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This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…
Studies family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in student and adolescent factory workers. Finds female workers at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes included age, schooling…
Little is known about younger adults’ attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging SexualityKnowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care educators, and physicians. There is a dearth of literature on the knowledge about and
As part of a pretest-posttest design to evaluate a 15-hour Health Belief Model (HBM)-based sex education program, we interviewed 203 teenagers (aged 13-17) of both genders regarding their preintervention sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes toward pregnancy and con traception, and prior sex education and sexual activity experiences. A multiitem sexual and contraceptive knowledge measure yielded several specific topic area scales
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexualknowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
Researchers conducted a survey of 199 students enrolled 2 public high schools in Alberta in Canada to learn of their knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and knowledge, attitude, and behaviors about condoms and their use. 41% were sexually active. 41% of these students did not or rarely used condoms. 44% had =or+ 3 partners. 61% of those with =or+ 3 partners used condoms and 56% with 1 partner used them. Knowledge of STDs and condom use stood high regardless of sex or sexual activity. 93% of the boys, 80% of the girls, 88% of sexually active and 87% of nonsexually active students stated it was their responsibility to carry condoms if they are sexually active. Moreover 96% of the boys, 78% of the girls, 81% of sexually active and 91% of nonsexually active students said they would use a condom during sexual intercourse. Nevertheless males and sexually active students did express some negative attitudes towards condoms, such as reduce sensation and interference with sexual spontaneity. Nonsexually active students tended to view condom use as a negative stigma (p.05). Most students claimed to be more likely to buy condoms from condom vending machines in the rest rooms than from stores (p.05). Sexual partners had the largest influence on students, especially sexually active students, to have or not have sexual intercourse followed by concerns about STDs, friends, and family. Further, the large majority of all students, especially females and sexually active students, said they would choose their sexual partner carefully because of the concern for AIDS and other STDs. They also tended to be monogamous and avoided high risk groups. In conclusion, no reliable differences occurred between attitudes towards condoms and use or nonuse of condoms to explain behavior. Future studies should be designed to center on factors that influence sexual behavior. PMID:1892493
Varnhagen, C K; Svenson, L W; Godin, A M; Johnson, L; Salmon, T
This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. PMID:19066235
Results from a sample of 160 medical and 79 law students revealed that medical students know less about sex and hold less tolerant views towards others' sexual behavior. Evidence of a double standard was not found, but the data reinforce the need for medical sex education to equip doctors with both knowledge and a tolerant attitude. (Author/LBH)
This study evaluated a CD-ROM educational program in sexual violence prevention for middle school students. A randomized control-group pretest-posttest design was used. Seventy-nine students were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n = 39) or control (n = 40) group. The experimental group watched the CD-ROM, whereas the control group did not. Both groups were pretested for the levels of knowledge and attitude about sexual violence prevention prior to intervention. A CD-ROM titled Educational Program for the Prevention of Sexual Violence was used for the intervention. The instrument contains 32 true-false items that measure knowledge level and 20 items comprising a four-point Likert-type scale that measure the attitude to sexual violence. There was a significant increase in knowledge in the experimental group, while no differences on attitude were found between the experimental and control groups. A CD-ROM-based program can be effective for delivering instructions on sexual violence prevention in the classroom. PMID:16027537
The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of the semester, but the students enrolled
Ramona M. Noland; Martha A. Bass; Rosanne S. Keathley; Rowland Miller
Sexual abuse has been considered a public health issue because of the various health implications resulting from it. The school nurse has a responsibility in assisting the high school girl to prevent victimization. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design in which a sexual abuse prevention education package was developed and used to educate high school girls in a selected school in Nigeria. Evaluation of the impact of the package revealed a significant increase in the knowledge mean scores of the girls at first postintervention stage and this increase was maintained at second postintervention stage. No significant shift was observed for the attitude of the girls. Education is a significant tool that could be used in improving the knowledge of sexual abuse prevention among high school girls, but attitude supporting sexual abuse prevention can only be improved when myths of sexual abuse are corrected in the larger society. PMID:22645094
Objectives This study explored sexualknowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexualknowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexualknowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children.
Background As communities face serious pressures on traditional values, such as those posed by HIV infection, cultural inertia may result, whereby existing trends towards more liberalized views of sexuality are stalled. We examined changes in attitudes around HIV in Bagalkot district, south India, between 2003 and 2009. Methods General population surveys were conducted in 2003 and 2009, among approximately 6,600 randomly sampled men and women in 10 villages and 20 urban blocks of Bagalkot. Questions about HIV knowledge, sexuality, gender and condoms were included. We compared responses in the two surveys using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Awareness of HIV increased significantly from 76.9% in 2003 to 87.8% in 2009, and condom awareness increased significantly (37.4% to 65.4%) in all groups studied. However, in 2009, only 23% of people mentioned condoms as a means of prevention, an improvement from 8% in 2003 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.3; 95%CI 2.6-4.1, p <0.001). There was a significant increase in the number of women believing sex workers should be compulsorily tested for HIV (76.3%-86.4%%, AOR 1.8; 95%CI 1.4-2.4, p<0.001). An increasing number agreed that “it is wrong to talk about sex” (p=0.05), especially women (21.9% vs. 32.4%, p<0.01). There was an increase in women who thought it “wrong to talk about AIDS in a respectable family”, and more respondents in 2009 thought it improper to discuss condoms (15.6% vs. 27.4%, AOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, p=0.001). In 2003, 31.4% agreed that “access to condoms promotes promiscuity”, increasing to 45.2% in 2009 (AOR 1.7; 95%CI 1.3-2.3, p<0.001). Educated and young urban women were the most likely to believe this. In 2003, 19.3% and in 2009 30.2% (AOR 1.8, 95%CI 1.4-2.3, p<0.001) thought that sex education promotes sexual activity and promiscuity. Conclusions Despite increases over time in HIV-related knowledge and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes, resistance to changing cultural mores was apparent, with less willingness to embrace openness and discuss sexuality. Young and female respondents appeared to be the most resistant to change, reflecting a cultural inertia that mirrors studies of other pressures on traditional societal values. More effort is required to advocate among women and young people for healthy sexuality, openness and safe sex practices.
Purpose. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship of counselor sex guilt to sex knowledge, sex attitudes, and level of facilitativeness towards the sexual concerns of adolescents.Method. Eighty-six volunteer subjects who had completed a minimum of a master's level practicum in Counseling Psychology were administered the Mosher Forced-Choice Guilt Inventory-Sex Guilt Scale and the Sex Attitude and
This study investigated the sexualattitudes of college students at a western Kansas university. The independent variables employed were gender, family structure, family sex communication, age, and classification. The dependent variables were the following subscales of sexualattitudes: permissiveness, sex practices, communion, and…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether religiosity, spirituality, and sexualattitudes accounted for differences in sexual behaviors among college students. The sample included 960 college students enrolled at four northeastern colleges. Results indicated differences in sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality by gender. Moreover, sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were associated with sexual behaviors among college students. Sexual behaviors among males were influenced by their sexualattitudes, religiosity, and spirituality, while for females, their sexual behaviors were mostly influenced by their sexualattitudes. College health professionals can use these findings when discussing sexual practices with students. PMID:21822743
Luquis, Raffy R; Brelsford, Gina M; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
A testing of 159 first-year medical students who took a spaced sex education course (requiring student participation in a weekly lecture, film, and group discussion) showed significant changes in cognitive knowledge as well as attitudinal tolerance of others but no changes in styles of thinking. Results are related to earlier studies. (JT)
At the University of Maryland, 758 randomly selected incoming freshman students were administered an anonymous poll regarding their sexualattitudes and behavior. Results showed that the Maryland freshman generally resembled other U.S. college students in their sexual experience. Approximately half (52% of males, 46% of females) reported that they…
Abstract Background: Adolescents are at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). However, little is known about differences in knowledge and risk behaviors across nationalities. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the knowledge and perceptions of STDs and the sexual risk behaviors in Latino adolescents in the United States (US) and the Dominican Republic (DR). Methods: A survey was administered to 364 high school students after obtaining parental consent. The questionnaire asked about demographics, sources of STD information, risk behaviors, and knowledge of syphilis, gonorrhea, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mean percentage scores were calculated to compare correct responses by nationality, gender, and sexual activity. Predictors of self-reported high risk sexual behavior were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: In all, 242 (66%) US and 122 (34%) DR students were interviewed. Of these, 52% were males. Median age was 15 years (range, 13-18). Sexual activity was reported by 40% of the participants and did not differ by gender (p=0.43) or national origin (p=0.53), although it was greater for adolescents older than 15 years of age (60% vs. 35%, p<0.001). US students identified abstinence as an effective STD prevention method more often than their counterparts (p=<0.001). Knowledge of specific STDs was higher in girls (p=0.002) and Dominicans (p=0.003). Predictors of high risk behavior were male gender (ORsexually active (ORSexual activity at an early age was prevalent, and knowledge of STDs low in these two groups of high school students. Males and sexually active individuals were more likely to engage in high risk behaviors. Girls and Dominican students exhibited greater knowledge of specific STDs. PMID:24491947
To determine attitudes and knowledge of AIDS, a survey was conducted among students at the Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar, Ethiopia. One hundred sixty four new incoming students (115 males, 49 females) in all departments in 1990-91 academic year provided information. The results reveal that 40% of the students have experienced sexual intercourse. Their knowledge of AIDS was adequate and comparable with other college and high school students, but the majority of those who practice sex do not use condoms and a fifth have had a sexual contact with a high risk individual. PMID:8287857
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
The association among sexual daydreaming and sexualattitudes and activity was examined in a cross-sectional life-span sample of women (N = 117, 26 to 78 years). Sexual daydreaming was measured using the Imaginal Processes Inventory (IPI) while sexual history measures of sexual activity, sexual drive, and sexualattitudes were derived from a comprehensive personal interview. A factor analysis and varimax
Frances E. Purifoy; Alicia Grodsky; Leonard M. Giambra
Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This training will equip them with self-confidence and interactive teaching skills, including tactics for emphasizing building students' skills through role plays and interactive assignments. In addition, the HIV interventions themselves should include interactive virtual condom use demonstrations that can be accessed by students themselves. PMID:23569630
Sexual minority youth (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning youth) must function in a society that condones homophobia. Rendered invisible through the stigma attached to their identification as sexual minorities, they are conveniently forgotten by the institutions charged with facilitating their education. Results from a research study conducted by Sears (1991), indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be
Background Sexual and reproductive health (SRH), a basic right for women worldwide, is infrequently researched in countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). No empirical studies of SRH among Saudi women exist. This protocol describes a study to explore the SRH knowledge, information-seeking behaviour and attitudes of Saudi female university students. Methods/Design This study will administer a questionnaire survey to female students at 13 universities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was developed following a literature search to identify relevant content, with psychometrically tested tools used when available. The content layout and the wording and order of the questions were designed to minimize the risk of bias. The questionnaire has been translated into Arabic and piloted in preparation for administration to the study sample. Ethical approval for the study has been granted (reference no. QMREC2012/54). After questionnaire administration, the data will be collated, analysed and reported anonymously. The findings will be published in compliance with reporting guidelines for survey research. Discussion This study will be the first to provide fundamental information concerning Saudi females university students SRH knowledge and information needs.
Recent research on the impact of religiosity on sexuality has highlighted the role of the individual, and suggests that the effects of religious group and sexualattitudes and fantasy may be mediated through individual differences in spirituality. The present study investigated the role of religion in an ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 1413, 69% women) using religious group as well as several religiosity domains: spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and fundamentalism. Differences between religious groups in conservative sexualattitudes were statistically significant but small; as predicted, spirituality mediated these effects. In contrast to the weak effects of religious group, spirituality, intrinsic religiosity, and fundamentalism were strong predictors of women's conservative sexualattitudes; for men, intrinsic religiosity predicted sexualattitude conservatism but spirituality predicted attitudinal liberalism. For women, both religious group and religiosity domains were significant predictors of frequency of sexual fantasies while, for men, only religiosity domains were significant predictors. These results indicate that individual differences in religiosity domains were better predictors of sexualattitudes and fantasy than religious group and that these associations are moderated by gender. PMID:20364304
Ahrold, Tierney K; Farmer, Melissa; Trapnell, Paul D; Meston, Cindy M
This study examined whether human sexuality and general health courses were negatively affecting college students'"moral fiber," hypothesizing that there would be no differences in sexualattitudes and behaviors before and after taking the courses. Questionnaires indicated the only change was that students had more positive safer sex behaviors…
Previous research provides varying results in the effects of sex education. While the goal of sex education is to educate and therefore protect oneself from high-risk sexual behaviors, research suggests support that knowledge and attitudes do not always comply with behavior. The purpose of this study is to test college students' knowledge about sexual topics, their attitudes toward condom use,
Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…
Sexual socialization refers to how, through social interaction, an individual acquires and internalizes culture-specific knowledge, values and attitudes about sexuality. Little, however, is known about how an individual's genetic characteristics modify this process, or if individuals gravitate towards specific environments according to their genetic characteristics. The aim was to explore whether adolescents' genetic predispositions modify environmental influences on peer-group sexual
Minja Westerlund; Pekka Santtila; Ada Johansson; Patrick Jern; N. Kenneth Sandnabba
The problem of teenage pregnancy continues to impact private and public resources, affecting all socioeconomic and cultural groups. A key factor for nurse practitioners to consider when planning sex education programs is the differing parental attitudes toward teenage sexuality. These attitudes are especially important to keep in mind when dealing with parents from minority cultural groups, as these groups are often highly influential in determining the nature of adolescent sexual behavior and attitudes toward reproduction. A study of Cuban and Haitian child-rearing practices clearly demonstrates two divergent parental views of adolescent sexuality. Nurse practitioners must recognize these differing views, and individualize their approach, in order to develop culturally sensitive sex education programs for adolescents and their parents. Suggestions are provided for development of such programs for Cuban and Haitian parents and children. PMID:3658246
China is the most populated of any country in the world. Social norms and values pertaining to love and marriage have changed considerably since the launch of its open-door policy and economic reforms of the 1980s. Attitudes to sex have become more open, while the negative consequences of early sexual intercourse have become issues of health and social concern. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the teenage sexualattitudes and behaviour in contemporary China. A literature review was conducted between 2000 and 2010, using both English (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA) and Chinese language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database). Thirty-six studies were included and reviewed. It was found that young people reported poor sexualknowledge, especially in relation to reproductive matters and sexually transmitted infections. The media, such as television, magazines and the Internet, were seen as their main sources of information on sex. Despite the frequently reported liberal attitudes to sexual behaviour, only a small number of young people had already lost their virginity or been involved in pregnancies. Young men were more likely than young women to report having had sex, while respondents at vocational high schools were less likely to remain virgins than those at common/key high schools. Although the prevalence of sexual intercourse among Chinese teenagers was still lower than that reported in studies conducted in most western countries, the findings do reflect some changes in sexual values and behaviour of young people within the country. They also suggest the need to develop more comprehensive sex education programmes in co-operation with young people, schools, health organisations, families and communities and to make sexual and reproductive health services accessible to teenagers and unmarried young people throughout China. PMID:22404303
Recent research on the impact of religiosity on sexuality has highlighted the role of the individual, and suggests that the\\u000a effects of religious group and sexualattitudes and fantasy may be mediated through individual differences in spirituality.\\u000a The present study investigated the role of religion in an ethnically diverse young adult sample (N = 1413, 69% women) using religious group as well
Tierney K. Ahrold; Melissa Farmer; Paul D. Trapnell; Cindy M. Meston
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
We compared knowledge, attitudes, and demographic characteristics of 630 sexually experienced and 422 inexperienced inner-city adolescents aged 14-17 years. Sexual experience was associated with indicators of risk previously reported in the literature: male gender, older age, single-family home, smoking, drinking, and poorer academic performance.…
A human sexuality course was offered to students at the university level. It was hypothesized that the course would result in decreased levels of sex guilt and would increase permissiveness toward premarital sexual intimacy. Findings suggest a decreased level of sex guilt for males and an increase in females' attitudes of permissiveness. (JN)
AimsResearch estimates that up to 15% of children experience sexual abuse and perhaps as little as half of children with suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) are offered a paediatric consultation (D Hodes, R Sundrum, GL Laing, Do Child Protection Teams Refer Children with Alleged Sexual Abuse for Medical Consultation? London Borough of City and Hackney, 1999, unpublished data). Is this
Several authors have suggested that lack of sexualknowledge is a primary reason for inappropriate sexual behaviour in men with intellectual disabilities. This hypothesis, counterfeit deviance, is tested in the current report with two separate cohorts comparing sex offenders and controls, both with intellectual disability. The Socio-SexualKnowledge and Attitudes Test was completed on all participants and any significant differences
Amanda M. Michie; William R. Lindsay; Victoria Martin; Alan Grieve
This article presents the findings of a survey conducted in August 2004 of students' attitudes, perceptions and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS and sexual practices at an Institution of Higher Education. The study was set against the backdrop of the 2004 South African national survey, conducted by the Reproductive Health…
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed among female migrant laborers (N=32). Results are reported regarding knowledge and beliefs about AIDS transmission, knowledge and beliefs about condom use, and actual use of condoms. Needs for health education and services, sexual power, and other implications of findings are…
Organista, Pamela Balls; Organista, Kurt C.; Soloff, Pearl R.
In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and beliefs around HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Therefore, this formative study sought to examine women's attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccine acceptance, maternal-child communication about sexuality, and healthcare decision-making and gender roles within an urban community in South Africa. Women ages 18-44 were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a Black township outside of Johannesburg during the fall of 2008. Twenty-four women participated in three focus groups. Findings indicated that the women talked to their children about a variety of sexual health issues; had limited knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Women were interested in learning more about the vaccine although they had reservations about the long-term affect; they reinforced that grandmothers played a key role in a mother's decisions' about her child's health, and supported the idea that government should provide the HPV vaccine as part of the country's immunization program. Our findings indicate the need to develop primary prevention strategies and materials that will provide women with basic cervical cancer prevention messages, including information about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, screening, and how to talk to their children about these topics. Prevention strategies should also consider the cultural context and the role that grandmothers play in the family unit. PMID:21855591
Questionnaires were distributed to 641 undergraduates at a large southeastern university to elicit opinions concerning various forms of premarital sexual behavior. Hypotheses were developed to determine whether there were differences between the attitudes of males and females. Significant differences were found between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when the couple is casually acquainted, and attitudes toward extramarital sex, oral-genital sex, and anal sex. However, significant differences were not found between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when the couple is in love, attitudes toward premarital sex when the couple is engaged, and attitudes toward masturbation, homosexuality, and sexual fantasizing. Males' attitudes toward various forms of sexual behavior were more liberal than those of females. PMID:2264511
This study was undertaken to describe the knowledge about child sexual abuse, and factors that affect the knowledge of a statewide sample of physicians. A survey of physicians (n = 113) participating in a statewide program for child abuse evaluations was made in Summer 1993, with 78% participation. Knowledge scores were derived from the survey based on comparison to the
The health professional and the patient are cultural beings with beliefs and attitudes that are shaped by family traditions, social development, and exposure to novel experiences. As such, it is especially important for health profession students to gain awareness about the personal and educational factors that likely inform their practice and…
West, Lindsey M.; Stepleman, Lara M.; Wilson, Christina K.; Campbell, Jeff; Villarosa, Margo; Bodie, Brittany; Decker, Matthew
Sexual assault against women and HIV infection are both prevalent and related social problems in South Africa. The current study examined hostile attitudes toward women, acceptance of violence against women and masculine ideological beliefs in relation to sexual assault history among men in a Cape Town township in South African. Men (n=435) completed anonymous surveys of sexual assault history, HIV
S. C. Kalichman; L. C. Simbayi; D. Cain; C. Cherry; N. Henda; A. Cloete
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of pornography, their attitudes toward pornography, and sources of information about sexuality. Although most had seen pornographic movies, the youngest boys reported viewing the most pornography. The male participants reported that the most common reason they viewed pornography was to get aroused and to masturbate, whereas the female participants stated that they viewed pornography out of curiosity. The most frequent source of information about sexuality was peers. These results illustrate the importance of sex education to give factual information about sexuality and to counteract the messages about sexuality presented in pornography. PMID:17172202
The aim of the study described in this article is to examine the dimensions and correlates of attitudes toward survivors of sexual violence (SV) in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Four dimensions of attitudes were identified: victim responsibility, victim denigration, victim credibility, and deservingness. Gender roles attitudes represented the most significant correlate of attitudes toward survivors in this population. Other significant correlates of overall attitudes toward survivors included current employment, province of residence, knowledge about the SV law, awareness about where to go for information on sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), and the perceived prevalence of SV in own community. There are differences and communalities in the variables associated with the various dimensions of attitudes. For example, sex of the respondent and discussion of SGBV with others were only significantly associated with the tendency to ascribe responsibility to the victim. The findings indicate that changing negative gender norms should be central to efforts aimed at promoting accepting attitudes toward survivors. Furthermore, addressing the various dimensions of attitudes toward survivors may require different strategies. PMID:24366960
The aims of this study were to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of female high school and university students concerning contraception. The study was performed at the Alexandra University Hospital in Athens. A total of 297 female students participated in the study. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the depth of knowledge and attitude of respondents concerning contraception. Our findings suggest students have a defective knowledge of contraception. Their main source of information were friends but the majority would prefer to receive information from doctors. The most popular contraceptive method was the male condom. The attitude and behavior of young women in our study were consequently defective. In conclusion, there is a need to provide students with correct, detailed and broad-based information on conception and contraception as part of the school curriculum to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes on contraception and sexual health. PMID:14584301
Registered Dietitians' (RD) knowledge and attitudes about the safety, adequacy and health benefits of vegetarian diets were estimated. A questionnaire was developed with demographic, knowledge, and attitude questions and was completed by 182 RDs from Washington, Nebraska and Vermont. The results showed that RDs in Vermont had significantly higher attitude scores regarding vegetarian diets than RDs in Nebraska (63% vs.
Data were collected (a) to document extant levels of AIDS-risk behavior, AIDS-preventive behavior, AIDS-knowledge, and attitudes toward prevention among college students, (b) to assess the evolution from 1986 to 1988 of college students' behavioral and attitudinal responses to the AIDS epidemic, and (c) to document changes over time in college students' knowledge about AIDS. Although students' current levels of AIDS-knowledge were found to be relatively high, and their attitudes toward prevention were in the neutral range, actual preventive behavior was low, and unsafe sexual practices were high. Concerning changes in these dimensions across time, data using comparable samples of undergraduates in 1986, 1987, and 1988 indicated that there were substantial increases in knowledge about AIDS, in the favorability of attitudes toward certain "safer-sex" behaviors (e.g., discussing "safer sex"), and in the utilization of relevant informational resources. Students' perceptions of others' vulnerability to AIDS (but not their own vulnerability), had also increased. However, at the same time, students reported a decrease in the safety of their sexual behaviors. Numbers of sexual partners, likelihood of being in an intimate (sexual) relationship, and unsafe sexual practices have all increased since 1986. Finally, evidence suggested that alcohol may play a significant role in students' AIDS-risk behavior. PMID:2288814
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a community-based comprehensive sex education program among unmarried youth in China. The impact of the intervention on sexualknowledge, attitudes, and sexual initiation were assessed, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design. The program used six methods for providing sex-related…
Whereas college students are not identified as a high-risk group for acquiring the HIV infection, they exhibit high-risk behaviors consistent with their age group, including multiple sexual partners and high rates of unprotected intercourse. This study was conducted to determine levels of HIV-related sexual behavior, along with knowledge and attitudes among students attending community colleges in a relatively affluent multiethnic
Johanna Shapiro; Stephen Radecki; Arthur S. Charchian; Valerie Josephson
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS.
Attitudes regarding sexuality and older people is a relatively under-researched area, despite its topical relevance as people live longer, remain healthy, and are better educated and well informed. The first part of the literature review examines the attitudes different age groups have about sexuality and old people. The second part describes the existing literature, which has investigated the attitudes of
There is a recent decline in HIV in a significant number of countries due to the adoption of preventive sexual behaviors, which demonstrates that HIV reduction is possible. The goal of this research was to deepen knowledge of preventive sexual behavior in adolescents, including knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS, and assessing whether they changed from 2002 to 2010. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from the Portuguese sample of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children, a collaborative WHO study. The study provided national representative data of 10,587 Portuguese adolescents attending 8th and 10th grade. In terms of preventive behaviors, results showed an increasing trend regarding the percentage reporting first sexual intercourse at 14 years old or more and condom use at last intercourse and a stabilized trend concerning having had intercourse, contraceptive pill use at last intercourse and having had intercourse under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Nevertheless, results showed a systematic decreasing trend in terms of knowledge and attitudes. This suggested that sex education programs are still too limited to teaching sessions, strongly homogenized in their content and inadequate to enhance knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV, let alone personal and social skills of different target groups. PMID:24128038
Ramiro, Lúcia; Reis, Marta; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Diniz, José Alves
A study was conducted to find out the knowledge, attitude and practice of preventive health care among the industrial workers by interviewing the workers of Durgapur Steel Plant, Durgapur and their family members who attended the health unit. The study revealed that 7.98% of the industrial workers were not aware of preventive aspects of health care. Most of this group were illiterate, rural in origin with family income less than Rs 1000 per month. Female child and the third and fourth child were more neglected. Main source of knowledge about preventive health care is mass media. Trade unions did not play any role in health education. There is seasonal variations in number of immunisation and drop out. Most common reason for drop out was negligency on the part of the parent and the parents remaining out of station. About 1% of the workers believed in other than scientific system of medicine. PMID:1748790
We report the results of a survey of second-year medical students concerning attitudes and basic knowledge of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It appeared that there were significant negative biases against ECT in a portion of the group. Forty percent of the students who participated felt that psychiatrists often misused ECT, while 31% actually thought ECT was used to punish violent or uncooperative patients. Few students knew the typical frequency or duration of treatment or even that it was done under general anesthesia. It was interesting that the group describing themselves as highly knowledgeable about psychiatric illness had a greater bias against ECT. Students in the negative group did not differ in the sources of their information about ECT. The most common sources of this information about ECT were movies or college classes. The results document the need for appropriate coverage of ECT in medical school curriculum. PMID:11417934
Although sexual experiences among college students have been well documented, few studies have explored how sexual activity may be related to attitudes concerning sex and sexuality. Limited research suggests there may be an important relationship between sexual experiences, feminist self-identification, and supportive attitudes toward lesbian,…
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among individual factors, parental factors, involvement in activities, and adolescent attitudes regarding sex (the outcome variable). We suggest that Positive Youth Development (PYD) research and programming should include promoting healthy sexuality as an important developmental outcome…
Dating behaviors and sexualattitudes of Asian-American youth were examined in a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study in the context of adherence to Asian values, measured by the Asian Values Scale (AVS). In all, 31 Asian-American adolescents (age 14-18 years old) from a Houston community center were interviewed regarding dating behaviors and…
Previous research has suggested a high level of sexual activity among students, often involving unprotected intercourse. To better understand what factors contribute to consistent use of effective contraception, the relationship between sexualknowledge and sexual behavior and the relationship of sex guilt to sex knowledge were investigated in a…
Though HIV prevention campaigns in Zimbabwe have increased public awareness of HIV, they have not meaningfully changed sexual behaviour. Possibly these campaigns are based on wrong assumptions about sexual behaviour. By means of 111 structured interviews with hospital patients, secondary school students and teachers, and 11 focus group discussions with traditional healers, midwives, village community workers, secondary school students and teachers, and commercial sex workers in a rural district of Matabeleland in Zimbabwe, this low-budget study explores attitudes towards sex and sexual behaviour in order to define more appropriate health education messages. Results indicate that traditional sex education no longer takes place and that communication between sexual partners is limited. The almost ubiquitous expectation of women to get rewards for sex outside marriage motivates mostly single women out of economic necessity to meet the male demand for sexual partners, which is created by large scale migrant labour and men's professed 'biological' need for multiple partners. Types of sexual behaviour other than penetrative vaginal sex are uncommon and considered deviant. Safe sex messages from the West therefore are inappropriate in the Zimbabwean context. Recommendations are given to restore traditional communication about sexual matters across generations and to urge sexual partners to discuss sex. Women who, for economic reasons, engage in casual sex should at least learn to negotiate the use of condoms. Men seriously need to reconsider their attitudes to sex and sexual practices in view of the high HIV sero-prevalence. Faithfulness, rather than multiple sexual contacts, should become a reason to boast. PMID:8061079
This study was conducted to assess the level of AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of a group of predominantly sexually active high school seniors (N=734) and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of three AIDS prevention activities in improving knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among these students. The educational program…
( s c a r o n ) ba.sk This study examined university students' knowledge of and attitudes (n = 378) toward biotechnol- ogy in Slovakia, a conservative country where the distribution of genetically engineered products are banned by law. We found a significant positive correlation between attitudes and the level of knowledge; however, although students enrolled in biology courses
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
The purpose of this study was to determine if occupational therapists possess the ability to identify wife abuse by measuring their knowledge and attitudes about such abuse. A sample of 202 occupational therapists answered an average of 65% of knowledge questions correctly. Respondents were found to have empathic attitudes towards wife abuse and its victims, but were only slightly positive
Jennifer L. Johnston; Ralph Adams; Christine A. Helfrich
This cross-sectional survey explored the association between functional health literacy and knowledge of, beliefs and attitudes about, and reported usage of colorectal cancer screening tests. The results indicate that functional health literacy, as assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA), is not an independent predictor of colorectal cancer screening knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, or behavior. Latino
Carmen E. Guerra; Francisco Dominguez; Judy A. Shea
The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715
A survey designed to evaluate the impact that both chronological and theoretical birth order may have on sexualattitudes and behaviors was completed by 441 respondents (221 male, 220 female). The attitudes and behaviors investigated were aggressive sexual behavior, social relationship attitudes, emotional relationship attitudes, total heterosexual behavior, and total orgasmic behavior. The data revealed no difference between male and female in terms of total sexual behavior. However, males had significantly higher sexual aggression, social attitudes, emotional attitudes, and total orgasm scores. These results suggest that while there may be equity between the sexes in terms of heterosexual behavior, there are still significant differences between the sexes in terms of specific behaviors and attitudes. No differences were found on any of the scales based on either chronological or theoretical birth order. These results suggest that sexual behavior and attitudes may be influenced to a greater degree by biological and cohort factors than by sibling position. PMID:2712687
BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexualknowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontario’s minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canada’s age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexualknowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation.
Background: Estimates suggest that about 48% of nearly 19 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) occurring annually in the United States are acquired by persons aged 15-24 years. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that adolescents' attitudes about protecting themselves from STDs predict their laboratory-confirmed…
This prospective, longitudinal study examined a sample of sexually abused and comparison girls to determine (a) whether there were patterns of behavior that differed between the groups and (b) whether nonverbal behaviors assessed at the initial visit (n = 147; M = 11.11 years; SD = 3.02) might predict sexualattitudes and behaviors at a later point in development (n = 144; M = 18.52 years; SD = 3.52). At the initial assessment, nonverbal behaviors during an interaction with an unknown male interviewer were factor analyzed revealing 3 factors: wary (e.g., pouting), affiliative (e.g., chin resting on hand), and coy (e.g., tongue show). Abused girls scored higher on the coy factor that was related to earlier age at first voluntary intercourse later in development (approximately 7 years later). High scores on the affiliative factor were related to higher sexual permissiveness and less negative attitudes toward sex. Results indicate that sexually abused girls showed early maladaptive patterns in interpersonal interactions, which were subsequently related to risky sexualattitudes and behaviors. PMID:20410025
Negriff, Sonya; Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K
Social influence factors in sharing knowledge by email are important issues in developing and understanding successful knowledge management (KM) systems and human-computer interaction. This paper investigates important factors in shaping attitudes toward knowledge sharing by email, based on social influence theory and self determination theory. An empirical test of the proposed model using an online survey was conducted with a
Background: It has not been determined conclusively whether greater knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is associated with lower rates of STIs. Purpose: This study sought to determine STI knowledge among high school students and factors associated with such knowledge, and to determine whether poor STI knowledge is associated with…
Nsuami, M. Jacques; Sanders, Ladatra S.; Taylor, Stephanie N.
Examines how an open classroom climate relates to effective global education. Looks at gender and race differences, and identifies attributes of open classrooms. Administers questionnaires to 202 students enrolled in an international studies program. Finds a moderate positive correlation between classroom climate and student political attitudes.…
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, no evidence of a cause-effect relationship was found.
This study examined the influence of gender and exposure to gender-stereo-typed music video imagery on sexualattitudes (adversarial sexual beliefs, acceptance of rape myths, acceptance of interpersonal violence, and gender role stereotyping). A group of 44 U.S. college students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups that viewed either a video portraying stereotyped sexual imagery or a video that excluded all sexual images. Exposure to traditional sexual imagery had a significant main effect on attitudes about adversarial sexual relationships, and gender had main effects on 3 of 4 sexualattitudes. There was some evidence of an interaction between gender and exposure to traditional sexual imagery on the acceptance of interpersonal violence. PMID:10410622
The aim of the current study was to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse and investigate predictors of such attitudes. A random sample of the Norwegian adult population (n = 296), active Christians (n = 125) and prisoners convicted of child sexual abuse (n = 36) were included in the study. The results show that women were more negative towards
The purpose of this study was to identify Black Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) college students' attitudes toward the concept of sexual abstinence. Attitude toward abstinence was operationalized as a dichotomy of acceptance or rejection of the concept as a way to order sexual behavior. The study utilized a convenience sample ("N" =…
Associations between magazine use and sexualattitudes were explored among 205 female college students. Measures assessed reading levels of adult-focused (e.g., Cosmopolitan) and teen-focused (e.g., Seventeen) contemporary women's magazines, reading motivations, sexualattitudes, and femininity ideologies. Frequent reading of adult-focused…
To develop a questionnaire on attitudes towards sexual health and validate it on a sample of medical and non-medical students and adult women. Methods For the purpose of constructing a Likert-type scale, four medical students generated 130 statements re- flecting clearly positive or negative attitudes towards sexual health. The scale had five scoring points (1 - strongly disagree, 2 -
Nina Nemèiæ; Sandra Novak; Ivana Novosel; Ozren Kronja; Darko Hren
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) college students from 12 university campuses (N = 177) participated in this study that examined the relationships between adult attachment, LGB identity, and sexualattitudes. Findings indicated that adult attachment was significantly related to LGB identity and sexualattitudes and that an LGB identity variable…
Wang, Chia-Chih D. C.; Schale, Codi L.; Broz, Kristina K.
A small survey was conducted in the Vancouver area by the authors to determine some of the current beliefs and attitudes of Chinese women toward birth control and sexuality. 10 Chinese women aged from 16-72 were interviewed. Traditional beliefs in filial piety and in the concepts of Yin (negative, female force) and Yang (positive, male force) were subscribed to by the eldest women who also perceived a lack of fairness in the double standard permitting male promiscuity while prohibiting female sexual freedom. The elder women also felt that the balance of Yin and Yang would promote sexual satisfaction and good health (homosexuality represented an imbalance and was therefore unhealthy). Only 1 woman had received sex education in the home since most sex-related topics were considered taboo. The Canadian born women had been educated in school regarding sex and felt that this experience made them more responsible in sexual matters. Strict rules about behavior during menstruation were adhered to by the eldest women: no hair-brushing, eating of hot foods, or sexual intercourse; they also viewed masturbation as acceptable in women since their Yin is a renewable resource. Masturbation in men was frowned upon since it would lead to a depletion of Yang and possibly cause infertility. The Canadian born women viewed masturbation as a normal sexual act. Contraception was seen as negative by the 1st generation women whereas the younger women valued family planning as an improvement in thier lives. Coitus before marriage was viewed as acceptable and during marriage and pregnancy as enjoyable by the younger women; the elders felt that premarital intercourse resulted in a loss of prestige whereas marital coitus was seen as a duty and intercourse during and after pregnancy as dangerous for the unborn child and the mother. The ease with which these women dealt with the conflict of adhering to their culture while assimilating into a new environment was influenced by age, language ability, education, length of time spent in Canada and generational status. It is possible that due to the sensitive nature of the questions and limited interview time these women may not have fully disclosed their feelings. Nurses must understand and be sensitive to cultural differences in attitudes and force themselves to see each area of concern from the client's viewpoint. In dealing with Chinese women a female nurse, preferably one who speaks Chinese, is more accepted. PMID:6916612
Objectives To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using standard text analysis. Results Most participants who were age eligible for CRC screening were nonadherent according to national guidelines. Themes included low CRC knowledge, low perceived norms, high barriers, and other screening beliefs. Conclusion Lack of knowledge, low perceived risk, and attitudes about CRC screening may be important targets for interventions in low-income African American patients.
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Underutilization of hospice care continues to be a public health issue in the United States. Physician barriers related to incorrect knowledge and unfavorable attitudes have been hypothesized as part of the explanation. We conducted a mail survey of 264 area physicians, obtaining a response rate of 72% (n = 190). The survey examined attitudes toward, knowledge about, and perceptions of benefits and barriers to hospice care. Physicians demonstrated very positive attitudes toward hospice. They had correct knowledge about some aspects of hospice, but were uncertain about correct answers on the majority of items. They had erroneous knowledge on few items. Physicians perceived many benefits to hospice care, and identified patient and family readiness as the major barriers to earlier hospice referrals. Demographic and practice variables were related to responses on few of the survey items. These findings have many implications for outreach strategies for physicians as well as future research. PMID:11839230
Background Information on the knowledge of, and attitudes and practices towards epilepsy of the general population in Thailand is still limited, particularly with respect to the differences between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample population of 1,000, with 500 participants each from municipal and nonmunicipal areas, in the Khon Kaen district. Results The participants in the municipal area had higher incomes and higher education than did the participants in the nonmunicipal area. Both groups had low knowledge regarding epilepsy definition, causes, and treatment, but participants in the municipal area were more knowledgeable on the causes, types, and treatment of epilepsy. With respect to attitude, there were a significantly higher number of nonmunicipal participants than municipal participants who thought epilepsy was a disgusting disorder or that persons with epilepsy were sinful, had brain damage, and could not attend school. The municipal participants showed greater knowledge of correct practice than did nonmunicipal participants with regard to the following: not driving a car; avoiding acrobatic sports, fighting, or water sport; able to eat pork, not having to resign from work; not having to quit school; and able to have sexual relations. Conclusion The participants from the municipal area had better knowledge, attitudes, and practices than did the participants from the nonmunicipal area. A campaign should be carried out to promote knowledge and understanding of, and practices towards epilepsy. Different emphases should be placed on the two groups of populations and different strategies used.
The objective of the study was to explore sexual dysfunction in adults with enduring mental health problem treated with psychotropic medications, focusing on associations between drug-induced sexual dysfunction and attitude to prescribed medications. Participants were invited to complete an anonymous self-administered survey questionnaire, which comprised of the 10-Item Drug Attitude Inventory and the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). In addition,
Tunde Apantaku-Olajide; Pat Gibbons; Agnes Higgins
This paper details a systematic literature review identifying problems in extant research relating to teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and offers a model for new attitude scale development and testing. Scale development comprised a five-phase process grounded in contemporary attitude theories, including (a) developing the…
Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
This article compares the values and attitudes of two groups of 7th and 8th grade adolescents toward premarital sexual activity. One group received state-funded, abstinence-only education; the other group did not receive that education. Abstinence-only education did not significantly change adolescents' values and attitudes about premarital sexual activity, nor their intentions to engage in premarital sexual activity. The majority of both the treatment and control group subjects expressed disagreement with the statement: "It is okay for people my age to have sexual intercourse," and they did not intend to have sexual intercourse while an unmarried teenager. PMID:12010111
To better understand the relation of feminist identification to sexuality, we compared the attitudes of feminist, egalitarian, and nonfeminist undergraduate women (N= 342) in five domains: (a) erotophilia (one's positive affective or evaluative responses to sexual stimuli), (b) sexual assertiveness, (c) perceived self-efficacy for safer sex, (d)…
This study sought to ascertain any differences in sexualattitudes, levels of premarital sexual involvement, and risk-taking sexual practices of college students at four distinctly different universities: a historic Black public university; a predominately white, Southern private university with a religious heritage; a Southwestern public…
Davidson, J. Kenneth, Sr.; Moore, Nelwyn B.; Earle, John R.; Davis, Robert
Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (neighborhood N=77; individual N=951), we consider the extent to which African American youth maintain sexual and fertility-related norms that support early sexual activity and childbearing and examine the robustness of racial differences in sexualattitudes to controls for…
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault. PMID:22618119
Research and theory suggest rape supportive attitudes are important predictors of sexual assault; yet, to date, rape supportive attitudes have been assessed exclusively through self-report measures that are methodologically and theoretically limited. To address these limitations, the objectives of the current project were to: (1) develop a novel implicit rape attitude assessment that captures automatic attitudes about rape and does not rely on self-reports, and (2) examine the association between automatic rape attitudes and sexual assault perpetration. We predicted that automatic rape attitudes would be a significant unique predictor of sexual assault even when self-reported rape attitudes (i.e., rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women) were controlled. We tested the generalizability of this prediction in two independent samples: a sample of undergraduate college men (n = 75, M age = 19.3 years) and a sample of men from the community (n = 50, M age = 35.9 years). We found the novel implicit rape attitude assessment was significantly associated with the frequency of sexual assault perpetration in both samples and contributed unique variance in explaining sexual assault beyond rape myth acceptance and hostility toward women. We discuss the ways in which future research on automatic rape attitudes may significantly advance measurement and theory aimed at understanding and preventing sexual assault.
Objectives. Regarding the importance of sexual desire in adolescence period and public and parental concerns about it and considering the lack of studies on sexualknowledge especially in adolescents in Iran, this study was conducted to evaluate the sexual issues in high school girls and boys. Patients and Methods. The cross-sectional study was performed on 2700 high school students. Students were selected through a multi-staged randomized sampling method in Tabriz and by the convenience method in Ardabil and Urmia. Data collection tool was a questionnaire including knowledge questions and measured by a three-point scale. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS version 11.5 software. Results. 11.8% of the students had a low sexualknowledge, 46.7% had average and 41.5% had a high one. There was no significant difference between male and female students' general sexualknowledge. The highest knowledge was about being aware of the religious rules concerning sex. Conclusion. Adolescents should be trained and acquire information about the different aspects of sexual issues. Female adolescents especially need to be educated about puberty physiology, fertility physiology and STDs. PMID:22970385
Malek, Ayyoub; Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Safaiyan, Abdolrasool; Abbasi-Shokoohi, Hamid
Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that street youths often continue high-risk behaviors even though they know the potential negative consequences; help them find substitutes for the income, pleasure, power, and communication stemming from sex; convince them of their personal risk through participatory activities; use a multifaceted approach to promote condoms; use an integrated approach; and integrated prevention activities with other services designed to meet their basic needs regarding health, education, and income. PMID:12287663
Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…
Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl
The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices of women prisoners regarding the use of female and male condoms as a means of prevention against STD/HIV. This quantitative and evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) study included 155 female prisoners. Data collection was performed between January and March 2010 at the State of Ceará Women's Penitentiary. Although the women had heard of and/or knew about the purposes of the use of condoms, only 35 (22.6%) had appropriate knowledge regarding male condoms, and 11 (7.1%) in regards to the use of female condoms. Their attitudes were less favorable regarding oral sex. Appropriate practice was not significantly representative, particularly regarding the female condom. Homo/bisexuality, gender issues, lack of knowledge, and the difficult access to condoms are obstacles that must be considered in the promotion of sexual health in the studied group. PMID:22773494
Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Ribeiro, Samila Gomes; Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; Monte, Alana Santos; Bernardo, Elizian Braga Rodrigues; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra
Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Examines the literature that discusses teacher attitudes toward and knowledge of computer technology to determine how they incorporate it into their classrooms. Topics include motivation; training; support; computer anxiety; deterrents to the use of computer technology; and training needs, including inservice and staff development and…
This paper redefines and clarifies the standpoints of environmental attitudes (EA), knowledge scales (EK), and affiliated studies. Considering the quality of environmental education studies, this paper tries to give a sharp and concrete message to environmental science educators and researchers and strengthen the paths of environmental education…
Results of a questionnaire concerning factual knowledge of attitudes toward, and experience with a variety of drugs are reported. It was concluded that marihuana and other drugs are readily available to secondary school students, and widespread experimentation exists; however, a strict dichotomy exists between marihuana and other drugs. (Author/BY)
This study assessed Caucasian college students' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding sunbathing. Surveys indicated concern with attractiveness was a major motivation for frequent sunbathing. Frequent sunbathers were more likely to be women and to report fewer self-perceived risk factors and less likely to use sunscreen. (SM)
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Introduction: A seminar on sleep disorders was recently introduced for third, fourth and final year medical students rotating through the psychiatry posting in the Institute of Mental Health. This survey was conducted to assess the attitudes as well as knowledge of medical students towards sleep medicine. Methods: Verbal consent was taken from the students who were willing to take part
This study sought to ascertain any differences in sexualattitudes, levels of premarital sexual involvement, and risk-taking sexual practices of college students at four distinctly different universities: a historic Black public university; a predominately white, Southern private university with a religious heritage; a Southwestern public university; and a Midwestern public university. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to a volunteer sample of 1,915 never-married women and 1,111 never-married men in select upper and lower division classes. Numerous significant differences among campuses were found regarding sexual history, first sexual intercourse, and sexual risk-taking. Religion, family background, and campus milieu were strong mediating variables, but race appeared as the single most influential factor differentiating the sexualattitudes and behavior of these college students. Implications are suggested for professionals in fields of research, education, and therapy. PMID:18689097
Davidson, J Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B; Earle, John R; Davis, Robert
Outdoor athletes represent an important group at risk for skin cancer because they are routinely exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. The purpose of this study was to assess current skin cancer knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among collegiate athletes. A modified version of the Melanoma Risk Behavior Survey was completed by 343 athletes attending a Southern University in the USA, generating an 87% response rate. Survey results demonstrated that the majority of the athletes do not limit their sun exposure and reported low levels of sun protective behaviors. In addition, athletes lacked knowledge about skin cancer and sun protection. Eighty-three percent of the athletes stated that tanning beds improve one's overall health. Race was significantly associated with skin cancer knowledge, whereas, gender was found to be significantly associated with knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors towards skin cancer. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and behavior, but not between attitude and behavior. This study highlights the need to educate athletes about the hazards of tanning to minimize UV exposure and promote sun protection habits. Moreover, athletes should be educated on the dangers of indoor tanning facilities and encouraged to avoid these facilities.
Hobbs, Courtney; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Brodell, Robert T.
Used variables of gender and parental sexualattitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…
The Greek SexualityAttitudes Questionnaire–Learning Disabilities (GSAQ-LD) was developed as a research instrument for use with a Greek sample in order to assess its attitudes towards the sexuality of people with and without learning disabilities (LD). The 45-item, Likert-type questionnaire consists of four different scales, each of which indicated satisfactory item characteristics, adequate reliability and homogeneity, and preliminary support for
Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual…
Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann
Findings of this study indicate that variables pertaining to students' value systems were statistically significant predictors of their sex attitudes and that parent attitudes toward sex are an influence on the attitudes of their sons and daughters. (MB)
This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence?supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as
Seth C. Kalichman; Leickness C. Simbayi; Michelle Kaufman; Demetria Cain; Chauncey Cherry; Sean Jooste; Vuyisile Mathiti
Patterns of sexual partnership formation and dissolution are key drivers of sexually transmitted infection transmission. Sexual behavior survey participants may be unable or unwilling to report accurate details about their sexual partners, limiting the potential to capture information on sexual mixing and timing of partnerships. We examined how questions were interpreted, including recall strategies and judgments made in selecting responses, to inform development of a module on recent sexual partnerships in Britain's third National Survey of SexualAttitudes and Lifestyles ("Natsal-3"). Face-to-face cognitive interviews were conducted with 14 men and 18 women aged 18-74 years, during development work for Natsal-3. People with multiple recent partners were purposively sampled and questions were presented as a computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were generally agreeable to answering questions about their sexual partners and practices. Interpretation of questions designed to measure concurrent (overlapping) partnerships was broadly consistent with the epidemiological concept of concurrency. Partners' ages, genders, ethnicity, and participants' perceptions of whether partner(s) had had concurrent partnerships were reported without offense. Recall problems and lack of knowledge were reported by some participants (of all ages), especially about former, casual, and/or new partnerships, and some reported guessing partners' ages and dates of sex. Generally, participants were able to answer questions about their sexual partners accurately, even when repeated for multiple partners. Cognitive interviews provided insight into the participants' understanding of, ability to answer, and willingness to answer questions. This enabled us to improve questions used in previous surveys, refine new questions, and ensure the questionnaire order was logical for participants. PMID:22695641
Aicken, Catherine R H; Gray, Michelle; Clifton, Soazig; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Sonnenberg, Pam; Johnson, Anne M; Mercer, Catherine H
Background: Attitudes to the sexual expression of adults with an intellectual disability (ID) are one reflection of the inclusiveness of a community. Our capacity to measure attitudes towards this important aspect of adult life is limited by the lack of an appropriate instrument. The aim of this study was to continue the development of a recently…
The purpose of this study was to explore the comparative contribution that (a) multiple sources of education about sexual topics (peers, media, school and other adults), and (b) the timing of this sex education, make on American adolescent sexualattitudes and behavior. Participants were 672 ethnically and economically diverse male and female,…
Background: The attitudes of support staff and others in the community towards the sexuality of individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have the potential to influence opportunities for normalised life experiences in the area of sexuality. Method: A sample of 169 disability support staff and 50 employees from leisure and service…
Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…
Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.
There have been a number of sexual counseling programs for spinal cord injured individuals, but little attempt has been made to assess the impact of such programs. One reason for this has been the lack of reliable and valid assessment devices. The present paper attempted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the SexualAttitude and Information Questionnaire (SAIQ) as
Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)
Conducted unstructured interviews with 18 male street prostitutes between the ages of 13 and 22 to determine the extent of accurate knowledge they possessed concerning four common sexually transmitted diseases. Found that subjects possessed more factual information on gonorrhea and syphilis than on herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.…
A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)
Correlates of use and subsequent sexualattitudes and behaviors predicted by exposure to sexually explicit content (i.e., pornography and erotica) in adult magazines, X-rated movies, and the Internet were examined in a prospective survey of a diverse sample of early adolescents (average age at baseline = 13.6 years; N = 967). Two-thirds (66%) of males and more than one-third (39%)
Given the significant high risks of both being exposed to the virus and spreading it, mariners traveling across countries on a regular basis fall into one of the top-priority populations of those to whom education on HIV/AIDS should be given. However, there have been no reports regarding HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes on the part of mariners in Turkey. Therefore, this study was carried out with the aim of defining the knowledge and attitudes of 660 Turkish mariners. Data were determined using a self-completed questionnaire. Percentage and mean scores were used in data analysis. Results show that the mariners' knowledge was inadequate (mean score was 52.31 +/- 20.46 over a total of 100 points). The lowest knowledge pertained to HIV/AIDS prevention (mean score was 44.62 +/- 19.97). About half of the mariners considered themselves to be in the risk group. Very few of them (10%) have had an AIDS test. Most (68%) were informed about HIV/AIDS by the media. These results show that the mariners need to increase HIV/AIDS knowledge about prevention, transmission, treatment information, motivation, and behavioral skills to decrease HIV/AIDS risky behaviors. The mariners had the least knowledge about HIV/AIDS protection. Having a critical role in preventing the transmission and spreading of diseases, nurses should conduct more extensive and advanced research into HIV/AIDS and assume educational and counseling responsibilities in illuminating society. PMID:17338985
Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment.
Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.
Underuse of hospice services is a significant problem in the United States. Primary care physicians constitute an increasing referral base and have been hypothesized to be important barriers to increased use. We conducted a mail survey of 131 primary care physicians (overall response rate of 72 percent), examining their attitudes toward, knowledge about, and perceived benefits and barriers to hospice care. Physicians demonstrated very favorable attitudes towards hospice. They had correct knowledge about most aspects of hospice, and, where they did not, they were far more likely to be uncertain than erroneous. Primary care physicians perceived many benefits to hospice care and identified patient and family readiness as the major barrier to earlier hospice referrals. A significant subgroup had concerns about problems in interacting with hospices. There were very few differences between family practitioners and general internists. These findings have many implications for directing collaborative efforts between primary care physicians and hospices to improve end-of-life care. PMID:12568436
Found significant differences between male and female college students' (n=641) attitudes toward premarital sex among casual acquaintances and attitudes toward extramarital, oral-genital, and anal sex, with males expressing more liberal attitudes. Found no significant differences between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when…
In this study, conducted at a tertiary care center, we surveyed visitors to patients in contact isolation to assess their knowledge and attitudes about contact isolation. Although response rates were low, we found that visitors had an overall positive perception and understanding of contact isolation. We think this is likely attributable to the communication and education provided by health care providers to the visitors. PMID:24485377
A sample of 796 college student volunteers in Human Sexuality and Introductory Psychology classes were surveyed anonymously about sexualattitudes, experience, and knowledge. The survey measured attitude variables found previously to predict attitudes toward forcible date rape (Fischer, 1986) and behavioral measures, such as sexual experience and sexual abuse as a child, teenager, or adult. Survey variables wre related to
OBJECTIVES--Vietnamese immigration to the U.S. since the conclusion of the Vietnam war has been substantial and in Orange County, CA, Vietnamese Americans comprise 3% of the population (the largest community in the US). Our objective was to collect data on the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-reported high risk behaviours within this community. METHODS--A survey instrument was administered anonymously in Vietnamese to 532 respondents in their homes. Individuals from three population strata were randomly sampled: men 18 to 35 years old (N = 193); men 36 to 45 years old (N = 137); and women 18 to 35 years old (N = 202). Data were gathered on: (1) degree of acculturation; (2) knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS; and (3) self-reported sexual and other high risk practices. RESULTS--Survey data indicated that 38% of respondents were very worried about themselves and 83% were worried about a family member getting AIDS. Knowledge about actual modes of HIV transmission was generally accurate, but a substantial minority still believed that HIV can be transmitted through casual contact, and 68% from needles used in hospitals. Women demonstrated less accurate knowledge than men on five key items. Quarantine of the HIV infected was agreed to by 45%. Twenty-nine percent did not believe that the epidemic would affect them personally, and 49% stated that they did not have enough information about AIDS to protect themselves. Regarding sexual practices, 31% reported never having had sex. Of the others, 8% had two or more sexual partners in the prior 12 months. No same sex behaviour was reported. Six percent of men had visited a female prostitute; of these, 24% had visited 2 or more in the prior 12 months; half of encounters in this time period were outside the US. Substantial percentages of sexually active, unmarried respondents indicated that they never use (17-40%) or only sometimes use (10-32%) condoms. Less than 1% had used injection drugs. CONCLUSIONS--Education should be targeted at the Vietnamese community of southern California to improve knowledge that HIV cannot be contracted through casual contact, to convey information about methods for self-protection, and to reduce high risk sexual practices such as unprotected sex, sex with multiple partners and sex with prostitutes.
Gellert, G A; Maxwell, R M; Higgins, K V; Mai, K K; Lowery, R; Doll, L
Despite significant evidence for the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into professional nursing practice, gaps exist regarding nurses' baseline knowledge, beliefs of efficacy, and learning needs for further education to facilitate the integration of CAM into nursing practice. The top three conditions which adults identified for using CAM were back pain, neck pain, and joint pain. CAM can offer nurses additional treatment options for managing their patients' pain and discomfort. The California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN) identifies that nurses can help provide the missing link between conventional Western medicine and CAM therapies. Nurses cannot successfully advocate for CAM therapies, nor understand their patients' prior use of such treatments, unless they themselves are familiar with both the risks and the benefits of these practices. It is necessary to first establish nurses' baseline knowledge and beliefs related to CAM so that adequate educational programs can be initiated to help mitigate the barriers to incorporating CAM into the acute care setting. This descriptive study explores registered nurses' attitudes and knowledge related to CAM by using the Nurse Complementary and Alternative Medicine Nursing Knowledge and Attitudes Survey developed by Rojas-Cooley and Grant. Nurses in this study demonstrated limited self-reported knowledge of basic CAM terminology and CAM practices. PMID:24315251
Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.
Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide. PMID:25024066
Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so. Mothers of young people with intellectual disability held more cautious attitudes about contraception, readiness to learn about sex, and decisions about intimate relationships. Mothers expressed concerns about their children with intellectual disability and sexual vulnerability. They had also spoken about fewer sexual topics with their children and began these discussions when their children were older. The findings can inform more sensitive supports and materials to help families deal with the sexual development of their offspring. PMID:22642968
Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick
Consumers' attitudes have been shown to influence and predict behaviour. This review highlights the diverse consumer attitudes towards the safety of food. The diversity among consumers is based on a variety of factors, including demographics and socio-economic status. The relationship between consumer attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding food safety is also examined in this paper. It indicates that different attitudes
The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation to save the lives of unwanted newborns. The laws typically specify a mother's ability to “abandon” her child to a medical service provider. However, judgmental attitudes and a lack of accurate information may impede a health care provider's ability to carry out a safe-haven law. The study described here examines a sample of nurses in a state with a safe-haven law. The study revealed no significant correlation between a nurse's knowledge, attitude, and self-perception of preparedness to manage a newborn abandonment event. owever, the outcomes highlight the negative attitudes and lack of knowledge many nurses possess regarding newborn abandonment and the women who commit this act. Educational programs for all health care providers and the community are essential to the efficacy of the legislation that currently exists. Continued multidisciplinary strategizing and general awareness are needed to serve as catalysts to build supports for unwanted newborns and their safe assimilation into the community.
Current data on the widespread nature of sexual activity among unmarried teenagers and young adults and the rise in unplanned pregnancy among these groups offer evidence of a lack of knowledge about reproduction and contraception. Male (N=75) and female (N=78) university students participated in a study of the effects of authoritarianism,…
Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied.
Mishra, N.N.; Bhatia, Triptish; Kumar, Nandini; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Parker, Lisa S.; Deshpande, Smita N.
There has been a widespread perception that Asian Americans are at lower risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases than the population as a whole. This report assesses the knowledge of Asian American adolescents about AIDS and their sexual behaviors and explores whether there is a difference between a Cambodian group (half the…
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians’ perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians’ attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of ‘accidents’ and fatalism. Participants were 14–26 years of age and were from medium to high socioeconomic status. Focus group participants noted that the concept of hadthah (‘accident’) signified an event determined by destiny, whereas esabah (‘injury’) was the result of human actions. The results of these focus groups indicate that young, educated Egyptians are interested in injury prevention programmes despite low confidence in the preventability of injuries.
Day, Hannah R; El-Setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Smith, Gordon S; Hirshon, Jon Mark
A study of the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of shoppers in a new kind of cooperative food store indicated shoppers were primarily interested in cooperatives because of the food: its believed superiority in terms of growing conditions, freedom from processing, or nutritional value. Shoppers were skeptical of processed foods and believed organic foods, vitamin supplements, and other special nutrition measures are needed to ensure health. Working members and vegetarians were significantly less orthodox in their nutrition attitudes than nonworking members and nonvegetarians. Seventy-five percent of the sample thought nutrition information and the education function of the cooperative were important. Topics of greatest interest to these food cooperative shoppers were organic gardening, food preservation and preparation, and vegetarianism. PMID:7054260
Examined the attitudes and knowledge of 283 dental and medical students at different stages in their professional education. No significant deterioration or improvement in attitudes toward the aged was found in the course of medical and dental education. Correlational analysis revealed a complex relationship between knowledge and attitude scores.…
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on Aids or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of Aids, attitudes toward Aids, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight.
Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431
The paper examines the level of knowledge about sexuality of people with mental disabilities. The research also presents differences\\u000a resulting from sex and the level of mental retardation. The sample included 24 persons with mental disabilities, who the author\\u000a of this paper knew very well due to the time spent with them during a summer camp at a club in
A study on sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV risk was undertaken amongst 511 male students in Zimbabwe. The study was conducted amongst pupils aged 11 to 19 years drawn from urban and rural secondary schools using a self-administered questionnaire. Thirty seven pc of the students reported that they had experienced sexual intercourse, with up to 63 pc reporting having had more than one partner. Twenty one pc of boys aged 12 years reported having had intercourse and the proportion increased with age. Knowledge about AIDS was high (93 pc) with up to 75 pc of the boys reporting that they received the information through the media and only 31 pc got it from their teachers. Logistic regression used to analyse reasons for variation in HIV/AIDS knowledge and of modes of its transmission determined that educational level, actual school attended, access to information from magazines and educational aspirations were significant predictors (p values = 0,005) of knowledge. Individual risk assessment was higher amongst students who reported sexual experience (p = 0,0001). Sixty pc of the sexually experienced boys reported having used condoms. Six pc of the boys reported having intercourse with a commercial sex worker and of these, 85 pc used condoms. Compared with previous studies there appeared to be a reduction in high risk behaviours amongst male secondary school students. However, there is need for increased HIV preventive information through school educational programmes, as increase and variation in HIV information and modes of transmission was seen depending on access to information. PMID:7834713
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP.
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines.
Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
Adolescents are subject to many life changes as their secondary sexual characteristics emerge. Contrary to parents' and society's wishes, these young people are more sexually active then previous generations and thus at greater risk of unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and related problems. Adolescents enrolled in school have the potential opportunity to learn ways to prevent these reproductive and sexual health problems, but there is concern whether schools are living up to this challenge. Therefore, this study was designed to learn whether adolescents in secondary school in the Ondo State capital of Akure have reproductive health education and are practicing healthy sexual behaviors. The study was based on a sample of six of the twenty-eight secondary schools in Akure that fell under the jurisdiction of the Ondo State Post-Primary Schools' Management Board. Focus was placed on pupils in the final years of both Junior Secondary School (JSS 3) and Senior Secondary School (SSS 3). Overall, 30 percent of the young people reported having sexual intercourse: 21 percent of females and 38 percent of males. Also 39 percent in SSS 3 reported having had sex compared to 21 percent in JSS 3. Forty percent of students in coeducational school compared to 19 percent in boy's school and 8 percent in girl's school had sex. Respondents averaged only 11 points on a 33-point scale of reproductive health knowledge. Students in the senior classes and those in single sex schools scored higher. The mass media was stated to be the major source of reproductive health knowledge; only one-third reported that they had actually talked with someone about their reproductive health concerns. Attitudes toward pre-marital sex were more favorable among male students, pupils in mixed sex schools and those whose parents had lower levels of education. These findings suggest not only that the schools must take a more active role in providing reproductive health education, but that this should be done in the junior secondary years before most pupils become sexually active. PMID:20841055
This study examined whether relationship quality, dispositional jealousy, and attitudes towards monogamy were associated with gay men's satisfaction with the agreements they have in their relationships about extra-dyadic sex. Three types of sexual agreement were examined: closed (no extra-dyadic sex is allowed), monogamish (extra-dyadic sex is allowed only when both members of the couple are present), and open (extra-dyadic sex is allowed). Results from a 2010 survey of 772 gay men in relationships indicated that sexual agreement satisfaction was positively associated with levels of intimacy and commitment for all three types of sexual agreement, but was differentially associated with sexual satisfaction within the relationship, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes as a function of sexual agreement type. Mean levels of sexual satisfaction, jealousy, and monogamy attitudes also differed between types of agreement. These findings provided preliminary evidence that sexual agreement satisfaction may be influenced by different factors depending on the type of agreement, which has useful implications for professionals with gay male clients experiencing dissatisfaction with their agreement or with their relationship more generally. PMID:24287963
Background: This report employs a recently developed assessment on attitudes consistent with sexual offending [Questionnaire on Attitudes Consistent with Sexual Offences (QACSO)] to compare different groups of sex offenders with intellectual disability. Method: Two studies are reported each from a different region and each conducted by different…
Lindsay, William R.; Michie, Amanda M.; Whitefield, Elaine; Martin, Victoria; Grieve, Alan; Carson, Derek
This study investigated the relationship of childhood sexual abuse to marital attitudes and perceived readiness for marriage in single young adult women. A total of 622 women from three universities in the United States completed questionnaires on sexual abuse, attitudes and feelings about marriage, and readiness for marriage. After controlling…
This study investigates the nature of college students' sexual health knowledge, prior sex education coverage, and sexual communication and confidence. We created a new, comprehensive sexual health knowledge measure to assess 347 undergraduates' knowledge of reproductive health, contraception, condom use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and HIV\\/AIDS. Overall, students demonstrated a fairly poor understanding of sexual health issues. Women were more
Rebecca B. Weinstein; Jennifer L. Walsh; L. Monique Ward
This study examined factors associated with gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youths’ parents’ knowledge of their children's sexual orientation. Over a 2-year period, we studied 196 youths whose parents were aware or unaware of their children's sexual orientation, and youths whose sexual orientation became known to their parents. Differences between youths in their sexual orientation development, psychosocial adjustment, support, victimization
Anthony R. DAugelli; Arnold H. Grossman; Michael T. Starks; Katerina O. Sinclair
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
Objective: The present study examined how sex of the child and the adult and age of the child influence perceptions regarding the abusiveness of adult-child sexual interactions and attributions of blame and responsibility to the adult in such incidents. The relationship of gender-role attitudes to perceptions of child sexual abuse was also investigated.Method: Undergraduate students (N = 404) read one
This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and personal behaviours of University students on AIDS. Two hundred and fifty students from the University of Ibadan randomly selected from eight faculties were surveyed. Results indicated that 58.7% of the subjects knew that AIDS is caused by a virus but 72.6% thought the disease could be spread through kissing, hugging or shaking hands and 48.0% believe they cannot have AIDS. Most students showed a high degree of aversion to AIDS victims while about a quarter reported having multiple sexual partners in the last five years. The results suggest that well organised, specifically targeted educational programmes are needed for University students. PMID:7625299
This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas. PMID:23480474
Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun
A survey was conducted to assess student's sexualknowledge and attitudes using a questionnaire based on the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT - II) to compare medical and nursing students with students (non-medical\\/nursing) who registered for a sexual health course. 85 Sexual Health, 115 medical and 81 nursing students voluntarily participated in the survey. This study showed that all
The aim of this study was three-fold: (1) to determine 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' environmental knowledge and attitudes in Turkey; (2) to investigate the effect of the grade level and gender on students' environmental knowledge and attitudes; (3) to explore how environmentally responsible behaviour is related to environmental knowledge,…
Research has argued that adolescents are at risk for harmful effects of sexual media, but little is known about the role of parents and friends on adolescents' media use in regard of these effects. The present two-wave study investigated whether prior parental and friends' influences on adolescents' use of sexual media shape their sexualattitudes and behaviors, and vice versa if prior sexualattitudes and behaviors predict parental and friends' media mediation. At two measurement points 18 months apart, 528 adolescents (12-17 years; 51.3% girls) reported on permissive sexualattitudes, sexual experience, perceived parental and friends' mediation of sexual media use, and communication with parents and friends about sex. Structural Equation Modeling shows that parents' mediation activities on adolescents' media use were not followed by less sexual experience and less permissive attitudes. On the contrary, parental restrictive mediation of girls' media use unexpectedly was followed by somewhat more sexual experience. Friends' interventions with media use did not predict adolescents' sexual experience and attitudes neither. Inverse relationships showed that prior sexual experience was followed by less restrictive parental mediation among boys, and both among boys and girls that permissive sexualattitudes were followed by less restrictive and less active parental mediation. At the same time, sexually more experienced and more permissive boys and girls did report more media pressure from and sexual communication with their friends later on. Our study thus indicates that the opposite agent roles of parents and friends for adolescents also applies to their usage of sexual media. PMID:23192452
This study explores the relationship between fear of various types of sexual offenders and a belief that those sexual offenders should be subject to sex offender registration. We hypothesized that those who offend against children would elicit the most fear; consequently, the most feared offenders would be rated as most requiring registration. As…
Kernsmith, Poco D.; Craun, Sarah W.; Foster, Jonathan
I surveyed 60 hospice nurses regarding their knowledge and attitudes toward the near-death experience (NDE), using Thornburg's Near-Death Phenomena Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire. Most hospice nurses had previous work experience with an NDEr. Approximately half the nurses were knowledgeable about the NDE. All participants had a positive attitude toward near-death phenomena and toward caring for an NDEr. Recommendations include near-death
Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, practices, and attitudes among female university students in South Africa regarding emergency contraceptives (EC). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 582 female university students who were selected using multi-stage sampling techniques. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to find significant predictors for EC awareness. Results The average age of the female students was 20.9 years (SD?=?3.0) and 57.2% were presently sexually active. Overall, 49.8% of the participants reported having heard about EC prior to the study. Regarding sexual activities among the female students, 53.2% reported to have sex, and 21.2% of the sexually experienced students used EC prior to the study. Regarding the effectiveness of EC, 29.5% students said it could be used up to 72 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse, and 8% said it could be used just before sex. About two-thirds (61.8%) would recommend the use of EC and 63.2% would use it if they needed. The multivariate analysis indicated that students who were older (>20 years), presently sexually active, and living with their parents were more likely to be aware of EC (p<0.05). Conclusion The students’ knowledge and utilization of EC were low. Health education and promotion should be targeted towards these students, and the EC services should be offered on campus.
This study examined knowledge of and attitudes toward services among 268 17-year olds with psychiatric diagnoses preparing to exit foster care. A structured interview assessed knowledge of services with vignette scenarios and attitudes with a standardized scale. Descriptive statistics described the extent of knowledge and attitudes among this population and regression analyses examined predictors of these dimensions of literacy. Most youth suggested a help source, but responses often lacked specificity. Gender and depression were the strongest predictors of knowledge and attitudes, respectively. Knowing which aspects of literacy are low, and for whom, can inform education efforts to improve access to care in adulthood.
Munson, Michelle R.; Narendorf, Sarah Carter; McMillen, J. Curtis
This study examined the impact of motion pictures about the family on viewers' attitudes about family life and sexual orientation. Viewers were randomly assigned to view either Father of the Bride II (control group) or Object of My Affection (treatment group). Viewers' attitudes toward nontraditionalism and homosexuality were assessed before and after viewing their respective film. Treatment and control groups significantly differed in their attitudes toward nontraditionalism, but did not significantly differ in their attitudes toward homosexuals after viewing their respective films. However, the treatment group experienced more favorable attitudes toward homosexuals than the control group after viewing the film. Gender differences were also observed. Men were less tolerant of homosexuals and held fewer nontraditional beliefs about the family than women. Implications and discussion follow. PMID:12856761
Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception and abortion and reasons for ineffective use of contraceptives among women, visiting general practitioners. Results Of 158 women, 146 (92%) participated and 82% reported that their education on sexuality and about contraception was of good quality. However 'knowledge of reliable contraceptive methods' appeared to be - in almost 50% of the cases - false information, misjudgements or erroneous views on the chance of getting pregnant using coitus interruptus and about the reliability and health effects of oral contraceptive pills. Almost half of the interviewed women had incorrect or no knowledge about reliability of condom use and IUD. 42% of the respondents risked by their behavior an unplanned pregnancy. Most respondents considered abortion as an emergency procedure, not as contraception. Almost two third experienced emotional, physical or social problems after the abortion. Conclusions Respondents had a negative attitude toward reliable contraceptives due to socio-cultural determined ideas about health consequences and limited sexual education. Main economic factors were costs of contraceptive methods, because most health insurances in Curaçao do not cover contraceptives. To improve the effective use of reliable contraceptives, more adequate information should be given, targeting the wrong beliefs and false information. The government should encourage health insurance companies to reimburse contraceptives. Furthermore, improvement of counseling during the abortion procedure is important.
This study investigates environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among adult Americans. The fifth survey, conducted by Roper Starch, explores the relationship between attitudes about the environment and how those attitudes are affected by learning. This report concludes that Americans have very positive views toward the need to conserve…
National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.
This study investigated the attitudes of 43 teachers and school administrators towards sex education, young people’s sexuality and their communities in 19 secondary schools in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and how these attitudes affect school-based HIV prevention and sex education. In interviews, teachers expressed judgemental attitudes towards young people’s sexuality and pregnant students, and focused on girls’ perceived irresponsible behaviour instead of strategies to minimise HIV risk. Despite general awareness of the HIV epidemic, few teachers perceived it as an immediate threat, and teachers’ own HIV risk was infrequently acknowledged. Teachers perceived themselves to have higher personal standards and moral authority than members of the communities and schools they served. Male administrators’ authority to determine school policies and teachers’ attitudes towards sexuality fundamentally affect the content and delivery of school-based sexuality education and HIV prevention activities. Opportunities to create a supportive educational environment for students and for female teachers are frequently missed. Improving teachers’ efficacy to deliver impartial, non-judgemental and accurate information about sex and HIV is essential, as are efforts to acknowledge and address their own HIV risks.
Background: The sexual lives of people with intellectual disability is made complex by the involvement and influence of social service providers, whose beliefs and values have a great impact on the support they provide. We hypothesized that social service providers' role, educational level and service in which they worked could affect attitudes…
The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing attitudes toward sexual activity among early adolescents in Japan. A total of 1,551 students aged 12 to 14 years at 4 junior high schools were divided into either a conservative or liberal group. Results of chi-square tests showed that the liberal group had higher percentages of students…
Sexual and reproductive health (SRH) education is one way Namibia combats HIV/AIDS. This exploratory study had two objectives: to investigate attitudes and perceptions towards sex education, and to see what purpose sex education serves in Namibia. To what extent do stakeholders support sex education in Namibia? What kind of obstacles exists to SRH…
This article reports on a study conducted to assess the effect of gender on pre- and postintervention attitudes about sexual abstinence after an abstinence education intervention. Gender had a statistically significant effect on the pretest response for each item. Gender had a statistically significant effect on the posttest response for most of…
Smith, Thomas Edward; Steen, Julie A.; Schwendinger, Andrea; Spaulding-Givens, Jennifer; Brooks, Robert G.
Examined effects of three abstinence sex education programs on student attitudes toward sexual activity. Administered programs to seventh and tenth graders in three school districts. Independent variables were program, grade level, gender, and pre/posttest. Dependent variable was combined and averaged response to 12 questions. Found four-way…
Data from 1,087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends' attitudes and behavior were assessed with…
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the frequency of sleeping in the parental bed as a child, the frequency of seeing others nude during childhood, and parental attitudes regarding sexuality. Information on current sexual functioning and adjustment was also obtained. The results suggest that childhood experiences with exposure to nudity and sleeping in the parental bed are not adversely related to adult sexual functioning and adjustment. In fact, there is modest support that these childhood experiences are positively related to indices of adjustment. Results also suggest that a positive attitude toward sexuality can be beneficial for a child's comfort with his/her sexuality. Finally, examination of gender differences revealed that male and female experience paternal attitudes toward sexuality differently but are similar in their perceptions of maternal attitudes. PMID:3421828
Parents of 43 children with celiac disease, 28% of whom were classified as noncompliant, were interviewed. The knowledge, attitudes, and dietary behavior of parents of compliant patients were compared with those of noncompliant patients. Parents of compliant patients are better educated and from a higher social class. Although objective knowledge of the disease is similar in both groups, parents of compliant patients consider themselves adequately informed about the disease and are better able to choose gluten-free items from a menu. Parents of compliant patients are less worried about health in general but are more concerned with possible adverse effects celiac disease might have on the future of their children. Parents of both groups are not significantly different with regard to their understanding of the diet, the tendency to use medical care, and the perception of barriers to compliance or social support. It was concluded that to increase dietary compliance in celiac patients, parents should be guided mainly by the following three purposes: (1) enhancing their subjective evaluation of their own knowledge of celiac disease; (2) improving their practical ability to handle a menu; (3) increasing their anxiety regarding possible long-term adverse effects. PMID:2296499
The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population.
Angelillo, I. F.; Ricciardi, G.; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; Langiano, E.; Pavia, M.
A cross sectional anonymously administered questionnaire was used amongst 1689 secondary school girls and boys to determine their knowledge of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Their knowledge was found to be very low. While 80% could name an STD in an open question, only 16% could recognise the important symptoms of the common and treatable diseases such as gonorrhoea and syphilis. This finding is worrying in view of the fact that these common STDs facilitate transmission of HIV/AIDS. The awareness of AIDs was high but when it came to the mode of transmission of AIDS the large majority were not aware of the risk of intercourse with an infected person. Furthermore, despite an intensive AIDS awareness campaign programme mounted by the government of Zimbabwe a large number of students thought that one can contract HIV/AIDS by shaking hands, sharing a toilet and witchcraft. Misconceptions on transmission abound. The data show that there is a need to review strategies of disseminating information to teenagers regarding STD, including AIDS, reproductive biology, sexuality and contraception. The best strategy may be the introduction of a reproductive health education curriculum in all schools starting at an early age. PMID:9185389
Kasule, J; Mbizvo, M T; Gupta, V; Fusakaniko, S; Mwateba, R; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W; Kinoti, S H; Padachy, J
Background The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. Methods The study population included residents aged 15–49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnaires assessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Results The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P?0.05). Almost 37% of students scored low. Nearly one-third of the study population was practicing risky sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p?>?0.05). Conclusions The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour.
Background: With the influx of rural migrants into urban areas, the spread of HIV has increased significantly in Shaanxi Province (China). Migrant workers are at high risk of HIV infection due to social conditions and hardships (isolation, separation, marginalization, barriers to services, etc.). Objective: We explored the efficacy of a HIV/AIDS prevention and control program for rural migrants in Shaanxi Province, administered at both rural and urban sites. Methods: Guidance concerning HIV/AIDS prevention was given to the experimental group (266 migrants) for 1 year by the center of disease control, community health agencies and family planning department. The intervention was conducted according to the HIV/AIDS Prevention Management Manual for Rural Migrants. A control group of migrants only received general population intervention. The impact of the intervention was evaluated by administering HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual behavior (KAB) questionnaires after 6 and 12 months. Results: In the experimental group; 6 months of intervention achieved improvements in HIV/AIDS related knowledge. After 12 months; HIV/AIDS-related knowledge reached near maximal scores. Attitude and most behaviors scores were significantly improved. Moreover; the experimental group showed significant differences in HIV-AIDS knowledge; attitude and most behavior compared with the control group. Conclusions: The systematic long-term cross-site HIV/AIDS prevention in both rural and urban areas is a highly effective method to improve HIV/AIDS KAB among rural migrants.
The aim was to investigate the knowledge and the attitude regarding recovery among practitioners working in the Swedish mental health system, Personligt Ombud (PO), Supported Housing Team (SHT) and Psychiatric Out Patient Service (POPS), to determine whether and how knowledge and attitude regarding recovery differ between the three services. A…
Explored changes in preservice teachers' multicultural attitudes and knowledge, as well as factors that contributed positively to those changes. Student teachers were followed throughout their preparation program. Data from questionnaires and interviews indicated that respondents' multicultural attitudes and knowledge change in a positive…
Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…
Using a financial management model derived from the Deacon and Firebaugh Family Resource Management Model, this study examined the impact of financial attitudes and knowledge on financial management and satisfaction with financial status in a sample of 194 recently married individuals. Higher income and positive attitudes about finances, but not the amount of financial knowledge, predicted use of recommended financial
The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,
Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
This study examines inservice elementary school teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge toward inquiry-based science instruction and the influence of an inquiry-based elementary science course on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge regarding inquiry. Both surveys and a case study were administered to the 14…
Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…
Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…
In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…
Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen
A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students' knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students' knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes…
Nursing staff (n=166) in four nursing homes participated in quasi-experimental study to measure knowledge and attitudes about urinary incontinence and compliance with toileting protocols. Intervention group (n=96) showed slight increase in knowledge; their attitudes remained positive over four testing times. Compliance with protocol was only 72…
While it is common for gender to be included as a predictor variable in studies of sexuality, this is not the case for other demographic variables. This study examined the predictive value of gender, along with other demographic variables, including age, marital status, education, religiosity, and geographic region using data from a national survey of Canadian adults over the age of 18 (N = 1479). The survey was conducted by the COMPAS survey organization using computer assisted telephone technology. The outcome variables examined included frequency of sexual thoughts, oral sex, age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, and casual sex intentions. For each of the variables, men were more sexually permissive and more sexually active than were women. Other demographic variables increased the explanatory power of the models but gender still remained a significant predictor of sexualattitudes and behaviors despite statistical control for other demographic variables. The findings demonstrate the influence of gender on sexuality but also illustrate the value of taking into account other demographic variables when analyzing gender differences in sexuality. PMID:17377836
Fischtein, Dayna S; Herold, Edward S; Desmarais, Serge
The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
Although there is evidence that men and women respond similarly to the trauma of sexual assault, observers are likely to make differential judgments of psychological sequelae based on the sex of the victim. A sample of 180 undergraduates responded to hypothetical assault vignettes varying by victim sex and level of victim-attacker acquaintance to assess any such attributional differences. Results revealed
A survey of 118 MSW students was conducted to examine the relationship between social work students’ knowledge about, contact with, and attitudes toward persons with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that students’ knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia were significantly related to better attitudes toward this population. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between knowledge about and contact with persons with schizophrenia, such that knowledge was only related to positive attitudes among students who had more personal contact with persons with the illness. Implications for social work training in severe mental illness are discussed (99 words).
There is limited information about African American students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the areas of health behavior, health knowledge, and attitudes. To fill this gap, a comprehensive examination of first-year students was undertaken at a consortium of HBCUs. A non-random sample of 1,115 freshmen were administered a survey that assessed several domains including: (1) demographics, (2) general health, (3) smoking habits, (4) disease risk, (5) weight perception, (6) physical activity, (7) perceived stress, (8) eating habits, (9) social support, (10) personal/family medical history, (11) leadership, (12) domestic violence, (13) substance use, and (14) sexual behavior. In general, most students knew about health behaviors and disease risk. Areas that warrant further exploration include physical activity, sexual behavior, and drug use. The analyses provide key information for health education and prevention.
Hayes, Brenda D.; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Wade, Bruce H.; Trawick, Cynthia; Hodge, Michael; Caplan, Lee; Younge, Sinead; Quarshie, Alexander; Satcher, David
Agency attribution is a hallmark of mind perception; thus, diminished attributions of agency may disrupt social-cognition processes typically elicited by human targets. The current studies examine the effect of perceivers’ sexist attitudes on associations of agency with, and neural responses to, images of sexualized and clothed men and women. In study 1, male (but not female) participants with higher hostile sexism scores more quickly associated sexualized women with first-person action verbs (“handle”) and clothed women with third-person action verbs (“handles”) than the inverse, as compared to their less sexist peers. In study 2, hostile sexism correlated negatively with activation of regions associated with mental state attribution—mPFC, posterior cingulate, temporal poles—but only when viewing sexualized women. Heterosexual men best recognized images of sexualized female bodies (but not faces), as compared with other targets’ bodies; however, neither face nor body recognition were related to hostile sexism, suggesting the fMRI findings are not explained by more or less attention to sexualized female targets. Diminished mental-state attribution is not unique to targets that people prefer to avoid, as in dehumanization of stigmatized people. The current studies demonstrate that appetitive social targets may elicit a similar response depending on perceivers’ attitudes toward them.
Cikara, Mina; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Fiske, Susan T.
The 19th century medical attitude to normal female sexuality was cruel, with gynecologists and psychiatrists leading the way in designing operations for the cure of the serious contemporary disorders of masturbation and nymphomania. The gynecologist Isaac Baker Brown (1811-1873) and the distinguished endocrinologist Charles Brown-Séquard (1817-1894) advocated clitoridectomy to prevent the progression to masturbatory melancholia, paralysis, blindness and even death. Even after the public disgrace of Baker Brown in 1866-7, the operation remained respectable and widely used in other parts of Europe. This medical contempt for normal female sexual development was reflected in public and literary attitudes. Or perhaps it led and encouraged public opinion. There is virtually no novel or opera in the last half of the 19th century where the heroine with 'a past' survives to the end. H. G. Wells's Ann Veronica and Richard Strauss's Der Rosenkavalier, both of which appeared in 1909, broke the mould and are important milestones. In the last 50 years new research into the sociology, psychology and physiology of sexuality has provided an understanding of decreased libido and inadequate sexual response in the form of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. This is now regarded as a disorder worthy of treatment, either by various forms of counseling or by the use of hormones, particularly estrogens and testosterone. PMID:18075842
Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations.
Nurena, Cesar R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sanchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.
Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of "1" and incorrect answers were given a score of "0." For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; "5" was given to the most positive response, and "1" was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education. PMID:24669316
In a large, nationally representative survey of 2,626 adult Americans, men and women who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse involving penetration were also more likely to report a disrupted marriage, dissatisfaction in their sexual relationship, and a tendency to be a religious nonpractitioner. Victims of abuse were also more likely to have read or talked about the problem
DAVID FINKELHOR; GERALD T. HOTALING; I. A. LEWIS; CHRISTINE SMITH
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on AIDS or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of AIDS, attitudes toward AIDS, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight. In particular, there was little effect on social attitudes. The showing of one educational movie on AIDS (particularly the movie that was used in this experiment) appears to be insufficient to educate students on this issue. PMID:2723257
Psychopathic personality traits are associated with a variety of sexually coercive behaviors. The current study introduced a new measure of attitudes toward sexually predatory tactics and used the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy as a framework for understanding the association between psychopathy and sexual coercion. The new measure, in which respondents rate the behaviors of men employing various sexually coercive tactics, had a two-component structure and was associated with other measures of problematic sexual behaviors. For the vignettes describing manipulative behaviors, men who were bolder, meaner, and more disinhibited rated these behaviors as more acceptable and as behaviors they would be more likely to enact. There was also an interaction between boldness and disinhibition: At higher levels of boldness, disinhibition became a stronger predictor of positive attitudes toward these behaviors. Only disinhibition was related to reporting more positive attitudes toward vignettes describing more extreme and potentially criminal predatory behaviors. PMID:23786267
With the rising incidence of HIV/AIDS in China, nurses will increasingly be caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is necessary that they have enough knowledge to reduce the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection and that they change their attitude to care for HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude using a structural equation model (SEM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in January 2008 among 528 student nurses at the technical secondary school of the China Medical University. An SEM is proposed to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependent effects between the latent factors. The SEM was built using LISREL version 8.5. The measurement properties of the latent factors underlying the questionnaire were based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Our results as following, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude may be measured by seven underlying constructs, namely, preventive knowledge, knowledge of transmission routes, specialty knowledge, knowledge of nontransmission routes, positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS, negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and occupational attitude. The SEM fits the data well. The interdependent relationships between these constructs identified the factors of preventive knowledge, specialty knowledge, and attitude toward HIV/AIDS as having both direct and indirect effects on occupational attitude. In conclusions, our results represent an initial effort to assess the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude toward the disease. CFA and SEM analysis have demonstrated their usefulness in evaluating multifactor complex constructs. PMID:20113151
The aim of this study was to develop two new scales for assessing Turkish public’s knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes toward it. A 26-item knowledge scale and a 15-item attitude scale were first developed and then tested using a random selection of adults aged ?18 n=613) from different parts of Istanbul. After item and factor analyses of the knowledge scale,
Children's access to sexualknowledge has always been considered "risky" and controversial due to the fraught relationship between childhood and sexuality. Based on focus groups with children and their parents, the authors explore the relationship between risk and regulation associated with providing children with accurate knowledge about…
Background China has the most smokers in the world. Physicians play a key role in smoking cessation but little is known about Chinese physicians and smoking. Methods This 2004 clustered randomized survey of 3552 hospital-based physicians from six Chinese cities measured smoking attitudes, knowledge, personal behavior, and cessation practices for patients. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of factors associated with asking about or advising against smoking were conducted in 2005 and 2006. Results Smoking prevalence was 23% among all Chinese physicians, 41% for men and 1% for women. Only 30% report good implementation of smoke-free workplace policies and 37% of current smokers have smoked in front of their patients. Although 64% usually advise smokers to quit, only 48% usually ask about smoking status and 29% believe most smokers will follow their cessation advice. Less than 7% set quit dates or use pharmacotherapy when helping smokers quit. Although 95% and 89% respectively know active or passive smoking causes lung cancer, only 66% and 53% respectively know active or passive smoking causes heart disease. Physicians were significantly more likely to ask about or advise against smoking if they believed that counseling about health harms help smokers quit and that most smokers would follow smoking cessation advice. Conclusions Physician smoking cessation, smoke-free workplaces, and education on smoking cessation techniques need to be increased among Chinese physicians. Strengthening counseling skills may result in more Chinese physicians helping smoking patients to quit. These improvements can help reduce the Chinese and worldwide health burden from smoking.
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess knowledge of TB patients about symptoms, ways of transmission and treatment of tuberculosis, and their perception of the illness. Between March and August 2008, 762 adult TB patients were interviewed at selected DOTS centre of Dhaka city. Male and female distribution was 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. One quarter of them were illiterate, and more than half had extended family and live in a congested situation. Night fever was the most common symptom known (89.9%), and 56% were aware that it could spread through sneezing/coughing. Television was mentioned as a source of information about TB. The majority expressed a helping attitude towards other TB patients. Although most of them were positive about getting family support, 46.6% mentioned discrimination of separate utensils for food or drink. About 50.5% expressed increased sadness, 39.8% had fear of loss of job/wedges, and 21.4% felt socially neglected. Along with drug treatment the psychosocial reactions of TB patients should be addressed at DOTS centers for better control of the disease.
Tasnim, Saria; Rahman, Aminur; Hoque, F. M. Anamul
Background Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was administered to 220 medical students. Knowledge and attitudes were recorded on a scale (graduated in percentages). Results Mean scores of students were 49.0% on knowledge scale and 53.7% on attitude scale. Both knowledge and attitudes improved significantly with increasing years of study in medical college [Regression coefficient 4.10 (p-value; 0.019) and 6.67 (p-value; < 0.001) for knowledge and attitudes, respectively]. Conclusion Medical students demonstrate moderate level of knowledge and attitude towards health research. Intensive training in this regard is associated with significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes of students towards health research.
Khan, Hassan; Khawaja, Muhammad RizwanulHaq; Waheed, Abdul; Rauf, Muhammad Ameen; Fatmi, Zafar
The objectives of this study were to describe the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health among adolescents attending school and to compare the levels of knowledge between males and females and between older and younger groups of adolescents. Across-sectional study was conducted among 1,034 secondary school students using a self administered validated questionnaire. The items with the fewest correct responses included: whether one can get pregnant after a single act of sexual intercourse (30.4%), whether sexual intercourse causes sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (12.4%) and whether washing the vagina after sexual intercourse prevents pregnancy (17.0%). Their main source of sexual information was friends (64.4%). An independent t-test revealed the mean knowledge score was significantly higher among females than males on items assessing whether the genitalia may be touched freely by family members, females having attained menarche may become pregnant if having sex, whether pregnancy will occur if there is penetration of the penis into the vagina, whether premarital sexual intercourse causes pregnancy and if there is a relationship between abandoned babies and premarital pregnancies. The mean knowledge score assessing whether pregnancy can be prevented using condoms was higher among males than females. The mean knowledge scores were significantly higher among form four and form five students than forms one, two and three students. Lack of knowledge regarding important aspects of sexual and reproductive health warrant the need to strengthen sexual and reproductive health education. PMID:21706952
Ab Rahman, Azriani; Ab Rahman, Razlina; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Salleh, Halim; Ismail, Shaiful Bahri; Ali, Siti Hawa; Muda, Wan Manan Wan; Ishak, Maizun; Ahmad, Amaluddin
Summary Background Despite its importance to sexual health and wellbeing, sexual function is given little attention in sexual health policy. Population-based studies are needed to understand sexual function across the life course. Methods We undertook a probability sample survey (the third National Survey of SexualAttitudes and Lifestyles [Natsal-3]) of 15?162 individuals aged 16–74 years who lived in Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales). Interviews were done between Sept 6, 2010, and Aug 31, 2012. We assessed the distribution of sexual function by use of a novel validated measure (the Natsal-SF), which assessed problems with individual sexual response, sexual function in a relationship context, and self-appraisal of sex life (17 items; 16 items per gender). We assess factors associated with low sexual function (defined as the lowest quintile of distribution of Natsal-SF scores) and the distribution of components of the measure. Participants reporting one or more sexual partner in the past year were given a score on the Natsal-SF (11?690 participants). 4122 of these participants were not in a relationship for all of the past year and we employed the full information maximum likelihood method to handle missing data on four relationship items. Findings We obtained data for 4913 men and 6777 women for the Natsal-SF. For men and women, low sexual function was associated with increased age, and, after age-adjustment, with depression (adjusted odds ratio 3·70 [95% CI 2·90–4·72] for men and 4·11 [3·36–5·04] for women) and self-reported poor health status (2·63 [1·73–3·98] and 2·41 [1·72–3·39]). Low sexual function was also associated with experiencing the end of a relationship (1·52 [1·18–1·95] and 1·77 [1·44–2·17]), inability to talk easily about sex with a partner (2·36 [1·94–2·88] and 2·82 [2·28–3·48]), and not being happy in the relationship (2·89 [2·32–3·61] and 4·10 [3·39–4·97]). Associations were also noted with engaging in fewer than four sex acts in the past 4 weeks (3·13 [2·58–3·79] and 3·38 [2·80–4·09]), having had same sex partners (2·28 [1·56–3·35] and 1·60 [1·16–2·20]), paying for sex (in men only; 2·62 [1·46–4·71]), and higher numbers of lifetime sexual partners (in women only; 2·12 [1·68–2·67] for ten or more partners). Low sexual function was also associated with negative sexual health outcomes such as experience of non-volitional sex (1·98 [1·14–3·43] and 2·18 [1·79–2·66]) and STI diagnosis (1·50 [1·06–2·11] and 1·83 [1·35–2·47]). Among individuals reporting sex in the past year, problems with sexual response were common (41·6% of men and 51·2% of women reported one or more problem) but self-reported distress about sex lives was much less common (9·9% and 10·9%). For individuals in a sexual relationship for the past year, 23·4% of men and 27·4% of women reported an imbalance in level of interest in sex between partners, and 18·0% of men and 17·1% of women said that their partner had had sexual difficulties. Most participants who did not have sex in the past year were not dissatisfied, distressed, or avoiding sex because of sexual difficulties. Interpretation Wide variability exists in the distribution of sexual function scores. Low sexual function is associated with negative sexual health outcomes, supporting calls for a greater emphasis on sexual function in sexual health policy and interventions. Funding Grants from the UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust, with support from the Economic and Social Research Council and the Department of Health.
Mitchell, Kirstin R; Mercer, Catherine H; Ploubidis, George B; Jones, Kyle G; Datta, Jessica; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Tanton, Clare; Erens, Bob; Sonnenberg, Pam; Clifton, Soazig; Macdowall, Wendy; Phelps, Andrew; Johnson, Anne M; Wellings, Kaye
In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles\\/music TV, internet) were examined\\u000a in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexualattitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough,\\u000a and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old\\u000a Dutch students revealed
Tom F. M. ter Bogt; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; Sanne Bogers; Monique Kloosterman
The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education. PMID:8075100
Systematic research on attitudes of nursing home staff toward the sexual expression of older residents is sparse and of recent origin. In order to determine the relationship between the degree of religiosity (religious commitment) of nursing home aides and their degree of tolerance concerning sexuality and aging, female nursing assistants (N=101)…
The issue of sexuality is a major concern for parents of children with learning disability and causes them great anxiety. Due to the lack of large-scale studies examining parental attitudes towards the sexuality of people with learning disability in Greece, it was decided to develop and evaluate a culturally appropriate instrument to use with Greek parents. Thus, the Parents' Own
The authors examined the impact of a mandatory, coeducational sexual assault prevention program on college freshmen's rape myth attitudes. Data from 174 college freshmen required to attend the program indicated that, regardless of gender, the proposed sexual assault prevention program significantly decreased participants' rape myth acceptance…
Kress, Victoria E.; Shepherd, J. Brad; Anderson, Renee I.; Petuch, Aaron J.; Nolan, James Michael; Thiemeke, Darlene
Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40–45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.
Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy.
We examined sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, behavior, and attitude of men who had sex with commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kenya. About 15% of the men had sex with CSWs. Men who had two or more partners, were away from home five or more times in the past year, and used condoms consistently with their last three partners were likely to have had sex with CSWs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, p = .000; OR = 1.43, p = .044; OR = 2.50, p = .000, respectively). Men with better knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were likely to have had sex with CSWs (OR = 1.62, p = .004). As expected, having had sex with CSWs was associated with higher risk of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 3.62, p = .000). This unexpected association between knowledge and behavior could be bidirectional or reverse causality. Nonetheless, knowledge in prevention has not been translated to practice and change in behavior. These processes require continuous efforts, including assertive campaigns on sexual practices and behaviors. PMID:19477766
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
The purpose of this study was to assess farmers' attitudes, as well as perceptions and knowledge that shape those attitudes, toward the ecological role of vertebrates inhabiting shaded-coffee farms. We also aimed to determine whether differences existed among two groups of farmers: one that had attended environmental education workshops, and one that had not. We conducted 36 oral interviews of
Paulina López-del-Toro; Ellen Andresen; Laura Barraza; Alejandro Estrada
The impact of the television program "Holocaust" on adolescent attitudes is investigated. The study explored the knowledge and attitudes of the students before and after viewing the show and examined how the students differed by racial or ethnic group, and religious preference, or extent of religious observance in their response to the show. A 20…
This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
With the increase in the number of senior tourists, it is important to understand the attitude of tourism professionals and their skills in serving aged tourists. A total of 381 tourism professionals participated in this study. Structural equation modeling results show that attitudes toward the elderly play the major role in predicting service willingness. Gaining knowledge about aging will indirectly
The aims of the study were to describe the relationship between all three of Kohlberg's levels of moral development and attitudes towards software piracy as well as to determine if an individual's Knowledge of Intellectual Property Laws moderated this relationship. The research exploring moral development and attitudes towards software piracy is limited in that the results are inconclusive and often
Purpose: This study examined medical students' interest in geriatrics: Are knowledge, positive atti- tudes, and prior experience with older adults associated with an interest in geriatric medicine? Design and Methods: Entering University of Michigan medical students completed three surveys: the Revised Facts on Aging Quiz, the University of California at Los Angeles Geriatric Attitudes Scale, and the Maxwell-Sullivan Attitudes Scale.
James T. Fitzgerald; Linda A. Wray; Jeffrey B. Halter; Brent C. Williams; Mark A. Supiano
The Web-based technology is a potential tool for supported collaborative learning that may enrich learning performance, such as individual knowledge construction or group knowledge sharing. Thus, understanding Web-based collaborative learning for knowledge management is a critical issue. The present study is to investigate learners' attitudes…
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher knowledge is…
Rohaan, Ellen J.; Taconis, Ruurd; Jochems, Wim M. G.
...knowledge regarding payments for ecosystem services, and attitudes and interest toward a payment for ecosystem services intended to benefit jaguar...understanding of payments for ecosystem services. The survey will improve...
Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)
Curriculum guides were used to determine the effect of nutrition instruction on nutrition knowledge, selected food/nutrition attitudes, and dietary behavior of secondary school students. Results are presented. (Author/DF)
Purpose: Since March 2007, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends HPV vaccination for all 12–17 y-old females in Germany. In the absence of an immunization register, we aimed at assessing HPV-vaccination coverage and knowledge among students in Berlin, the largest city in Germany, to identify factors influencing HPV-vaccine uptake. Results: Between September and December 2010, 442 students completed the questionnaire (mean age 15.1; range 14–19). In total 281/442 (63.6%) students specified HPV correctly as a sexually transmitted infection. Of 238 participating girls, 161 (67.6%) provided their vaccination records. Among these, 66 (41.0%) had received the recommended three HPV-vaccine doses. Reasons for being HPV-unvaccinated were reported by 65 girls: Dissuasion from parents (40.2%), dissuasion from their physician (18.5%), and concerns about side-effects (30.8%) (multiple choices possible). The odds of being vaccinated increased with age (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.19, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.16, 4.15) and decreased with negative attitude toward vaccinations (OR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.13, 0.84). Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 10th grade school students in 14 participating schools in Berlin to assess socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and statements on vaccinations. Vaccination records were reviewed. Multivariable statistical methods were applied to identify independent predictors for HPV-vaccine uptake among female participants. Conclusions: HPV-vaccine uptake was low among school girls in Berlin. Both, physicians and parents were influential regarding their HPV-vaccination decision even though personal perceptions played an important role as well. School programs could be beneficial to improve knowledge related to HPV and vaccines, and to offer low-barrier access to HPV vaccination.
Objective: Knowledge and attitude regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the important parameters for acceptance of ECT as a safe and effective treatment option. Several factors shape the knowledge and attitude of general people such as previous experience of ECT, sources of their information about ECT and prevailing myths about ECT. The present study attempted to examine the knowledge and attitude concerning ECT among patients with psychiatric disorders and their relatives. Materials and Methods: Knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT were assessed using the Bengali version of the ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires, between 100 clinically stable patients with mental illnesses and their healthy relatives. Results: Majority of the patients and relatives were unaware of the basic facts about ECT. Relatives were somewhat better informed and more positive about ECT than patients, but the differences between the two groups were not significant. Previous experience of ECT did not have any major impact in knowledge and attitude in both patients and relative groups. Patients obtained information, mostly from media (44%), doctors (23%), and from personal experiences (13%). On the other hand, relatives obtained information almost equally from media (26%), doctors (27%), and experience of friends or relatives (28%). No significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude in patients who had obtained their facts from doctors (n=23) and from other sources (n=77). Among relatives, those who had obtained their information from doctors (n=27) were better informed than those who had obtained so from other sources (n=73). Conclusions: Since patients and relatives have poor knowledge and negative attitude toward ECT, medical professionals should impart proper information about ECT to patients and relatives to increase the acceptability of this treatment.
This study investigated 481 in-service elementary teachers’ level of mathematical content knowledge, attitudes toward mathematics,\\u000a beliefs about the effectiveness of inquiry-based instruction, use of inquiry-based instruction and modeled the relationship\\u000a among these variables. Upper elementary teachers (grades 3–5) were found to have greater content knowledge and more positive\\u000a attitudes toward mathematics than primary teachers (grades K-2). There was no difference
Objective To examine the relationship of cancer prevention-related nutrition knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to cancer prevention dietary behavior.Subjects\\/setting Noninstitutionalized US adults aged 18 years and older.Methods Data collected in the 1992 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Epidemiology Supplement were analyzed. The supplement included questions to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes and a food frequency questionnaire to ascertain nutrient intake.Statistics Multivariate
LISA HARNACK; GLADYS BLOCK; AMY SUBAR; RICHARD BRAND
Migration has been associated with a higher risk of STI/HIV but few studies have assessed the sexual risk behaviour of migrant farm workers in Nigeria. An exploratory survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviours of migrant farmers in Saki West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviours and history of STI symptoms. Overall 518 respondents were interviewed, slightly over half were aware of HIV/AIDS; awareness was significantly lower among the females, those aged 15-24 years and those with no formal education. Majority (80.7%) were sexually experienced, the mean age at sexual debut was 19.4 +/- 5.2 years and 18.4 +/- 4.2 years for males and females respectively. Sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners in the past year was reported by 24.6% (males, 35.7%, versus females, 10.4%, p < 0.05). Recent sexual intercourse with a casual partner was reported by 9.1% (12.8% males versus 4.4% females). Only 18.2% used a condom during the last casual sexual contact. Level of awareness of HIV is unacceptably low and sexual risk behaviours are prevalent among these workers. Appropriate sexual health and HIV prevention interventions should be instituted. PMID:21834265
ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of Portuguese gynaecologists regarding combined hormonal contraceptives. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 303 gynaecologists. Results Ninety percent of the gynaecologists considered that deciding on contraceptive methods is a process wherein the woman has her say. Efficacy, safety and the woman's preference were the major factors influencing gynaecologists, while efficacy, tolerability and ease of use were the major factors perceived by the specialists to influence the women's choice. Gynaecologists believed that only 2% of women taking the pill were 100% compliant compared to 48% of those using the patch and 75% of those using the ring. The lower risk of omission was the strong point for the latter methods. Side effects were the main reason to change to another method. Vaginal manipulation was the most difficult topic to discuss. Conclusions Most gynaecologists decided with the woman on the contraceptive method. The main reasons for the gynaecologist's recommendation of a given contraceptive method and the women's choice were different. Counselling implies an open discussion and topics related to sexuality were considered difficult to discuss. Improving communication skills and understanding women's requirements are critical for contraceptive counselling. PMID:22200109
Bombas, Teresa; Costa, Ana Rosa; Palma, Fátima; Vicente, Lisa; Sá, José Luís; Nogueira, Ana Maria; Andrade, Sofia
Background: India is estimated to have third highest number of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in world with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). There is a possibility of HIV transmission in the oral health care setting and thus adequate knowledge and proper attitude among dental students is vital to prevent the chances of transmission and for proper care of the patient. Aims and Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the knowledge of dental students about HIV infection and their attitude toward treating HIV/AIDS patients and behaviour practiced. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 dental students of different colleges present in National Capital Region (NCR). The students were from third and fourth year and they completed a predesigned questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patients. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to compare mean level of knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Result: The results showed that only 28% students have excellent knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS. Certain misconceptions were prevalent regarding mode of transmission. It also shows that around 43% of the dental students have an overall negative attitude. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the students had adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS and their attitude toward this group of people was significantly negative. There is need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for dental students.
Background Data from the first two National Surveys of SexualAttitudes and Lifestyles, carried out in 1990–1991 (Natsal-1) and 1999–2001 (Natsal-2), have been extensively used to inform sexual health policy in Britain over the past two decades. Natsal-3 was carried out from September 2010 to August 2012 in order to provide up-to-date measures of sexual lifestyles and to extend the scope of the previous studies by including an older age group (up to 74?years), an extended range of topics and biological measures. Methods We describe the methods used in Natsal-3, which surveyed the general population in Britain aged 16–74?years (with oversampling of younger adults aged 16–34?years). Results Overall, 15?162 interviews were completed, with a response rate of 57.7% and a cooperation rate of 65.8%. The response rate for the boost sample of ages 16–34?years was 64.8%, only marginally lower than the 65.4% achieved for Natsal-2, which surveyed a similar age range (16–44). The data were weighted by age, gender and region to reduce possible bias. Comparisons with census data show the weighted sample to provide good representation on a range of respondent characteristics. The interview involved a combination of face-to-face and self-completion components, both carried out on computer. Urine samples from 4550 sexually-experienced participants aged 16–44?years were tested for a range of STIs. Saliva samples from 4128 participants aged 18–74?years were tested for testosterone. Conclusions Natsal-3 provides a high quality dataset that can be used to examine trends in sexualattitudes and behaviours over the past 20?years.
The threat of HIV/AIDS to African American's health has become the focus of much concern. This study investigated the potential differences between African Americans' and white college students' current and future sexual behaviors and safer sex behaviors with HIV/AIDS awareness, condom use self-efficacy, and safer sex attitudes. A convenience…
Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Kilbourne, Barbara
Data from 1087 adolescent participants in three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used to examine the effects of peer selection and socialization processes in adolescence on later reports of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and unintended pregnancies. Friends’ attitudes and behavior were assessed with friends’ reports. Among males, there was evidence for selection effects on STI diagnoses and socialization effects on reports of unintended pregnancy, both involving friends’ attitudes. Among females, there was evidence for long-term effects of both socialization and selection processes involving same-sex friends’ attitudes. Discussion focuses on the importance of peer and individual attitudes as potential intervention targets.
Henry, David B.; Deptula, Daneen P.; Schoeny, Michael E.
Background: Effective cancer pain management requires accurate knowledge, attitudes, and assessment skills. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of nurses concerning cancer pain management with the use Health Belief Model (HBM) as conceptual framework. Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive survey and included 98 randomly selected nurses from Alzahra hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A self-administered questionnaire which was designed on the basis of HBM was used to collect the data. Knowledge, attitudes, and HBM constructs regarding cancer pain were the main research variables. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS (version11.5) using descriptive statistics, independent t–test, and Pearson correlation at the significant level of ?=0.05. Results: Ninety-eight nurses aged 38.7 ± 7.04 years were studied in this survey. From the 10 pain knowledge questions assessed, the mean number of correctly answered question was 61.2 (SD=16.5), with a range of 30–100. There was a direct correlation between knowledge and attitude of nurses with HBM constructs except for perceived barriers and perceived threat. Among the HBM constructs, the highest score was related to self-efficacy with mean score of 87.2 (SD=16.4). Conclusions: The findings support the concern of inadequate knowledge and attitudes in relation to cancer pain management. We believe that basic and continuing education programs may improve the knowledge level of nursing about pain management.
In a pioneering study undertaken in Pakistan, urban men's sexual behaviors, perceptions and knowledge regarding sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS were determined by employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Focus group discussions were carried out initially and followed by a structured cross sectional survey…
Mohammad Mir, Ali; Reichenbach, Laura; Wajid, Abdul
This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and last sessions of human sexuality classes each semester
Scott Edward Rutledge; Darcy Clay Siebert; Jill Chonody; Michael Killian
In this response to Damien Riggs' analysis of sex education websites, the author draws on Foucault's understanding of knowledge, power and governmentality to understand how some forms of knowledge about sex and sexuality become normalised "official knowledge" that frame institutional policies and practices and shape everyday discourses. Foucault…
This study examined HIV knowledge, perceived risk and sexual behavior of 370 undergraduate students in selected universities in southern Nigeria. MANOVA confirmed females to have significantly higher overall HIV knowledge than males ([p.bar] = .03). In addition, more females than males reported significantly higher knowledge on the risk of HIV…
Chng, Chwee Lye; Eke-Huber, Esther; Eaddy, Starr; Collins, John. R.
Conclusions of the study were as follows: 1) results revealed a low level of energy knowledge; 2) the reading level of students based on CAT scores was the best predictor for energy knowledge; 3) given the energy knowledge test, sex was a significant predictor for males; 4) although race was not a significant predictor for energy knowledge, white students had a higher mean score than black students; 5) given the attitudinal mean score, the attitude of students fell in the undecided category. The overall mean tended to indicate a less than favorable attitude toward energy conservation; 6) the best predictor for energy attitudes was the CAT score with higher reading levels indicating more positive attitudes; 7) population density also was a significant predictor for energy attitudes with heavier populated areas indicating more positive attitudes; 8) sex was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, females' mean scores tended to be more positive than males'; 9) race was not a significant predictor of energy attitudes. However, the analysis showed that white students' attitudes tended to be more positive; 10) teacher knowledge and attitudes were not significant variables for predicting student energy knowledge and energy attitudes; and 11) there was no significant relationship between student energy knowledge and energy attitudes. The major recommendation for further study is that more attention be devoted to energy education at state and local levels.
OBJECTIVE: To explore attitudes of new-to-practice certified family physicians in Ontario concerning sanctions against sexual abuse of patients by physicians and to assess the importance of concern about accusations of sexual abuse in influencing clinical decisions. DESIGN: Qualitative study and cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Focus groups: 34 physicians who completed family medicine residency training between 1984 and 1989 participated in seven focus groups between June and October 1992. Survey: all certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada who received certification between 1989 and 1991 and were currently practising in Ontario. Of the 564 eligible physicians 395 (184 men and 211 women) responded, for an overall response rate of 70.0%. The response rates among the male and female physicians were 70.5% and 69.6% respectively. OUTCOME MEASURES: Physicians' attitudes toward restricting physical examinations done by physicians to same-sex patients, mandatory reporting of sexual impropriety and loss of licence in cases of sexual violation and the perceived importance of concern about accusations of sexual abuse as an influence on clinical decisions. RESULTS: During the focus groups male physicians in particular expressed concerns about the effect on their practice patterns of the current climate regarding sexual abuse of patients. Female physicians were less concerned about possible accusations of sexual abuse but expressed concerns regarding possible sexualization of the clinical encounter by male patients. In the survey equal proportions of men (163 [93.7%]) and women (191 [92.3%]) disagreed with restricting examinations to same-sex patients. The women were more likely than the men to agree that all suspected cases of sexual impropriety committed by other physicians should be reported (121 [58.7%] v. 86 [50.0%]), whereas the men were more likely to disagree (48 [27.9%] v. 32 [15.5%]) (p = 0.008). The women were also more likely than the men to agree that physicians should lose their licence permanently if they were found guilty of sexual violation (125 [62.2%] v. 73 [43.5%]), whereas the men were more likely to disagree (61 [36.3%] v. 37 [18.4%]) (p < 0.001). Almost half of the men (80 [46.5%]) but only 28 women (14.1%) reported that concerns about accusations of sexual abuse were of importance in their clinical decisions (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Young female family physicians practising in Ontario are much more likely than their male counterparts to endorse permanent loss of licence for physicians who sexually abuse patients and are significantly less concerned about accusations against themselves. Neither sex endorses only same-sex examinations by physicians. Educational approaches to protect patients while ensuring that appropriate care continues to be delivered are essential.
Cohen, M; Woodward, C A; Ferrier, B; Williams, A P
The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…
Uniformed services personnel are at an increased risk of HIV infection. We examined the HIV\\/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk\\u000a behaviors among female military personnel to determine the correlates of HIV risk behaviors in this population. The study\\u000a used a cross-sectional design to examine HIV\\/AIDS knowledge and sexual risk behaviors in a sample of 346 females drawn from\\u000a two military cantonments
E. James Essien; Emmanuel Monjok; Hua Chen; Susan Abughosh; Ernest Ekong; Ronald J. Peters; Laurens Holmes; Marcia M. Holstad; Osaro Mgbere
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the effective management of TB. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among medical students. The survey was done from 2012 to 2013. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed regarding tuberculosis with a questionnaire. Knowledge mean score of students was 16.13±2.06 and Attitude score was 36.08±3.76, Knowledge and attitude levels of students were moderate to high in the majority of them. Practice score of the study subjects was 22.77±4.95, 11.9% of students had poor practice level. 43% did not know that a sputum smear is the most important method used for diagnosis of TB. Two-thirds of them did not know the distance that should be kept from contagious patients. Half of them believed that the BCG vaccination has no role in the prevention of TB. This study concluded that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge of students regarding TB transmission and the role of sputum smear in diagnosis. The importance of the BCG vaccination should be emphasized. PMID:24857175
Describes a survey of 740 board-certified family practitioners and pediatricians regarding their training in child-care issues, frequency of discussing child care during office visits, and their attitudes regarding specific medical and developmental issues related to child care. Indicates that 39% of the physicians felt uncomfortable discussing…
The basic objectives of this research, which involved children in the 2nd, 5th, 8th, and 11th grades, were to describe children's uses and perceptions of animals and to discern possible developmental stages in the evolution of attitudes toward animals. Personal interviews were conducted with 267 children from 16 public schools randomly selected…
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Examined results of pretests and posttests given to undergraduates enrolled in a music appreciation course to analyze the changes in their musical attitudes, opinions, and knowledge. Found that students exhibited a significant gain in knowledge about musical works; however, there was no significant difference in their opinions of these same works.…
The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…
Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.
Objective To determine if chefs' and student chefs' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding healthful food preparation are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.Design An analytical survey questionnaire was distributed to 4 chef groups. Sections 1 and 2 of the survey measured chefs' food science knowledge (13 questions) and likelihood of using food preparation practices (15 questions) necessary to meet
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Using current guidelines, we surveyed physicians at our hospital to ascertain knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding Clostridium difficile infection. The survey identified significant gaps in knowledge and practice. Infection control professionals should include physician education on Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis, isolation precautions, and treatment as part of a comprehensive control program. PMID:22981165
Fayerberg, Eugene; Bouchard, Jacques; Kellie, Susan M
This study was conceived against the hunches of seemingly inadequate knowledge and blatant stigmatization of leprosy sufferers amongst health practitioners in Nigeria. It aimed at relating health workers knowledge and consequent attitude towards leprosy patients. Five hundred and eighty seven health workers comprising males and females drawn from government and private owned health care infrastructures participated in this study. A
The purpose of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitudes of physical education undergraduate students towards children with special needs. A questionnaire of seven questions was submitted to 140 physical education students. Questions concerned the knowledge about the different kinds of disability, the acceptance of children with…
Mousouli, Maria; Kokaridas, Dimitrios; Angelopoulou-Sakadami, Nicoletta; Aristotelous, Maria
This study examined the effect of a hypermedia-enhanced problem-based learning environment in astronomy on sixth-graders' science knowledge, attitude toward learning science, and motivation toward learning. It was found that the students had significantly increased their science knowledge from pretest to post test and also retained much of what…
Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…
Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.
Our study describes khat behavior, knowledge and attitudes among Yemeni medical students (MS) and the effects of a seminar. MS completed a survey (n = 62); a subgroup participated in a discussion-based seminar and follow-up survey (n = 18). Although they demonstrated knowledge about khat's health effects and considered it unacceptable for health professionals (HP) to chew khat, they disagreed
Paul H. Yi; John S. Kim; Khalil I. Hussein; Richard Saitz
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p < 0.001) with 38% of explained variance. The significant predictor variables that indicate lower attitudes about homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. PMID:24851595
Abstract Aim: This study assessed infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among women from Queensland, Australia, in their first pregnancy. Antenatal feeding intention in this group was described, and the hypothesis was tested that antenatal knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about infant feeding are associated with antenatal intention for the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding for the infant's first year. Subjects and Methods: The Feeding Queensland Babies Study is a prospective survey of infant feeding attitudes and behaviors among first-time mothers in Queensland, Australia. Data on infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and intention were collected antenatally, and an Infant Feeding Attitudes Score was calculated. Results: Although 85% of respondents endorsed breastfeeding as most appropriate for infants, 11% valued formula feeding equally. Intention to give any breastmilk during the first weeks was 98%, but it fell to 18% during the second year. More than one-quarter of women reported intention to introduce foods other than breastmilk before 5 months of infant age. The infant feeding attitudes and beliefs score correlated positively with feeding intention for breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary solids. Conclusions: Enhancing women's knowledge of recommendations and their understanding of breastfeeding's specific benefits and the reasons for recommended scheduling of feeding transitions may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and duration and the age-appropriate introduction of complementary solids. Communication of detailed feeding recommendations for the infant's first year and specific information about the health benefits of breastfeeding should be a goal of healthcare providers working with pregnant women. PMID:24840853
Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication…
Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.
Background Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one among different approaches which have been implemented as an attempt to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact at the individual, family and society level. VCT is perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people like tertiary level students. Ethiopia as a country with high burden of HIV started responding to the epidemic by preparing and updating guidelines on VCT. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among university students in North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 using a stratified sampling method to enroll students from different faculties into the study. A total of 330 university students filled in a self-administered questionnaire with response rate of 97.3%. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV. A chi-square test was used to determine an association between a number of independent factors and dependant variables. Result About 66.1% of the study participants were males with a mean age of 20 years. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents were Orthodox with 63% reported living in urban areas before joining the university. From the study participants 86.3% were knowledgeable on VCT, 73.3% had positive attitude towards VCT for HIV and 61.8% had had VCT for HIV in the past. Previous residence before joining the university, level of education, sex and religion were among the sociodemographic variables that showed statistically significant association with the one or more of the outcome variables. Fear of positive results, stigma and discrimination following the positive results were reported as main barriers for VCT uptake. Conclusion The findings reveal important barriers for VCT uptake and suggest strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination.
Background: Nowadays, organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure, which increases the importance of organ procurement. It seems that the attitude towards organ donation and transplantation affects people’s satisfaction. Moreover, health care personnel, especially physicians, should be familiar with transplantation rules and standards. It seems that understanding the knowledge and attitude of this group can affect the transplantation center policies. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of a group of Iranian physicians towards organ and tissue donation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 560 Iranian physicians including nephrologists, urologists and internists were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire containing their demographics, knowledge and attitude towards organ and tissue donation and transplantation. Results: Of 560 participants, 435 (78%) agreed with organ donation after death and 285 (51%) agreed with living kidney donation. The most common reason provided by those who agreed with donation was “helping people” whereas the most common cause of disagreement was “to honor the body.” Only 32 (6%) physicians had no knowledge about transplantation rules. Complete awareness about theoretical basis and financial issues of transplantation was observed in 265 (47%) and 221 (40%) participants, respectively. Conclusion: Physicians had a good attitude towards organ and tissue transplantation although less than half of them had knowledge of transplantation rules and its theoretical basis and financial issues; therefore, additional awareness and education of physicians is needed in all areas of the organ donation process in Iran.
Salmani Nadoushan, M.; Nozary Heshmati, B.; Shabanzadeh Pirsaraee, A.; Salmani Nodoushan, I.; Jafari Nadoushan, R.; Yazdi, F.
Background: There is a large controversy in the literature about the inter-relations between perceived risk, knowledge, and risk behavior in different settings, and people at HIV risk are not an exception. Aim: To assess additive and multiplicative effect of perceived HIV risk and HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). Method: We enrolled 162 street based IDUs to this analysis. Data came from a national survey of IDUs in Iran, with a cross sectional design. Socio-demographics (employment, education, marital status), HIV knowledge, perceived HIV risk, and four different sexual risk behavior were registered. In the first step, using spearman test, the association of HIV knowledge and risk behavior were tested, then possible moderating effect of perceived HIV risk on this association was determined. Results: Although among IDUs with low perceived HIV risk, HIV knowledge was negatively associated with sexual risk behavior (P?0.05 for all), this association was not significant among IDUs with high perceived HIV risk (P?>?0.05 for all). Thus perceived HIV risk moderated the association between HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior. Conclusion: Perceived risk should be taken into consideration when studying the effect of HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of IDUs. Findings may help us better understand negative effects of fear arousing interventions as a part of HIV prevention media campaigns.
Background: There is a large controversy in the literature about the inter-relations between perceived risk, knowledge, and risk behavior in different settings, and people at HIV risk are not an exception. Aim: To assess additive and multiplicative effect of perceived HIV risk and HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). Method: We enrolled 162 street based IDUs to this analysis. Data came from a national survey of IDUs in Iran, with a cross sectional design. Socio-demographics (employment, education, marital status), HIV knowledge, perceived HIV risk, and four different sexual risk behavior were registered. In the first step, using spearman test, the association of HIV knowledge and risk behavior were tested, then possible moderating effect of perceived HIV risk on this association was determined. Results: Although among IDUs with low perceived HIV risk, HIV knowledge was negatively associated with sexual risk behavior (P?0.05 for all), this association was not significant among IDUs with high perceived HIV risk (P?>?0.05 for all). Thus perceived HIV risk moderated the association between HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior. Conclusion: Perceived risk should be taken into consideration when studying the effect of HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of IDUs. Findings may help us better understand negative effects of fear arousing interventions as a part of HIV prevention media campaigns. PMID:24350202
Backgrounds: Marriages and establishing a family is one of the most important events in the life of each person. It has significant effects on personal and social health, if it occurs with sufficient knowledge in the proper conditions. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of pre-marriage instruction on the knowledge and health attitudes of the couples attending the pre-marriage counseling classes. Materials and Methods: This pre and post quasi-experimental study was conducted on 250 couples attending the pre-marriage counseling classes. The required information was collected using an autonomous questionnaire designed based on the research objectives. The questionnaire included three parts: Demographic information, knowledge (27 questions) and attitude (18 questions. The questionnaire was filled out before and after the pre-marriage counseling program, which was presented as lectures. The effect of the instructional program was analyzed using a statistical test. Results: The results showed that 83.2% of the couples had poor knowledge, 16% average, and 0.8% had good knowledge before the intervention. After the intervention, 60.4% of couples had poor knowledge, 31.6% average and 8% had good knowledge. The results also revealed that that the difference in mean scores of knowledge and attitudes regarding reproductive health, family planning, genetic diseases and disabilities was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Despite the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of the couples had increased after the instructional intervention, the increase in knowledge level was not very high. So the knowledge score of the couples increased just 4.3%, and only 8% of the couples had good knowledge after the instructional intervention. Therefore, to achieve a relatively stable behavior change in individuals and improving the health level of the young couples, it is recommended that more attention pay to the quality of the instructional classes.
Social influence factors in sharing knowledge by e-mail are important issues in developing and understanding successful knowledge management systems and human–computer interaction. This article investigates important factors in shaping attitudes toward knowledge sharing by e-mail, based on social influence theory and self-determination theory. An empirical test of the proposed model using an online survey was conducted with a sample of
Context-Knowledge is linked consistently with organ donation attitudes, willingness, and consent. Negative information about donation and the recipients of donation can affect public opinion and donation willingness. However, it is unclear which information sources are most important in forming knowledge, particularly in Australia where little prior research exists.Objectives-To identify information sources that may inform Australians' organ donation knowledge and attitudes toward transplant recipients.Participants-1487 Australian residents aged 18 years or older who completed an online survey.Main Outcome Measures-Self-reported knowledge, information sources, and attitudes toward transplant recipients.Results-Participants felt fairly well informed about organ donation, particularly if they registered donation wishes, were female, and were older. More than half reported their driver's license, television news, and discussion with family/friends as donation information sources. However, information sources contributing to knowledge were personal experience, online, hospital, government campaign, discussion with family/friends, Medicare, doctor's surgery, and the newspaper. Differences based on registration status, sex, and age, were found. Discussion with family/friends and movies or television shows, as well as not having seen information in a newspaper or doctor's surgery, contributed to positive attitudes toward recipients, although the variance explained was small.Conclusions-People felt more informed by personal, medical, and government information sources than by mass media. Family discussion was not only a common information source but also contributed significantly and positively to both donation knowledge and attitudes toward recipients. Further exploration of information sources contributing to donation knowledge and community attitudes toward transplant recipients among young men is needed. PMID:24919734
Provision of safe, voluntary, termination of pregnancy (TOP) in South Africa is challenged by an insufficient number of TOP-trained clinicians. Medical students' understanding of TOP legality and their attitudes toward TOP training are indicators for future service provision. We administered a 63-item questionnaire to explore these issues at the University of Cape Town and Walter Sisulu University. Ordinary least squares regression assessed predictors of TOP legislation knowledge and training attitudes. Results: Of 1308 students, 95% knew that TOP was legal in South Africa, but few (27%) understood the specific provisions of the legislation beyond 13 weeks' gestation. Sixty-three percent desired more information about TOP. In multivariate models, female, white and sexually experienced students and students more advanced in school had better legislation knowledge (all p < .01). Attending religious services regularly (p < .01) was associated with lack of support for TOP training, whereas being in a relationship (p < .01) was associated with support for TOP training. PMID:23135069
Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of primary school managers regarding epilepsy among school children in Erbil City, Iraq. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary schools between 18 June and 18 August 2013. A total of 80 primary school managers were selected to answer a questionnaire covering three domains: socio-demographical characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy and attitudes towards epilepsy. Results: More than half of the participants (55%) had spent less than 10 years in school administration. More than one-third (37.5%) of the participants believed that epilepsy was an infectious disease, and over half of the respondents (53.75%) stated that epilepsy cannot be treated or prevented. Conclusion: Although the respondents’ attitudes towards pupils with epilepsy were generally positive, their knowledge of epilepsy was imperfect; thus, an epilepsy education campaign is required. This should focus on the causes of epilepsy and its management.
Epilepsy is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous myths. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in stigmatization of persons with epilepsy. A questionnaire to measure knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of epilepsy (KAPE) was adapted from previous studies and administered to students of the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. The response rate was 91% (355 students). Knowledge was limited, especially with respect to epilepsy's cause, its incidence, and management of an acute emergency. Attitudes toward epilepsy were generally positive. Students who knew someone with epilepsy scored significantly higher on knowledge and attitude questions. A stigma score was calculated to assess perceived stigmatization. There were no differences between the genders, but persons from rural areas and persons of mixed ethnicity perceived less stigmatization. Hindus perceived greater stigmatization than people of other religions. Overall, students still feel persons with epilepsy are discriminated against and experience stigmatization. PMID:19435574
It has been well established that many people will suffer with pain at the end of life, and untreated pain contributes to reduced quality of life. Many barriers contribute to this issue including a lack of knowledge in nurses who care for dying patients. Many nurses in general practice settings do not possess adequate knowledge about basic pain management principles;
The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural respondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counterparts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents' source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ donation and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this significant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs. PMID:20061688
Unmanaged pain is a prevalent problem faced by many cancer patients. One part of this problem centers on a lack of emphasis on pain management in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of 41 undergraduate nursing students regarding pain management. Students voluntarily completed a demographic data form, the Nurses’ Attitude Survey, and the Pain Management Principles Assessment Tool. A mean score of 19.4 out of a possible 31 was achieved on the knowledge test, whereas a mean score of 17.0 was achieved on the Nurses’ Attitude Survey. A weak-to-moderate relationship between knowledge and attitudes was found. Although students had positive attitudes regarding pain management, many still lacked the fundamental knowledge essential for adequately managing pain. The sample size was relatively small and not demographically diverse, but the response from the sample was sufficient to provide statistically meaningful data. In the quest to improve patient outcomes, these findings suggest the need to develop specific strategies to effectively teach undergraduate nursing students about pain management.
Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT) group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL) group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. Results The intervention (DT/SDL) group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. Conclusions Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.
Despite a rapid growth in research interest and treatment facilities for adolescent sex offenders, understanding of how these adolescents differ from non-offending adolescents remains incomplete. This study contributes to knowledge of the distinguishing characteristics of offenders and focuses on levels of sexualknowledge and empathy that…
This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups,…
Knowledge of sexual health is an important indicator of the development of healthy adolescent sexuality. An evaluation instrument in nursing school practice, whose results can lead to improved sexual health in adolescents, is needed. We conducted this study to undertake rigorous testing of the Sexual Health Knowledge Scale (SHKS) as a means to ensure a reliable and valid quantitative measure of sexual health knowledge among young adolescent females. A panel of experts assessed the content validity of the 40-item measure. Initial testing involved 481 female adolescents (12-14 years old), using principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation and the determination of Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted using data from an additional sample of 234 female adolescents (12-14 years old). Principal component factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution with eigenvalues greater than 1 that explained 43.40% of the variance. As a result of the analysis of the scale, 22 items were deleted, resulting in an 18-item scale. The CFA identified a second-order factor termed "sexual health knowledge." Goodness-of-fit indices showed an acceptable fit overall with the full model (?(2)/df (131) = 1.69, RMSEA = 0.054, RMR = 0.013, CFI = 0.92, and GFI = 0.99). We determined that the SHKS is a reliable and valid measure, with good composite reliabilities and goodness-of-fit indices. PMID:23477658
Background The purpose of this study was to understand and assess the smoking knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and associated factors\\u000a among Chinese male surgeons.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A total of 823 Chinese male surgeons from six cities in China participated in a survey of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and\\u000a behaviors in 2004. This study presents descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses of factors associated with\\u000a the
Tingting Yao; Michael Ong; Anita Lee; Yuan Jiang; Zhengzhong Mao
Background The purpose of this study is to understand and assess the smoking knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and associated factors among Chinese male surgeons. Methods A total of 823 Chinese male surgeons from six cities in China participated in a survey of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in 2004. This study presents descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses of factors associated with the respondents’ smoking behavior and smoking cessation activity. Results The current smoking prevalence for Chinese male surgeons was 45.2%, of which 42.5% reported having smoked in front of their patients. Few of the respondents always asked patients about their smoking status (25%) or advised smokers to quit smoking (27.2%). Logistic regression models found that current smoking status was significantly associated (p<0.05) with the surgeons’ knowledge about the harms of active and passive smoking and their attitudes towards smoke-free hospitals and health role modeling by physicians. Smoking in front of patients was significantly associated (p<0.05) with the respondents’ knowledge of active smoking harms, attitudes towards smoke-free hospitals, and cigarette consumption. Their smoking cessation activity was significantly associated (p<0.05) with their knowledge about the harms of active smoking, their rates of advising patients to quit smoking, and their knowledge of the harms of passive smoking. Conclusions Male surgeons have the highest smoking prevalence among Chinese physicians. They should actively participate in tobacco control training and education to improve their knowledge and attitudes toward smoking, which will improve their own smoking behavior and smoking cessation practices. Only by engaging all parts of the health care system, including surgeons, can China make headway against its tobacco epidemic.
Background: The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by nurses in hospitals is very important. Aims: This study was aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention to improve ADR reporting and whether trained nurses had better knowledge, attitude, and practice toward ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 nurses in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran were evaluated with a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire regarding ADR reporting in March 2010. After this, an educational program about ADR was provided to nurses. Then the nurses were re-evaluated by the same questionnaire. Comparisons were made of the attitude and knowledge within nurses, before and after education. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P < 0.05 was considered as significant level. Independent-sample t-test was used to measure the intervention effect. Results: The response rate was 61.3% (N = 184). Knowledge of nurses before the intervention was significantly less than the knowledge after the intervention (P = 0.001). Also, there was a significant effect on attitude (P = 0.002). During the follow-up period of 4 months after the intervention, 26 spontaneous reports were received. Conclusion: Continuous ADR educational program, training, and integration of ADRs’ reporting into the activities of the nurses would likely improve ADR reporting.
The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of herbal remedies (HRs) in infertile patients. This was a cross sectional study in a referral infertility care center. Three hundred and six outpatients, both women and men, presenting for the first time with complaint of infertility at Arash hospital, were recruited. Verbal consent for participation was received. A self administered questionnaire was used. Main outcome measure was knowledge, attitude and practice of patients toward herbal medications. 47.3% of participants were knowledgeable of HRs with female gender and lower educational background being the associated factors in knowledge. 43.4% of patients with significant female dominancy had positive attitude toward HRs. 31% of participants were using HRs. Only 3.2% of those using HRs informed their physician. The most common health condition promoting herbal use was psychological (33.3%) and gastrointestinal (30.8%) disorders. 3.5% of participants used HRs as fertility treatment which was significantly observed in women and those with lower levels of formal education. A considerable proportion of our population had used HRs without sufficient knowledge and had positive attitude toward HRs. More importantly, patients did not disclose their use of HRs to physicians. Therefore, physicians should inquire about the use of alternative remedies and provide patients with appropriate information. PMID:23605605
Background Despite concerns that facilitating informed choice would decrease diabetes screening uptake, 'informed choice' invitations that increased knowledge did not affect attendance (the DICISION trial). We explored possible reasons using data from an experimental analogue study undertaken to develop the invitations. We tested a model of the impact on knowledge, attitude and intentions of a diabetes screening invitation designed to facilitate informed choices. Methods 417 men and women aged 40-69 recruited from town centres in the UK were randomised to receive either an invitation for diabetes screening designed to facilitate informed choice or a standard type of invitation. Knowledge of the invitation, attitude towards diabetes screening, and intention to attend for diabetes screening were assessed two weeks later. Results Attitude was a strong predictor of screening intentions (? = .64, p = .001). Knowledge added to the model but was a weak predictor of intentions (? = .13, p = .005). However, invitation type did not predict attitudes towards screening but did predict knowledge (? = -.45, p = .001), which mediated a small effect of invitation type on intention (indirect ? = -.06, p = .017). Conclusions These findings may explain why information about the benefits and harms of screening did not reduce diabetes screening attendance in the DICISION trial.
Objective To qualitatively evaluate the views of Haitian immigrants on cancer and the influence of cultural and socio-ecological factors on cancer screening behavior. Methods Six focus groups, consisting of 4–10 individuals each, were conducted among Haitian adults at average risk for colorectal cancer. The interviews were conducted in Haitian Creole and featured questions that addressed beliefs and attitudes about general health, access to health care, colon cancer, and screening practices. Results The focus groups provided insight into the health service utilization patterns in the Haitian community, as well as the factors driving them including language and the pattern of accessing healthcare only for emergencies. Conclusions Many misconceptions regarding cancer and its development were evident in the discussions. However participants were willing to follow the recommendations of a physician. This highlighted the importance in this community of disseminating information at every opportunity about preventative care, including colorectal cancer screening.
This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students’ attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race\\/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more frequently in their views than did Whites or
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136 middle grade students were obtained from an earlier evaluation
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of program interventions in a school-based teen pregnancy program on hypothesized constructs underlying teens' attitudes toward sexuality. An important task related to this purpose was the validation of the constructs and their stability from pre- to postintervention measures. Data from 1,136…
The purpose of the current study was to examine factors that influence rape myths among Korean college students. This study was particularly interested in the ways in which attitudes toward women and sexual double standard affect the relationship between gender and rape myths. Although the incidence of rape is a common concern in many current…
IntroductionAn individual teenager's use of services may depend on perceived need, on knowledge of sexual health and local services, and on ability to access. This paper presents the first UK large-scale quantitative analysis of these factors, comparing those who use services with those who do not.Methods15\\/16-year-olds (n = 5747) were questioned about their use of sexual health services in the
A cross-sectional study was made of 500 patients and 500 health care workers randomly selected from 250 primary health care centres throughout Iraq to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices towards tuberculosis (TB). Using structured questionnaire interviews, the study showed 64.4% of patients had good knowledge, while 54.8% had negative attitudes and practices towards TB. The 2 most important sources of patient information about TB were physicians and television. Of health care workers, 95.5% had good knowledge about TB and this was significantly associated with age and job duration. By contrast, health care workers' practice was poor: only 38.2% handled suspected TB cases correctly. The national TB programme in Iraq has had a good impact on knowledge of TB patients and health care workers. PMID:15748069
Sex education is provided routinely to school-aged children in many countries without enough evidence that it will benefit them when they become adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term influence of the sex education that was provided during the school-aged years on the attitudes, behaviors, and sexual health among male and female college students in Korea. For this descriptive, comparative study, the data were obtained from 3609 male and 2180 female college students by using the proportional quota sampling method. Overall, the female students had more opportunities for sex education. Receiving this education during the school-aged years lowered the sexual double standard score but was not related to sexual activity among the male and female students. Receiving sex education at different time points during the school-aged years had differential influences on the sexualattitudes and indicators of sexual health between the male and the female students. The results of this study suggest extending the role of school nurses to include redesigning the content of sex education programs, based on the sex and age of the students, and using midwives to provide sex education in community settings. PMID:21752169
Survey data on 1217 adults living in Alberta, Canada were collected by Ipsos Reid Public Affairs and made available to us for analysis. The survey questioned participants on issues related to science including their perceived knowledge of science, attitudes toward science, and trust in science and technology. We developed a structural equation model to account for the causal relations implied by the correlations among the variables in the data set. Results show that trust in generalized science and technology is a large determiner of trust in specific technologies, but that trust in specific technologies is not a determinant of overall trust in science and technology. We also found that attitudes towards science have an effect on trust in generalized science and technology whereas perceived knowledge does not. Education and gender contribute to attitudes supporting an increased personal attachment to science, which was the strongest predictor of trust in our model. PMID:23833175
Roberts, Mary Roduta; Reid, Grace; Schroeder, Meadow; Norris, Stephen P
Injuries are the leading cause of death for children and young adults in Croatia. Research has indicated that health care providers can be effective in reducing the risk for traumatic injury through anticipatory guidance, but successful guidance requires that providers have injury knowledge and informed safety attitudes. This is the first study in Croatia to identify health care provider's knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding anticipatory guidance on injury prevention for children. A stratified, random sample of licensed Croatian healthcare providers was mailed a survey, with a response of rate of 39.5 %. Participants included pediatricians, family physicians, gynecologists, each with a focus on primary care, and community nurses. Participants filled out a 15-minute paper-and-pencil survey that tested their knowledge of injury risks and prevention strategies, assessed their safety-prone attitudes, and measured the extent to which they counselled their patients on injury prevention. Pediatricians had the highest knowledge of injury risks and intervention approaches, with an average correct score of six out of ten (significantly higher than all other provider types). Knowledge was highest regarding infant fall risk and lowest for safe sleep positions. Pediatricians and community nurses had the highest safety-prone attitudes. Safety prone attitudes were strongest for transportation safety and weakest for safe sleeping position for all providers. Community nurses reported the highest level of patient counselling, followed by pediatricians. Both factual education and support in translating knowledge into everyday practice are necessary for health care providers. Implementing anticipatory guidance for child safety is a promising approach in Croatia. PMID:23086152
Conspiracy beliefs about HIV/AIDS have been endorsed by significant percentages of African Americans in prior research. However, almost no research has investigated the relationship of such beliefs to behaviors and attitudes relevant to HIV risk. In the present exploratory study, 71 African-American adults (aged 18-45; 61% female) in the United States participated in a national, cross-sectional telephone survey examining the relationship of HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs to sexualattitudes and behaviors. Results indicated significant associations between endorsement of a general HIV/AIDS government conspiracy and negative beliefs regarding condoms and greater numbers of sexual partners. Endorsement of HIV/AIDS treatment conspiracies was related to positive attitudes about condoms and greater condom use intentions. Findings suggest that conspiracy beliefs have implications for HIV prevention in African-American communities. PMID:14651372
Genetic engineering and biotechnology made possible of gene transfer without discriminating microorganism, plant, animal or human. However, although these scientific techniques have benefits, they cause arguments because of their ethical and social impacts. The arguments about ethical ad social impacts of biotechnology made clear that not only getting basic knowledge about biotechnology and genetic engineering, also ethical and social issues
The present study examines public knowledge and opinion in the United States on issues related to airbag safety. Data were obtained through a national random digit-dial telephone survey of 1005 people living in the contiguous 48 United States. A majority of respondents (1) know that airbags can harm drivers seated too close to the steering wheel; (2) know that rear-facing
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating\\u000a the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in\\u000a Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had heard of “autism.” Our
Mohammad Hossein Rahbar; Khalid Ibrahim; Parisa Assassi
Background Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) or cutting caries legal and bioethical debates and it is practiced in many developing countries. Methods Random selection of 154 midwives was used for the study during June 2012 and through July 2012 aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of the midwives towards FGM in Eastern Sudan. Results A total of 157 midwives enrolled in this study. They had been practicing for 3 – 44 years (mean SD 19.2?±?10.3). More than two third of them experienced practicing FGM sometime in their life (127/157, 80.9%). There was low level of awareness of types of FGM practice since only 7% (11/157) identified the four types correctly. 53.5% (84/157) identified type 1 correctly while 18.5% (29/157), 17.8% (28/157) and 15.9% (25/157) identified type 2, 3 and 4 as correct respectively. While 30 (19.1%) of the midwives claimed that all types of FGM are harmful, 76.4% (120/157) were of the opinion that some forms are not harmful and 7 (4.5%) reported that all types of FGM are not harmful. Likewise while 74.5% (117/157) of the interviewed midwives mentioned that the FGM is a legal practice only 25.5% (40/117) were of the opinion that FGM is illegal practice. The vast majority of the respondents (64.3%, 101/157) have an opinion that FGM decreases the sexual pleasure. More than half (53.5%, 84/157) of the participants affirmed that FGM does not increase the risk of HIV transmission. High proportion of the respondents (71.3%, 112/157) did not know whether or not infertility could complicate FGM. Conclusions Thus a substantial effort should be made to discourage the continuation of FGM practice among midwives in Sudan. This might be achieved by improving knowledge and awareness among the midwives and the community
As life expectancy for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) increases, these individuals will have greater need for competent and compassionate oral health care. Unfortunately, PLWHA face many significant barriers to receiving adequate oral health care, due in part to the fear of being stigmatized or discriminated against by dental care providers (DCPs). Although many studies have documented accounts of prejudice and discrimination toward PLWHA in the dental health care setting, few have developed theoretical explanations as to why these attitudes and behaviors persist or how they can be effectively ameliorated. The goal of the current study was to utilize Weiner's Attribution-Helping model to explain how a patient's perceived responsibility for contracting HIV might impact DCPs' attitudes and behavioral responses toward PLWHA. Existing research has demonstrated that DCPs' level of HIV-related knowledge impacts their treatment attitudes and behaviors toward PLWHA, but it remains unclear whether the effects of HIV-related knowledge may be masked by the personal attitudes (i.e., perceived patient responsibility for contracting HIV) that DCPs maintain. One hundred and eighteen dental students were recruited from a New England dental program. All participants read one of three brief patient vignettes in which the mode by which an individual contracted HIV was manipulated. Dental students then completed a survey assessing 1) perceptions of the patient's responsibility for contracting HIV; 2) knowledge of HIV; and 3) treatment attitudes. Results indicated that both knowledge of HIV and attributions of patient responsibility for illness were predictive of negative attitudes toward treatment. PMID:19339430
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Colorectal cancer is the commonest cancer among males and the third commonest cancer among women in Malaysia. However, almost 80% of patients sought treatment for cancer only when they were already in late stage due to lack of awareness. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge and attitude of colorectal cancer screening among moderate risk patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2009 till April 2010 in 44 health clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in West Malaysia. Stratified multistage random sampling was applied and a validated Malay version of the questionnaire with the Cronbach' alpha of 0.65 to 0.82 was used. Data were entered using SPSS 12.0 and analysed with STATA 8.0. A total of 1,905 (93.8%) patients responded. The mean (SD) knowledge and attitude score among moderate risk patients were 69.5 (6.11%) and 66.5 (7.07%), whereas, the percentages for good knowledge and attitude were 4.1% and 3.3% respectively. Less than 1% had undergone colorectal cancer screening and the main reasons were not bothered, busy and embarrassment. The majority of patients who had moderate risk for colorectal cancer had extremely low knowledge and attitude towards colorectal cancer screening. As a result, the majority did not undergo any form of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:22292632
Harmy, M Y; Norwati, D; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Amry, A R
Epilepsy is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous myths. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in stigmatization of persons with epilepsy. A questionnaire to measure knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of epilepsy (KAPE) was adapted from previous studies and administered to students of the University of the West Indies,
Farid F. Youssef; Sarah Dial; Nikita Jaggernauth; Cathy-Lee Jagdeo; Akilah Pascall; Lydia Ramessar; Malini Ramnarine; Rudranath Ramsawak; Trishell Simon
Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
A number of studies have failed to find that gender constancy (understanding that one's gender is permanent) predicts gender-typed attitudes and behavior. This study (run with a predominantly white sample) tests the hypothesis that gender constant children are motivated to master gender roles, but that how well they do so depends on their knowledge of gender stereotypes. We predicted that
Background The study examined the knowledge and attitudes to personal genomics testing for complex diseases among Nigerians and identified how the knowledge and attitudes vary with gender, age, religion, education and related factors. Methods Data were collected using qualitative method in 2 districts of the Federal Capital Territory. In the study, eight (8) Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) and twenty seven (27) Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) were conducted. Participants for the research were recruited among healthy Nigerians, individuals with complex diseases, health care professionals, community leaders and health policy makers. Result Analysis of the result showed that most respondents in both FGDs and KIIs had limited knowledge about genomics test initially. Their understanding of the test however improved after explanation on its concept. Participants showed positive attitude towards genomics tests. Nevertheless they expressed fear over direct to consumer personal genomics testing, testing unborn babies and disclosure of results to third parties. Culture and religion were found to influence the perspectives of respondents on genomics test particularly those aspects that could either directly contradict their beliefs and practices or lead to actions which contradict them. Conclusion In conclusion, most Nigerians interviewed had limited knowledge of genomics test but with supportive attitude towards its use in predicting future risk of complex diseases after understanding the test concept. Genomics testing for complex diseases was not a common practice in Nigeria.
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental health knowledge, attitudes and practices of children enrolled in grades four through eight at a university laboratory school in southeast Louisiana, U.S.A. Quantitative and qualitative questions were completed through an online survey. The children's written responses to the survey…
Naquin, Millie; Cole, Diane; Bowers, Ashley; Walkwitz, Ed
This study examined the similarities and differences among 171 Grade 7-12 science teachers from three different countries (54 U.S, 63 Bolivian, and 54 Turkish) with respect to their attitudes toward environmental education (EE) and instructional practices. The instrument employed explored how teachers' knowledge, instructional practices,…
The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…
Purpose – The objective of this study, part of a larger overall project on food safety management in the fish producing and processing companies in Mauritius, is to generate information on the knowledge, attitude and perception of key informants at the managerial level in these sectors with respect to food safety and its management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structured questionnaire was
Analyzes specific citizenship materials included in a supplement to the WESTCOAST Reader, a Canadian newspaper intended to help adults learning to read English as a second language. The supplement helped to integrate the knowledge component of citizenship education with the development of language skills and attitudes. (Author/CB)
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…
Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…
AIM: This paper is a report of a study conducted to compare the knowledge, attitudes and current management of rheumatoid arthritis-related fatigue in British and Dutch rheumatology nurses. BACKGROUND: After pain, fatigue is the most important symptom for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but little is known about the current management of this fatigue by healthcare professionals. METHODS: A questionnaire was
J. W. J. Repping-Wuts; Sarah Hewlett; Theo van Achterberg
The philosophical basis for the federal human subject protection policy is congruent with the values of the social work profession. The pragmatics are more complicated. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes toward, knowledge about, and practices of institutional review boards (IRBs) across colleges and universities as reported by…
Most health care and social service providers are routinely required to work with elderly clients and clients’ aging family members. Research suggests that students entering these professions have knowledge deficits and lack positive attitudes toward older people. Few prefer to work with aging clients. Professional curricula are not providing students with adequate training to serve the current needs of this
Christine C. Reed; S. Colleen Beall; Lorin A. Baumhover
The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…
This report presents information from a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Nebraska adolescents (N=1,240) in grades 9-12 related to the Human-Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Schools were selected at random from each of the six classifications of Nebraska schools, and two or three…
This paper discusses the evaluation of an informal science education project, The Birdhouse Network (TBN) of the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. The Elaboration Likelihood Model and the theory of Experiential Education were used as frameworks to analyse the impact of TBN on participants' attitudes toward science and the environment, on their knowledge of bird biology, and on their understanding of
Given the magnitude of drug addiction in Malaysia, the government has given top priority to this issue. It is timely that an assessement of knowledge, attitudes and perceptions related to drug abuse and drug dependents among the general public be carried out. Thus, a nationwide survey was undertaken. A representative sample of 2, 591 respondents aged 13 years and above
BackgroundCentral to the work of many medical practitioners is the provision of pharmaceutical support for patients. Patients can include athletes who are subject to anti-doping rules and regulations which prohibit the use of certain substances in and out of competition. This paper examines the evidence on medical practitioners’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards doping in sport.
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a ‘knowledge deficit’ among lay people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive
Janus Hansen; Lotte Holm; Lynn Frewer; Paul Robinson; Peter Sandøe
Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…
The medical literature related to knowledge of, beliefs about, and attitudes toward epilepsy was reviewed from the perspective of patients, caregivers, and health care providers. The literature points to a desire for enhanced epilepsy education by patients and caregiv- ers; however, these needs have not been met by primary or specialty care. Surveys of general practitioners (GPs) point to limitations
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
Describes study of seventh graders that was conducted to examine the relationship of a knowledge of computer ethics to attitudes toward computers and sociomoral reasoning. Variables of gender and verbal ability are examined, a measure of computer ethics is described, and results are analyzed. (31 references) (LRW)
To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, related behaviors, and sources of HIV/AIDS information among high school-aged students in South Korea. One thousand and seventy-seven students (586 females and 491 males) from 5 high schools from 5 representative school districts participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire measuring…
Yoo, Hyera; Lee, Sun Hae; Kwon, Bo Eun; Chung, Sulki; Kim, Sanghee
This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…
Context: While evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts are being taught in health profession education programs, models of instruction and effectiveness of these models are not evident in athletic training. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Teaching Model (EBTM) in increasing student knowledge, attitudes, and use of…
Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Turocy, Paula S.; Pribesh, Shana; Hankemeier, Dorice
ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to develop a standardized questionnaire (BACKIE) that would assess the Behaviors (B), Attitudes (A), Cognitions (C), Knowledge (K), and Injury Experiences (IE) that elementary-school children possess pertaining to seven types of injuries, including: falls; motor vehicle collisions; burns; drowning; choking\\/suffocation; poisoning; and bicycle\\/pedestrian injuries.
Barbara A. Morrongiello; Michael Cusimano; Benjamin K. Barton; Elizabeth Orr; Mary Chipman; Jeffrey Tyberg; Abhaya Kulkarini; Nazilla Khanlou; Ralph Masi; Tsegaye Bekele
This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…
Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David
BACKGROUND: The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme
Khumbulani W Hlongwana; Musawenkosi LH Mabaso; Simon Kunene; Dayanandan Govender; Rajendra Maharaj
Human resource professionals from different industries participated in focus groups in Austin, Texas. From a social marketing perspective, employers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in providing breastfeeding support for lactating employees were explored. Employers knew about the benefits of breastfeeding for mothers and children. However, they did not place a high priority on providing breastfeeding support. Employers identified the barriers to
Christopher A. Brown; Susan Poag; Catherine Kasprzycki
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an asthma continuing education program on pharmacists’ knowledge and attitudes related to asthma pharmaceutical care. Subjects and Methods: A 20-hour continuing education program was conducted by the joint efforts of the Taipei City Government, Taiwan Association of Asthma Education and Taipei Medical University Wan Fang Hospital, in a
Children continue to experience unrelieved pain during hospitalization, despite the evidence to guide nurses’ pain management practices being readily available. Nurses’ knowledge and attitudes have been identified as a possible reason for suboptimal pain management. This study examines the validity and reliability of an existing questionnaire to validate it for use in the population of interest. Initial testing demonstrated low
Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.
BACKGROUND: Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. METHODS: It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured
Hassan Khan; Muhammad RizwanulHaq Khawaja; Abdul Waheed; Muhammad Ameen Rauf; Zafar Fatmi
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a pilot nutrition intervention program on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female combat soldiers in basic training serving in the Israeli army and to determine changes in nutrient intake. Seventy recruits participated in the intervention. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaires were completed at 3 time points: at enlistment, at 2 months, and at 4 months. Additional questionnaires to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered preintervention and postintervention. Baseline results indicated that intakes of calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin D were below recommended levels. After 2 months (8 weeks), suboptimal consumption of many nutrients was observed. At this time point, a nutrition education program was initiated and activities were carried out for the final 2 months of basic training. Following completion of the intervention, a marked improvement in nutrient intake was reported, accompanied by significant changes in attitudes toward healthy eating and increased nutrition knowledge. One-year follow-up evaluation indicated that approximately 20% of participants had made long-term dietary changes. In conclusion, nutrition education increased knowledge, modified attitudes, and led to dietary changes in female recruits. Programs of this type should be considered for implementation in the military. PMID:23756010
The aims of the study were to investigate teachers’ knowledge and attitudes towards attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities (LD). Forty-six high school teachers were interviewed in this regard. The 46 teachers were divided into two groups: 25 teachers taught at an academic school (School 1); and 21 teachers taught at special education school (School 2) and dealt
There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Purpose: This study examined medical students' interest in geriatrics: Are knowledge, positive attitudes, and prior experience with older adults associated with an interest in geriatric medicine? Design and Methods: Entering University of Michigan medical students completed three surveys: the Revised Facts on Aging Quiz, the University of…
Fitzgerald, James T.; Wray, Linda A.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Williams, Brent C.; Supiano, Mark A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.
Obtained measures of policy-related beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge about homelessness through a telephone survey of a representative sample of 240 persons conducted over nearly a full year in a medium-size northeastern metropolitan area. The study's data were compared to a national poll and to a local study documenting the actual characteristics of homeless persons. The results suggest that citizens are
This paper presents data on the mathematical content knowledge and attitudes of pre-service primary teacher education students. The assessment consisted of nine tasks, including 2-digit computations and proportional reasoning. Students rated their liking for mathematics at three time points: primary, secondary, .and when assessed. Fewer than half…
Compared the level of nutrition knowledge of low- and higher-income American consumers with children, and their nutrition attitudes and practices. Found that both groups had Body Mass Indexes above the range of a healthy weight, but that low-income participants were less likely to know nutrition specifics such as diet/disease relationships or…
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
This study examines the impact of an interdisciplinary training program on knowledge and attitudes of learners from four health care programs: medicine, pharmacy, social work, and nursing. Sixty-two learners participated in a 4-day educational program (one day each week for 4 weeks) focusing on interdisciplinary geriatric care. After completing…
Fitzgerald, James T.; Williams, Brent C.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Persky, Neal W.; Shay, Barbara R.
The purpose of the study is to examine seventh and eighth grade students' environmental knowledge and their attitudes toward environment in terms of different variables in 2005-2006 academic years in Amasya. Survey method was used in this study. The environmental knowledge test and the attitude scale were developed by benefiting from Leeming et al. (1995). The results showed that there
To assess the attitude and knowledge of physicians and patients towards psychiatry, we asked 115 referring doctors and 188 referred patients to complete questionnaires. We examined the results along with the referral rates to try to identify factors that may affect a consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Generally, knowledge was poor and attitudes towards psychiatry negative in both groups. This negatively influenced
A. M. Alhamad; M. H. Al-Sawaf; A. A. Osman; I. S. Ibrahim
Reconsiders hierarchy models positing a learning model of behavior change wherein knowledge precedes attitudes, thus influencing behavior. Considers case of contraception in Peru; develops six possible knowledge, attitude, and practice permutations. Finds assessing the fit of such models consistent with emerging work in development communication…
Valente, Thomas W.; Paredes, Patricia; Poppe, Patricia R.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents in Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's test were used for the statistical analysis (P ? 0.05). Results: Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7%) and development of caries (48.5%). Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93), attitude (15.71 ± 2.23), and practice (20.09 ± 2.50) scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27) and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15) than the male parents. Conclusion: Parent's knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants.
The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons. PMID:23573351
A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)
Objective To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables. Materials and methods A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18-45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. Results It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9%) had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60%) had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50%) had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1%) as Rank 2 and injection (16.3%) as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status (?2 = 47.14, p = 0.001), occupation (?2 =15.81, p = 0.044), family monthly income (?2 =6.473, p = 0.039) and duration of marriage (?2=6.721, p = 0.035). There was no association between attitude and the studied variables. Conclusion The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude.
The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed. PMID:18032292
Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari
Transsexualism is characterized by, among other things, an aspiration for sex reassignment surgery. The aim of this review\\u000a was to determine the extend of the knowledge and the approach of Lodz college students toward transsexualism and to find out\\u000a what rights students would grant to transsexual persons. The questionnaire studies were carried out in a group of 300 students.\\u000a The
Bogus?aw Antoszewski; Anna Kasielska; Marta J?drzejczak; Julia Kruk-Jeromin
This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence-supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as well as rape myths, were endorsed by a significant minority of both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that for men, sexual assault history and rape myth acceptance, along with alcohol and other drug use history, were significantly related to cumulative risks for HIV infection. In contrast, although we found that women were at substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, women's risks were only related to lower levels of education and alcohol use history. We speculate that women's risks for STI/HIV are the product of partner characteristics and male-dominated relationships, suggesting the critical importance of intervening with men to reduce women's risks for sexual assault and STI/HIV. PMID:19827234
This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to successfully curb the problem. PMID:16428016
Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S
Many science outreach and education efforts are based on the idea that these programs will positively impact the attitudes and understanding of science of the target audience. Although in many cases it is intuitively obvious that this is the case, it is desirable to measure the impact in some way. We are studying changes in knowledge of science and attitudes regarding science among participants in a summer REU program run by the Atlanta Consortium for Research in the Earth Sciences (ACRES). Instruments for measuring attitudes towards science exist in the education literature and we have applied several of these to our population as pre- and post- tests. However, we have observed that these instruments, having been designed for the general public, are not able to capture changes in our student's attitudes because their attitudes were very positive and their understanding of the nature of science already fairly sophisticated. The existing instruments also failed to detect differences between our geoscience faculty and a group of college students with limited exposure to college-level science. Therefore, we are developing a new survey instrument and a set of open-ended questions for measuring attitudes towards and knowledge of science that will be appropriate for college science students. The survey instrument is based on clusters of statements representing a variety of philosophical positions, from which respondents must pick one statement. We compare the distribution of the choices made by a group of respondents with the distribution of choices made by a group of geoscience faculty. The first version of the instrument was able to differentiate between three different groups of students with different science backgrounds as well as detect small changes in our RUE program participants' attitudes over the course of the program. Statistical analysis of responses to open-ended questions also differentiates between college students with different science backgrounds and detects some changes over the course of our program.
The purpose of the present study was to measure attitudes towards sex offenders held by professionals and paraprofessionals and to evaluate an introductory training workshop aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes to this client group. Eighty-five residential hostel workers and probation officers attended an intensive two-day training workshop and were asked to complete the Attitudes to Sexual Offenders (ATS:
Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L
To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P < 0.05). Female physicians scored better than males, and fellows scored better than other groups for knowledge. Most physicians' attitudes and practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area. PMID:24932935
We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals. PMID:23862640
This study investigated age- and gender-specific associations between parental support and parental knowledge of the child’s\\u000a whereabouts, on the one hand, and sexual experience and sexual health (the ability to have safe and pleasurable sexual experiences)\\u000a on the other hand. A representative Dutch sample of 1,263 males and 1,353 females (aged 12–25 years), who had previously engaged\\u000a in sexual intercourse, completed
Hanneke de Graaf; Ine Vanwesenbeeck; Liesbeth Woertman; Loes Keijsers; Suzanne Meijer; Wim Meeus
Reproductive capability is now established at earlier age. But the subject of adolescent sexuality is taboo in most societies. There is widespread ignorance about risks of unprotected sex, problems among adolescents. Unfortunately need of sex education is not perceived and fulfilled in India especially in rural areas. The present study was conducted to assess the need and demonstrate the impact of sex education among adolescent school children. The impact of sex education workshop was tested by analysing pre- and postintervention questionnaire. The felt need of sex education increased considerably and the knowledge regarding contraceptives increased from manifolds after the intervention. There was significant increase in knowledge about menstrual hygiene, sexually transmitted diseases, etc, after sex education workshop. This study concludes that there is intense need of sex education and it has significant impact on knowledge of adolescent school children. PMID:22666937
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed in female Mexican migrant laborers. Thirty-two women were administered a modified version of the Hispanic Condom Questionnaire. Respondents were knowledgeable about the major modes of HIV transmission, but one-third to one-half of the women believed that they could contract AIDS from unlikely casual sources. Although respondents reported few negative beliefs about condom use, actual condom use with sex partners was low and knowledge of proper condom use was problematic. Consequently, 75 percent reported never carrying condoms. Implications of these findings for future research and provision of services for female Mexican migrants are discussed. PMID:9598392
Although negative racial stereotypes may affect the mental and physical health of African Americans, little research has examined the influence of positive or complimentary racial stereotypes on such outcomes. More specifically, this study explored the relationship between African American women’s endorsement of complimentary stereotypes about their sexuality (CSS) and attitudes/behaviors that have been associated with sexual risk. Data were gathered from 206 African American women as part of the Black Women in the Study of Epidemics project (B-WISE). Multivariate regression models were used to examine associations between women’s endorsement of CSS and selected sex-related attitudes and behaviors. Participants’ endorsement of CSS was significantly positively associated with beliefs that having sex without protection would strengthen their relationship (B = .28, SE = .10, p < .01) and that they could use drugs and always make healthy choices about using protection (B = .31, SE = .09, p < .01). Significant positive associations were also found between CSS and the number of casual sexual partners women reported in the past year (B = .29, SE = .15, p = .05) and their willingness to have sex in exchange for money or drugs during that time (B = .78, OR = 2.18, p < .05). These findings suggest that endorsement of CSS by African American women can lead to increased risk behavior, particularly relating to possible infection with HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STI).
Oser, Carrie B.; Mooney, Jenny; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Havens, Jennifer R.; Leukefeld, Carl G.
This study evaluates associations between online social networking and sexual health behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles. We analyzed survey data from 201 homeless youth accessing services at a Los Angeles agency. Multivariate (regression and logistic) models assessed whether use of (and topics discussed on) online social networking technologies affect HIV knowledge, sexual risk behaviors, and testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). One set of results suggests that using online social networks for partner seeking (compared to not using the networks for seeking partners) is associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Supporting data suggest that (1) using online social networks to talk about safe sex is associated with an increased likelihood of having met a recent sex partner online, and (2) having online sex partners and talking to friends on online social networks about drugs and partying is associated with increased exchange sex. However, results also suggest that online social network usage is associated with increased knowledge and HIV/STI prevention among homeless youth: (1) using online social networks to talk about love and safe sex is associated with increased knowledge about HIV, (2) using the networks to talk about love is associated with decreased exchange sex, and (3) merely being a member of an online social network is associated with increased likelihood of having previously tested for STIs. Taken together, this study suggests that online social networking and the topics discussed on these networks can potentially increase and decrease sexual risk behaviors depending on how the networks are used. Developing sexual health services and interventions on online social networks could reduce sexual risk behaviors.
A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban adolescents were analyzed to elucidate how civic knowledge, civic attitudes, and civic behaviors are associated with self-reported likelihood of future voting. In a multivariable ordered logistic regression model with latent constructs for civic knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, two civic knowledge constructs and two civic attitude constructs maintained a positive, statistically significant independent association with future voting likelihood after adjusting for race/ethnicity and advanced coursework: knowledge of American governance, current events knowledge, general self-efficacy, and skill-specific self-efficacy. Further research is necessary to determine whether education programs can intervene upon these civic knowledge and civic attitude factors to increase voting participation later in life.
Emergency Contraception (EC) is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women's contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women's contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p<0.05) and more frequently counseled women about EC than general practitioners (GPs) (p<0.001). The most cited reason for EC prescriptions were rupture condom and none use of contraception. Our findings showed despite of majority of health staff had good knowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program. PMID:24373264
Najafi-Sharjabad, Fatemeh; Hajivandi, Abdollah; Rayani, Mohammad
Background Today’s medical students are the future physicians of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is therefore essential that medical students possess the appropriate knowledge and attitudes regarding PLWHA. This study aims to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of pre-clinical Israeli medical students and to assess whether their knowledge and attitudes change throughout their pre-clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pre-clinical medical students from the four medical schools in Israel during the academic year of 2010/2011 (a total of 1,470 students). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire sought student responses pertaining to knowledge of HIV transmission and non-transmission routes, basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS treatment and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Results The study’s response rate was 62.24 percent. Knowledge among pre-clinical medical students was generally high and showed a statistically significant improvement as students progressed through their pre-clinical studies. However, there were some misconceptions, mostly regarding HIV transmission via breastfeeding and knowledge of HIV prevention after exposure to the virus. Students’ attitudes were found to include stigmatizing notions. Furthermore, the majority of medical students correlated HIV with shame and fear. In addition, students’ attitudes toward HIV testing and providing confidential medical information were contradictory to health laws, protocols and guidelines. Overall, no positive changes in students’ attitudes were observed during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Conclusion The knowledge of pre-clinical medical students in Israel is generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies that require more emphasis in the curricula of the medical schools. Contrary to HIV-related knowledge, medical students’ attitudes are unaffected by their progression through medical school. Therefore, medical schools in Israel should modify their curricula to include teaching methods aimed at improving HIV-related attitudes and adherence to medical professionalism.
Objective: This study aimed to understand the gaps in college students' knowledge regarding sexual health information. Participants: A sample of 242 participants enrolled in an introductory college course participated in this study in the Fall 2009 semester. Methods: Students participated in 1 of 2 brief interventions and wrote a response paper…
This study examined elementary school teachers' knowledge of their legislative and policy-based reporting duties with respect to child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 470 elementary school teachers from urban and rural government and nongovernment schools in 3 Australian states, which at the time of the study had 3 different…
Walsh, Kerryann; Mathews, Ben; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des
This study explored how 333 undergraduate and graduate students attending a large university in the southeastern USA learned about sex, their satisfaction with how they learned about sex, and their self-perceived knowledge before and after taking a human sexuality course. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to students in the first and…
Rutledge, Scott Edward; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Chonody, Jill; Killian, Michael
Finland is probably the only country where sex education has been studied in two consecutive national surveys, in 1996 and 2006 directed at biology and health education teachers, and in 2000 and 2006 by measuring adolescents' sexualknowledge. In 2006, responses from teachers and students could be combined for 339 schools. The most important…
Pakistan has one of the largest cohorts of young people in its history, yet research on their circumstances and needs is still relatively new. In this study, twenty four focus group discussions were conducted to explore young peoples' experiences of gaining knowledge of personal and sexual development. Young women typically gained information from a limited number of sources within the
Very little information is available on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) with respect to epilepsy among schoolchildren from developing countries. We quantified KAP with respect to epilepsy among 1213 tenth-grade students of Kerala, southern India. Ninety-eight percent of them had heard or read about epilepsy. However, nearly 60% of students thought that epilepsy was a form of insanity. Allopathic treatment was preferred by more than half of the respondents; however, many had faith in exorcism and visiting religious places as ways to cure epilepsy. Half of the students considered epilepsy a hindrance to education, employment, and marriage. Thirteen percent would be unwilling to sit adjacent to or play with a child with epilepsy. We conclude that although familiarity with epilepsy was high among high school students in Kerala, misconceptions and negative attitudes were alarmingly high. Persistent and effective information campaigns, therefore, are necessary to change their attitudes toward fellow students with epilepsy. PMID:16971188
Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Santosh, Deetha; Kumar, T Santosh; Sarma, P Sankara; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath
Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 – 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 – 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459
The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit. PMID:21498237
The acute shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation has been attributed in part to health professionals, including nurses, for their reluctance to recognize and refer suitable candidates for donation. In 1988, nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation were assessed using a 70-item questionnaire. Respondents included 1,683 nurses employed in 62 rural and urban hospitals in the Midwest. Only 365 respondents (21.7 percent) reported having requested tissue donations and 243 (14.4 percent) reported having requested organ donations. However, of those who requested tissue or organ donations, 270 (74 percent) obtained consents for tissues and 150 (61.7 percent) obtained consent for organ donations. Respondents were knowledgeable about organ and tissue donation (mean score of 7.5 on a 0 to 10 knowledge scale with 10 as highest) and reported attitudes and beliefs were moderately positive. Factors that were significantly correlated with the number of requests made for organs and tissues and the number of consents obtained included nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about donation; nurses' perception of their own confidence in their ability to request tissues and organs; being a supervisor; and working in an emergency department.
Matten, M R; Sliepcevich, E M; Sarvela, P D; Lacey, E P; Woehlke, P L; Richardson, C E; Wright, W R
Background Addiction treatment programs are increasingly working to address prevalent and comorbid tobacco dependence in their service populations. However at present there are few published measurement tools, with known psychometric properties, that can be used to assess client-level constructs related to tobacco dependence in addiction treatment settings. Following on previous work that developed a staff-level survey instrument, this report describes the development and measurement characteristics of the Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes and Services (S-KAS) for use with clients in addiction treatment settings. Method 250 clients enrolled in residential drug abuse treatment programs were surveyed. Summary statistics were used to characterize both the participants and their responses, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the underlying factor structure. Results Examination of the rotated factor pattern indicated that the latent structure was formed by one Knowledge factor, one Attitude factor, and two “service” factors reflecting Program Services and Clinician Services related to tobacco dependence. Standardized Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the four scales were, respectively, .57, .75, .82 and .82. Conclusions The proposed scales have reasonably good psychometric characteristics, although the knowledge scale leaves room for improvement, and will allow researchers to quantify client knowledge, attitudes and services regarding tobacco dependence treatment. Researchers, program administrators, and clinicians may find the S-KAS useful in changing organizational culture and clinical practices related to tobacco addiction, help in program evaluation studies, and in tracking and improving client motivation.
Guydish, Joseph; Tajima, Barbara; Chan, Mable; Delucchi, Kevin L.; Ziedonis, Douglas
Objective: Families' perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about malaria causation, symptom identification, treatment of malaria, and prevention are often overlooked in malaria control efforts. This study was conducted to understand these issues, which can be an important step towards developing strategies, aimed at controlling malaria. Materials and Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study in four villages: Danwarai, Gehuru, Jiga, and Kashin Zama of Aliero local government area in Kebbi Sate, in northern Nigeria. Two hundred household were randomly selected and interviewed using standardized questionnaire. Results: Knowledge of the role of mosquitoes in malaria transmission (11.8%) and cause of malaria (9.6%) was observed to be low among the study population. Comprehensive knowledge about malaria prevention measures was high (90%), but not reflecting in their practice (16%). They have good knowledge of mosquito behavior (breeding areas (64.5%), resting places (70%) and biting time (81%)). Seeking hospital care for a febrile child was a good practice (68.5%) observed. Attitudes regarding the best antimalarial therapy was limited (56.7%) to chloroquine. Conclusions: Misconceptions about malaria transmission and its cause still exist. Knowledge about preventive measures does not necessarily translate into improvement in practices. There is a need for targeted educational programs to increase the communities' efforts to develop desirable attitude and practices regarding malaria and their participation for malaria control.
Singh, Rupashree; Musa, Jamila; Singh, Sanjay; Ebere, Ukatu Victoria
Objectives: To find the KnowledgeAttitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique. After taking informed verbal consent, a closed ended interviewer administered questionnaire was filled. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 30.31 + 5.280 years. Illiterate and literate were 165 (41.25%) and 235 (58.75%) respectively. The knowledge regarding folic acid need was 172 (43%). Only 161 (40.25%) thought that folic acid deficiency in pregnant women results in abnormality in newborn. In pregnancy, 205 (51.25%) had received folic acid supplementation. Association between education level and practice of folic acid was significant (p= 0.009) at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding folic acid deficiency among WOCBA was low along with the poor attitude. Practice was also not satisfactory. Education status plays important role in preventing micronutrient deficiency. PMID:24948984
Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female?:?male=96?:?4) aged 18–50?years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0)?years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation.
Determining what people know and believe about periodontal health and disease is important in order to establish prevention practices. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey in 2011 of 791 adults aged 18-50 years using a stratified, multistage sampling method. We recorded demographic characteristics including age, sex, education, marital status, employment and economic status (housing density). The lowest percentage of correct answers was related to the definition of dental plaque (11.6%) and the highest was for the role of the dental visit in prevention (92.8%). Female sex, university education and higher economic status were significantly associated with a higher mean score on periodontal health knowledge. The regression analysis showed that positive attitudes were associated with higher periodontal health knowledge and having university education. In this study positive attitudes towards prevention were related to better knowledge. PMID:24950078
Objectives: To find the KnowledgeAttitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA. Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional study (Knowledge Practice and Attitude) was conducted at Military Hospital and Combined Hospital Rawalpindi from September 2012 to February 2013. About 400 married females of age group 21-42 years were included by convenient sampling technique. After taking informed verbal consent, a closed ended interviewer administered questionnaire was filled. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Mean age of the respondents was 30.31 + 5.280 years. Illiterate and literate were 165 (41.25%) and 235 (58.75%) respectively. The knowledge regarding folic acid need was 172 (43%). Only 161 (40.25%) thought that folic acid deficiency in pregnant women results in abnormality in newborn. In pregnancy, 205 (51.25%) had received folic acid supplementation. Association between education level and practice of folic acid was significant (p= 0.009) at 95% confidence level. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding folic acid deficiency among WOCBA was low along with the poor attitude. Practice was also not satisfactory. Education status plays important role in preventing micronutrient deficiency.
PurposeThis article examines gender differences in attitudes toward sexual risk–taking behaviors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)–orphaned youth participating in a randomized control trial testing an economic empowerment intervention in rural Uganda.
Fred M. Ssewamala; Leyla Ismayilova; Mary McKay; Elizabeth Sperber; William Bannon Jr.; Stacey Alicea
Sexually transmitted infections constitute economic burden for developing countries, exposure to causative agents is an occupational hazard for female sex workers. Targeted interventions for this population can reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus, but barriers exists which can hinder effective implementation of such programs. This descriptive cross sectional study sought to assess the prevalence, knowledge and treatment practices of sexually transmitted infections among brothel based female sex workers. Three hundred and twenty three consenting female sex workers were surveyed using pre tested, interviewer administered questionnaires. More than half of the respondents (54.2%) had poor knowledge of symptoms of sexually transmitted infections. Only 13.9% were aware that sexually transmitted infections could be asymptomatic. The self reported prevalence of symptomatic sexually transmitted infections was 36.5%. About half of those with sexually transmitted infectionss sought treatment in a hospital or health centre while 32.5% from a patent medicine vendor. Most respondents (53.8%) mentioned the perceived quality of care as the main reason for seeking treatment in their chosen place. More of the respondents with good knowledge of sexually transmitted infections reported symptoms compared to those with fair and poor knowledge. The knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among these female sex workers is poor and the prevalence is relatively high. Efforts to improve knowledge promote and encourage preventive as well as effective treatment practices must be made for this population. PMID:24069738
This study evaluated the efficacy of two foster parent training curricula focused upon sexually abused foster children by examining the specific contribution of a behaviorally oriented parent training upon parental sexual abuse knowledge, comfort with child sexual behaviors, child and parent attitudes, and parental sense of competence in comparison to a more reflective, developmentally based knowledge intervention. One hundred and
Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV. Results There were 357 (79.7%) female and 93 (20.3%) male participants and their median age was 20 (IQR 19–21). On average 42/59 (71.2%) questions were answered correctly, 5/59 (8.5%) were answered incorrectly and 12/59 (20.3%) were unknown . The best and worse scores were seen on the prevention questions and the treatment questions, respectively. HIV-related knowledge is higher in older students and in students with a health-related education. Students with sexual experience, with five or more partners and students who have been tested on STDs have a higher HIV-related knowledge. Conclusions Knowledge on prevention and transmission of HIV is fairly good among university students and knowledge is higher among students with more sexual experience. They still have some misconceptions (e.g. HIV is spread by mosquitoes) and they are ignorant of a substantial number of statements (e.g. risk for infection through oral sex).
This research examined whether individual differences in women’s sexualattitudes and behaviors are associated with men’s ratings of them as desirable long-term mates when men were exposed to only pictures of women’s faces. Links between sexualattitudes and behaviors with the presence of more masculine facial features were also assessed. Women completed the Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad,
Lorne Campbell; Lee Cronk; Jeffry A. Simpson; Alison Milroy; Carol L. Wilson; Bria Dunham
In order to design and implement a plan to integrate human sexuality into the curriculum for associate degree nursing students at Alvin Community College (Texas), levels of knowledge, attitudes and skills necessary in promoting sexual health were defined. Of the four levels in the Mims and Swenson Sexual Health Model (life experiences, basic,…
Most studies on sexual behavior have approached the relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior unidirectionally. This paper sets out to examine a reciprocal relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual behavior, in which it is possible that adolescents who enter into sexuality may start to actively seek out information on sex.…
Volunteers and staff of women's organisations who are highly active in engaging and providing community service can be recruited to motivate female smokers to quit. We described the knowledge and attitudes regarding tobacco control and smoking cessation among these affiliates in Hong Kong and identified factors associated with the practices of cessation interventions. Eight of 14 women's organisations joining the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce agreed to participate. All staff, volunteers, and members of the eight organisations were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during July and August 2006. A total of 623 out of 771 (80.8%) affiliates responded. Their knowledge on smoking and health (mean = 3.91, SD = 1.44 on a range of 0-7), smoking related diseases (mean = 2.91, SD = 0.97 on a range of 0-4), and women-specific diseases (mean = 2.93, SD = 1.87 on a range of 0-6), was considered to be inadequate. They had positive attitudes towards tobacco control (mean = 3.31, SD = 0.55) and their own role in smoking cessation counselling (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.56) on a 4-point Likert scale and 39.3% reported had attempted to offer quitting advice. Logistic regression analysis found that participants having direct contact with smokers who had a positive attitude towards their own role in smoking cessation counselling (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.67-3.95) and better knowledge of smoking and smoking-related diseases (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.71) were more likely to provide cessation counselling after controlling for gender; knowledge on smoking and health, and women-specific diseases; attitude towards tobacco control, negative and positive attitudes towards female smokers, and perceived self-efficacy in smoking cessation counselling. Women's organisations showed limited support towards tobacco control and their affiliates had a limited knowledge on smoking and health but had positive attitudes. Appropriate training, capacity building and establishing rapport with women's organisations are needed to promote smoking cessation and to support tobacco control in the community. PMID:21129069
Leung, Doris Y P; Chan, Sophia S C; Fu, Idy C Y; Lam, Tai-hing
To assess the feasibility of screening the single Jewish population for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), a questionnaire examining the knowledge of and attitudes toward TSD and genetic screening was sent to 348 Yale University Jewish undergraduates. Of those students responding (63 percent), 78 percent were able to answer general genetic questions correctly while only 1.9 percent could answer specific Tay-Sachs questions correctly. A majority of the students (93.9 percent) indicated some concern about being a carrier for TSD, believed that carrier status would affect future social and reproductive behavior, and expressed an interest in having TS carrier status determined while still single (77.4 percent). Strong correlations were found between knowledge and attitudes, but no significant differences appeared between male and female respondents. In addition to leading to improvements in Tay-Sachs screening programs, the observations have led to suggestions that may be generalized to other genetic screening programs.
A survey was done by means of a questionnaire to obtain information on the knowledge and attitudes of 297 nursing students from three training institutions in the Western Cape regarding HIV-infection and AIDS-patients. Results indicated: The average knowledge regarding AIDS scored 72.5% They generally had a positive attitude regarding the caring for AIDS-patients; 81% of the junior and 54% of the senior students were of opinion that their training were inadequate while 91.5% of the respondents held the opinion that the training hospital must provide more training. It is recommended that the curricula of training institutions make adequate provision for relevant training regarding AIDS. PMID:9283346
This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor communities concerning solid waste management are adequate and satisfactory. Hence, the low socio-economic profile of the urban poor has not been proven as causal to environmental degradation. The study suggests that it is inherent to improve the quality of lifestyles of the poor to enable them to come out of poverty threshold, even though an adequate and satisfactory solid waste management system exists amongst the communities.
Objective To examine substance-related attitudes and behaviors among college students across an academic semester. Design Pre-post quasi-experimental survey design. Setting A large Midwestern University. Method Surveys were completed by 299 undergraduates enrolled in three courses: drugs and behavior, abnormal psychology, and normal personality theories. Results Although students enrolled in the drug course were not more knowledgeable about drugs than others at baseline, their knowledge increased by semester’s end, while the others’ did not. Perceived prevalence of alcohol use was more accurate and became increasingly accurate among drugs and behavior students. Class enrollment, gender, and baseline substance use were associated with baseline attitudes and behaviors as well as changes over time. Conclusion This study offers implications for substance use education opportunities on college campuses.
Heckman, Carolyn J.; Dykstra, Jennifer L.; Collins, Bradley N.
To assess the feasibility of screening the single Jewish population for Tay-Sachs disease (TSD), a questionnaire examining the knowledge of and attitudes toward TSD and genetic screening was sent to 348 Yale University Jewish undergraduates. Of those students responding (63 percent), 78 percent were able to answer general genetic questions correctly while only 1.9 percent could answer specific Tay-Sachs questions correctly. A majority of the students (93.9 percent) indicated some concern about being a carrier for TSD, believed that carrier status would affect future social and reproductive behavior, and expressed an interest in having TS carrier status determined while still single (77.4 percent). Strong correlations were found between knowledge and attitudes, but no significant differences appeared between male and female respondents. In addition to leading to improvements in Tay-Sachs screening programs, the observations have led to suggestions that may be generalized to other genetic screening programs. PMID:7336765
Introduction—Injuries of the hand have an enormous impact on hand function and on quality of life. Occupational injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India and their incidence has been steadily increasing. Sugarcane crushers produce juice using dangerous procedures.Objective—The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among sugarcane crushers in India and
Objective: This study explored the knowledge, attitude and perception of school going Bangladeshi adolescents on substance\\/dru g abuse to help develop a preventive health education programme. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information from 4035 students of Class X aged 15-16 years of 203 secondary schools in six metropolitan cities of Bangladesh during June-July 2001. The schools and
Syed Masud Ahmed; AKM Masud Rana; Shamim Matin Chowdhury; Anne Mills; Sara Bennett
Objectives The aim of this project was to evaluate the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes regarding generic medicines. Methods A cross-sectional study, with self administered questionnaires, was conducted to survey consumers visiting pharmacies in\\u000a four regions of Auckland (North Shore, Waitakere, Central Auckland and South Auckland). Through stratified random sampling,\\u000a approximately 10% of pharmacies from each region were selected, which turn
Background: Antipsychotic long-acting injections (LAIs) reduce covert nonadherence with medication in the clinical management of psychotic disorders. However, they are variably utilised by clinicians, especially in the long term. Factors including poor knowledge, stigma and perceived coercion can all adversely influence LAI utilisation. Previous research has emanated almost exclusively from developed countries. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of psychiatrists and trainees in Nigeria towards LAIs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among mental health professionals in Nigeria using a pre-existing questionnaire. Results: Participant psychiatrists (n = 128) expressed positive attitudes towards LAIs. Their knowledge concerning LAIs and its side effects was fair. The participants reported that nearly half (41.7%) of their patients with a psychotic illness were on LAIs. Those who reported a high prescribing rate for LAIs (>40%) were more likely to endorse more positive ‘patient-centred attitudes’ (p < 0.04). In contrast to previous reports, psychiatrists reported that patients were less likely to feel ashamed when on LAIs, though most endorsed the statement that force was required during LAI administration. Conclusion: The desirability of treatment by injections differs in Africa in comparison to Western cultures, possibly due to the increased potency that injections are perceived to have. This is perhaps evidenced by high rates reported for use of LAIs. Nigerian psychiatrists had positive attitudes to LAIs but their knowledge, particularly regarding side effects, was fair and needs to be improved. Providing information to patients prior to antipsychotic treatment may enhance informed consent in a country where medical paternalism is still relatively strong.
Omoaregba, Joyce O.; Okonoda, Kingsley M.; Otefe, Edebi U.; Patel, Maxine X.
Objective A survey was designed to investigate customers attitudes and knowledge toward non-prescription medicines taken on a self-medication\\u000a basis but not devoid of risks. Setting Community pharmacies in Italy. Method Forty-four pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were\\u000a made to customers buying a non-prescription medicine over a 2-month period. The questionnaire included
In the late summer of 2000, we canvassed a random sample of residents in the 11-sate short grass prairie region of the United States. We asked about peoplea??s attitude toward and knowledge of black-tailed prairie dogs and their management. The survey received 1,933 useable responses with a response rate of 56.4% (margin of error 2.2%). We developed a questionnaire (OMB Control Number: 1028-0073; see Appendix B) to answer the following questions: * What is the level of citizen knowledge regarding black-tailed prairie dogs? * What are citizensa?? attitudes and preferences regarding black-tailed prairie dogs and the environment in general? * What are the factors that explain difference in attitudes and knowledge about prairie dogs? * What are the factors that explain citizen participation in these types of issues? * What are the important differences between rural and urban citizens regarding their political participation and their knowledge and attitude about prairie dogs? In general, we found that citizens do not have a high regard for black-tailed prairie dogs. Citizens generally have a positive orientation towards the environment and favor a balanced or somewhat environmental approach on questions--like prairie dog management--that involve environmental protection and economic considerations. People having direct experience with prairie dogs are less inclined to view them as beneficial to society than are those who infrequently see or come in contact with the animals. When asked about prairie dogs specifically, most citizens did not believe the question of what to do about these animals was a highly important environmental issue.
Lamb, B. L.; Cline, Kurt; Brinson, Ayeisha; Sexton, N. R.; Ponds, P. D.
Sexual behaviors and attitudes of female adolescents were studied as a function of age of boyfriend. Boyfriend's age was dichotomized: similar-aged was defined as within 2 years of the girls' age; older aged was 3 or more years older than the girl. A school-based, ethnically diverse sample of 9th-grade girls (N = 146) who had been in a serious…
Gowen, L. Kris; Feldman, S. Shirley; Diaz, Rafael; Yisrael, Donnovan Somera
The most effective way to administer fluoride is through the regular use of fluoride toothpaste. Adolescents and adults seem to have low awareness of toothbrushing procedures and use of fluoride toothpaste despite frequent dental care. The aim of this study was to describe knowledge, attitudes and behaviour concerning toothbrushing and use of fluoride toothpaste in three age groups in a Swedish population. A qualitative study design was used with the purpose of achieving a deeper understanding of the issue. Data were collected through interviews. A manifest and latent analysis of the text was performed using qualitative content analysis (Grounded theory). The informants were selected strategically to obtain the greatest possible variation in the data. Three age strata representing different stages in life were chosen: 15-16, 30-35 and 60-65 years. Informants were interviewed with support from an interview guide. Open-ended questions were used to focus on the individual's knowledge, attitudes and behaviour concerning toothbrushing and fluoride toothpaste. Five people from each age group were interviewed in the study. The content areas were knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and the latent analysis identified the areas of empowerment, driving force and guidance as categories. Although the informants showed little knowledge about the reasons for and techniques of using fluoride toothpaste effectively, they described toothbrushing as important and the habit as a priority, giving the theme of this study: toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste was a priority, despite the lack of knowledge about how to use toothpaste effectively and its positive effects on oral health. In conclusion the state of knowledge concerning toothbrushing and fluoride toothpaste needs to be improved. In addition, people's desire for a fresh-feeling mouth and to fit in socially must be affirmed and utilized by dental staff in health promotion. PMID:22372308
Introduction Knowledge about sickle cell disease among youths could constitute an important variable that influences their premarital attitude and behaviour. The study is to determine the knowledge and attitude on Sickle Cell Disease among selected secondary school students in Jos metropolis, Nigeria. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study involving 137 Secondary School Students within Jos metropolis selected by a multistage stratified sampling technique, using self administered structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results A total of 137 students were interviewed, Christians 88%, modal age range 15-20 years (72%) and males (51%). Majority (83.2%) of the respondents were aware of SCDs, as an inherited disorder (80.0%), affecting the red blood cells (83.0%) but only half (54%) knew that the disease can only be diagnosed through blood test. Also, only 59% knew their genotype and 11. 1% claimed AS genotype. More than one fourth (25.5%) had wrong belief that SCD is caused by evil spirit while 76% showed wrong attitude involving stigmatization towards individuals with sickle cell disease. Conclusion Comprehensive knowledge about SCD was found to be low despite good awareness among respondents, but only few knew their haemoglobin genotype. If sickle cell disease control strategies must yield any significant results, there is a need to raise awareness about SCD, especially among students in secondary institutions in Nigeria is recommended.