six students (199 males and 157 females), ranging in age between 17 and 25 years were randomly selected from various majors and were asked to fill out a self-administered questionnaire. It was found that 99.7% of students had heard about MCD and 85.8% knew that the cow is the host for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Seventy five percent reported that animals contract the disease through the consumption of meat and bone meal. Thirty-seven percent wrongly believed that MCD cases were reported in Lebanon and 89% were not satisfied with the measures undertaken by the Lebanese government to curb the disease. Eighty four percent were concerned about the disease and 72% stated having modified their eating habits accordingly. Moreover, students majoring in biology and other health-related majors knew significantly more about MCD compared with students majoring in non-health related majors. A surprising finding was that females were more likely to modify their eating habits than males. Hence, this study provides an insight into the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of AUB students towards MCD. A limitation of this study is that our sample is not representative of all university students in Lebanon. Future surveys should also target students enrolled in other universities in the country. PMID:12873414

  16. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity

    PubMed Central

    Awan, K.H.; Khan, S.; Abadeen, Z.; Khalid, T.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity. Material and methods Second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students completed a self-administered questionnaire. An ethics committee approved the study. Participants were asked questions focused on three areas: (i) knowledge, (ii) perceptions, and (iii) attitudes about obesity. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS version 20. Results Among the dental students, 78.9% received 0–1 h of formal education about obesity. The mean score of the total time allocated for obesity-related education was 1.31 ± 0.23 h. Eighty-nine percent of the dental students agreed that obesity is a chronic medical condition, 30% agreed that they would modify their equipment and office furniture to accommodate obese patients, and 46.8% were interested in learning more about obesity in dental school. Conclusion Obesity-related education should be implemented as a formal component of dental student training. Oral health practitioners should also provide their patients with information about how weight loss is beneficial to both general and oral health. PMID:26792969

  17. Religious beliefs, knowledge about science and attitudes towards medical genetics.

    PubMed

    Allum, Nick; Sibley, Elissa; Sturgis, Patrick; Stoneman, Paul

    2014-10-01

    The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways. PMID:23838683

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Noise Exposure of Baristas

    PubMed Central

    Pursley, Alyssa J.; Saunders, Gabrielle H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the daily noise exposure of baristas working in cafés, and to measure their knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding hearing conservation and perceptions of noise in their work environment. Design Fifteen baristas from six cafés in Portland completed the Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors questionnaire, a sound disturbance survey, and a structured interview to document perceptions of noise in the work environment. To measure daily noise exposure, a subset of eight participants wore a personal dosimeter for three different work shifts. Study Sample 11 females and 4 males aged between 19 and 36 years old (mean: 26.3, SD: 4.6) recruited from independently owned cafés in the Portland metro area. Results Dosimetry measurements revealed Leq measurements between 71 dBA and 83 dBA, with noise doses ranging from 4% to 74%, indicating that baristas are not exposed to sound levels above the regulatory criterion. Questionnaire results indicated that baristas have low awareness about the hazards of noise, are not opposed to hearing conservation, and rarely use hearing protection when engaged in noisy activities. Conclusions Baristas here lacked the pertinent education and motivation to commit to invaluable hearing conservation practices. PMID:26795371

  19. Reciprocal relationships between friends' and parental mediation of adolescents' media use and their sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Nikken, Peter; de Graaf, Hanneke

    2013-11-01

    Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexual attitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexual attitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3% girls) reported on permissive sexual attitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexual attitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media. PMID:23192452

  20. The effects of three abstinence sex education programs on student attitudes toward sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Weed, S E; Ritz, G M; Jensen, L C

    1991-01-01

    The effects of three abstinence sex education programs on student attitudes toward sexual activity were studied. The programs were administered to 7th- and 10th-grade students in three school districts in the State of Utah. All students were administered a pre- and posttest survey to determine attitude change. The independent variables were program, grade level, gender, and pre/posttest. The dependent variable was the combined and averaged response to 12 questions taken from the survey. There was a four-way interaction between the independent variables. The Sex Respect program produced the most positive attitude change. PMID:1962546

  1. Sexuality: Measures of Partnerships, Practices, Attitudes, and Problems in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Laumann, Edward O.; Das, Aniruddha; Schumm, L. Philip

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) was designed to examine the relationship between sexual behavior, sexual problems, and health among older women and men. We describe measures of sexual partnerships, sexual practices, sexual problems, attitudes toward sex, and nonsexual intimacy in the first wave of NSHAP. Methods We compare measures of sexuality for those 57–85 years old, by age, separately for men and women. We construct scales of sexual mores, sexual interest, and relationship satisfaction and discuss properties of each scale. Results Sexuality among older adults tends to vary with age and gender. At all ages in this study, men are more likely than women to have a partner, more likely to be sexually active with that partner, and tend to have more positive and permissive attitudes toward sex. The proportions in a sexual partnership, behavior, problems, and attitudes all differ substantially by age. And these age patterns often differ for men and women. Discussion Data obtained in the NSHAP can be used to construct key measures of sexuality among older adults; to examine sexuality itself; and to explore the link between sexuality, health, well-being, and other dimensions of the lives of older adults. PMID:19497930

  2. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…

  3. A Field Study of First Aid Knowledge and Attitudes of College Students in Kuwait University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2006-01-01

    A random sample of 562 students completed a questionnaire including demographic data; 20 questions testing knowledge (right answers scored 1 and wrong answers 0); and 20 exploring attitudes ("yes", "not sure" and "no"). Overall, students scored 0.49 for knowledge and 2.30 (of a maximum 3) for attitude. Knowledge scores were classified into high,…

  4. Environmental Attitudes, Knowledge, and Alternative Conceptions of Primary School Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios

    2014-01-01

    In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…

  5. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780

  6. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES REGARDING CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

    PubMed Central

    Markovic, Nina; Muratbegovic, Amra Arslanagic; Kobaslija, Sedin; Bajric, Elmedin; Selimovic-Dragas, Mediha; Huseinbegovic, Amina; Cuković-Bagic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH) regarding signs and symptoms of child abuse and neglect (CAN), reporting procedure and level of education. Methods: Data were collected through a self-administrated structured questionnaire adopted and modified from previous studies. It was administrated to 300 dentists out of which a total number of 210 subjects were in final sample for statistical analyses. Response rate was seventy percent. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis H test were used to analyze statistical differences in responses. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Dentists in BH are very rarely provided (80%) with training related to recognition and reporting of CAN. Sixty six percent of dentists had never suspected CAN in their practice. Only nine percent of dentists would report suspicious of CAN. Prevailing reasons for not reporting suspected case of CAN was lack of knowledge of the reporting procedure (43%), and combination of indicated answers that never had a case and lack of knowledge about the procedure (31%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that dentists need an effective education to increase their knowledge and awareness of all aspects of CAN. PMID:26889093

  7. Attitudes and Knowledge of Iranian Nurses about Hospice Care

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Jabbari, Hossein; Bakhshian, Fariba; Shafaei, Leila; Shafaei, Soheyla; Kolahdouzan, Kasra; Mohseni, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Context: Due to expansion of chronic diseases and increase of health care costs, there is a need for planning and delivering hospice care for patients in their final stages of life in Iran. The aim of the present study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about delivering hospice care for End of Life (EOL) patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 with a sample size of 200 nurses that were selected by convenient (available) sampling. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire whose validity was approved by experts’ opinions and its reliability was approved by test-retest method. Results: Among all participants of this study, 87% were female. The mean age of nurses was 32.00 ± 6.72. From all respondents 62% stated that they have no knowledge about hospice care and 80% declared that need for hospice care is increasing. Most of the participants felt that, appropriate services are not presented to patients in the final stages of their lives. About 80% believed that hospice care leads to reduction of health care costs, improvement of physical, mental and social health of patients and finally improvement of the quality of health care services. There was a significant relationship between age, employment history and level of education of nurses and their attitude and knowledge about how this service is provided. Conclusion: In view of the increase in chronic illnesses and the costs of caring, the need for provision of hospice care is felt more and more every day. However the awareness level of nurses about these services is low. Therefore the need for including these issues in nursing curriculum and holding scientific courses and seminars in this field is needed. PMID:26009676

  8. Parents' attitudes on sexual education--what and when?

    PubMed

    Janković, Suzana; Malatestinić, Giulia; Striehl, Henrietta Bencević

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to detect opinions about what and when should be talked about in sexual education in schools respecting the role of parents. This study was conducted in 23 elementary schools in the town Rijeka, Croatia from March to May 2010. The sample consisted of parents of sixth grade elementary school pupils. There were 1,673 respondents, divided in groups of mothers and fathers. Both groups had answered what is the majority of topics to be talked about in the higher grades of elementary school. In lower elementary school grades children should be taught about the structure and differences of male and female genitalia. Topics that most parents find inappropriate to be talked about in sexual education, are sexual satisfaction and pleasure, masturbation, pornography and prostitution (5.01-7.7%). Results of this study can help in creating sexual education programs in schools where parents are considered of being equal accomplices. PMID:23697245

  9. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  10. Development and Validation of the ACSI: Measuring Students' Science Attitudes, Pro-Environmental Behaviour, Climate Change Attitudes and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, E. M.; Goedhart, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of the Attitudes towards Climate Change and Science Instrument. This 63-item questionnaire measures students' pro-environmental behaviour, their climate change knowledge and their attitudes towards school science, societal implications of science, scientists, a career in science and the urgency…

  11. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  12. Polish Adolescents and Their Beliefs and Attitudes to HIV/AIDS and Sexual Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganczak, Maria; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Szych, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the needs for HIV/AIDS educational interventions and attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV infection, including sexual relationships, among 17-year-old Polish adolescents. A total of 761 students who attended schools located in urban and rural areas was surveyed. The study, based on the voluntary, self-completed,…

  13. Family Functioning and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Attachment Styles and Sexual Attitudes in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kufskie, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…

  14. Community Attitudes toward School-Based Sexuality Education in a Conservative State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…

  15. Contraceptive Attitudes and Intention to Use Condoms in Sexually Experienced and Inexperienced Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pleck, Joseph H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Assessed contraceptive attitudes and intention to use a condom at next intercourse among 1,880 adolescent males. Findings showed that about three-fifths of sexually experienced and inexperienced adolescent males intending to have sex in the next year reported an "almost certain chance" of condom use with a hypothetical future partner. (Author/PVV)

  16. Attitudes of Social Service Providers towards the Sexuality of Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzo, Giuseppe; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore; Ferrari, Lea; Minnes, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Background: The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. We hypothesized that social service providers' role, educational level and service in which they worked could affect attitudes…

  17. Validation of Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB). A Multimedia Measure of Adolescent Dating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Andra L.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Pacifici, Caesar

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB), a multimedia measure of adolescent dating attitudes, were examined. The ACSB is an interactive instrument that uses video vignettes to depict adolescent dating situations. Analyses of the measure's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  18. U.S. and Icelandic College Student Attitudes toward Relationships/Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David

    2014-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…

  19. Factors Influencing Attitudes toward Sexual Activity among Early Adolescents in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Yamawaki, Niwako; Sato, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Aki; Saito, Hisako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing attitudes toward sexual activity among early adolescents in Japan. A total of 1,551 students aged 12 to 14 years at 4 junior high schools were divided into either a conservative or liberal group. Results of chi-square tests showed that the liberal group had higher percentages of students…

  20. A Qualitative Study of Southern Baptist Mothers' and Their Daughters' Attitudes toward Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matyastik Baier, Margaret E.; Wampler, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study of 14 Southern Baptist mother-daughter dyads uses grounded theory to explore the attitudes these mothers and daughters hold toward sexuality, religiosity, and spirituality, in addition to how they communicate with each other about these topics. Themes that emerge from the data include abstinence before marriage, lack of…

  1. U.S. and Icelandic College Student Attitudes toward Relationships/Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David

    2014-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…

  2. Polish Adolescents and Their Beliefs and Attitudes to HIV/AIDS and Sexual Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganczak, Maria; Boron-Kaczmarska, Anna; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Szych, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the needs for HIV/AIDS educational interventions and attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV infection, including sexual relationships, among 17-year-old Polish adolescents. A total of 761 students who attended schools located in urban and rural areas was surveyed. The study, based on the voluntary, self-completed,…

  3. Family Functioning and Parental Divorce as Predictors of Attachment Styles and Sexual Attitudes in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kufskie, Kathy L.

    2009-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental divorce and family functioning are associated with children's socieomotional and psychological adjustment well into their adult years. Research has also demonstrated that sexual attitudes are becoming more liberal (cf., Harding & Jencks, 2003; Leiblum, Wiegel, & Brickle, 2003). The purpose of this research…

  4. Dimensions of Masculinity: Relations to Date Rape Supportive Attitudes and Sexual Aggression in Dating Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truman, Dana M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Extends and refines existing research on the links between masculine gender roles and date rape by exploring three masculinity-related constructs: masculinity ideology, attitudes toward feminism, and homophobia. Results show that combinations of masculinity-related constructs predicted self-reported acceptance or perpetration of sexually coercive…

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Analysis of Risk Transmission through Friends and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…

  6. Community Attitudes toward School-Based Sexuality Education in a Conservative State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Thompson, Sharon H.; M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Yannessa, John F.; Duffy, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess community attitudes toward school-based abstinence-plus sexuality education. A dual sampling approach of landlines and cell phones resulted in 988 adults from two counties completing "The South Carolina Survey of Public Opinion on Pregnancy Prevention." Among respondents, 87.1% supported…

  7. Validation of Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB). A Multimedia Measure of Adolescent Dating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Andra L.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Pacifici, Caesar

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB), a multimedia measure of adolescent dating attitudes, were examined. The ACSB is an interactive instrument that uses video vignettes to depict adolescent dating situations. Analyses of the measure's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  8. Sexual Health Knowledge and Needs: Young Muslim Women in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Rebecca M; Liamputtong, Pranee; Wollersheim, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the sexual health knowledge and needs among young Muslim women living in Melbourne, Australia. Eleven young Muslim women were individually interviewed about issues relating to sexual health knowledge and needs, access to sexual health services, and their experiences of balancing their lives in relation to sexual health. Findings revealed a marked influence of religion and culture on sexual health of young Muslim women. They often faced challenges balancing Muslim culture, Australian culture, and Islamic religion. Our findings have implications for health services in a multicultural society. They could be used to promote culturally sensitive sexual health services for young Muslim women in Australia and elsewhere. PMID:26536914

  9. The relationship between adult sexual adjustment and childhood experiences regarding exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parental bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R J; Janda, L H

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the frequency of sleeping in the parental bed as a child, the frequency of seeing others nude during childhood, and parental attitudes regarding sexuality. Information on current sexual functioning and adjustment was also obtained. The results suggest that childhood experiences with exposure to nudity and sleeping in the parental bed are not adversely related to adult sexual functioning and adjustment. In fact, there is modest support that these childhood experiences are positively related to indices of adjustment. Results also suggest that a positive attitude toward sexuality can be beneficial for a child's comfort with his/her sexuality. Finally, examination of gender differences revealed that male and female experience paternal attitudes toward sexuality differently but are similar in their perceptions of maternal attitudes. PMID:3421828

  10. Bisexual Behaviors, HIV Knowledge, and Stigmatizing/Discriminatory Attitudes among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Meizhen; Wang, Mei; Shen, Xingjie; Huang, Pengxiang; Yang, Xingguang; Hao, Lianzheng; Cox, Catherine; Wu, Pingsheng; Tao, Xiaorun; Kang, Dianmin; Jia, Yujiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the correlates for bisexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods A cross-sectional survey among MSM was conducted in 2011 to provide demographics, sexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes, and services in Jinan, Qingdao, and Yantai of Shandong Province of China. Results Of 1230 participants, 82.8% were single, 85.7% aged <35 years, and 47.2% received college or higher education. There were 28.6% MSM who reported to be married or cohabitating or ever had sex with woman in the past 6 months (P6M). 74.5% had ≥6 HIV-related knowledge score. The average total score of stigmatizing/discriminatory attitude was 37.4±4.4(standard deviation). Bisexual behavior was independently associated with higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.1, 95% CI:1.0–1.1), older age(AOR = 1.2, 95%CI:1.1–1.2), and lower HIV-related knowledge score(AOR = 1.6, 95%CI:1.2–2.2). HIV knowledge score ≥6 was independently associated with lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigma/discrimination(AOR = 1.3, 95%CI:1.2–1.3), less bisexual behaviors(AOR = 0.6, 95%CI:0.5–0.9), ever received a test for HIV in the past 12 months (P12M)(AOR = 3.2, 95%CI:2.3–4.5), college or higher level education(AOR = 1.9, 95%CI:1.4–2.6), consistent condom use with men in P6M(AOR=6.9, 95%CI:4.6–10.6), recruited from internet or HIV testing sites(AOR = 11.2, 95%CI:8.0–16.1) and bars, night clubs, or tea houses(AOR = 2.5, 95%CI:1.7–4.8). Expressing higher levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with bisexual behaviors(Aβ = 0.9, 95%CI:0.4–1.4), lower HIV-related knowledge score(Aβ = 3.6, 95%CI:3.0–4.1), the number of male sex partners in the past week ≥2(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:1.0–1.9), unprotected male anal sex in P6M(Aβ = 1.0, 95%CI:0.5–1.6), and inversely associated with ever received HIV test(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:0.8–2.0) and peer education in P12M(Aβ = 1.4, 95%CI:0.9–1.9). Conclusion HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes were associated with bisexual behaviors, low HIV testing rate, lower HIV-related knowledge and risk behaviors. This study called for innovative programs that would reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes and bisexual behaviors and improve the uptake of prevention service among MSM. PMID:26121250

  11. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-12-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809

  12. “Shake It Baby, Shake It”: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809

  13. Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes in Athletes With Physical Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rastmanesh, Reza; Taleban, Furugh Azam; Kimiagar, Masood; Mehrabi, Yadolah; Salehi, Moosa

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about sport nutritional problems and requirements of athletes with physical disabilities. Objective: To compare the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of Iranian athletes with physical disabilities (APDs) after nutrition education. Because proper nutrition is important for both performance and injury healing, learning about the nutritional areas in which APDs are deficient may assist professionals in educating them. Design: Nested case-control study. Setting: Sport camp. Patients or Other Participants: Seventy-two APDs (42 APDs in the intervention group and 30 age-matched and sex-matched control APDs) and 10 coaches completed the study. Intervention(s): The APDs in the intervention group and their coaches were given nutrition education, which included a booklet with a simplified food guide pyramid, simple concepts about nutrition and weight loss, and four 3-hour courses. The APDs in the control group and their coaches were not given nutrition education. Main Outcome Measure(s): Subjects completed 2 nutritional questionnaires with both quantitative and qualitative components. Nutritional questionnaires were administered at 2 consecutive camps, 30 days apart, before and after nutrition education. Our questionnaires included a demographics section; 88 Likert scale and true-false questions; and 18 open-ended questions, 13 of which were specifically designed for APDs. Each APD completed two 3-day food records. Results: The APDs in the intervention group scored significantly higher after nutrition education and higher than the control group on the knowledge subscales and interest in nutrition. Although the nutrition knowledge score in this study was moderate, several specific areas of deficient nutritional knowledge were identified that are critical for the health of APDs. Our model of nutrition education was more effective than the usual instructions presented irregularly by coaches. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Iranian APDs lack nutritional knowledge in areas critical to preventing nutrition-related health problems, especially components related to nutrition for athletes with disabilities. PMID:17597950

  14. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  15. Report Card: Environmental Attitudes and Knowledge in America. The Fifth Annual Survey of Adult Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…

  16. Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Angelillo, I. F.; Ricciardi, G.; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; Langiano, E.; Pavia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512

  17. Public attitudes toward sexual offenders and sex offender registration.

    PubMed

    Kernsmith, Poco D; Craun, Sarah W; Foster, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As part of a telephone survey, 733 participants answered questions about fear of sex offenders and agreement with requirements about registration for offenders convicted of incest, statutory rape, marital rape, pedophilia, date rape, and an offense committed more than 10 years prior. Results indicated that all types of sexual offenders elicited some fear from respondents, and fear was related to support of registration requirements. PMID:19856734

  18. Sexual Assault Perpetrators' Justifications for Their Actions: Relationships to Rape Supportive Attitudes, Incident Characteristics, and Future Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Rhiana; Abbey, Antonia; Pierce, Jennifer; Pegram, Sheri E; Woerner, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Perpetrators use rape supportive attitudes and sexual assault incident characteristics to justify forcing sex on their victims. Perpetrators who can justify their behaviors are at increased risk for future perpetration. This study examined the relationships between rape supportive attitudes, sexual assault incident characteristics, and the post-assault justifications of 183 men sampled from the community who self-reported committing at least one act of sexual aggression. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that rape supportive attitudes, expectations for having sex, misperceptions of sexual intent, victims' alcohol consumption, attempts to be alone with her, and the number of consensual sexual activities prior to the unwanted sex were significant predictors of perpetrators' post-assault use of justifications. Greater use of justifications was a significant predictor of sexual aggression over a 1-year follow-up interval. These findings demonstrate the need for further research exploring when and why perpetrators use post-assault justifications and whether they are amenable to change. PMID:26056162

  19. Sexual attitudes, preferences and infections in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S

    1995-01-01

    This socio-sexual review of Ancient Egyptian society aims to increase awareness that the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is largely determined by the way a society is structured and how that structure functions. The prevalence of STDs in Ancient Egypt has been found to be low. This state of affairs was maintained for centuries. Although the structure of their society was rigidly hierarchical, Egyptian people made it function in an acceptable way. What might be learned is concerned more with prevention than cure. Whether this has any relevance today is discussed. Images PMID:7635496

  20. [Knowledge about sexuality and sex behavior in university students with visual impairment: need of educational materials].

    PubMed

    López Jaime, P; Santos Ortíz, M C; Dávila Torres, R R; Torres, L; Díaz, L

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge about sexuality (including STD/HIV/AIDS), the sexual practices more frequents and sexuality education sources in a group of students with visual impairments. A self administered questionnaire was utilized in 50 students with visual impairment. Descriptive statistics were utilized. Seventy six percent (76.0%) of the participants presented a high knowledge about sexuality and 22.0% presented moderated knowledge. The no penetrative sexual practice more frequent was corporal caress (82.0%) and the penetrative was penis-vagina (74.0%). The source of sexuality education most common was the conferences (83.9%). Although, in general, the knowledge about sexuality was high, there are "gaps" in them. There is the need to develop educational materials adapted to the needs of the studied population. PMID:11776730

  1. Impact of health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria University students.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Gehan M; Mahdy, Nehad H; Fatohy, Ibtsam M

    2003-01-01

    In Egypt, adolescents don't have enough and/or correct knowledge regarding reproductive health. Health education interventions are widely seen as the most appropriate strategy for promoting young people's sexual health. The aim of the present work was to assess the impact of a short-term health education program about reproductive health on knowledge and attitude of female Alexandria university students. Quasi-experimental study (pre-post testing control group) was carried out among 682 female university students living in the university hostels, 354 students represented the intervention group (Ezbet-Saad hostel) who received the program and 328 students constituted the control group (El-Shatby hostel). The study revealed that no one had satisfactory knowledge level while 61.7 % and 38.3% respectively had fair and poor levels. The low knowledge level was more evident regarding the questions about: the meaning of the term 'reproductive health' (only 5.1% gave correct complete answer), the benefits of premarital examination (only 37.9% reported complete answer), the investigations done for the pregnant woman (only 28.3% gave complete answer) the benefits of breast feeding (only 8.2% reported complete answer), methods of family planning (only 36.4% gave complete answer), side effects of female genital mutilation (only 4% reported complete answer), sexually transmitted diseases and methods of protection (only 11.9% and 3.9% reported complete answer). It was evident that 32.6% had an overall positive attitude level, 46.3% were in the neutral level and 21.1% had a negative level. It was also found that students of highly or moderately educated mothers and of high social class reported significantly higher knowledge score about premarital examination, age of marriage and breast-feeding than those of non-educated mothers and of low social class. After the intervention program there was a significant improvement in the majority of knowledge questions from pre to post test in the intervention group and no absolute changes were detected in the control group. The highest percentage of gain scores (33.3%) was detected for knowledge about the term 'reproductive health' and female genital mutilation. A significant gain score of 25% was observed for the knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases. Also there was a gain of 20% in the median score concerning the knowledge about breast feeding and family planning. A significant shift towards a positive attitude was found among the intervention group. PMID:17219905

  2. A Cross-Site Intervention in Chinese Rural Migrants Enhances HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Li, Xiaomei; Wang, Xueliang; Shao, Jin; Dou, Juanhua

    2014-01-01

    Background: With the influx of rural migrants into urban areas, the spread of HIV has increased significantly in Shaanxi Province (China). Migrant workers are at high risk of HIV infection due to social conditions and hardships (isolation, separation, marginalization, barriers to services, etc.). Objective: We explored the efficacy of a HIV/AIDS prevention and control program for rural migrants in Shaanxi Province, administered at both rural and urban sites. Methods: Guidance concerning HIV/AIDS prevention was given to the experimental group (266 migrants) for 1 year by the center of disease control, community health agencies and family planning department. The intervention was conducted according to the HIV/AIDS Prevention Management Manual for Rural Migrants. A control group of migrants only received general population intervention. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by administering HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior (KAB) questionnaires after 6 and 12 months. Results: In the experimental group; 6 months of intervention achieved improvements in HIV/AIDS related knowledge. After 12 months; HIV/AIDS-related knowledge reached near maximal scores. Attitude and most behaviors scores were significantly improved. Moreover; the experimental group showed significant differences in HIV-AIDS knowledge; attitude and most behavior compared with the control group. Conclusions: The systematic long-term cross-site HIV/AIDS prevention in both rural and urban areas is a highly effective method to improve HIV/AIDS KAB among rural migrants. PMID:24762671

  3. Parental Attitudes Regarding School-Based Sexuality Education in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…

  4. Parental Attitudes Regarding School-Based Sexuality Education in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…

  5. Couple Communication and Sexual Attitudes in Natural Family Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivanandan, Mary; Borkman, Thomasina

    Natural family planning (NFP) refers to techniques for planning or preventing pregnancy by observation of natural signs of fertility. In using natural family planning to avoid pregnancy, there is abstinence from sexual intercourse during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Social values which are incorporated into the method include couples…

  6. Attitudes of Rural Youth Toward Premarital Sexual Permissiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Danny E.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Results of comparison study, using Reiss items subjected to Guttman analysis for measurement of dependent variable, indicate replication of other studies where degree of affection was major factor in acceptance of advanced sexual activity. No overall Negro-white predisposition existed regarding promiscuity. Several racial-cultural factors which…

  7. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder: self-reported behaviours and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-03-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care. PMID:25212415

  8. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  9. Parents' Attitudes about Adolescents' Premarital Sexual Activity: The Role of Inter-Parent Consistency/Inconsistency in Sexual Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Anagurthi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Parents' values about sexuality and about premarital sex play unique roles in the development of adolescents' sexual attitudes and behaviours. However, research is scarce on the role of consistent versus inconsistent values transmission. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between parental…

  10. Emergency contraception amongst female college students – knowledge, attitude and practice

    PubMed Central

    Nibabe, Wendwosen T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners’ trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students’ educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legally or illegally. Aim The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. Setting Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students. Results The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3%) of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3%) of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9%) of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective. Conclusion These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students’ knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception. PMID:26245395

  11. Psychiatrists' attitude towards and knowledge of clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J; Dahm, M; Lublin, H; Taylor, D

    2010-07-01

    Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine. One hundred psychiatrists were interviewed by phone. The interview was a structured interview with questions regarding attitude to, knowledge of and experiences with clozapine. Forty-eight (48%) psychiatrists had treatment responsibility of fewer than five patients treated with clozapine and 31 of the interviewed psychiatrists (31%) had started clozapine within the last 3 months. Seven psychiatrists (7%) had never prescribed clozapine despite the fact that they had been working more than five years in general psychiatry. Sixty-four psychiatrists (64%) would rather combine two antipsychotics than use clozapine. Sixty-six psychiatrists (66%) believed that patients treated with clozapine were less satisfied with their treatment when compared with those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. Many psychiatrists are reluctant to use clozapine and this might be due to less experience and knowledge of clozapine. A reason for the low awareness of clozapine's properties might be that clozapine is now a generic drug, and therefore, the marketing and education in using the drug is sparse. PMID:19164499

  12. Oral cancer knowledge, behavior, and attitude among osteopathic medical students.

    PubMed

    McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22% response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439

  13. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  14. Attitudes towards, Preferences for, and Knowledge of Computers among Gifted and Average Junior High Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Jagjit K.

    A descriptive study was conducted in three junior high schools in Calgary (Alberta) to examine: (1) student attitudes toward computers, (2) student preferences for different kinds of software, and (3) student knowledge of computers and computer applications. Subjects (n=157) completed a survey designed to evaluate their attitudes and knowledge…

  15. An Investigation of the Relations between Student Knowledge, Personal Contact, and Attitudes toward Individuals with Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eack, Shaun M.; Newhill, Christina E.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…

  16. Knowledge and Attitude regarding Recovery among Mental Health Practitioners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…

  17. Constructing Elementary Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practical Knowledge through an Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sanghee; Ramsey, John

    2009-01-01

    This study examines inservice elementary school teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge toward inquiry-based science instruction and the influence of an inquiry-based elementary science course on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge regarding inquiry. Both surveys and a case study were administered to the 14…

  18. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  19. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  20. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  1. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  2. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  3. Effect of an Incontinence Training Program on Nursing Home Staff's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Emily B; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nursing staff (n=166) in four nursing homes participated in quasi-experimental study to measure knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence and compliance with toileting protocols. Intervention group (n=96) showed slight increase in knowledge; their attitudes remained positive over four testing times. Compliance with protocol was only 72…

  4. Knowledge and Attitude regarding Recovery among Mental Health Practitioners in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Nordenmark, Mikael; Dalin, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…

  5. A Survey of Natural Resource and National Parks Knowledge and Attitudes of Dominican Republic Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berroa, Juan Leonel Batista; Roth, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to ascertain the level of ecological knowledge and attitudes of citizens of the Dominican Republic regarding national parks and natural resources. Overall, the level of ecological knowledge was determined to be very low and attitudes toward parks and resources seemed to be negative. (CW)

  6. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  7. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  8. An Experimental Study of the Relationship between Attitude toward and Knowledge of Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between gain in attitude toward and increases in knowledge of educational research was investigated in preservice social studies teachers. Results indicated that increases in knowledge did not result in gains in attitude. There were no significant differences between individual-workbook and lecture-workbook instructional…

  9. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  10. Effects of Puppetry on Elementary Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB) puppet shows on elementary school students' knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities are described. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and change attitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both…

  11. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  12. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  13. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Dean

    2007-01-01

    To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

  14. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  15. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  16. Knowledge of and Attitude towards Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…

  17. Adolescent Boys' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Testicular Self-Examination: Evaluating an Outreach Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…

  18. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  19. Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

  20. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  1. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: the role of insecurity and benevolent sexism.

    PubMed

    Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G T; Helbling, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals' sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile-as measured with benevolent sexism items-related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions-that is, more positive attitudes-among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters. PMID:26283985

  2. Midwives’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Newborn Hearing Screening

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, Martha Hoffman; Moeller, Mary Pat; White, Karl R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Hearing loss is the most common congenital condition screened for at birth in the United States and more than 95% of newborns are currently screened for hearing. Newborn hearing screening is most effective when infants receive timely and effective interventions. Unfortunately follow-up rates for babies not passing their initial hearing screens are as low as 50% in some states. Midwives are well positioned to encourage families to follow-up with their neonatal providers when babies are referred for further testing. Newborn hearing screening is a relatively new practice in the United States and to date there has been no research regarding the informational needs and practices of certified nurse midwives or certified midwives related to hearing screens. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and follow-up practices of midwives related to newborn hearing screening and intervention. METHODS A survey instrument was developed and sent to 5,255 ACNM members in 50 states and 2 territories. Five hundred and eighteen surveys were returned, yielding a response rate of 9.9%. RESULTS Only 68% of respondents said it was very important to screen all newborns for hearing loss. Respondents reported significant gaps in their knowledge about screening procedures, steps for referral, and the availability of resources when newborns did not pass the test. Midwives also reported the need for information about hearing loss conditions and genetics, screening guidelines, protocols for follow up, referral networks, and therapies available. DISCUSSION Current practices in newborn hearing screening and intervention programs can be enhanced by strengthening the basic midwifery knowledge of and rationale for follow-up when newborns fail their hearing screens. Midwives can play an integral role in optimizing hearing, speech, and family interaction by assuring that each baby born into midwife hands accesses the best hearing screening and referrals. PMID:21429080

  3. From Agents to Objects: Sexist Attitudes and Neural Responses to Sexualized Targets

    PubMed Central

    Cikara, Mina; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers’ sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs (“handle”) and clothed women with third-person action verbs (“handles”) than the inverse, as compared to their less sexist peers. In study 2, hostile sexism correlated negatively with activation of regions associated with mental state attribution—mPFC, posterior cingulate, temporal poles—but only when viewing sexualized women. Heterosexual men best recognized images of sexualized female bodies (but not faces), as compared with other targets’ bodies; however, neither face nor body recognition were related to hostile sexism, suggesting the fMRI findings are not explained by more or less attention to sexualized female targets. Diminished mental-state attribution is not unique to targets that people prefer to avoid, as in dehumanization of stigmatized people. The current studies demonstrate that appetitive social targets may elicit a similar response depending on perceivers’ attitudes toward them. PMID:20350187

  4. A comparison of 19th century and current attitudes to female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Studd, John

    2007-12-01

    The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone. PMID:18075842

  5. A Cross Sectional Study of Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Antibiotics in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Keat; Teh, Chew Charn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic utilization in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among public attending a local hospital. The four-part questionnaire collected responses on demographic characteristics, recent use of antibiotics, knowledge and attitude statements. Cronbach’s alpha for knowledge and attitude statements were 0.68 and 0.74 respectively. Only questionnaires with complete responses were analysed. General linear modelling was used to identify demographic characteristics which contributed significantly to knowledge and attitude. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of obtaining an inappropriate response for each knowledge and attitude statement. The relationship between antibiotic knowledge and attitude was examined using Pearson’s correlation and correlation between related statements was performed using the Chi-square test. In all statistical analyses, a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was positive correlation (p<0.001) between mean knowledge (6.07±2.52) and attitude scores (5.59±1.67). Highest education level (p<0.001) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.001) contributed significantly to knowledge. Gender (p=0.010), race (p=0.005), highest education level (p<0.001), employment status (p=0.016) and healthcare-related occupation (p=0.005) contributed significantly to attitude. The differences in score between demographic groups were small. Misconceptions that antibiotics would work on both bacterial and viral infections were reported. Approximately three quarters of respondents expected antibiotics for treatment of coughs and colds. Close to two thirds (60%) believed that taking antibiotics would improve recovery. Several demographic groups were identified as ‘high risk’ with respect to gaps in knowledge and attitude. Conclusions: This study has identified important knowledge and attitude gaps as well as people ‘at risk’. These findings would be useful in strategizing targeted antibiotic awareness campaigns and patient counselling. PMID:23532680

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures among dental students in Central India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhinav; Purohit, Bharathi M; Bhambal, Ajay; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Singh, Anshika; Gupta, Amrita

    2011-03-01

    A questionnaire study was conducted among 245 dental students from Bhopal city, Central India, to determine their level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures and if any correlation exists among the knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three parts: knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean of knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores and Kendall's test to compute the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. A p value of ?0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. We found that 61.2 percent of the dental students had not been vaccinated with hepatitis B. Use of face mask, gloves, eyewear, and protective clothing as standard infection control measures was practiced only by two students. Mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 3.75 (1.01), 3.40 (0.75), and 3.35 (1.04), respectively. Significant linear correlation was seen between attitude and practice scores (r=0.20, p?0.01). The level of knowledge and practice of infection control measures was poor among dental students. The attitude towards infection control measures was positive, but a greater compliance was needed. We recommend rigorous training on infection control measures prior to graduation and mandatory hepatitis B immunization of students before exposure to clinical practice. PMID:21368266

  7. The attitude/behavior discrepancy as a methodological artifact: comment on 'sexually active adolescents and condoms'.

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, C A

    1990-01-01

    A recent questionnaire-based study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that although sexually active adolescents both believe that the use of condoms offers protection against sexually transmitted diseases and value such protection, they do not intend to use (or have their partners use) condoms. This attitude/behavior discrepancy is more apparent than real. Six methodological problems in the study are discussed in detail in order to demonstrate how the overly simplified treatment of a complex behavior can lead to invalid conclusions. PMID:2400025

  8. Survey of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding reproductive health among urban men in China: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Gong, Rui-Long; Han, Qing-Rong; Shi, Yu-Qin; Jia, Quan-An; Xu, Shan-Dan; Wang, Le-Qun; Zhu, Chang-Cai

    2015-01-01

    There has been little focus on men's reproductive health (RH) in China. This descriptive study conducted in Yiling District, Yichang, China, surveyed male knowledge of sexual physiology and RH to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 3933 men, aged 18-59 years (mean, 40.3 years), were recruited by cluster random sampling. They completed a questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, with items related to subject characteristics, RH knowledge, and subjective symptoms of the reproductive system. Physical examination and reproductive system disease diagnosis were performed. Participants' occupations were predominantly skilled labor (80.5%). Nearly four-fifths (78.5%) respondents had at least one reproductive disease. Over half of respondents were aware of and declared a positive attitude about sexual physiology and safe sex, and 70% of them selected to visit a doctor when they had a reproductive disorder. However, only 41.9% believed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome could be transmitted through breastfeeding, and 64.6% incorrectly thought they could avoid contracting STDs by cleaning their genitals after intercourse. In addition, 45% discriminated against and were unwilling to be friends with infected persons. Nearly 45% of those with a reproductive system disorder refused to discuss it with friends or family members. These results indicate that this cohort of Chinese men had a certain degree of KAP about RH, whereas some aspects require further public health education in the general population. It is necessary to disseminate accurate knowledge of STD risk in China based on sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:25532571

  9. Survey of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding reproductive health among urban men in China: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Gong, Rui-Long; Han, Qing-Rong; Shi, Yu-Qin; Jia, Quan-An; Xu, Shan-Dan; Wang, Le-Qun; Zhu, Chang-Cai

    2015-01-01

    There has been little focus on men's reproductive health (RH) in China. This descriptive study conducted in Yiling District, Yichang, China, surveyed male knowledge of sexual physiology and RH to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) regarding prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 3933 men, aged 18–59 years (mean, 40.3 years), were recruited by cluster random sampling. They completed a questionnaire in the presence of an interviewer, with items related to subject characteristics, RH knowledge, and subjective symptoms of the reproductive system. Physical examination and reproductive system disease diagnosis were performed. Participants’ occupations were predominantly skilled labor (80.5%). Nearly four-fifths (78.5%) respondents had at least one reproductive disease. Over half of respondents were aware of and declared a positive attitude about sexual physiology and safe sex, and 70% of them selected to visit a doctor when they had a reproductive disorder. However, only 41.9% believed human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome could be transmitted through breastfeeding, and 64.6% incorrectly thought they could avoid contracting STDs by cleaning their genitals after intercourse. In addition, 45% discriminated against and were unwilling to be friends with infected persons. Nearly 45% of those with a reproductive system disorder refused to discuss it with friends or family members. These results indicate that this cohort of Chinese men had a certain degree of KAP about RH, whereas some aspects require further public health education in the general population. It is necessary to disseminate accurate knowledge of STD risk in China based on sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:25532571

  10. Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexuality with the Aged, Family Members of the Aged, and People Who Work with the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles B.; Catania, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    Conducted and evaluated a sexual psychoeducational intervention with older persons, adult family members of older persons, and staff members of nursing homes. Results indicated significant changes in attitudes toward and knowledge about sexuality and aging and sexual behavior. (Author)

  11. HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge, Attitudes and Treatment Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nureña, César R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sánchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations. PMID:23516536

  12. Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of adolescent swimmers in trinidad and tobago.

    PubMed

    Webb, Marquitta C; Beckford, Safiya E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of "1" and incorrect answers were given a score of "0." For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; "5" was given to the most positive response, and "1" was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316

  13. Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes of Adolescent Swimmers in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Marquitta C.; Beckford, Safiya E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of “1” and incorrect answers were given a score of “0.” For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; “5” was given to the most positive response, and “1” was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316

  14. Sexual function in Britain: findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kirstin R; Mercer, Catherine H; Ploubidis, George B; Jones, Kyle G; Datta, Jessica; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Tanton, Clare; Erens, Bob; Sonnenberg, Pam; Clifton, Soazig; Macdowall, Wendy; Phelps, Andrew; Johnson, Anne M; Wellings, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Despite its importance to sexual health and wellbeing, sexual function is given little attention in sexual health policy. Population-based studies are needed to understand sexual function across the life course. Methods We undertook a probability sample survey (the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles [Natsal-3]) of 15 162 individuals aged 16–74 years who lived in Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales). Interviews were done between Sept 6, 2010, and Aug 31, 2012. We assessed the distribution of sexual function by use of a novel validated measure (the Natsal-SF), which assessed problems with individual sexual response, sexual function in a relationship context, and self-appraisal of sex life (17 items; 16 items per gender). We assess factors associated with low sexual function (defined as the lowest quintile of distribution of Natsal-SF scores) and the distribution of components of the measure. Participants reporting one or more sexual partner in the past year were given a score on the Natsal-SF (11 690 participants). 4122 of these participants were not in a relationship for all of the past year and we employed the full information maximum likelihood method to handle missing data on four relationship items. Findings We obtained data for 4913 men and 6777 women for the Natsal-SF. For men and women, low sexual function was associated with increased age, and, after age-adjustment, with depression (adjusted odds ratio 3·70 [95% CI 2·90–4·72] for men and 4·11 [3·36–5·04] for women) and self-reported poor health status (2·63 [1·73–3·98] and 2·41 [1·72–3·39]). Low sexual function was also associated with experiencing the end of a relationship (1·52 [1·18–1·95] and 1·77 [1·44–2·17]), inability to talk easily about sex with a partner (2·36 [1·94–2·88] and 2·82 [2·28–3·48]), and not being happy in the relationship (2·89 [2·32–3·61] and 4·10 [3·39–4·97]). Associations were also noted with engaging in fewer than four sex acts in the past 4 weeks (3·13 [2·58–3·79] and 3·38 [2·80–4·09]), having had same sex partners (2·28 [1·56–3·35] and 1·60 [1·16–2·20]), paying for sex (in men only; 2·62 [1·46–4·71]), and higher numbers of lifetime sexual partners (in women only; 2·12 [1·68–2·67] for ten or more partners). Low sexual function was also associated with negative sexual health outcomes such as experience of non-volitional sex (1·98 [1·14–3·43] and 2·18 [1·79–2·66]) and STI diagnosis (1·50 [1·06–2·11] and 1·83 [1·35–2·47]). Among individuals reporting sex in the past year, problems with sexual response were common (41·6% of men and 51·2% of women reported one or more problem) but self-reported distress about sex lives was much less common (9·9% and 10·9%). For individuals in a sexual relationship for the past year, 23·4% of men and 27·4% of women reported an imbalance in level of interest in sex between partners, and 18·0% of men and 17·1% of women said that their partner had had sexual difficulties. Most participants who did not have sex in the past year were not dissatisfied, distressed, or avoiding sex because of sexual difficulties. Interpretation Wide variability exists in the distribution of sexual function scores. Low sexual function is associated with negative sexual health outcomes, supporting calls for a greater emphasis on sexual function in sexual health policy and interventions. Funding Grants from the UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust, with support from the Economic and Social Research Council and the Department of Health. PMID:24286787

  15. Sexual attitudes and behaviour of university students at a rural South African University: Results of a Pilot Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heeren, G Anita; Jemmott, John B; Mandeya, Andrew; Tyler, Joanne C

    2013-01-01

    A cross sectional qualitative and quantitative pilot survey, using self administered questionnaire and focus group discussions, was conducted to assess the need for, and feasibility of, a health promotion programme for university students at a South African University. We examined the gender and cultural effects on sexual attitudes and behaviour, as well as condom use. A total of 73 students, age’s between 18 and 30 years, participated in the pilot survey. The results suggest that females compared to the males are more likely to abstain until they find a partner with whom they intend to settle. There was a strong belief that unprotected sex can lead to pregnancy and STIs. Overall participants were not sure if condom use had any negative effects, although female respondents felt that condoms affect the pleasure of sexual intercourse. The results suggest that there is a clear need for health promotion programmes aimed at young adults, who attend university. The programme would need to aim at improving general health knowledge, targeting health promotion and sexual risk behaviour among university students. Such a programme would have to consider gender, socio-economic circumstances as well as national and cultural background of the target population. PMID:24634577

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among male high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic

    PubMed Central

    Thanavanh, Bounbouly; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.1–9.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.5–27.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.9–8.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.6–6.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky practices were also present. Educational programmes with specific interventions are recommended to increase KAPs and to prevent new HIV infections among students in Lao PDR. PMID:23481130

  17. Hatching Babies and Stork Deliveries: Risk and Regulation in the Construction of Children's Sexual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Cristyn; Robinson, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Children's access to sexual knowledge has always been considered "risky" and controversial due to the fraught relationship between childhood and sexuality. Based on focus groups with children and their parents, the authors explore the relationship between risk and regulation associated with providing children with accurate knowledge about…

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening in indigenous populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kolahdooz, Fariba; Jang, Se Lim; Corriveau, André; Gotay, Carolyn; Johnston, Nora; Sharma, Sangita

    2014-10-01

    Cancer mortality among indigenous peoples is increasing, but these populations commonly under use cancer-screening services. This systematic review explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening among indigenous peoples worldwide. Searches of major bibliographic databases identified primary studies published in English up to March, 2014; of 33 eligible studies, three were cohort studies, 27 cross-sectional, and three case-control. Knowledge of and participation in screening was greater for breast cancer than for other cancers. Indigenous peoples tended to have less knowledge, less favourable attitudes, and a higher propensity to refuse screening than non-indigenous populations. The most common factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening included access to screening, knowledge about cancer and screening, educational attainment, perceived necessity of screening, and age. Greater understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours towards cancer screening in diverse indigenous cultures is needed so that culturally appropriate cancer prevention programmes can be provided. PMID:25281469

  19. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Ear Care in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathi, Keerthan; Kanthila, Jayashree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ear as an organ is necessary for the perception of sound and body balance. Ear infection, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and excessive use of mobile phone for listening to music at high volume all can reduce hearing. No earlier study was available in the costal Karnataka population, regarding the practice of ear care. The study objective was to ascertain the level of knowledge of the community regarding ear care, to find out whether some of the common conditions affecting hearing are known and to find out the common practices involved in maintaining ear hygiene. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 subjects in two tertiary care hospitals by convenient sampling, using self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice across the age groups, religion & education background were studied. Results Across different education groups, 66.7%-90% did not know that ‘cold’ can cause ear infection and 46.7%-75.0% did not know that diabetes and hypertension can reduce hearing. When there is ear pain or discharge, people put ear drops available at home in 48.3%-75.0% across 3 age groups; 58.5%-61.5% across 3 religions and 44.8%-67.9% across 5 education groups. No statistically significant difference was found in the practice of pouring oil into ears across religions. A total of 58.6%-100% daily clean inside the ear and 70-100% use cotton buds. Conclusion General perception of the people is that ear is necessary only for hearing. Majority did not know that nasal infection can affect the ear and that DM and hypertension can cause hearing loss. When there is ear pain and discharge, most of the adults put drops that are available at home. Pouring oil into the ears and cleaning inside the ear canals is routinely practiced in costal Karnataka. PMID:26816922

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.

    PubMed

    Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

    2013-07-01

    The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P < 0.05) relationship between the level of education attainments and training in BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

  1. Physicians' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Moossavi, Shirin; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Mojarrad, Asal; Merat, Dorsa; Ansari, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Merat, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-07-01

    BACKGROUND Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is employed to replace the 'unhealthy' microbiota of the patient with the 'healthy' microbiota of a pre-screened healthy donor. Given the growing importance of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of intestinal or extraintestinal diseases; it is conceivable that FMT becomes integrated in the routine clinical practice. Our objective was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the Iranian physicians towards FMT. METHODS We surveyed the participants of Iranian gastroenterology and hepatology 2014 conference. RESULTS Overall, 146 (68.5%) were familiar with FMT; of whom 132 (94.28%) were willing to accept FMT if scientifically and ethically approved and 115 (88.46%) were willing to refer their patients for FMT if indicated. In total, 42 (30.7%) had identified stool preparation as the most unappealing aspect of FMT, while 17 (11.6%) reported the therapeutic use of fecal material as the most unappealing and 39 (28.5%) indicated that both are equally unappealing. The doctors who had an overall positive opinion toward FMT reported less negative feelings towards FMT. CONCLUSION Iranian physicians are willing to accept FMT as a therapeutic option if it is scientifically justified and ethically approved. Nevertheless, physicians prefer to skip the stool preparation phase; as they are more in favour of synthetic microbiota as opposed to fecal microbiota. PMID:26396717

  2. Physicians’ Knowledge and Attitude Towards Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moossavi, Shirin; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Mojarrad, Asal; Merat, Dorsa; Ansari, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Merat, Shahin; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is employed to replace the ‘unhealthy’ microbiota of the patient with the ‘healthy’ microbiota of a pre-screened healthy donor. Given the growing importance of gut microbiota dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of intestinal or extraintestinal diseases; it is conceivable that FMT becomes integrated in the routine clinical practice. Our objective was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the Iranian physicians towards FMT. METHODS We surveyed the participants of Iranian gastroenterology and hepatology 2014 conference. RESULTS Overall, 146 (68.5%) were familiar with FMT; of whom 132 (94.28%) were willing to accept FMT if scientifically and ethically approved and 115 (88.46%) were willing to refer their patients for FMT if indicated. In total, 42 (30.7%) had identified stool preparation as the most unappealing aspect of FMT, while 17 (11.6%) reported the therapeutic use of fecal material as the most unappealing and 39 (28.5%) indicated that both are equally unappealing. The doctors who had an overall positive opinion toward FMT reported less negative feelings towards FMT. CONCLUSION Iranian physicians are willing to accept FMT as a therapeutic option if it is scientifically justified and ethically approved. Nevertheless, physicians prefer to skip the stool preparation phase; as they are more in favour of synthetic microbiota as opposed to fecal microbiota. PMID:26396717

  3. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-10-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about contraception amongst schoolgirls aged 12–14 years in two schools in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality, Eastern Cape

    PubMed Central

    Mda, Pamela; Yogeswaran, Parimalarani; Wright, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have their sexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite widespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents. Objectives This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices about contraception amongst 12–14 year old unmarried schoolgirls with a view to inform planning of programmes to assist in reducing teenage pregnancies. Methods A qualitative study design with purposive sampling was used to select participants from two government-run schools in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted after obtaining written consent from parents and assent from participants. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, translated and analysed thematically. Findings Participants reported that young adolescents were sexually active, which included high-risk sexual behaviour such as multiple partners and casual and transactional sex. Knowledge about contraceptives varied widely. Condoms were the most preferred method of contraception, but it is unknown whether they ever used condoms as they professed to talk about the behaviour of others rather than themselves. Injectable contraceptives were believed to have long-term negative effects. Common sources of contraceptive information were friends or peers, school curriculum and to a lesser extent family members. Conclusions Findings of the study suggest that young adolescents are sexually active and have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about contraception. These findings should inform educational programmes about risks of early sexual activity and about contraception.

  5. Service Learning With a Geriatric Population: Changing Attitudes and Improving Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Beauvais, Audrey; Foito, Kim; Pearlin, Nina; Yost, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Relatively few nursing students choose to specialize in geriatric nursing. While increased clinical exposure and improved knowledge of the elderly have been proposed to manage this staffing dilemma, successful strategies have not been identified. This study examined nursing students' attitudes and knowledge about the elderly, before and after service learning experiences in Senior Citizen Centers. Through these interventions, students had significantly improved attitudes and knowledge about the elderly. PMID:25997154

  6. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: the role of insecurity and benevolent sexism

    PubMed Central

    Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G. T.; Helbling, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals’ sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile—as measured with benevolent sexism items—related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions—that is, more positive attitudes—among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters. PMID:26283985

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of a Coeducational Sexual Assault Prevention Program on College Students' Rape Myth Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…

  8. Evaluation of the Impact of a Coeducational Sexual Assault Prevention Program on College Students' Rape Myth Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…

  9. The Relationship between Religiosity and Attitudes of Nurses Aides toward Sexual Expression by Older Adults in Nursing Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert T.; Courtenay, Bradley C.

    Systematic research on attitudes of nursing home staff toward the sexual expression of older residents is sparse and of recent origin. In order to determine the relationship between the degree of religiosity (religious commitment) of nursing home aides and their degree of tolerance concerning sexuality and aging, female nursing assistants (N=101)…

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital, southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy. PMID:22410271

  11. Sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use among male trekking guides in Nepal: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Simkhada, Padam; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Regmi, Pramod R; Bhatta, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    People in Nepal generally hold fairly traditional views about sex and sexual health, whilst Western tourists often have a more liberal approach towards sex and relationships. There is evidence that significant sexual interaction occurs between male trekking guides and female travellers and/or local female sex workers in Nepal. This qualitative study explored trekking guides' sexual health knowledge, sexual relationships and condom use with female trekkers and local female sex workers. A total of 21 in-depth interviews were conducted with male trekking guides. Most reported having had sexual relationships with female trekkers and local female sex workers. Explanations for intercourse with female trekkers included: financial support; getting future trekkers through word-of-mouth advertising from the women they have had sex with; and opportunities for emigration. Interestingly, sexual intercourse is reported as more likely to be initiated by female trekkers than by guides, and more so by older women. In contrast, the main reasons for having sex with local female sex workers included: romantic love or sexual excitement and novelty. Awareness regarding sexual health was high among guides, but several factors discouraged the regular use of condoms. Further research with female tourists would help understand the motivations and reasons for their sexual behaviour. PMID:19813118

  12. [Sexual minorities: Concepts, attitudes and structure for an appropriate psychotherapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J; Montoro, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a theoretical model and clinical approach to sexual minority patients who consult mental health professionalsMethods Clinicians at the McGill University Sexual Identity Center (MUSIC) who have been treating patients from various sexual minorities for more than 15 years present useful theoretical constructs of gender and sexuality as well as guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients consulting for discomfort or confusion surrounding their sexual orientation, their gender identity or both, based on both the current literature and their clinical experience.Results The notions of non-binary construction of gender, of social determinism of gender roles and expression, and of gender creativity are presented. Sexual orientation is divided into four most commonly used dimensions (emotional attraction, physical attraction, behaviour and identity); the fluidity of these and their potential non-concordance are described. The fact that attraction to one gender is independent of attraction to another gender is highlighted. An attitude of openness to all forms of gender expression and sexual orientation constellations is encouraged to allow the patient free exploration of the several facets of their sexuality.Various domains to explore in evaluating sexual orientation and gender as well as therapeutic avenues are proposed. Areas to enquire about include: mental, physical and social experiences of gender, eroticism and sexual fantasies towards all genders, emotional attraction towards them, sexual and romantic experiences, comfort and certainty about one's identity and about disclosing it.Psychoeducation can be used to teach about sexual diversity and to assess the risks and benefits of coming out to self, family, friends, co-workers or strangers. Cognitive strategies can be undertaken to debunk homophobic and transphobic myths which may fuel poor self-esteem. Psychodynamic approaches can be used to heal the narcissistic wounds of homophobia that may lead one to be mistrustful of authority figures or to suppress sexual feelings when emotional attachment becomes important. Some of these dynamic patterns are rooted in past reactions to parental homophobia and the compromises sexual minorities made as children in order to preserve their relationships with their parents. For youth coming out in present times, family support is crucial to well-being and can be enhanced through family therapy. In mixed orientation couples, couple therapy can help both spouses adapt to the coming out of one of the partners and find a new partnership. Group therapy is useful for many of the above issues particularly as it provides a sense of community which is often lacking in minority groups, especially when individuals and their families do not share the same minority status.Conclusion With the proposed framework and an attitude of openness to sexual diversity, clinicians should feel competent to treat sexual minority patients. PMID:26966846

  13. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Gerontological Work Preferences among Students of Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monk, Abraham; Kaye, Lenard W.

    Attitudes toward aging among 142 full-time students and 216 graduates at three urban campuses of a religious college were assessed. Respondent subgroups included rabbis, educators, cantors, and communal service workers. Social attitudes were measured by the Aging Semantic Differential (Rosencranz and McNevin, 1969). Respondents rated 32 dimensions…

  14. Attitude and knowledge of hearing loss among medical doctors selected to initiate a residency in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J

    2009-03-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results. PMID:19283581

  15. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years. PMID:24083275

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Madani, Abdolhossein; Omidi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in many countries. The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations are key factors in decreasing traffic injuries and deaths. The objectives of this research were to study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran, and to determine the relationships between demographic features and knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in 2014 in Bandar-Abbas, Iran (Hormozgan Province). To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of 241 intra-city taxi drivers towards traffic regulations, researchers developed questionnaires and a checklist. The chi-squared test was performed to determine the relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations and demographic features. Results Among the 241 drivers, 50 of them (20.7%) thought that the seat belt could cause discomfort while driving, and 107 (44.4%) did not wear a seat belt while driving. The study determined that there was a significant difference between the knowledge and work experience of the drivers (p = 0.014). The 94 drivers (43.5%) in the 31–40 year age group had positive attitudes towards traffic regulations (among 216 drivers expressed positive attitudes) and 92 (44.4%) of the drivers in this age group had safe practices towards traffic regulations (among 207 drivers with safe practice). Conclusion Many of the taxi drivers in Bandar-Abbas had inadequate knowledge, less positive attitudes, and risky practices towards traffic regulations. Implementation of effective intervention programs may increase the taxi drivers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards traffic regulations. PMID:26813231

  17. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shikwane, Molatelo Elisa; Villar-Loubet, Olga M.; Weiss, Stephen M.; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    Partner involvement has been deemed fundamental for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV, although it remains difficult to achieve. This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviours of pregnant women and their partners who participated in a behavioural risk reduction intervention in six community health centres in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. Qualitative methods only were used in this study. Women and their partners took part in four gender-concordant groups that addressed HIV, PMTCT, disclosure of HIV status and safer sex practices. The results indicate that men value and understand the importance of being involved in women's reproductive health, although some components of the PMTCT programme such as condom use were still met with some resistance. Participants demonstrated high levels of HIV- and sexually transmitted infection-related knowledge. Men lacked knowledge about PMTCT but were interested in acquiring information so that they could support their partners. All groups highlighted the emotional and physical benefits of disclosing one's HIV status. The involvement of men in antenatal care has the potential to prevent women from becoming infected with HIV both during pregnancy and post-partum when they are more vulnerable to infection and have a high risk of transmission to the infant. There is a need for interventions that focus on both increasing male involvement and promoting condom use during pregnancy. PMID:24405286

  18. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  19. Boosting Students' Attitudes & Knowledge about Evolution Sets Them up for College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…

  20. Adolescent Co-Occurring Disorders Treatment: Clinicians' Attitudes, Values, and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denby, Ramona W.; Brinson, Jesse A.; Ayala, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    This study examined community-based clinicians' (N = 294) attitudes, background/experiences, values, and knowledge relating to issues of co-occurring disorders, which occur at a high rate among adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system. Study results reveal that clinicians self-rate their clinical values and attitudes at or above the…

  1. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  2. Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen

    2005-01-01

    Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…

  3. Development of Positive Racial Attitudes, Knowledges, and Activities in Pre-Service Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Lamb, Morris L.

    Information on aspects of social studies teachers' racial attitudes, knowledges, and skill in implementing relevant ethnic-racial activities in the classroom are presented. Major research studies that have examined teacher attitudes toward black and other minority group children are discussed along with information on programs that have attempted…

  4. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  5. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  6. A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

  7. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  8. Reviewing the Relations between Teachers' Knowledge and Pupils' Attitude in the Field of Primary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…

  9. Reviewing the Relations between Teachers' Knowledge and Pupils' Attitude in the Field of Primary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.

    2010-01-01

    This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practice toward cervical cancer screening among Sikkimese nursing staff in India

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hafizur; Kar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess baseline knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear screening among Sikkimese staff nurses in India. Materials and Methods: Between April 2012 and February 2013, a predesigned, pretested, self -administered multiple responses questionnaire survey was conducted among staff nurses’ working in various hospitals of Sikkim. Questionnaire contained information about their demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening methods, attitudes toward cervical cancer screening and practice of Pap smear amongst themselves. Results: Overall, 90.4% nurses responded that they were aware of cancer cervix. Three quarter of the staff nurses were not aware of commonest site being cancer cervix in women. Of the 320 participants, who had heard of cancer cervix, 253 (79.1%) were aware of cancer cervix screening. Pap smear screening should start at 21 years or 3 years after sexual debut was known to only one-third of the nursing staff. Age was found to be a significant predictor of awareness of Pap smear screening among nursing staff. Awareness was significantly more prevalent among older staff (P < 0.007). Married nursing staffs were significantly more likely to be aware of screening methods, and nursing staff of Christian and Buddhist religion were 1.25 times and 2.03 times more likely to aware of screening methods than Hindu religion respectively. Only 16.6% nurses, who were aware of a Pap smear (11.9% of the total sample), had ever undergone a Pap smear test. Most common reason offered for not undergoing Pap smear test were, they felt they were not at risk (41%), uncomfortable pelvic examination (25%) and fear of a bad result (16.6%). Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear was low among Sikkimese nursing staff in India. There is an urgent need for re-orientation course for working nurses and integration of cervical cancer prevention issues in the nurses’ existing curriculum in India and other developing countries. PMID:26157287

  11. Have You Heard of Schistosomiasis? Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Nampula Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Rassi, Christian; Kajungu, Dan; Martin, Sandrine; Arroz, Jorge; Tallant, Jamie; Zegers de Beyl, Celine; Counihan, Helen; Newell, James N.; Phillips, Anna; Whitton, Jane; Muloliwa, Artur Manuel; Graham, Kirstie

    2016-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease which affects almost 300 million people worldwide each year. It is highly endemic in Mozambique. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis relies mainly on mass drug administration (MDA), as well as adoption of basic sanitation practices. Individual and community perceptions of schistosomiasis are likely to have a significant effect on prevention and control efforts. In order to establish a baseline to evaluate a community engagement intervention with a focus on schistosomiasis, a survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to the disease was conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings A representative cross-sectional household survey was carried out in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted in a total of 791 households, using a structured questionnaire. While awareness of schistosomiasis was high (91%), correct knowledge of how it is acquired (18%), transmitted (26%) and prevented (13%) was low among those who had heard of the disease. Misconceptions, such as the belief that schistosomiasis is transmitted through sexual contact (27%), were common. Only about a third of those who were aware of the disease stated that they practiced a protective behaviour and only a minority of those (39%) reported an effective behaviour. Despite several rounds of MDA for schistosomiasis in the recent past, only a small minority of households with children reported that at least one of them had received a drug to treat the disease (9%). Conclusion/Significance Poor knowledge of the causes of schistosomiasis and how to prevent it, coupled with persisting misconceptions, continue to pose barriers to effective disease prevention and control. To achieve high levels of uptake of MDA and adoption of protective behaviours, it will be essential to engage individuals and communities, improving their understanding of the causes and symptoms of schistosomiasis, recommended prevention mechanisms and the rationale behind MDA. PMID:26942416

  12. Human papillomavirus vaccine uptake, knowledge and attitude among 10th grade students in Berlin, Germany, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stöcker, Petra; Dehnert, Manuel; Schuster, Melanie; Wichmann, Ole; Deleré, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Since March 2007, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends HPV vaccination for all 12–17 y-old females in Germany. In the absence of an immunization register, we aimed at assessing HPV-vaccination coverage and knowledge among students in Berlin, the largest city in Germany, to identify factors influencing HPV-vaccine uptake. Results: Between September and December 2010, 442 students completed the questionnaire (mean age 15.1; range 14–19). In total 281/442 (63.6%) students specified HPV correctly as a sexually transmitted infection. Of 238 participating girls, 161 (67.6%) provided their vaccination records. Among these, 66 (41.0%) had received the recommended three HPV-vaccine doses. Reasons for being HPV-unvaccinated were reported by 65 girls: Dissuasion from parents (40.2%), dissuasion from their physician (18.5%), and concerns about side-effects (30.8%) (multiple choices possible). The odds of being vaccinated increased with age (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.19, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.16, 4.15) and decreased with negative attitude toward vaccinations (OR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.13, 0.84). Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 10th grade school students in 14 participating schools in Berlin to assess socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and statements on vaccinations. Vaccination records were reviewed. Multivariable statistical methods were applied to identify independent predictors for HPV-vaccine uptake among female participants. Conclusions: HPV-vaccine uptake was low among school girls in Berlin. Both, physicians and parents were influential regarding their HPV-vaccination decision even though personal perceptions played an important role as well. School programs could be beneficial to improve knowledge related to HPV and vaccines, and to offer low-barrier access to HPV vaccination. PMID:22995838

  13. Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Medical Professionalism among Students and Junior Doctors in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688

  14. Public Knowledge of and Attitudes to Science: Alternative Measures That May End the "Science War".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Martin W.; Petkova, Kristina; Boyadjieva, Pepka

    2000-01-01

    Argues that research on the public understanding of science has measured knowledge as acquaintance with scientific facts and methods, and attitudes as evaluations of societal consequences of science and technology. (Author/CCM)

  15. Twelfth Grade Student Knowledge and Attitudes toward the Environment in the Dominican Republic: An Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert E.; Perez, Julio

    1989-01-01

    Reported is an assessment of secondary school pupils regarding their attitudes about and knowledge of environmental issues. It was found that gender was a significant variable and that poverty and deforestation were ranked as the most critical environmental problems. (CW)

  16. Research in music therapy: a survey of music therapists' attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, M J; Gilbert, J P

    1980-01-01

    To examine attitudes toward and knowledge of research in music therapy, a three-part survey was administered to 150 randomly selected music therapists, with complete surveys returned by 66 respondents. The survey consisted of a cover page gathering background information, a series of 20 statements assessing attitudes toward music therapy research, and 25 true-false questions examining subjects' knowledge of research terminology and methodology. Analysis of survey responses indicated a generally positive attitude toward research, but dissatisfaction with the current status of research in the field. No relationship was found between research attitudes and research knowledge, and no significant effects on research knowledge were discerned for education, present position, or research background. Results of this study are discussed in terms of implications and issues to be addressed by academicians, clinicians, and researchers in music therapy. PMID:10249782

  17. Computer thought: propositional attitudes and meta-knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.

  18. Knowledge and Attitude about Andropause Among General Physicians in Shiraz, Iran 2014

    PubMed Central

    Abootalebi, Maliheh; Kargar, Marzieh; Jahanbin, Iran; Sharifi, Alireza Amin; Sharafi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Andropause in men refers to the clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advanced age and characterized by a deficiency in serum testosterone levels. With the increase in aging male population and life span in Iran and focus on quality of life, andropause will become a major health issue that needs to be addressed in order to prevent disability. The results of some research have shown that there is still low level of knowledge and attitude toward andropause among health professionals. This study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians regarding andropause in 2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 402 general physicians in Shiraz. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed for assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians about andropause. SPSS 18 was used to analyze the data, and descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were applied for data analysis. Results: The mean score of knowledge and attitude about andropause was 29.4 out of 76 and 35.1 out of 45, respectively. The findings showed a poor level of knowledge and positive attitude toward andropause among general physicians. There was a significant relationship between occupational status and knowledge about andropause (P<0.001). There was a statistically significant relationship between attitude and demographic characteristics (P<0.05). The correlation between knowledge and attitude toward andropause was not statistically significant (P=0.548). Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the need for designing educational interventions to improve the knowledge and attitude of andropause among general physicians. PMID:26793728

  19. Feeling good in your own skin: the influence of complimentary sexual stereotypes on risky sexual attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of African American women.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Jamieson L; Oser, Carrie B; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R; Leukefeld, Carl G

    2013-01-01

    Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project. Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women's endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants' endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p < .01) and that they could use drugs and always make healthy choices about using protection (B = .31, SE = .09, p < .01). Significant positive associations were also found between complimentary sexual stereotypes and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) as well as their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p < .05). These findings suggest that endorsement of complimentary sexual stereotypes by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23421336

  20. HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Activity: An Examination of Racial Differences in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Kilbourne, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The threat of HIV/AIDS to African American's health has become the focus of much concern. This study investigated the potential differences between African Americans' and white college students' current and future sexual behaviors and safer sex behaviors with HIV/AIDS awareness, condom use self-efficacy, and safer sex attitudes. A convenience…