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1

Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial/ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of Connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race/ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race/ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminate validity both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21512945

Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

2011-01-01

2

Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations.  

PubMed

Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

2014-02-01

3

A Population-Based Study of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Sexual-Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine if sexual-minority women were at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) than their heterosexual counterparts. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to examine differences in CVD risk between heterosexual and sexual-minority women by using the Framingham General CVD Risk Score to calculate a ratio of vascular and chronological age. We also examined differences in the prevalence of various CVD risk factors. Results. Sexual-minority women were more likely to be current or former smokers, to report a history of drug use, to report risky drinking, and to report a family history of CVD. On average, sexual-minority women were 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?8.5%, 19.3%) older in vascular terms than their chronological age, which was 5.7% (95% CI?=?1.5%, 9.8%) greater than that of their heterosexual counterparts. Family history of CVD and history of drug use were unrelated to increased CVD risk, and this risk was not fully explained by either risky drinking or smoking. Conclusions. Sexual-minority women are at increased risk for CVD compared with heterosexual women. PMID:23948018

Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Bowen, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

4

Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

5

Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minorities encounter unique challenges due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression that often prevents them from achieving their full academic potential or participating fully in the campus community. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)

Rankin, Susan R.

2005-01-01

6

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

7

Sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211

Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

2014-09-01

8

After breast cancer: sexual functioning of sexual minority survivors.  

PubMed

Research on sexual difficulties after cancer has neglected sexual minority women (SMW); for example, lesbian and bisexual women. Clinicians treating these women are therefore at a disadvantage as they lack information about sexual problems in this population. This study tested the hypothesis that SMW with breast cancer have poorer sexual function than SMW without breast cancer, distinguishing partnered from unpartnered women. Using convenience sample recruitment, we conducted a case-control study to compare survivors of breast cancers who are SMW, in other words, cases to controls, that is, SMW without cancer. Anonymous survey data were collected from 85 cases after they had completed active cancer treatment and 85 age- and partner-status matched controls with no history of any cancer. Participants' self-reported sexual frequency and sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index were evaluated. Cases and controls did not differ in risk of sexual dysfunction or the level of overall sexual functioning; however, cases had lower sexual frequency and scored lower on desire and ability to reach orgasm, and higher on pain compared to controls. Results inform clinicians about sexual minority survivors' sexual domains affected by cancer. When discussing sexual problems and therapeutic options, sexual orientation should be ascertained. PMID:23730713

Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Timm, Alison; Winter, Michael; Potter, Jennifer

2014-01-01

9

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

10

Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…

Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.

2011-01-01

11

Religious Climate and Health Risk Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youths: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether the health risk behaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31?852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR?=?0.77; 95% CI?=?0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health risk behaviors. PMID:22397347

Pachankis, John E.; Wolff, Joshua

2012-01-01

12

Health Disparities Among Sexual Minority Women Veterans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Lesbian and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) identity is more common among women veterans than among male veterans. Unique health issues have been identified among women veterans and among sexual minority women, but little is known about women who are both sexual minorities and veterans. This study aimed to compare demographic and health information from sexual minority women veterans with sexual minority women non-veterans and heterosexual women veterans. Methods Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data were pooled from ten U.S. states that elected to ask sexual identity during 2010. The analytic sample was comprised of women who identified both their sexual identity and veteran status (n=1,908). Mental health indicators were frequent mental distress, sleep problems, low social/emotional support, and low satisfaction with life. Health risk indicators included current smoking, overweight, and obesity. Physical health status was defined by three components: disability requiring assistive equipment, >14 days of poor physical health in the past 30 days, and activity limitations. Results Compared with heterosexual women veterans, sexual minority women veterans had higher odds of mental distress (odds ratio [OR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61–5.70) and smoking (OR=2.31, 95%CI: 1.19–4.48). After adjusting for demographic correlates, sexual minority women veterans had three times the odds of poor physical health (OR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.51–5.99) than their sexual minority non-veteran peers. Conclusions Results suggest sexual minority women veterans may experience unique health disparities relevant to provision of care in both Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA healthcare systems. Future research requires availability of data that include sexual minority status. PMID:23746281

Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C.

2013-01-01

13

Sexual Identity Development Among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low

Eric M. Dubé; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

1999-01-01

14

Coping Behaviors among Sexual Minority Female Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants’ perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in

Diane K. Pendragon

2010-01-01

15

Health benefits of legal services for criminalized populations: the case of people who use drugs, sex workers and sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

Social exclusion and legal marginalization are important determinants of health outcomes for people who use illicit drugs, sex workers, and persons who face criminal penalties because of homosexuality or transgenderism. Incarceration may add to the health risks associated with police repression and discrimination for these persons. Access to legal services may be essential to positive health outcomes in these populations. Through concrete examples, this paper explores types of legal problems and legal services linked to health outcomes for drug users, sex workers, and sexual minorities and makes recommendations for donors, legal service providers, and civil society organizations. PMID:21105945

Csete, Joanne; Cohen, Jonathan

2010-01-01

16

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

17

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research. PMID:21709758

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

2011-01-01

18

Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.  

PubMed

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

2013-10-01

19

Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents' Sexual Safety Strategies  

PubMed Central

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

20

Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

2014-01-01

21

Illinois School of Professional Psychology Predoctoral Minor in Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a predoctoral minor in sexual abuse designed to prepare psychologists to work with maltreated populations including child and adult victims, offenders, and abusive family systems. This program aims to help students develop clinical competence in the areas of diagnostics, therapeutic intervention, forensic issues, research, and program development. The considerations involved in designing the curriculum course content, clinical

Myra Leifer; Nancy U. Cairns; Mary E. Connors; Myra M. Lawrence; Pamela Gruenhut; Ann Womack; Helen L. Evans; David L. Downing

1995-01-01

22

Sexual minority women and depressive symptoms throughout adulthood.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and sexual identity and behavior among women with or at risk for HIV. Methods. We analyzed longitudinal data from 1811 participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) from 1994 to 2013 in Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York; Chicago, Illinois; Washington, DC; and Los Angeles and San Francisco, California, by comparing depressive symptoms by baseline sexual identity and ongoing sexual behavior. We controlled for age, socioeconomic status, violence history, and substance use. Results. In separate analyses, bisexual women and women who reported having sex with both men and women during follow-up had higher unadjusted odds of depressive symptoms compared with heterosexuals and women who reported only having male sexual partners (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]?=?1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] ?=?1.10, 1.69 and AOR?=?1.21; 95% CI?=?1.06, 1.37, respectively). Age was a significant effect modifier in multivariable analysis; sexual minority women had increased odds of depressive symptoms in early adulthood, but they did not have these odds at midlife. Odds of depressive symptoms were lower among some sexual minority women at older ages. Conclusions. Patterns of depressive symptoms over the life course of sexual minority women with or at risk for HIV might differ from heterosexual women and from patterns observed in the general aging population. PMID:25320890

Pyra, Maria; Weber, Kathleen M; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Murchison, Lynn; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Golub, Elizabeth T; Cohen, Mardge H

2014-12-01

23

Bullying in Schools towards Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning and inter-sex (GLBTQI) youth, and those perceived to be GLBTQI, face extensive verbal and physical bullying in schools. Although increasing attention has been made at examining the safety concerns of sexual minority (GLBTQI) youth, there remain important gaps in the literature as well as significant…

Varjas, Kris; Dew, Brian; Marshall, Megan; Graybill, Emily; Singh, Anneliese; Meyers, Joel; Birckbichler, Lamar

2008-01-01

24

Bullying in Schools Towards Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning and inter-sex (GLBTQI) youth, and those perceived to be GLBTQI, face extensive verbal and physical bullying in schools. Although increasing attention has been made at examining the safety concerns of sexual minority (GLBTQI) youth, there remain important gaps in the literature as well as significant sampling limitations. This article seeks to identify and respond to

Kris Varjas; Brian Dew; Megan Marshall; Emily Graybill; Anneliese Singh; Joel Meyers; Lamar Birckbichler

2008-01-01

25

Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.

Gu, Steven

2005-01-01

26

Group Counseling for Sexual Minority Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issues facing sexual minority youth are reviewed. A group-counseling model tested at a public high school is presented. Counseling issues include homophobia, loneliness, isolation, identity issues, alienation from family, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. The structure and process for support-group operation is presented; sensitive issues…

Muller, Lynne E.; Hartman, Joyce

1998-01-01

27

Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety seven adolescents (14–19 years old; 70% female; 29% sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points six months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

28

Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

2013-03-01

29

A systematic review of the aetiology of tobacco disparities for sexual minorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk factors/correlates of cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations. Methods Sets of terms relevant to sexual minority populations and cigarette smoking were used in a simultaneous search of 10 databases through EBSCOhost. The search was limited to the peer-reviewed literature up to January 2011, using no geographic or language limits. For inclusion, the paper was required to: (1) have been written in English, (2) have sexual minorities (defined by either attraction, behaviour, or identity) included in the study population and (3) have examined some form of magnitude of association for risk factors/correlates of any definition of cigarette smoking. A total of 386 abstracts were reviewed independently, with 26 papers meeting all inclusion criteria. Abstracts were reviewed and coded independently by authors JB and JGLL using nine codes derived from the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Studies used various measures of sexual orientation and of smoking. Risk factors that could be considered unique to sexual minorities included internalised homophobia and reactions to disclosure of sexual orientation. Some studies also indicated common smoking risk factors experienced at higher rates among sexual minorities, including stress, depression, alcohol use and victimisation. Conclusions This review identified risks that were associated with sexual minority status and common to the general population but experienced at potentially higher rates by sexual minorities. Government and foundation funds should be directed towards research on the origins of this disparity. PMID:22170335

Blosnich, John; Lee, Joseph G L; Horn, Kimberly

2013-01-01

30

A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K–12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which children should be protected, coupled with

Holly N. Bishop; Chadwick Caraway; David L. Stader

2010-01-01

31

A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…

Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.

2010-01-01

32

Sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors of minority women with sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention. PMID:11291429

Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T

2001-04-01

33

Sexual minority youth victimization and social support: the intersection of sexuality, gender, race, and victimization.  

PubMed

In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have been relatively unexplored. Using data from three years of statewide data from heterosexual and sexual minority adolescents in grades 9-12, this study examines victimization, substance use, suicidality, and access to social support by sexuality. Results indicate that sexual minority youth are at increased risk for victimization, substance use, suicidality, and social isolation compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Results also indicate that there is very little bivariate difference within the sexual minority community. Multivariate results indicate differences among sexual minorities' experiences with victimization and substance use. PMID:22269046

Button, Deeanna M; O'Connell, Daniel J; Gealt, Roberta

2012-01-01

34

Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

35

Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

Hughes, Tonda

2012-01-01

36

Mental Health Needs of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one's sexual orientation, and greater openness about one's sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexual minorities. PMID:21052478

White, Yohann R G; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo

2010-04-01

37

Mental Health Needs of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one’s sexual orientation, and greater openness about one’s sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexual minorities. PMID:21052478

White, Yohann R. G.; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo

2010-01-01

38

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

39

Does punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes?  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Does punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Longitudinal evidence from France of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Longitudinal evidence from France# Nicolas Gérard Vaillant* François. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent effect of sanctions for rapes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Mental Health Needs of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one's sexual orientation, and greater openness about one's sexual orientation were independent risk

Yohann R. G. White; Loraine Barnaby; Antoneal Swaby; Theo Sandfort

2010-01-01

41

An exploration of multisystemic factors contributing to sexual risk-taking in minority suburban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were

Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson

2012-01-01

42

Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

43

The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

2011-01-01

44

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

45

Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.  

PubMed

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-08-01

46

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

PubMed Central

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

47

Conceptualization of Sexual Partner Relationship Steadiness Among Ethnic Minority Adolescent Women: Implications for Evidence-Based Behavioral Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14–18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. PMID:22868248

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

48

Conceptualization of sexual partner relationship steadiness among ethnic minority adolescent women: implications for evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14-18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. PMID:22868248

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

2013-01-01

49

Out in the Country: Rural Sexual Minority Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural and urban sexual minority mothers’ parenting experiences related to sexual orientation were compared. Participants were 414 mothers in same-sex relationships with at least one child under the age of 18 years living in their home who was planned with their current partner. Rural mothers were more likely to be biological parents and not adoptive parents. Rural mothers reported higher

Julia A. Puckett; Sharon G. Horne; Heidi M. Levitt; Teresa Reeves

2011-01-01

50

Articulating identities: Language and practice with multiethnic sexual minority youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians working with sexual minority youth (SMY) should be knowledgeable about the contemporary language around sexuality and gender used by adolescent clients. Such knowledge contributes to the clinical environment and aids clinicians in developing therapeutic relationships. However, individuals working with SMY should also be aware of the potential impact of social environment and individual context on SMYs language and terminology.

Lauren McInroy; Shelley L. Craig

2012-01-01

51

Suicidal ideation among sexual minority veterans: results from the 2005-2010 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.  

PubMed

Suicide is a public health problem disproportionately associated with some demographic characteristics (e.g., sexual orientation, veteran status). Analyses of the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data revealed that more lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) veterans reported suicidal ideation compared with heterosexual veterans. Decreased social and emotional support contributed to explaining the association between sexual minority status and suicidal ideation. More research is needed about suicide risk among sexual minority veterans; they might be a population for outreach and intervention by the Veterans Health Administration. PMID:22390600

Blosnich, John R; Bossarte, Robert M; Silenzio, Vincent M B

2012-03-01

52

NASN position statement: Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (sexual minority students): school nurse practice.  

PubMed

It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Sexual minority persons are those who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB) or are unsure of their sexual orientation, or those who have had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or both sexes (Kann et al., 2011). Sexual minority is thought to be a more inclusive and neutral term. For the purposes of this statement, the term sexual minority will be used in lieu of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning). PMID:23600096

Bradley, Beverly; Kelts, Susan; Robarge, Deb; Davis, Catherine; Delger, Suzey; Compton, Linda

2013-03-01

53

Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897

Epprecht, Marc

2012-01-01

54

The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

55

Minority stress and mental health among Dutch LGBs: examination of differences between sex and sexual orientation.  

PubMed

Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States. Performing secondary analyses on the data of a Dutch population study on sexual health, the present study examines the robustness of the minority stress model by explaining mental health problems among men and women with mostly or only same-sex sexual attraction, and men and women who are equally attracted to same-sex and opposite-sex partners in the "gay-friendly" Netherlands (N = 389; 118 gay men, 40 bisexual men, 184 lesbian women, and 54 bisexual women). Results showed that minority stress is also related to mental health of Dutch LGBs. Participants with a higher level of internalized homonegativity and those who more often encountered negative reactions from other people on their same-sex sexual attraction reported more mental health problems. Such negative reactions from others, however, had a stronger link with mental health among lesbian/gay than among bisexual participants. Openness about one's sexual orientation was related to better mental health among sexual minority women, but not among their male counterparts. Suggestions for future research, implications for counseling, and other societal interventions are discussed. PMID:21401219

Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

2011-04-01

56

Physical activity interventions in minority populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial\\/ethnic minority groups in the United States report high rates of inactivity and need intervention because of the associated\\u000a health risks. This article discusses the use of informational, environmental and policy, and behavioral and social approaches\\u000a to increase physical activity in minority populations. Although all of the strategies have been used with varying degrees\\u000a of success, social support interventions have

Dori Pekmezi; Ernestine Jennings

2009-01-01

57

Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH) among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample. PMID:21941644

Graham, Louis F; Aronson, Robert E; Nichols, Tracy; Stephens, Charles F; Rhodes, Scott D

2011-01-01

58

Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities.  

PubMed

This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions--subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N=12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed. PMID:23808348

Platt, Lisa F; Lenzen, Alexandra L

2013-01-01

59

Religion and religiosity: protective or harmful factors for sexual minority youth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority youth are disproportionately impacted by a number of psychosocial risks including a greater likelihood of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) when compared to heterosexual counterparts. Emerging research seeks to identify the risk and resilience factors that contribute to the mental health of this stigmatised population. Considering that most Americans grow up with at least some religious teachings and that most

Joseph Longo; N. Eugene Walls; Hope Wisneski

2012-01-01

60

Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.  

PubMed

Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. PMID:22455340

Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

2012-01-01

61

[Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

Mbassa Menick, D

2000-01-01

62

Perceptions of campus climate by sexual minorities.  

PubMed

Previous research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) often have negative experiences on university campuses due to their sexual orientation or gender identity. Direct and indirect experiences contribute to an overall perception of the campus climate. This study used an online survey to assess students' perceptions of campus climate, their experiences confronting bias, support of family members and friends, and whether they had considered leaving campus. Multiple regression analysis indicated that perceptions of poorer campus climate were predicted by greater unfair treatment by instructors, more impact from anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) bias on friends' and families' emotional support, and having hidden one's LGBT identity from other students. Cluster analyses revealed four groups of participants distinguished by openness about their sexual orientation and negative experiences, with one group appearing to be at risk for poor retention. Results are discussed in terms of the needs of LGBTQ students on campus. PMID:23808345

Tetreault, Patricia A; Fette, Ryan; Meidlinger, Peter C; Hope, Debra

2013-01-01

63

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: Exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M Sulfridge

2012-01-01

64

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M. Sulfridge

2012-01-01

65

Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South African youths.  

PubMed

We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

2014-07-01

66

Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

2007-01-01

67

Perceptions of Rural School Staff Regarding Sexual Minority Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority students often do not feel safe in school, especially in rural communities, and changes are needed within school environments in order to provide a safe and effective learning environment for all students. Prior to implementing school change, an investigation into the perceptions of educators in public schools in three rural New York counties was conducted. Results indicated that

Lynn M. OConnell; Jana G. Atlas; Anita L. Saunders; Rebecca Philbrick

2010-01-01

68

Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result of the constant harassment. Students in rural areas with

Holly N. Bishop; Heather Casida

2011-01-01

69

Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…

Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather

2011-01-01

70

Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

Ofuji, Keiko

2007-01-01

71

Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest provides a review of current literature relating to sexual minorities and the ongoing dialogue surrounding multiculturalism and inclusiveness on community college campuses. A 1998 study conducted on the six San Francisco community college campuses indicated that more than 1 in 3 of 484 community college students surveyed had engaged in…

Leider, Steven

72

Interventions to Reduce Sexual Minority Stigma in Sororities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexual minority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two

Heather D. Hussey; Toni L. Bisconti

2010-01-01

73

New Project Launched to Study Minority Populations  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today that it is accepting applications for projects that create and implement cancer control and prevention programs in minority and underserved communities to address the disparities in cancer rates within certain subgroups of the United States population.

74

Sexual Minority Young Adult Religiosity, Sexual Orientation Conflict, Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive associations between religious involvement and psychosocial health outcomes have been amply documented. However, many of these studies have not accounted for the sexual identification of the participants sampled and have been limited in their conceptualization of religiosity. The religious context may be a source of conflict for some sexual minority individuals. As such, additional research is needed to examine

Angie Dahl; Renee Galliher

2010-01-01

75

Variables associated with the nature of sexual abuse to minors.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the prevalence and characteristics of childhood and adolescence sexual abuse suffered by a sample of university students, as well as the variables associated with the nature of abuse. Participants anonymously completed the Questionnaire on Child Sexual Abuse, in order to obtain information about experience of sexual abuse. Of a total of 2,375 students, 289 (12.2%) declared having suffered sexual abuse before the age of 18. The invasiveness, continuity, and severity of abuse was related to the location where the abuse took place (the more severe cases were committed in the homes of the victim and perpetrator) and to the circumstances of abuse (relationships with partners/at a party or while caring for a child predicted more severe abuse). The age of the victim (preschool) and an intrafamilial relationship between victim and perpetrator were also related to more invasive, continuous, and severe sexual abuse. The knowledge of characteristics of perpetrator and victim and the context in which sexual abuse occurs can help to better comprehend the nature and correlates of sexual abuse. The results of the present study may contribute to the design of programs for the prevention of sexual abuse to minors. PMID:22774431

Cantón Duarte, José; Cortés Arboleda, M Rosario; Cantón-Cortés, David

2012-07-01

76

Sexual Minority Status and Self-Rated Health: The Importance of Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Objectives I examined how sexual minority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association. Methods I used multinomial logistic regression to analyze aggregated data from the 1991 to 2010 General Social Survey, a population-based data set (n = 13 480). Results Respondents with only different-sex partners or with any same-sex partners reported similar levels of health. With socioeconomic status added to the model, respondents with any same-sex partners reported worse health than those with only different-sex partners, but only if sexual intercourse with same-sex partners occurred in the previous 5 years. Age and sex moderated this relationship: having any same-sex partners was associated with worse health for women but not men and among younger adults only. Conclusions The relationship between sexual minority status and self-rated health varies across sociodemographic groups. Future research should use population-level data to examine other health outcomes and continue to explore how the intersection of sexual minority status and other sociodemographic indicators shapes health. PMID:23488500

Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2013-01-01

77

Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.  

PubMed

Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage. PMID:16507945

O'Hanlan, Katherine A

2006-03-01

78

LGBTQ and Sexuality Studies Minor Worksheet Expected Graduation Date: ________ Uniquename:___________ UM ID: ___________  

E-print Network

LGBTQ and Sexuality Studies Minor Worksheet Expected Graduation Date: ________ Uniquename such as religious beliefs, legal codes, medical constructions, and social movements, and recognizes them the formation of sexual identities and sexuality. Requirements are: 1. WS 245 Introduction to LGBTQ Studies

Edwards, Paul N.

79

Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2009-01-01

80

Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.  

PubMed

Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

2014-06-01

81

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development Among Gay–Bisexual–Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. In this

Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez

2009-01-01

82

Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. PMID:22771037

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

2012-10-01

83

Changes in neighborhood characteristics and depression among sexual minority young adults.  

PubMed

Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the relationship between changes in neighborhood characteristics during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and depression among sexual minority young adults. Previous research has found that neighborhood characteristics influence sexual minority mental health and that sexual minorities are more likely to move to more urban and politically liberal locations. No study to date, however, has examined the impact of changes in neighborhood characteristics on sexual minority depression. The results from this study show that decreases in the percent urban was associated with increased risk of depression and decreases in the percent Republican voters in sexual minority's neighborhood was associated with decreases in risk of depression. The results suggest that clinicians may want to screen sexual minority youth for recent changes in their neighborhoods to assess if these changes may be related to the onset or exacerbation of depressive episodes. PMID:24217448

Everett, Bethany G

2014-01-01

84

A longitudinal, mixed methods study of sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies among young sexual minority men.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that young sexual minority men's sexual position identities (e.g., "top," "bottom," "versatile") may be governed by dynamic influences. Yet, no study has prospectively examined whether, how, and why this aspect of sexual minority men's sexuality changes over time. Consequently, the present study investigated the extent to which young sexual minority men use sexual position identities consistently over time, typical patterns of position identity change, explanations given for this change, and the correspondence of changing sexual position identities with changing sexual behavior and fantasies. A total of 93 young sexual minority men indicated their sexual position identity, behavior, and fantasies at two assessment points separated by 2 years. Following the second assessment, a subset (n = 28) of participants who represented the various sexual position identity change patterns provided explanations for their change. More than half (n = 48) of participants changed their sexual position identity. Participants showed a significant move away from not using sexual position identities toward using them and a significant move toward using "mostly top." Changes in position identity were reflected, although imperfectly, in changes in sexual behavior and largely not reflected in fantasy changes. Participants offered 11 classes of explanations for their identity changes referencing personal development, practical reasons, changing relationships, and sociocultural influences. Previous investigations of sexual minority men's sexual position identities have not adequately attended to the possibility of the changing use of the sexual position categories "top," "bottom," and "versatile" across young adulthood. Results of the present study suggest the possibility of a more fluid, context-dependent use of these terms than previously documented. PMID:23605572

Pachankis, John E; Buttenwieser, Indiana G; Bernstein, Laura B; Bayles, Damon O

2013-10-01

85

Major Mental Illness in a Sexual Minority Psychiatric Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In this study, the authors compare a lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) sample in treatment for major psychiatric disorders with a general psychiatric population sample. Methods: Participants were interviewed utilizing a multi-item, multiple-choice questionnaire with some open-ended questions. Study participants were categorized by biological sex at birth and sexual identity. Parameters assessed included age of symptom onset, number

Ronald E. Hellman; Lori Sudderth; Anna M. Avery

2002-01-01

86

Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women’s Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women’s experiences seeking\\u000a support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141\\u000a heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went\\u000a to friends and parents for

Carly K. Friedman; Elizabeth M. Morgan

2009-01-01

87

Comparing sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's friends and parents as sources of support for sexual issues.  

PubMed

The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went to friends and parents for support for a issue related to their sexuality. Responses indicated that the majority of participants had sought support from either a parent or a friend and that mothers and female friends were more likely involved than fathers or male friends, respectively. Sexual issues that participants reported discussing with parents and friends were inductively grouped into five categories: dating and romantic relationships, sexual behavior, sexual health, identity negotiation, and discrimination and violence. Issues that were discussed differed based on sexual orientation identity and the source of support (parent or friend); they did not differ by age. Participants generally perceived parents and friends' responses as helpful, though sexual-minority participants perceived both parents and friends' responses as less helpful than did heterosexual participants. Overall, results suggest both similarities and differences between sexual-minority and heterosexual young women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. PMID:19636736

Friedman, Carly K; Morgan, Elizabeth M

2009-08-01

88

Updated collisional probabilities of minor body populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consistent increase in the discovery rate of new asteroids and Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) in these last years has urged an update of the values of intrinsic probability of collision and impact velocity for some minor body populations. With the statistical method of Dell'Oro & Paolicchi (\\cite{delloro98b}), we have recomputed the values of impact probability and velocity for Hilda asteroids, for Trojans vs. Short Period Comets (SPC), and for TNOs. The algorithm of Dell'Oro and Paolicchi is particularly suited for the task since it can account for resonant behaviour (Dell'Oro et al. \\cite{delloro98a}) and for the clustering of the perihelion longitude of Main Belt asteroids and Hildas, caused by the presence of a forced component in the eccentricity. The Hilda population turns out to be well sampled in the orbital parameter space since no significant changes are found for the collision frequency among Hildas, and of Hildas with Main Belt asteroids, although a much larger sample of orbits has been used in our computations (232 objects) vs. the smaller group used in previous computation by Dahlgren (\\cite{dahlgren}) (40 objects). We also computed the impact rate of SPCs vs. Trojans that turned out to be an order of magnitude lower respect to the Trojans vs. Trojans impact rate. The relative velocity is instead about 30% higher. Using reasonable estimates of SPC and Trojan number densities, we find that approximately 1 every 100 collisions involving Trojans may be with an SPC. In the case of TNOs there is a consistent discrepancy between our values of the collision probability and impact speed, and those computed by Davis & Farinella (\\cite{davis}). The consistent increase in the number of known TNOs (186 at present, only 16 at the time of the Davis and Farinella's work) has led to a better knowledge of their distribution in the phase space and, consequently, to more reliable estimates of the collisional probability and impact velocity.

Dell'Oro, A.; Marzari, F.; Paolicchi, P.; Vanzani, V.

2001-02-01

89

Families, resources, and adult health: where do sexual minorities fit?  

PubMed

Extensive research documents the relevance of families and socioeconomic resources to health. This article extends that research to sexual minorities, using 12 years of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 460,459) to examine self-evaluations of health among male and female adults living in same-sex and different-sex relationships. Adjusting for socioeconomic status eliminates differences between same- and different-sex cohabitors so that they have similarly higher odds of poor health relative to married persons. Results by gender reveal that the cohabitation disadvantage for health is more pronounced for different-sex cohabiting women than for men, but little difference exists between same-sex cohabiting men and women. Finally, the presence of children in the home is more protective for women's than men's health, but those protections are specific to married women. In all, the results elucidate the importance of relationship type, gender, and the presence of children when evaluating health. PMID:23315360

Denney, Justin T; Gorman, Bridget K; Barrera, Cristina B

2013-03-01

90

The Challenge of Asthma in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden and disparity of asthma in race\\/ethnic minorities present a significant challenge. In this review, we will evaluate\\u000a data on asthma epidemiology in minorities, examine potential reasons for asthma disparities, and discuss strategies of intervention\\u000a and culturally sensitive care.

Albin B. Leong; Clare D. Ramsey; Juan C. Celedón

91

An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the "National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health" (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation…

Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

92

School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.  

PubMed

Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. PMID:24495493

Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

2014-02-01

93

Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author describes the historical context for research on sexual minority women's drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; the author summarizes gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women's drinking over the past several decades and reviews recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus

Tonda Hughes

2011-01-01

94

Policy and Practice Regarding Adoption by Sexual and Gender Minority People in Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, changes to the Ontario Child and Family Services Act made it possible for lesbian and gay couples to jointly adopt a child. This research investigated the extent to which Ontario adoption agencies and licensees are supportive of adoption by sexual and gender minority people. Results indicate that while overall, there is support for sexual and gender minority adopters

Lori E. Ross; Rachel Epstein; Corrie Goldfinger; Christina Yager

2009-01-01

95

Victimization, Smoking, and Chronic Physical Health Problems Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sexual minority women (SMW) have been shown to be at increased risk for abuse, smoking, and chronic physical health problems\\u000a compared with heterosexual women. In the general population, abuse and smoking are associated with physical health problems.\\u000a However, there has been little research on their associations among SMW.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The current study examined a mediational model of abuse, smoking, and self-reported

Keren Lehavot; Jane M. Simoni

96

Peer harassment and risky behavior among sexual minority girls and boys.  

PubMed

The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. PMID:24826828

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2014-01-01

97

Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

2009-01-01

98

Identity Development and Exploration Among Sexual Minority Adolescents: Examination of a Multidimensional Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents

Jenna A. Glover; Renee V. Galliher; Trenton G. Lamere

2009-01-01

99

Characterization of Sclerotinia minor populations in Texas  

E-print Network

or ascospores have been reported in Texas. The most economically important hosts of the S. minor include: peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) (Porter & Beute 1974), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Sedun & Brown 1989), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) (Beach 1921... or ascospores have been reported in Texas. The most economically important hosts of the S. minor include: peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) (Porter & Beute 1974), sunflower (Helianthus annuus) (Sedun & Brown 1989), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) (Beach 1921...

Henry, Merribeth Annette

2009-06-02

100

[Population development and changes of China's minority nationalities].  

PubMed

The People's Republic of China (PRC) is a nation composed of many ethnic groups. After the Communist victory of 1947, the government announced that there were 55 minority nationalities. The 1982 census provides demographic statistics concerning the position of those minorities within the population of the PRC. Since 1964, minority population has increased more rapidly than the population of the Han majority. Between 1953 and 1982, China's population increased 73.2%. The Han population increased 71.2%, the minorities, 90.4%. According to the 1982 census, the total fertility rate of the village-dwelling minorities in 1981 was 5.1%, while the fertility rate of the majority was 2.7%. The mortality rate of the various minorities decreased to the level of that of the Han. Consequently, the percentage of minorities in the total population also increased, from 5.8% of the total population in 1964 to 6.7% in 1982. The reasons for this increase include the following: the change in population reproduction brought about by democratic and socialist reform; the identification of minorities; improvement in health and medical facilities; the reinstatement of and change in racial minority policy promulgated in 1978; and intermarriage between minorities and Han Chinese. Although the minorities account for only 6.7% of China's total population, their distribution constitutes 62.5% of the nation's total area. In the past, the minorities have scattered to the various parts of the country and mingled with other ethnic groups. The high density of minorities is concentrated in the plains where the climate is mild and agricultural produce, such as wheat, rice, and corn, are cultivated. The lowest density areas with respect to the minorities are the inland highlands, deserts, and cold pastoral areas. The age structure of the minorities is young; the marriageable population is numerous; and the fertility rate is high. The educational standard of the minorities has been greatly enhanced, but is still lower than that of the Han Chinese. PMID:12159281

Zhang, T

1984-11-29

101

Explaining the suicide risk of sexual minority individuals by contrasting the minority stress model with suicide models.  

PubMed

Many studies have found elevated levels of suicide ideation and attempts among sexual minority (homosexual and bisexual) individuals as compared to heterosexual individuals. The suicide risk difference has mainly been explained by minority stress models (MSTM), but the application of established suicidological models and testing their interrelations with the MSTM has been lacking so far. Therefore, we have contrasted two established models explaining suicide risk, the Interpersonal Psychological Theory (IPT) (Joiner, 2005) and the Clinical Model (CM) (Mann et al., 1999), with the MSTM (Meyer, 2003) in a Bavarian online-sample of 255 adult sexual minority participants and 183 heterosexual participants. The results suggested that the CM and the IPT model can well explain suicide ideation among sexual minorities according to the factors depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and failed belongingness. The CM and the IPT were intertwined with the MSTM via internalized homophobia, social support, and early age of coming out. Early coming out was associated with an increased suicide attempt risk, perhaps through violent experiences that enhanced the capability for suicide; however, coming out likely changed to a protective factor for suicide ideation by enhanced social support and reduced internalized homophobia. These results give more insight into the development of suicide risk among sexual minority individuals and may be helpful to tailor minority-specific suicide prevention strategies. PMID:24573399

Plöderl, Martin; Sellmeier, Maximilian; Fartacek, Clemens; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Kralovec, Karl

2014-11-01

102

Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n?=?22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR?=?1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

2013-01-01

103

Friendship and Attachment among Heterosexual and Sexual-Minority Youths: Does the Gender of Your Friend Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed gender and sexual orientation differences in the percentage of same-gender peers in youths' friendship networks, the gender of their best friends, and the degree of attachment to these friends. Results for 168 sexual minority and heterosexual youths show notable gender differences among the sexual minority youths, with female sexual

Diamond, Lisa M.; Dube, Eric M.

2002-01-01

104

"There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848

Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

2012-07-01

105

Influenza Vaccination among Minority Populations in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A large portion of the elderly population of the United States fails to receive an annual influenza vaccination. Minorities may receive disproportionately fewer vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to (a) estimate the levels of influenza vaccination among noninstitutionalized, U.S. citizens, 65 years and older, (b) examine the immunization levels among minority racial and ethnic groups relative to

Matthew G. Marin; Waldemar G. Johanson; Debbie Salas-Lopez

2002-01-01

106

An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths.  

PubMed

This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems. PMID:23687399

Gattis, Maurice N

2013-01-01

107

Cumulative jurisprudence and human rights: the example of sexual minorities and hate speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leading non-discrimination norms in post-1945 human rights instruments have generally enumerated specified categories for protection, such as race, ethnicity, sex, and religion. They have often omitted express reference to sexual minorities. However, through ‘such as’ or ‘other status’ clauses, or otherwise open-ended phrasing or interpretation, such instruments have generated a ‘cumulative jurisprudence’, whereby sexual minorities subsequently become incorporated through analogical

Eric Heinze

2009-01-01

108

Detecting sexually antagonistic coevolution with population crosses.  

PubMed Central

The result of population crosses on traits such as mating rate, oviposition rate and survivorship are increasingly used to distinguish between modes of coevolution between the sexes. Two key hypotheses, erected from a verbal theory of sexually antagonistic coevolution, have been the subject of several recent tests. First, statistical interactions arising in population crosses are suggested to be indicative of a complex signal/receiver system. In the case of oviposition rates, an interaction between populations (x, y and z) would be indicated by the rank order of female oviposition rates achieved by x, y and z males changing depending upon the female (x, y or z) with which they mated. Second, under sexually antagonistic coevolution females will do 'best' when mated with their own males, where best is defined by the weakest response to the signal and the highest fitness. We test these hypotheses by crossing strains generated from a formal model of sexually antagonistic coevolution. Strains differ in the strength of natural selection acting on male and female traits. In our model, we assume sexually antagonistic coevolution of a single male signal and female receptor. The female receptor is treated as a preference function where both the slope and intercept of the function can evolve. Our results suggest that neither prediction is consistently supported. Interactions are not diagnostic of complex signal-receiver systems, and even under sexually antagonistic coevolution, females may do better mating with males of strains other than their own. These results suggest a reinterpretation of several recent experiments and have important implications for developing theories of speciation when sexually antagonistic coevolution is involved. PMID:14561288

Rowe, Locke; Cameron, Erin; Day, Troy

2003-01-01

109

Emergence of clones in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sexual population, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexual populations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor.

Neher, Richard A.; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I.

2013-01-01

110

Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

2010-01-01

111

School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

2006-01-01

112

Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…

Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

2005-01-01

113

[Preface to the population problems of minority groups in China].  

PubMed

The population of minority groups in China totals 67,233,300 according to the 1982 census. This comprises about 6.7% of the whole population of China. These minority groups are grouped into 55 identifiably distinct groups and 879,201 unidentified non-Han people. The presence of minority groups is very important in terms of political and economic integration within China, as well as for military reasons. Most of these groups live near the national borders and in the areas where mining resources exist. It is important to realize that their population has been increasing since 1978. 1 reason for this is that family planning has not been strictly enforced for these groups. Moreover, economics in minority group areas has been improved so that infant death rates have plunged. With respect to the 2nd factor, since 1978, minority groups have been treated warmly by the government, with governmental policies much like affirmative action plans for blacks in the US. This policy is most advantageous in terms of school entrance, job-seeking, delivery of children, and promotion to positions of party leadership. Thus, many hidden minorities and the Han-Chinese have begun using the names of minority groups. Examination of the groups in greater detail, especially their kinship and customs, has become an issue of the 1st priority to help pave the way to a smooth modernization. (author's modified) PMID:12155014

Wakabayashi, K

1988-04-01

114

The Dormant Commerce Clause and State Regulation of the Internet: Are Laws Protecting Minors From Sexual Predators Constitutionally Different Than Those Protecting Minors From Sexually Explicit Materials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several states have enacted statutes to protect minors from harmful or obscene materials disseminated over the Internet, as well as from pedophiles seeking to use the Internet to lure them into sexual conduct. State and federal courts have diverged in their analysis of the Dormant Commerce Clause's impact on state regulation in these areas. While state courts have held that

Chin Pann

2005-01-01

115

Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

2011-01-01

116

Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority

Jonathan Elford; Eamonn McKeown; Rita Doerner; Simon Nelson; Nicola Low; Jane Anderson

2010-01-01

117

Age of MSM sexual debut and risk factors: results from a multisite study of racial/ethnic minority YMSM living with HIV.  

PubMed

The average reported age of sexual debut for youth in the United States is 14.4 years, with approximately 7% reporting their sexual debut prior to age 13. While the research literature on sexual debut for youth addresses gender and ethnic differences (with males and African-American youth experiencing earlier sexual debut), there is limited data regarding factors associated with sexual debut for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Early sexual debut poses potential health risks, such as contracting HIV with an increased risk of unprotected intercourse. Given current high HIV infection rates for racial/ethnic minority YMSM, learning more about their sexual debuts and associated risk factors of this population is of great importance. This study investigated risk behaviors and emotional distress, and their association with MSM sexual debut for a multisite cohort of racial/ethnic minority YMSM living with HIV. We hypothesized that a MSM sexual debut younger than age 16 would be associated with engagement in more high-risk sexual behaviors (unprotected sex and exchange sex), substance use, and emotional distress than a MSM sexual debut at age 16 or older. Results indicated that participants having a MSM sexual debut before the age of 16 reported more exchange sex; drug use (specifically marijuana); emotional/psychological problems related to substance use; and a history of suicide attempts, compared to participants with later MSM sexual debuts. Comprehensive interventions that are racially/ethnically sensitive, inquire about initial sexual experiences, and focus on sexual health and healthy relationships are needed to improve health outcomes for this population. PMID:21711140

Outlaw, Angulique Y; Phillips, Gregory; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Fields, Sheldon D; Hidalgo, Julia; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie; Green-Jones, Monique

2011-08-01

118

An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities  

PubMed Central

Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups. PMID:24187476

Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

119

Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially-Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students  

PubMed Central

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods Random or census samples from post-secondary educational institutions that administered the National College Health Assessment during the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 semesters. Results Sexual minorities reported more socially-based stressors than heterosexuals. Bisexuals exhibited greatest prevalence of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors. In adjusted models, intimate partner violence was most consistently associated with self-injurious behaviros. Conclusions Sexual minorities' elevated risks of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors may stem from higher exposure to socially-based stressors. Within-group differences among sexual minorities offer insight to specific risk factors that may contribute to elevated self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in sexual minority populations. PMID:22316411

Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

2012-01-01

120

The health status of minority populations in the United States.  

PubMed Central

There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed. PMID:1877226

Nickens, H. W.

1991-01-01

121

Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among sexual minority and heterosexual women veterans.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of various traumas across the life span on screening positive for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women veterans. Women veterans were recruited over the Internet (N = 706, 37% lesbian or bisexual) to participate in an anonymous, online survey. We assessed childhood trauma; adult sexual assault and adult physical victimization before, during, and after the military; combat exposure; perceived sexist discrimination during military service; sexual minority military stressors; past-year sexist events; and whether participants screened positive for PTSD or depression. Binary logistic regressions were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTSD and depression, stratified by sexual orientation and controlling for demographic characteristics. Lesbian and bisexual women reported higher rates of trauma across the life span, although in some instances (e.g., sexual assault during and after military service, combat exposure), they did not differ from their heterosexual counterparts. Childhood trauma and traumas that occurred during military service added the most variance to both PTSD and depression models. Sexual assault during military service appeared to be especially harmful with respect to screening positive for PTSD for both sexual orientation groups. Results revealed a number of other predictors of mental health status for women veterans, some of which differed by sexual orientation. Findings indicate a significant burden of interpersonal trauma for both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual women veterans and provide information on the distinct association of various traumas with current PTSD and depression by sexual orientation. PMID:25019543

Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L

2014-07-01

122

[Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].  

PubMed

To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national program to combat this plight. PMID:19499745

Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

2009-02-01

123

Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major chal- lenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this arti- cle Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by

Shiriki Kinika Kumanyika; Sonya Grier

2006-01-01

124

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get Under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

PubMed Central

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. PMID:19702379

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2009-01-01

125

Sexual selection hinders adaptation in experimental populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, the suite of processes that lead to differential mating success among individuals, probably influences the evolutionary trajectory of populations. Because sexual selection often shifts traits away from their survival optima, strong sexual selection pressures are thought to increase potential for population extinction, especially during environmental change. Sexual selection pressures may also increase the opportunity for speciation by accelerating the generation of pre-zygotic isolation among populations. These relationships remain largely untested experimentally. Here, we allow populations of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to evolve for approximately 250 generations with altered sex ratios in order to test the effect of the strength of sexual selection on the fate of populations. We find that populations experiencing stronger sexual selection are less able to adapt to a novel environment compared with populations experiencing weaker sexual selection or no sex, and that strong sexual selection erases the benefits of sexual reproduction. This pattern persists when fitness is assayed in a closely related environment. We also identify a trend that may suggest the beginning of pre-zygotic isolation between populations experiencing stronger sexual selection, though this is not statistically significant. These results highlight the importance of sexual selection in shaping macroevolutionary patterns and biodiversity. PMID:23485874

Reding, L. P.; Swaddle, J. P.; Murphy, H. A.

2013-01-01

126

A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

2009-01-01

127

Legal issues associated with sexual activity between adults and minors in Texas: a review.  

PubMed

Recent research on adolescent mothers and the age of their sexual partners has stimulated discussion of whether legal action should be taken against adult men who engage in sexual intercourse with minors. A nonrandom poll that started as casual questions but extended over 6 months to 52 doctors initiated this review. It became apparent that the primary care physicians (pediatrics, family medicine, and internal medicine) had little, if any, understanding of some key legal facts in Texas associated with adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, especially when adult partners are involved. This article provides a legislative overview for practitioners in an attempt to clarify the law, remediate any deficiency of knowledge, and remind physicians of their role in reporting sexual abuse of minors. PMID:10434769

Smith, P B; Mumford, D M; Foreman, S

1999-07-01

128

Sexual Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections between drinking, relational contexts, stress and coping  

PubMed Central

Few studies explore sexual minority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions. PMID:22228984

Condit, Megan; Kitaji, Kai; Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen

2011-01-01

129

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

130

[Credibility of allegations of under age minors regarding sexual abuse].  

PubMed

When a child under age states he/she has been sexually abused, there seldom exists an objective certainty to support the allegation. Whereas clinicians know that a child who speaks spontaneously probably speaks the truth, it is nonetheless difficult to exclude the possibility of fabulating, lying or mistaking. The error probability is sharply increased when abuse is referred by a parent, specially in a context of parental separation. This article thus presents a review of criteria which help to better assess the truth or error of allegations. Criteria include analysis of the child's talk, application of projective techniques, observation of his/her behavior, etc. The author also describes some differential diagnoses based on the behaviors and sexual allegations of children under age. PMID:7878137

Hayez, J Y; Vervier, J F; Charlier, D

1994-01-01

131

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

132

Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations.  

PubMed

Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical environments in which these communities exist. PMID:16532664

Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

2006-01-01

133

Comparing health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths and their peers.  

PubMed

Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs accounted for 7.5 percent of the sample. Data were analyzed to ascertain prevalence of risks and explore group differences. Compared with peers, SMY self-reports indicated higher prevalence rates on all indicators of health and mental health need. SMYs reported more sexual activity, more sexually transmitted disease diagnoses, a higher perceived risk for HIV/AIDS, and more forgone medical care than peers.Also compared with peers, SMYs reported higher levels of anxiety depression, suicidality, and physical and sexual victimization and higher rates of unmet mental health need. SMYs also reported greater concerns about confidentiality and were less likely to use school-based services.The majority of SMYs reported same-sex attraction only. Social work and other helping professionals should incorporate same-sex attraction questions into assessment protocols to target services for this population. School- and office-based providers must consider whether their services are welcoming and offer sufficient assurances of confidentiality to facilitate access by SMYs. PMID:21936333

Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

2011-08-01

134

Minority stress and substance use in sexual minority adolescents: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents report disparate rates of substance use, and often consume more cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy than their heterosexual peers. It is therefore crucial to understand the risk factors for substance use among LGB adolescents, particularly those unique to their minority status. In an effort to organize the current knowledge of minority-related risk factors for substance use among LGB youth, this study presents results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published research literature. Results from 12 unique studies of LGB youth indicated that the strongest risk factors for substance use were victimization, lack of supportive environments, psychological stress, internalizing/externalizing problem behavior, negative disclosure reactions, and housing status. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for targeted intervention programs that address minority stress risk factors for substance use among LGB youth. PMID:23605479

Goldbach, Jeremy T; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Bagwell, Meredith; Dunlap, Shannon

2014-06-01

135

A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Correlates of Lifetime Sexual Assault among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health…

Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

2014-01-01

136

Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

2014-01-01

137

Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2010-01-01

138

DEVELOPMENT OF ADULT SCHOOL PROFESSIONALS AND THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD HOMOSEXUALITY AND THEIR SEXUAL MINORITY COUNTERPARTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of heterosexual educators toward homosexuality and sexual minority educators, and ascertain what factors contributed to the heterosexual educators' attitudes. The study also sought to determine if continuing education was believed to be valuable to

MARILYN MITCHEL MCCLUSKEY

139

Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

2010-01-01

140

Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

2010-01-01

141

Young Sexual Minority Women's Perceptions of Cross-Generational Friendships with Older Lesbians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perspectives on cross-generational friendships with older lesbians were explored using informal group interviews with two groups of young sexual minority women (N = 16), ages 15 to 25. A majority of the participants were women of color; all were regular members of weekly discussion groups at two lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered centers on the East Coast. About half of

Jeanne L. Stanley

2002-01-01

142

Welcoming Children from Sexual-Minority Families into Our Schools. Fastback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that schools are responsible for providing a safe and supportive setting for all students and that with education the school climate will improve for sexual-minority parents and their children, this booklet provides information on how schools can become more welcoming to all students. Following introductory comments, the book is…

Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lamme, Laurel A.

143

Mental Health Service Contacts Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls in Boston Public High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sexual minority (SM) adolescent girls are at high risk for suicidal behavior, very little is known about their use of mental health services (MHS). Therefore, we examined survey data from a sample of Boston high school students to compare the prevalence of MHS use among SM and heterosexual girls.We used chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of group

Jeremy D. Kidd; J. LEE WHITE; RENEE M. JOHNSON

2012-01-01

144

Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

2010-01-01

145

Independent human rights documentation and sexual minorities: an ongoing challenge for the Canadian refugee determination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minorities must meet the same evidentiary burden as all other refugee claimants. Independent country information produced by international human rights organisations plays an important role in meeting this burden. However, in the case of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender claimants, existing country documentation still fails to provide the kind of information refugees need to support their claims. This is

Nicole LaViolette

2009-01-01

146

Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

2008-01-01

147

Beyond toleration: privacy, citizenship and sexual minorities in England and Wales.  

PubMed

This paper examines two significant moments in sexual minority citizenship in England and Wales in relation to one of the Marshallian sets of rights, namely, civil or legal rights, focusing specifically on the Sex Offences legislation and policing practices. The first moment that will be examined here is the process whereby homosexual acts were decriminalized in the 1950s and 1960s; here special attention will be paid to the recommendations made by the Wolfenden Committee. The second moment is one we are currently experiencing, which is associated with the inclusive policing of sexual minority communities (especially lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender communities) under the provisions of the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and in the review of Sex Offences, especially in the consultation paper (Home Office 2000) and White Paper (Home Office 2002) associated with this review. Privacy and toleration dominate the first moment, at the same time it shall be demonstrated that privacy is also central to the British Sexual Citizenship literatures that have emerged in sociology in the post-Wolfenden context. However, as the title suggests, the second moment under examination points to the emergence of a rather more extensive sexual minority citizenship beyond the boundaries of 'homosexual privacy' (which British Sexual Citizenship Studies is not currently engaging with) and perhaps even beyond the boundaries of toleration through ever more 'inclusive' policing strategies and through the review of sex offences in which many discriminatory laws are being 'de-homosexualized'. PMID:15383092

McGhee, Derek

2004-09-01

148

Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women.  

PubMed

Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women. PMID:23867137

Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L

2013-11-01

149

Sexual Minority Adults at a Seasonal Home Campground: An Examination of Common, Unique, and Diverse Leisure Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the motivations of sexual minority adults to vacation at a sexual minority-focused campground and how sexual orientation identity management was associated with leisure motivations. Twenty-nine men and 12 women who owned seasonal homes participated. In responses to open-ended questions, participants expressed many of the motivations typically associated with seasonal home leisure (e.g., socializing, escape, relax). The most frequently

Steven E. Mock; Erica M. Hummel

2012-01-01

150

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

Bradley, Beverly

2012-01-01

151

Social Integration and Health: Community Involvement, Stigmatized Identities, and Sexual Risk in Latino Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved. PMID:20420293

Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Campbell, Richard T.; Diaz, Rafael M.

2013-01-01

152

Hazardous Drinking, Depression, and Anxiety Among Sexual-Minority Women: Self-Medication or Impaired Functioning?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sexual-minority women are at heightened risk for a number of mental health problems, including hazardous alcohol consumption, depression, and anxiety. We examined self-medication and impaired-functioning models of the associations among these variables and interpreted results within a life course framework that considered the unique social stressors experienced by sexual-minority women. Method: Data were from a sample of 384 women interviewed during the first two waves of the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study. Results: Covariance structure modeling revealed that (a) consistent with a self-medication process, anxiety was prospectively associated with hazardous drinking and (b) consistent with an impaired-functioning process, hazardous drinking was prospectively associated with depression. Conclusions: Our findings support a life course perspective that interprets the mental health of adult sexual-minority women as influenced by adverse childhood experiences, age at drinking onset, first heterosexual intercourse, and first sexual identity disclosure, as well as by processes associated with self-medication and impaired functioning during adulthood. PMID:23739020

Johnson, Timothy P.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Cho, Young IK; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Aranda, Frances; Szalacha, Laura A.

2013-01-01

153

CRCHD SPN Publications: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Publications: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Publications Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP) Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant

154

A Religious Experience? Personal, Parental, and Peer Religiosity and the Academic Success of Sexual-Minority Youth Using Nationally Representative Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students' academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by…

Gottfried, Michael A.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

2012-01-01

155

Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

1995-06-01

156

Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

2014-01-01

157

Sexual child abuse in a defined Swedish area 1993-97: a population-based survey.  

PubMed

Attempting to avoid some of the most common methodological problems involved in research on sexual child abuse, we collected data on crimes, perpetrators, and sanctions in all convicted cases of sexual child abuse in a defined population during a 5-year period. This approach provided amply documented and ascertained cases with precise definitions and descriptions of the crimes involved, no clinical referral bias, and minimal dependence on memory effects. The results are valid for the small proportion of cases that lead to conviction in the context of Swedish legislation. Structured data were collected from the court dossiers in all cases of sexual crimes against minors (less than 15 years of age) tried and sentenced at the courts in the Västra Götaland region of Sweden between 1993 and 1997. The total number of 496 sentences for sexual crimes during the study period included 203 cases of sexual child abuse (40.8%) with 283 victims and 196 perpetrators, all men. Girls were victims in 85% of the cases, boys in 12%, and boys as well as girls in 3%. Sexual penetration had occurred in 54.5% of cases and the total proportion of hands-on crimes was 83%. Most perpetrators, 72%, were well known to the child. The most severe offenses took place within the family. A wide range of acts were classified as sexual child abuse, but most common was sexual penetration of a female child by her biological father or a family friend. PMID:11501297

Carlstedt, A; Forsman, A; Soderstrom, H

2001-10-01

158

Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.  

PubMed

Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population. PMID:23631692

Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

2013-01-01

159

From Conditionality to Persuasion? Europeanization and the Rights of Sexual Minorities in Post?Accession Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an examination of sexual minorities’ rights in Poland, this paper compares the effectiveness of ‘external incentives’ and ‘social learning’ as Europeanization mechanisms after EU enlargement in post?communist Europe. The politics surrounding the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Poland raise questions about the EU’s capacity to foster norms of tolerance and non?discrimination now that accession

Conor ODwyer

2010-01-01

160

Exploring gender and sexual minority status among street-involved youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares heterosexual and sexual minority street-involved youth across a number of sociodemographic, risk and current mental health, victimization and delinquency measures with a particular focus on gender differences. The sample consists of 147 homeless and street-involved young men and women aged 16–21 years in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses indicate that many of the differences between the heterosexual

Tyler J. Frederick; Lori E. Ross; Tara L. Bruno; Patricia G. Erickson

2011-01-01

161

Internalized Sexual Minority Stressors and Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem in both same-sex and heterosexual relationships. Although there are numerous\\u000a similarities in the dynamics of IPV, gay men and lesbians experience unique stressors related to their sexual minority status.\\u000a This preliminary, descriptive study examined the relationship among internalized homophobia, stigma consciousness, and openness\\u000a to self-reported IPV victimization and perpetration. Among 581 men

Amana F. Carvalho; Robin J. Lewis; Valerian J. Derlega; Barbara A. Winstead; Claudia Viggiano

162

Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

Talley, Amelia E.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

2014-01-01

163

Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?  

PubMed

Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

2014-11-01

164

Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.  

PubMed

Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

Lema, V M

1997-11-01

165

Non-Erotic Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences\\u000a exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction\\u000a is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well\\u000a as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an

Katharine Lacefield; Charles Negy

166

How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

2012-01-01

167

Nicole George - Contending Masculinities and the Limits of Tolerance: Sexual Minorities in Fiji - The Contemporary Pacific 20:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that Fiji is one of only a handful of states to have given constitutional recognition to the rights of sexual minorities in its most recent constitution enacted in 1998, controversy over the issue of individual sexual orientation, and powerful condemnation of those who choose to publicly demonstrate a homosexual or transgender identity, has flourished in the public

Nicole George

2007-01-01

168

Laws Requiring Parental Involvement to Obtain Abortion and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Minors. Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Report evaluates whether policies requiring parental involvement in minors' decision to obtain an abortion can alter their sexual behavior and help reduce the rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens. Using data from the STI surveillance system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on cases of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the findings offer little evidence of a link

Silvie Colman; Ted Joyce; Thomas S. Dee

2011-01-01

169

Comparing Health and Mental Health Needs, Service Use, and Barriers to Services among Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…

Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.

2011-01-01

170

The impact of sexual experiences of young minority group members in the United States, and the associated risks of sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission among adults in the United States and China  

E-print Network

and who are not minority group members are at risk of contracting iv viral infections with more frequency. Finally, a hidden epidemic among Chinese women was detected with respect to the bacterial infections. It is important to study..., and Sexually Transmitted Infections. STIs are a problem of enormous import in the world today and are continuing to spread at alarming rates. Furthermore, they are increasingly affecting larger and larger populations. Specifically, there is a...

Garcia, Ginny Elizabeth

2006-08-16

171

Sexual minority youth, social connection and resilience: from personal struggle to collective identity.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are at increased risk for negative health outcomes including substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and suicide. Researchers suggest that sexual orientation victimization is a predictor of such outcomes. Social connectedness--or the importance of belonging where youth perceive they are cared for and empowered within a given context--has been associated with positive youth outcomes. This qualitative study utilized life story methodology. Life stories are considered to be important expressions of one's identity and are shaped by personal, social, and cultural contexts. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with 15 young people ranging in age from 14 to 22 years. Two focus groups with youth were also conducted. Youth were recruited from rural and urban communities in Massachusetts. This study contributes to the literature on resilience by including the voices of sexual minority youth and explores the meaning of social connection in their lives. Youth discuss the ways in which individual connection and group affiliation served to affirm one's identity, and provided a forum for moving personal struggle to collective action. The findings suggest the need to reconceptualize consequences of disconnection (such as depression or suicide) from individual pathology and attend to these consequences as a response to discrimination and stigma. Implications for these findings and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:21497970

DiFulvio, Gloria T

2011-05-01

172

Communication between VA providers and sexual and gender minority veterans: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Approximately one million gay and lesbian Americans are veterans, and rates of engagement in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system may be increasing for both sexual and gender minority veterans. Very little research has examined the experience of these veterans when receiving care at VA health care facilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, beliefs, and preferences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) veterans in their communication with VA health care providers. LGBT veterans (n = 58) participated in focus groups or individual interviews and completed self-report measures at two southern VA hospitals. Approximately 2/3 of veterans report that none of their VA providers have specifically asked about their sexual orientation, and 24% of the veterans indicate that they have not disclosed their orientation to any VA provider. Although some veterans want providers to initiate these discussions, veterans also expressed fears about disclosure and its possible negative consequences. Similarly, LGBT veterans report varied opinions about the appropriateness of routine assessment of minority status. Only 28% of these veterans experience VA as welcoming to them as LGBT veterans. Systematic training is needed for all VA providers about the rationale for assessing sexual and gender orientation. Staff education should include specific skills for initiating these assessments, and ways of responding to veteran concerns about discussing this topic in the VA health care system. PMID:24588107

Sherman, Michelle D; Kauth, Michael R; Shipherd, Jillian C; Street, Richard L

2014-05-01

173

Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.  

PubMed

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency. PMID:19197644

Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

2009-01-01

174

Concern over the misidentification of sexual orientation: social contagion and the avoidance of sexual minorities.  

PubMed

Membership in a valued group can provide an individual with a variety of benefits. As a result, people should be motivated to avoid being misidentified as a member of an outgroup, particularly a stigmatized outgroup. We argue that when group membership is not readily identifiable, concern over potentially being mistaken for a member of the outgroup (i.e., social contagion concerns) can be potent and can lead to avoidance of the outgroup. The current work shows that after controlling for negative attitudes toward homosexuality, social contagion concerns independently predict anxiety and avoidance in response to imagined, anticipated, and actual contact with a lesbian or gay individual. Results from these studies suggest that concern over misclassification of sexual orientation is an important and unique predictor of responses to contact with lesbian and gay people. Implications for intergroup contact and responses to other stigmatized groups are discussed. PMID:23978067

Buck, David M; Plant, E Ashby; Ratcliff, Jennifer; Zielaskowski, Kate; Boerner, Patrick

2013-12-01

175

Are Australian sexual health clinics attracting priority populations?  

PubMed

To answer a key question ('Are Australian sexual health clinics attracting priority populations?'), we used data from 44 Australian sexual health clinics between 2004 and 2011. We assessed the proportion of patients that were from priority populations (deemed to be at risk of sexually transmissible infections) and compared this to their proportions in the general population using data from Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Study of Health and Relationships. A ?(2)-test was used. A total of 278154 new patients attended during 2004-2011. The proportions from each priority population were significantly higher (P<0.01 for all) than for the general population: young people aged 15-29 years (58.1% v. 20.1%), men who have sex with men (26.0% v. 6.0%), female sex workers (10.8% v. 0.5%), and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (4.2% v. 2.3%). This study confirms that Australian sexual health clinics attract higher proportions of priority populations and are thus meeting their mandate as defined in the 2010-2013 National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy. PMID:23962540

Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Ryder, Nathan; McNulty, Anna; Chen, Marcus Y; Marshall, Lewis; O'Connor, Catherine C; Dickson, Bridget; Grulich, Andrew E; Hellard, Margaret E; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca J

2013-11-01

176

Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.  

PubMed

The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

Brewis, A A

1992-10-01

177

Mutator dynamics in sexual and asexual experimental populations of yeast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In asexual populations, mutators may be expected to hitchhike with associated beneficial mutations. In sexual populations,\\u000a recombination is predicted to erode such associations, inhibiting mutator hitchhiking. To investigate the effect of recombination\\u000a on mutators experimentally, we compared the frequency dynamics of a mutator allele (msh2?) in sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mutator strains increased in frequency at the

Yevgeniy Raynes; Matthew R Gazzara; Paul D Sniegowski

2011-01-01

178

Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.  

PubMed

Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

2008-07-01

179

Simulation for Competition of Languages with AN Aging Sexual Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexual populations with aging is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between

Veit Schwämmle

2005-01-01

180

Are Eukaryotic Microorganisms Clonal or Sexual? A Population Genetics Vantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the mode of reproduction of microorganisms in nature can only be decided by population genetic information. The evidence available indicates that many parasitic protozoa and unicellular fungi have clonal rather than sexual population structures, which has major consequences for medical research and practice. Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria, is a special case: the scarce evidence available

Michel Tibayrenc; Finn Kjellberg; Jacques Arnaud; Bruno Oury; S. Frederique Breniere; Marle-Laure Darde; Francisco J. Ayala

1991-01-01

181

The impact of AIDS on an urban population of high-risk female minority adolescents: implications for intervention.  

PubMed

69 sexually active females aged 13-19 attending the General Pediatric Clinic of the Mount Zion Medical Center of the University of California-San Francisco were interviewed to learn about their AIDS-related concerns, risk behaviors, and psychosocial/situational determinants of condom use. 90% of the sample is African-American. The authors also aimed to define the accuracy of personal AIDS risk-assessment, the relative importance of AIDS in relation to other concerns, and the broader context of sexual experience and attitudes in the population. The girls were generally quite concerned about AIDS, but often more worried about poverty-related issues. 41% reported knowing someone with AIDS, they had an average of 3 partners, 55% had a sexually transmitted disease in the past, and 77% had been pregnant in the past. Despite these factors, most perceived themselves to be at low personal risk because of their current monogamy, lack of intravenous drug use, and implicit trust in their partner's safety. The girls generally did not discuss with their partners their actual HIV risk in terms of past behavior. 98% were aware that condoms may prevent AIDS, but only 64% used condoms half of the time or less when they had sex. Even then, condoms were used mainly for contraception. These sexual histories and behavior indicate the need for concern regarding AIDS risk in the urban minority population of sexually active, adolescent girls. Programs aimed at AIDS prevention among urban minority adolescents need to be cognizant of the larger personal and sociocultural context in which teenagers are making health-behavior choices. PMID:8075092

Overby, K J; Kegeles, S M

1994-05-01

182

Contraceptive and sexuality knowledge among inner-city middle school students from minority groups.  

PubMed

In exchange for a free physical examination, 116 minority group youths from inner-city middle schools in Texas consented to answer open-ended questions about their sexual behavior, contraceptive knowledge, and type and source of knowledge of sexuality. The students ranged in age from 12-15 years (mean age, 13 years); 27% were Hispanic and 73% were black. Sex education was not a part of the curriculum at the 4 schools from which respondents were drawn. When asked what sex meant to them, 37% of female adolescents and 23% of males indicated they did not know or it did not mean anything. Among remaining students, recreation was identified as the central meaning be males (23% of total), while females tended to cite romance (21% of total). Only 47% were able to list at least 1 question they had about sex; most common were questions about the morality of premarital intercourse and the experience of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. 89% of females and 57% of males were able to name at least 1 contraceptive method, generally condoms (44%), abstinence (36%), and the pill (8%). Hispanic females named the highest number of contraceptive methods on average (2.2), followed by black females (1.9), Hispanic males (1.8), and black males (1.3). Among female adolescents, 53% listed their mother as their primary source of knowledge about sexual matters and 6% listed a friend. Among males, fathers (17%) and friends (17%) were the most frequent knowledge sources. The fact that these young adolescents view their parents as credible and approachable sources of information about sexuality suggests that school counselors should encourage such communication. aT the same time, the expressed need for more information on the moral aspects of sexuality indicates that values should be incorporated into any sex education program developed for this age group. PMID:12342896

Smith, P B; Chacko, M R; Bermudez, A

1989-11-01

183

Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

2014-01-01

184

Parent—Adolescent Communication About Sexual Pressure, Maternal Norms About Relationship Power, and STI\\/HIV Protective Behaviors of Minority Urban Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial\\/ethnic minority adolescent girls bear a disproportionate risk for HIV and face barriers to autonomous sexual decision making, but parental messages may help protect against sexual risk taking. The authors examined African American and Hispanic girls' sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention practices, parent—adolescent communication about sexual pressure, and maternal gender norms (N = 118). Teens were more likely

Anne M. Teitelman; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Julie A. Cederbaum

2008-01-01

185

Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.  

PubMed

Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999

Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

2014-01-01

186

Portuguese adolescents' attitudes toward sexual minorities: transphobia, homophobia, and gender role beliefs.  

PubMed

Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N?=?188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M?=?17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23153027

Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle

2012-01-01

187

School Environment and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youths: A Study Among Dutch Young Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexual minority adolescents. Methods. Data were collected in 2008 by means of a computer-based questionnaire completed at school by 513 young Dutch adolescents (12–15 years old) during regular class times. Eleven percent of these students, who were enrolled in 8 different schools, reported having at least some feelings of same-sex attraction. Results. Adolescents with same-sex attractions in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as less consistent and clear reported significantly more mental health problems than their peers with no same-sex attractions in the same schools. Such differences were absent in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as more consistent and clear. There were no such effects of cultural pluralism. Conclusions. Our results suggest that schools with consistent and clear rules and expectations mitigate the risk for mental health problems among students with same-sex attractions and underscore the importance of structural measures for the health of sexual minority youth. PMID:20634453

Bos, Henny M. W.; Collier, Kate L.; Metselaar, Marijke

2010-01-01

188

A Religious Experience? Personal, Parental, and Peer Religiosity and the Academic Success of Sexual-Minority Youth Using Nationally Representative Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students’ academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by examining multiple facets of religiosity—including personal, parental, and peer factors—and their associations with

Michael A. Gottfried; Morgan S. Polikoff

2012-01-01

189

HIV Testing Among Immigrant Sexual and Gender Minority Latinos in a US Region with Little Historical Latino Presence  

PubMed Central

Abstract Immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos constitute a vulnerable subgroup about which little is known. We examined HIV testing among 190 such Latinos recruited via respondent-driven sampling in North Carolina, a state with little historical Latino presence but recent, rapid growth of this population. Sixty-eight percent reported an HIV test in the past year, and nearly half reported multiple HIV tests. Concern for their health was the most frequent reason for seeking an HIV test. Reasons not to get tested included fear of a positive test, previous HIV tests, worry that test results might be reported to the government, and concerns that others might treat the person differently if found to be HIV positive. In a multiple variable model, correlates of HIV testing included age, educational attainment, HIV stigma, comfort with sexual orientation, and previous STD diagnoses. Among participants reporting anal sex, consistent condom use was associated with HIV testing, suggesting that protective behaviors may co-occur. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious interventions to increase HIV testing among this subgroup. PMID:24138487

Rhodes, Scott D.

2013-01-01

190

HIV testing among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in a US region with little historical Latino presence.  

PubMed

Immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos constitute a vulnerable subgroup about which little is known. We examined HIV testing among 190 such Latinos recruited via respondent-driven sampling in North Carolina, a state with little historical Latino presence but recent, rapid growth of this population. Sixty-eight percent reported an HIV test in the past year, and nearly half reported multiple HIV tests. Concern for their health was the most frequent reason for seeking an HIV test. Reasons not to get tested included fear of a positive test, previous HIV tests, worry that test results might be reported to the government, and concerns that others might treat the person differently if found to be HIV positive. In a multiple variable model, correlates of HIV testing included age, educational attainment, HIV stigma, comfort with sexual orientation, and previous STD diagnoses. Among participants reporting anal sex, consistent condom use was associated with HIV testing, suggesting that protective behaviors may co-occur. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious interventions to increase HIV testing among this subgroup. PMID:24138487

Gilbert, Paul A; Rhodes, Scott D

2013-11-01

191

Physical Activity Among Minority Populations: What Health Promotion Practitioners Should Know—A Commentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leisure time and moderate-level physical activity participation in the United States is low among the majority of the population. Minority populations are especially inactive and report having fewer opportunities and access to be physically active. Physical activity programs utilizing a strong health promotion framework (including needs assessment, program plan and design, program implementation, and evaluation) are limited, particularly among minority

Sarah M. Lee

2005-01-01

192

The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia  

PubMed Central

This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, “Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements.” The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements.

Burtseva, Tatiana E.; Uvarova, Tatiana E.; Tomsky, Mikhail I.; Odland, Jon ?.

2014-01-01

193

Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities. The rate of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to increase globally. The disproportionately high rate of ESRD among the many growing indigenous populations and racial\\/ethnic minorities in the United States highlights the need to reassess present treatment strategies to more appropriately identify and manage chronic kidney disease

Susanne B. Nicholas; NAUREEN TAREEN; ASHRAF ZADSHIR; DAVID MARTINS; DEYU PAN; Keith C. Norris

2005-01-01

194

[Reconciliation and/or mediation settlements in cases of sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].  

PubMed

The twofold purpose of this study was to show that cases of sexual abuse involving minors can sometimes be resolved within the victim's entourage and to gain insight into the long-term clinical consequences of such acts. The study group was composed of 17 consultees recruited between 1993 and 1994. Inclusion criteria were level of education and understanding sufficient to obtain informed consent, Cameroon nationality, at least 15 years of age, and history of sexual abuse. Persons with a history of hospitalization or psychiatric treatment were excluded. After a one-hour history-taking interview, each subject filled out a questionnaire specially designed for the study. Analysis of data showed that 94 p. 100 of the victims were female. Most subjects were adolescents or younger when the sexual abuse occurred. All had been raped. Subjects presented a range of psychiatric problems, somatic manifestations and disturbances in instinctive functions. No court action had been started in 16 cases (94 p. 100) and charges had been filed in only one case (6 p. 100). Reconciliation was achieved in 2 cases (12.5 p. 100) and negotiated settlements involving payment of financial compensation to the parents of the victim were reached to avoid court action in 14 cases (87.5 p. 100). The results of this study demonstrate that reconciliation and/or negotiated settlements based on economic incentives and social pressures are sometimes preferable to court action. The clinical manifestations observed in the subjects could be considered as the long-term consequences of sexual abuse. PMID:10546190

Mbassa Menick, D; Ngoh, F

1999-01-01

195

The influence of structural stigma and rejection sensitivity on young sexual minority men's daily tobacco and alcohol use.  

PubMed

Stigma occurs at both individual and structural levels, but existing research tends to examine the effect of individual and structural forms of stigma in isolation, rather than considering potential synergistic effects. To address this gap, our study examined whether stigma at the individual level, namely gay-related rejection sensitivity, interacts with structural stigma to predict substance use among young sexual minority men. Sexual minority (n = 119) participants completed online measures of our constructs (e.g., rejection sensitivity). Participants currently resided across a broad array of geographic areas (i.e., 24 U.S. states), and had attended high school in 28 states, allowing us to capture sufficient variance in current and past forms of structural stigma, defined as (1) a lack of state-level policies providing equal opportunities for heterosexual and sexual minority individuals and (2) negative state-aggregated attitudes toward sexual minorities. To measure daily substance use, we utilized a daily diary approach, whereby all participants were asked to indicate whether they used tobacco or alcohol on nine consecutive days. Results indicated that structural stigma interacted with rejection sensitivity to predict tobacco and alcohol use, and that this relationship depended on the developmental timing of exposure to structural stigma. In contrast, rejection sensitivity did not mediate the relationship between structural stigma and substance use. These results suggest that psychological predispositions, such as rejection sensitivity, interact with features of the social environment, such as structural stigma, to predict important health behaviors among young sexual minority men. These results add to a growing body of research documenting the multiple levels through which stigma interacts to produce negative health outcomes among sexual minority individuals. PMID:24507912

Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Starks, Tyrel J

2014-02-01

196

Minority Stress Theory: An Examination of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay & Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the impact of minority stress theory upon sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men using club drugs. Similar studies have focused on ethnic minorities and women, however gay and bisexual men demonstrate greater likelihood for risk behaviors leading to HIV/AIDS. Objective This study examined sexual risk behavior from the perspective of minority stress theory upon substance using gay and bisexual men and their partners. Methods Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined minority stress associations with participant sexual risk behaviors, drug use and partner type, controlling for demographics. Results 396 gay and 54 bisexual respondents, ages 18-67 reported at least one time drug use while engaging in sexual risk behavior. In the adjusted model, expectations of rejection associated with lower odds of sexual risk behavior, while older age approached significance. Conclusions Theoretical origins for examining risk behavior among gay and bisexual men may underscore risk and protective factors, while ultimately holding implications for prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:24319321

Dentato, Michael P.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Orwat, John

2013-01-01

197

Gender differences in relationships among stress, coping, and health risk behaviors in impoverished, minority populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined gender differences among impoverished minority females (n = 205; 87% African-American, 13% Latina) and males (n = 203; 89% African-American, 11% Latino) in associations among latent variables representing stress, self-esteem, avoidant and active coping strategies, and health outcomes of depression, escapist drug use, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both men and women, drug use and

Judith A. Stein; Adeline Nyamathi

1998-01-01

198

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population  

E-print Network

those applying evolutionary theory in humans, some scientists consider recent selective pressures weakNatural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population Alexandre Courtiola,b,c,1, Cambridge, MA, and approved March 28, 2012 (received for review November 4, 2011) Whether and how human

Lummaa, Virpi

199

Increasing access by priority populations to Australian sexual health clinics.  

PubMed

Data from a network of 35 Australian sexual health clinics, in geographically diverse locations, showed that the number and proportion of patients from priority populations (ie, young people, men who have sex with men, indigenous people, and female sex workers) increased significantly between 2004 and 2011. PMID:24275736

Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; O'Connor, Catherine C; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna; Ryder, Nathan; Hellard, Margaret E; Guy, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

200

Young Sexual Minority Women's Perceptions of Cross-Generational Friendships with Older Lesbians.  

PubMed

Abstract Perspectives on cross-generational friendships with older lesbians were explored using informal group interviews with two groups of young sexual minority women (N = 16), ages 15 to 25. A majority of the participants were women of color; all were regular members of weekly discussion groups at two lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered centers on the East Coast. About half of the young women were interested in having friendships with older lesbians, citing the importance of such relationships for helping younger women cope with coming out, providing a sense of community, and serving as role models and mentors. Others were less interested in becoming friends with older lesbians, citing the generation gap as being an insurmountable obstacle. The participants also perceived that many older lesbians were not interested in cross-generational friendships. Ways to create opportunities for forming cross-generational friendships were identified. PMID:24803056

Stanley, Jeanne L

2002-01-01

201

Intimate partner violence, minority stress, and sexual risk-taking among U.S. men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

This article examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among a national sample of Internet-recruited U.S. men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 1,575), and associations between reporting of IPV, minority stress, and sexual risk-taking. Five outcomes are examined: experiences of physical and sexual violence, perpetration of physical and sexual violence, and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) at last sexual encounter. MSM who reported experiencing more homophobic discrimination and internalized homophobia were more likely to report experiences of IPV. The results point to the need for prevention messages to address the external and internal stressors that influence both violence and sexual risk among MSM. PMID:24383859

Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob

2014-02-01

202

Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.  

PubMed

Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ?16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988

Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

2011-08-01

203

Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students’ alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Methods Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Results Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.00). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48–2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24–1.90). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.01. Conclusion The results provide further evidence for minority stress theory and suggest that clinical alcohol use interventions with sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal mistreatment, especially hostility. Campus climate interventions that address subtle discrimination as well as harassment and violence may help reduce problematic drinking. PMID:24474863

Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

2012-01-01

204

Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

205

Minor psychological problems in a multiracial student population in Rhodesia.  

PubMed

Experience in the student health service at the multiracial University of Rhodesia suggests that, although the aetiology and manifestations of minor psychological problems are affected by cultural factors, similarities between students of different races are more marked than are divergencies. The students' problems are similar to those reported from universities in other countries. PMID:746457

Smith, M E

1978-12-16

206

Using Freirean Pedagogy of Just IRE to Inform Critical Social Learning in Arts-Informed Community Education for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors work in the intersection of theorizing, experience, and research in this article as they explore a critical social model that they created to guide an informal, arts-informed, community education project for sexual-minority youth and young adults. As they consider the influence of arts-informed education and Freirean pedagogy of…

Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher

2007-01-01

207

School Climate, Individual Support, or Both? Gay-Straight Alliances and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…

Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah

2013-01-01

208

Using edutainment to reach sexual minority people : HIV and rights awareness for the LGBT community in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This publication discusses using edutainment to reach sexual minority people. Organizations working for and within the LGBT community are responding with increasingly creative and innovative strategies. The Gay and Lesbian Archives of South Africa (GALA) and Community Media for Development\\/CMFD Productions, both based in Johannesburg, have recently initiated two multidisciplinary communications projects that are raising awareness and discussion around LGBT

T. Graham

2006-01-01

209

"Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

2011-01-01

210

Incorporating Queers: Blowback, Backlash, and Other Forms of Resistance to Workplace Diversity Initiatives That Support Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The Academy of Human Resource Development's Standards on Ethics and Integrity states that,“HRD professionals accord appropriate respect to the fundamental rights, dignity, and worth of all people.” This article offers insights into the resistance encountered when organizations acknowledge the worth of sexual minorities. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and self-identified Queer (LGBTQ) individuals occupy complex and

Robert J. Hill

2009-01-01

211

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths’ developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:22957108

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

212

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.

Diego G Bassani; Lilian S Palazzo; Jorge U Béria; Luciana P Gigante; Andréia CL Figueiredo; Denise RGC Aerts; Beatriz CW Raymann

2009-01-01

213

Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship (chi2 = 13.384, p < 0.05), and also plan to use it during following intercourse in the permanent relationship (chi2 = 17.575, p < 0.01). Growing condom use and decreasing risky sexual behaviour among students, as well as other adolescents and young adults needs to be maintained. Youth should learn before sexual initiation that only correct condom use at every sexual intercourse protects them against STI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sexual education and STI/HIV prevention programmes, positive role of media (television) and civil organisations that communicate with the youth can help that. Such changes among adolescents and young adults should have to be seen in student population as well. PMID:24851594

Dijani?, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medi?, Alan; Jurcev-Savicevi?, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

2014-03-01

214

How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.  

PubMed

Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

Bauermeister, José A

2014-08-01

215

Simulation for competition of languages with an ageing sexual population  

E-print Network

Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexual populations with ageing is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between two regions, initially speaking different languages, is studied. We find that individuals speaking both languages do not prefer any of these regions and have a different age structure than individuals speaking only one language.

Schwämmle, V

2005-01-01

216

Population variation in second metacarpal sexual size dimorphism.  

PubMed

This paper contrasts levels of sexual size dimorphism in second metacarpal osteometric and geometric morphology in two bioculturally distinctive populations: 19th century Euro-Canadian settlers, and proto/historic central Canadian Inuit. Significant within-group sexual size dimorphism is found for all variables, though few show significant interpopulation differences. However, in every case the Euro-Canadian sample is more dimorphic than the Inuit sample. Notably, differences reside in geometric measures (total area, Imax) sensitive to variation in functional strain, and thus are interpretable in light of proximate causal models, i.e., activity profiles distinct from generalized mode of subsistence. Other proximate factors, such as nutritional stress acting to diminish Inuit sexual size dimorphism, may also play a role. However, models often cited to explain dimorphism, such as marriage practice (e.g., polygyny) or division of labor situated in mode of subsistence, do not. The higher sexual size dimorphism in the 19th century settler sample belies the notion that technological progress inevitably leads to reduced dimorphism. PMID:12124917

Lazenby, Richard A

2002-08-01

217

Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population with Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Information and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latino and Latina sexual attitudes and behaviors must be understood if educators and counselors hope to reach this population with effective sexuality and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) information and education. The general U.S. Latino population is mostly sexually conservative; direct talk in public…

de la Vega, Ernesto

1990-01-01

218

Sexual assault while too intoxicated to resist: a general population study of Norwegian teenage girls  

PubMed Central

Background Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15–18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Methods Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n?=?2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. Results The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Conclusion Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway – notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females’ sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk approach to prevention, targeting groups with a high level of impulsivity or behavioral problems, may have limited effect on the prevalence of ISA victimization. Thus, from a public health perspective, it may be advisable to give priority to universal preventive measures to curb young girls’ risk of being sexually assaulted in a state of alcohol-induced incapacitation. PMID:24774966

2014-01-01

219

The population history of the Croatian linguistic minority of Molise (southern Italy): a maternal view.  

PubMed

This study examines the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of the Croatian-speaking minority of Molise and evaluates its potential genetic relatedness to the neighbouring Italian groups and the Croatian parental population. Intermatch, genetic distance, and admixture analyses highlighted the genetic similarity between the Croatians of Molise and the neighbouring Italian populations and demonstrated that the Croatian-Italian ethnic minority presents features lying between Croatians and Italians. This finding was confirmed by a phylogeographic approach, which revealed both the prevalence of Croatian and the penetrance of Italian maternal lineages in the Croatian community of Molise. These results suggest that there was no reproductive isolation between the two geographically proximate, yet culturally distinct populations living in Italy. The gene flow between the Croatian-Italians and the surrounding Italian populations indicate, therefore, that ethnic consciousness has not created reproductive barriers and that the Croatian-speaking minority of Molise does not represent a reproductively isolated entity. PMID:15886710

Babalini, Carla; Martínez-Labarga, Cristina; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kivisild, Toomas; Giampaolo, Rita; Tarsi, Tiziana; Contini, Irene; Bara?, Lovorka; Jani?ijevi?, Branka; Martinovi? Klari?, Irena; Perici?, Marijana; Sujoldzi?, Anita; Villems, Richard; Biondi, Gianfranco; Rudan, Pavao; Rickards, Olga

2005-08-01

220

Testing a Model of Minority Identity Achievement, Identity Affirmation and Psychological Well-Being among Ethnic Minority and Sexual Minority Individuals  

PubMed Central

How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one’s identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one’s social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one’s minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

2011-01-01

221

Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

2008-01-01

222

Population genetics of Y-chromosome STRs in a population sample of the Lithuanian minority residing in the northeastern Poland.  

PubMed

Haplotype and allele frequencies for the 12 Y-STRs were determined in a population sample of 124 unrelated males--members of the Lithuanian minority residing in the northeastern Poland. Three of the haplotypes were encountered in duplicate, while 118 haplotypes were unique. The overall gene diversity was 0.9952. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that the Lithuanian minority can be distinguished from the autochthonous Poles, although these two populations are very close to each other. This database study provides an essential precondition for applying Y-chromosomal STRs estimates in forensic identification of male DNA and tracing of paternal lineages. PMID:16139116

Pepinski, Witold; Skawronska, Malgorzata; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Ptaszynska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Janica, Jerzy; Berent, Jaroslaw A

2005-10-29

223

Age at sexual initiation and number of sexual partners in the female Spanish population Results from the AFRODITA survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The AFRODITA study was designed to describe patterns relating to the number of lifetime sexual partners (SP) and age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) by geographic region in a representative sample of Spanish women. Study design: A representative sample of the female Spanish population was obtained using the Access Panel Technique. Postal questionnaires were sent to 11,086 women aged

Silvia de Sanjose; Xavier Cortes; Cristina Mendez; Lluis Puig-Tintore; Aureli Torned; Esther Roura; F. Xavier Bosch; Xavier Castellsague

2008-01-01

224

Adolescent sexuality in Asia: new focus for population policy.  

PubMed

As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy. PMID:12315866

Robey, B

1989-09-01

225

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

226

The Influence of Childhood Physical Abuse on Adult Health Status in Sexual Minority Women: The Mediating Role of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Among women in the general population, childhood physical abuse (CPA) is associated with poor adult health status and engagement in health risk behaviors. Sexual minority women (SMW) are at elevated risk of CPA, have higher rates of smoking, and may be at higher risk for poorer general health. In this study, we examined the influences of CPA on health status in a diverse sample of SMW. We hypothesized that SMW with a history of CPA would report poorer health than those without such histories and that early onset of smoking–an important health risk behavior–would mediate the relationship between CPA and current health status. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the influence of CPA on early health risk behavior (i.e., age of smoking onset) and current perceived health status in a community based sample of 368 SMW. Results More than one fifth of the sample (21.5%) reported a history of CPA. One fourth of the sample was current smokers; the average age of smoking onset was 19 to 20 years old. The mean level of self-rated health status was between “fair” and “good.” When relationships were simultaneously estimated, the effect of CPA on health status was mediated by two sequential smoking factors: CPA was associated with earlier age of smoking onset, and age of smoking onset was associated with current smoker status. Being a current smoker had a negative effect on perceived health status. Implications for Practice and/or Policy These results suggest that tobacco use is an important pathway by which CPA influences current health status. Prevention and early intervention initiatives should focus on the reduction of CPA among SMW to eliminate the long-term health consequences of adverse childhood events among SMW. PMID:23415321

Matthews, Alicia K.; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Alvy, Lisa

2013-01-01

227

COMBINED SOCIOLOGY Ph.D. / POPULATION HEALTH M.S. OR MINOR OPTIONS OPTION I--M.S. in Population Health with Integrated Sociology Dissertation/Population Health  

E-print Network

(3 cr) Fall · At least one of the following courses: Pop Hlth 780 Public Health: PrinciplesCOMBINED SOCIOLOGY Ph.D. / POPULATION HEALTH M.S. OR MINOR OPTIONS OPTION I-- M.S. in Population Health with Integrated Sociology Dissertation/Population Health Thesis (33 credit minimum) Core Courses

Sheridan, Jennifer

228

Molecular population divergence and sexual selection on morphology in the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of sexual selection in population divergence is of much interest, mainly because it is thought to cause reproductive isolation and hence could lead to speciation. Sexually selected traits have been hypothesized to diverge faster between populations than other traits, presumably because of differences in the strength, mechanism or dynamics of selection. We investigated this by quantifying population divergence

E I Svensson; L Kristoffersen; K Oskarsson; S Bensch

2004-01-01

229

Sexual Body Image and Its Correlates: A Population-Based Study of Finnish Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function

Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2011-01-01

230

Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: a mediation analysis.  

PubMed

Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members. PMID:23358856

Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W

2013-07-01

231

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

232

Sexual dimorphism, extrapair fertilizations, and operational sex ratio in great frigatebirds (Fregata minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across taxa, the presence of sexual ornaments in one sex is usually correlated with disproportionately great parental effort by the other. Frigatebirds (Fregatidae) are sexually dimorphic, with males exhibiting morphological and behavioral ornaments, but males and females share in all aspects of parental effort. All other taxa in a clade of 237 species exhibit biparental care, but only frigatebirds exhibit

Donald C. Dearborn; Angela D. Anders; Patricia G. Parker

2001-01-01

233

Minority Health Risk Behaviors: An Introduction to Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Violence, Pregnancy Prevention and Substance Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The goal of this article is to introduce the Research on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Violence, and Pregnancy Prevention Project (RSVPP), which represents one response of the National Institutes of Health to reduce health disparities in racial and ethnic populations. Methods: As part of this effort, seven independent projects were funded to design, implement, and evaluate community-based intervention strategies aimed

Dorothy C. Browne; Patricia A. Clubb; Alison M. B. Aubrecht; Melvin Jackson

2001-01-01

234

Evaluation of the Female Sexual Function Index in a Population Based Sample from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure and reliability of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was evaluated in a Finnish population based\\u000a sample of 2,081 women, age 33–43 years. In addition, associations between female sexual function and age, psychological distress,\\u000a alcohol use, hormone based contraceptives, child sexual abuse (CSA), and adult sexual abuse were examined. The results supported\\u000a a six factor solution for the

Katarina Witting; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Markus Varjonen; Ingrid Wager; Maria Höglund; Ada Johansson; Nina Vikström; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2008-01-01

235

Diverse Voices -- The Inclusion of Language-Minority Populations in National Studies: Challenges and Opportunities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents information developed from a workshop on the Inclusion of Language Minority Populations in National Studies (Bethesda, MD, July 17-28, 2000). To help find ways for survey research to capture the increasing linguistic diversity of the United States and thus be truly representative, this report focuses on current barriers to…

Li, Rose Maria, Ed.; McCardle, Peggy, Ed.; Clark, Rebecca L., Ed.; Kinsella, Kevin, Ed.; Berch, Daniel, Ed.

236

Results of systematic screening for minor degrees of fetal renal pelvis dilatation in an unselected population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of minor degrees of renal pelvis dilatation that is detected by antenatal ultrasound scanning in an unselected population and its value in the prediction of significant uropathies. Study Design: This prospective study was conducted over a 24-month period. Infants with an anteroposterior pelvic diameter of ?4 mm in the

Khalid Ismaili; Michelle Hall; Catherine Donner; Dominique Thomas; Danièle Vermeylen; Fred E. Avni

2003-01-01

237

Alcohol Abuse Training Relevant to Minority Populations. Trainer Manual, Trainee Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual presents current information about alcohol abuse and alcoholism among minority populations. It is designed to aid counselors employed in alcohol abuse programs. Areas discussed in this report include: interpersonal communication, knowledge of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, evaluation and assessment, planning, referral,…

Southern Area Alcohol and Education Training Program, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

238

Comparing the sensitivity of geographically distinct Lemna minor populations to atrazine.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to compare the sensitivities of field populations and a laboratory culture of a duckweed species (Lemna minor) to the herbicide atrazine using three different endpoints and to determine whether sensitivity to atrazine was affected by past exposure to the herbicide. L. minor cultures were purchased commercially or collected from field sites within an agricultural watershed and exposed to atrazine for 7 days under greenhouse conditions. Populations differed significantly in their sensitivity to atrazine. Biomass was more sensitive than frond number, while chlorophyll fluorescence was not a sensitive endpoint. Overall, the sensitivity of the various populations to atrazine was not strongly related to measures of past exposure to agriculture stressors. Positive correlations between biomass twenty-five percent inhibition concentrations (IC25s), biomass estimated marginal means and in-stream atrazine concentrations were observed, providing evidence that atrazine exposure is linked to a decrease in sensitivity to atrazine. However, IC25s generated for each population were similar, ranging from 19 to 40 and 57 to 92 ?g/L atrazine for biomass and frond data respectively, and likely do not represent biologically significant differences in atrazine sensitivity. Given the small range in sensitivity observed between populations, commercial laboratory cultures appear to provide a good estimate of the sensitivity of field populations of L. minor to atrazine and should continue to be used in regulatory phytotoxicity testing. PMID:23535915

Dalton, Rebecca L; Nussbaumer, Christina; Pick, Frances R; Boutin, Céline

2013-05-01

239

Population structure and diversity in sexual and asexual populations of the pathogenic fungus Melampsora lini  

PubMed Central

Many pathogens undergo both sexual and asexual reproduction to varying degrees, yet the ecological, genetic and evolutionary consequences of different reproductive strategies remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the population genetic structure of wild populations of the plant pathogen Melampsora lini on its host Linum marginale, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, two genes underlying pathogen virulence, and phenotypic variation in virulence. In Australia, M. lini occurs as two genetically and geographically divergent lineages (AA and AB), one of which is completely asexual (AB), and the other able to reproduce both clonally and sexually (AA). To quantify the genetic and evolutionary consequences of these different life histories, we sampled five populations in each of two biogeographical regions. Analysis of AFLP data obtained for 275 isolates revealed largely disjunct geographical distributions for the two different lineages, low genetic diversity within lineages, and strong genetic structure among populations within each region. We also detected significant divergence among populations for both Avr genes and virulence phenotypes, although generally these values were lower than those obtained with AFLP markers. Furthermore, isolates belonging to lineage AA collectively harboured significantly higher genotypic and phenotypic diversity than lineage AB isolates. Together these results illustrate the important roles of reproductive modes and geographical structure in the generation and maintenance of virulence diversity in populations of M. lini. PMID:18573166

BARRETT, LUKE G.; THRALL, PETER H.; BURDON, JEREMY J.; NICOTRA, ADRIENNE B.; LINDE, CELESTE C.

2009-01-01

240

Sexual Reproduction in a Simple Growth Population Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important characteristics in the survival of a species is related to the kind of reproduction responsible for the offspring generation. However, only in the last years the role played by sexual reproduction has been investigated. Then, for a better understanding of this kind of process we introduce, in this work, a surface reaction model that describes the role of the sexual reproduction. In our model two different elements of the species, representing male and female, can interact to reproduce a new element. The sex of this new element is chosen with a given probability and in order to take into account the mortality rate we introduce another kind of individual. The value of the spatial density of this element remains constant during the time evolution of the system. The model is studied using Monte Carlo simulations and mean field approximation. Depending on the values of the control parameters of the model, the system can attain two stationary states: In one of them the population survives and in the other it can be extinguished. Besides, accordingly to our results, the phase diagram of the model shows a discontinuous transition between these two states.

Lemos, Carlos Gentil Oro; Santos, Marcio

2012-05-01

241

Social Stressors and Alcohol Use among Immigrant Sexual and Gender Minority Latinos in a Non-Traditional Settlement State  

PubMed Central

We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased, and social support decreased, odds of any drinking in past year. Social support moderated the associations of English use and ethnic discrimination with heavy episodic drinking. PMID:24708429

Gilbert, Paul A.; Perreira, Krista; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

2014-01-01

242

The Influence of Religious Participation on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of religious participation on the outcomes of a comprehensive sex education program for minority youth in Miami, FL. Data collection occurred at pretest and at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. A sample of teenagers was randomly selected from high schools, with a large majority of minority youth, and was assigned into treatment (n = 549) and

Michael E. Sherr; David Pooler; James Stamey; Preston Dyer; Everett Smith; Ashley Summers

2011-01-01

243

The Influence of Religious Participation on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of religious participation on the outcomes of a comprehensive sex education program for minority youth in Miami, FL. Data collection occurred at pretest and at 3-month and 6-month follow-up. A sample of teenagers was randomly selected from high schools, with a large majority of minority youth, and was assigned into treatment (n = 549) and

Michael E. Sherr; David Pooler; James Stamey; Preston Dyer; Everett Smith; Ashley Summers

2012-01-01

244

Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

2009-01-01

245

Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites  

SciTech Connect

The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

Nieves, L.A.

1992-04-01

246

Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites  

SciTech Connect

The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

Nieves, L.A.

1992-01-01

247

Colorectal Tumors Within an Urban Minority Population in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND  Data on gender- and age-specific predisposition to colorectal tumors and colorectal tumor location and stage among the urban\\u000a minority population in Northeastern United States is limited.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE  To study the age and gender distribution of colorectal tumor type, location, and stage of colorectal tumors among urban minorities.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN  Retrospective analysis of a database of 4,043 consecutive colonoscopies performed over a 2-year period.

Balavenkatesh Kanna; Melissa Schori; Sulaiman Azeez; Suresh Kumar; Anita Soni

2007-01-01

248

A Lotka-Volterra Model of Coexistence between a Sexual Population and Multiple Asexual Clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

At carrying capacity, small advantages in competitive ability can compensate a sexual population for its two-fold disadvantage in growth capacity when facing invasion by asexual mutants. In this paper, we develop a generic analytical model to consider the ecology of a sexual population comprising equal numbers of males and females, competing for shared prey resources with multiple female-only clones. We

Graeme E. Poundw; C. Patrick Doncaster; Simon J. Coxw

2002-01-01

249

Queering young adult literature: examining sexual minorities in contemporary realistic fiction  

E-print Network

and the corollary comfort that derives from the knowledge that one is not alone” (p. 46). For GLBTQ youth, this is exceptionally important given the heteronormative structures in place to monitor and control sexual and gender identities and expressions...

Wickens, Corrine Marie

2009-05-15

250

Predictors of Sexual Bother in a Population of Male North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. Aims The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Methods Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. Main Outcome Measures The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Conclusions ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in addressing sexual concerns in this population. PMID:21951580

Smith, James F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

251

Unmet health and mental health need among adolescents: the roles of sexual minority status and child-parent connectedness.  

PubMed

Using a representative national sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey (N = 18,924), this article explores sexual minority status (SMS) and child-parent connectedness in relation to the unmet needs for health or mental health care among adolescents. Through the use of logistic regression models, data were analyzed to determine whether SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. In addition, models tested whether child-parent connectedness, sex or gender, and race or ethnicity interact with SMS to predict unmet need. Results show that both SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. Being a sexual minority youth (SMY) significantly increases the odds of having an unmet need for health or mental health care; female SMY have the highest odds of an unmet mental health need. Child-parent connectedness is a predictor of unmet need regardless of SMS. Youth with lower levels of child-parent connectedness have significantly higher odds of an unmet health or mental health need. Findings call for service providers to address the unmet needs of SMY both in terms of outreach to youth and parents and to communicate the importance of the parental role in helping teens access care. PMID:23039345

Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

2012-10-01

252

Infection dynamics in coexisting sexual and asexual host populations: support for the Red Queen hypothesis.  

PubMed

The persistence of sexual reproduction is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. The problem stems from the fact that, all else equal, asexual lineages should rapidly replace coexisting sexual individuals due to the cost of producing males in sexual populations. One possible countervailing advantage to sexual reproduction is that, on average, outcrossed offspring are more resistant than common clones to coevolving parasites, as predicted under the Red Queen hypothesis. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by a sterilizing trematode (Microphallus sp.) in a natural population of freshwater snails that was composed of both sexual and asexual individuals (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). More specifically, we compared the frequency of infection in sexual and asexual individuals over a 5-year period at four sites at a natural glacial lake (Lake Alexandrina, South Island, New Zealand). We found that at most sites and over most years, the sexual population was less infected than the coexisting asexual population. Moreover, the frequency of uninfected sexual females was periodically greater than two times the frequency of uninfected asexual females. These results give clear support for a fluctuating parasite-mediated advantage to sexual reproduction in a natural population. PMID:25061675

Vergara, Daniela; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

2014-08-01

253

Recruitment of Minority and Underserved Populations in the United States: The Centers for Population Health & Health Disparities Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The recruitment of minority and underserved individuals to research studies is often problematic. The purpose of this study was to describe the recruitment experiences of projects that actively recruited minority and underserved populations as part of The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative. Methods Principal investigators and research staff from 17 research projects at eight institutions across the United States were surveyed about their recruitment experiences. Investigators reported the study purpose and design, recruitment methods employed, recruitment progress, problems or challenges to recruitment, strategies used to address these problems, and difficulties resulting from Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements. Additionally, information was collected about participant burden and compensation. Burden was classified on a three-level scale. Recruitment results were reported as of March 31, 2007. Results Recruitment attainment ranged from 52% to 184% of the participant recruitment goals. Commonly reported recruitment problems included administrative issues, and difficulties with establishing community partnerships and contacting potential participants. Long study questionnaires, extended follow-up, and narrow eligibility criteria were also problematic. The majority of projects reported difficulties with IRB approvals, though few reported issues related to HIPAA requirements. Attempted solutions to recruitment problems varied across Centers and included using multiple recruitment sites and sources and culturally appropriate invitations to participate. Participant burden and compensation varied widely across the projects, however, accrual appeared to be inversely associated with the amount of participant burden for each project. Conclusion Recruitment of minority and underserved populations to clinical trials is necessary to increase study generalizbility and reduce health disparities. Our results demonstrate the importance of flexible study designs which allow adaptation to recruitment challenges. These experiences also highlight the importance of involving community members and reducing participant burden to achieve success in recruiting individuals from minority and underserved populations. PMID:18721901

Paskett, Electra D.; Reeves, Katherine W.; McLaughlin, John M.; Katz, Mira L.; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Ruffin, Mack T.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Merete, Cristina; Davis, Faith; Gehlert, Sarah

2008-01-01

254

Sedentary Behaviors and Obesity in a Low-Income, Ethnic-Minority Population  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous studies have documented adverse health effects from prolonged sitting and TV viewing. These sedentary pastimes are linked to increased risk for obesity and other cardiometabolic risk factors. No studies, however, have examined these associations specifically in low-income, minority communities in the US. Methods This cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted in South Dallas, TX. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sedentary behaviors (self-report) and measures of objectively assessed obesity (BMI, waist circumference). Results Among a low-income, ethnic-minority population, there were independent and significant associations between higher levels of sitting time, computer use, and transit time with elevated BMI (P < .05). Elevated waist circumference was also linked to increased sitting time, computer use, and transit time, yet without statistical significance. Conclusions Increased time spent in passive-leisure activities is a risk marker for obesity in this population. PMID:22398752

Shuval, Kerem; Leonard, Tammy; Murdoch, James; Caughy, Margaret O.; Kohl, Harold W.; Skinner, Celette Sugg

2013-01-01

255

Sexual Minority Youth Perspectives on the School Environment and Suicide Risk Interventions: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…

Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

256

Advisor:___________________________ 2014-2015 MSU Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Minor Worksheet  

E-print Network

in Japanese Literature and Culture LIT 335: Gender and Literature LIT 326: Victorian and Edwardian Lost Worlds Literature LIT 438: Race, Sexuality, Xenotransplantation, and HIV/AIDS NASX 405: Gender Issues in Native SPNS 351: US Latino Literature WGSS 491: Men & Masculinity WGSS 494: Seminar in Women's, Gender

Lawrence, Rick L.

257

Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

2009-01-01

258

Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

2013-01-01

259

Viral population analysis and minority-variant detection using short read next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

RNA viruses within infected individuals exist as a population of evolutionary-related variants. Owing to evolutionary change affecting the constitution of this population, the frequency and/or occurrence of individual viral variants can show marked or subtle fluctuations. Since the development of massively parallel sequencing platforms, such viral populations can now be investigated to unprecedented resolution. A critical problem with such analyses is the presence of sequencing-related errors that obscure the identification of true biological variants present at low frequency. Here, we report the development and assessment of the Quality Assessment of Short Read (QUASR) Pipeline (http://sourceforge.net/projects/quasr) specific for virus genome short read analysis that minimizes sequencing errors from multiple deep-sequencing platforms, and enables post-mapping analysis of the minority variants within the viral population. QUASR significantly reduces the error-related noise in deep-sequencing datasets, resulting in increased mapping accuracy and reduction of erroneous mutations. Using QUASR, we have determined influenza virus genome dynamics in sequential samples from an in vitro evolution of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1/09) influenza from samples sequenced on both the Roche 454 GSFLX and Illumina GAIIx platforms. Importantly, concordance between the 454 and Illumina sequencing allowed unambiguous minority-variant detection and accurate determination of virus population turnover in vitro. PMID:23382427

Watson, Simon J.; Welkers, Matthijs R. A.; Depledge, Daniel P.; Coulter, Eve; Breuer, Judith M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Kellam, Paul

2013-01-01

260

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection.  

PubMed

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I

2013-09-24

261

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection  

PubMed Central

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic “linkage block” with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A.; Kessinger, Taylor A.; Shraiman, Boris I.

2013-01-01

262

Development of Heterosexuals into Sexual-Minority Allies: A Qualitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexually identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual prejudice and the resulting\\u000a policies that discriminate against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. However, few studies have systematically\\u000a examined the development of heterosexual allies. Consensual qualitative research methods (Hill et al., The Counseling Psychologist,\\u000a 25, 517–572, 1997) were used to analyze individual interviews conducted with

Julie M. Duhigg; Sharon S. Rostosky; Barry E. Gray; Mary K. Wimsatt

2010-01-01

263

Configurations of Identity Among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide\\u000a meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies\\u000a centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive,\\u000a holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth,

Phillip L. Hammack; Elisabeth Morgan Thompson; Andrew Pilecki

2009-01-01

264

Ingestion rate decrease as the stimulus for sexuality in populations of Moina macrocopa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulus for the switch from asexual to sexual reproduction in populations of Moina macrocopa americana is an abrupt decrease in ingestion rate caused by a rapid reduction in the amount of available food. When nearly constant ingestion rates are maintained, through the addition of either nutritive or nonnutritive particles, asexual females do not produce any male or sexual female

LOUIS R. D'ABRAMO

1980-01-01

265

Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

2009-01-01

266

Sexual size dimorphism in bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ): effects of population density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism is an important characteristic of many mammals, but little is known about how environ- mental variables may affect its phenotypic expression. The relationships between population size, body mass, seasonal mass changes, and sexual mass dimorphism were investigated using 22 years of data on individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on Ram Mountain, Alberta. The number of adult ewes

Mylène LeBlanc; Marco Festa-Bianchet; Jon T. Jorgenson

2001-01-01

267

Food choice behaviour may promote habitat specificity in mixed populations of clonal and sexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic polymorphism along an environmental gradient may be maintained if disruptive selection on habitat-specific traits leads to a correlated response in traits that reduce gene flow between habitats. We studied a short-distance cline in a population of freshwater snails Potamopyrgus antipodarum in which sexual and clonal snails coexist. Sexuals and clones show a life history cline by depth: snails reproduce

Sonja Negovetic; Jukka Jokela

2000-01-01

268

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

2008-01-01

269

Epidemiology of sexual dysfunction in the male population.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunctions have found an increasing attention in recent epidemiological studies of the ageing male. The purpose of this paper is to review the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and risk factors based on community samples. Studies have not only demonstrated a strong age-related incline of erectile dysfunction (ED), but also of ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders (particularly a reduced or absent ejaculation). Despite a declining sexual desire, sexual interest remains present in old age. Lower urinary tract symptoms have been identified as strong risk factors for ED along with cardiovascular, metabolic, psychiatric disorders and lifestyle factors. The wide range of prevalence rate estimates is likely because of different definitions and criteria of sexual dysfunctions. More research is needed on other dysfunctions besides ED and on the partner relationship as a major determinant of sexual activity and satisfaction. The interrelationship between risk factors calls for interdisciplinary prevention and treatment approaches. As disability-free life expectancy keeps increasing, the need to identify, adequately assess and treat male sexual dysfunction as an important impediment to quality of life most likely will become even more pressing. PMID:16872462

Beutel, M E; Weidner, W; Brähler, E

2006-08-01

270

Pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in a Malagasy population.  

PubMed

Between November 1992 and April 1993, interviews were conducted with 400 patients (169 men, 231 women) aged 14-52 years at the sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic of the Institut d'Hygiene Sociale in Antananarivo, Madagascar, to determine the pattern of STDs and to improve treatment of the leading STDs. The 400 patients presented with 434 syndromes. 124 men had urethral discharge. 210 women had cervicovaginal discharge. 43 men and 18 women had genital ulcers. Clinicians could not establish a diagnosis in 33 patients. 171 patients had more than one infection. Chlamydia infection was the most common infection associated with another STD (gonorrhea in 22% of men and 11% of women with discharge, trichomoniasis in 2.4% of men and 13% of women, candidiasis in 1.6% of men and 9% of women, and bacterial vaginosis in 15% of women with discharge). Gonorrhea was the most common etiology for male discharge (69%) while chlamydia infection was for female discharge (52%). Women with discharge were more likely than men with discharge to have chlamydia infection (52% vs. 42%), trichomoniasis (30% vs. 9%; p 0.00001), and candidiasis (32% vs. 12%; p 0.00001). 37% of women with discharge had bacterial vaginosis. Chlamydia infection was the most common STD in this population (45%). 32% of male and 71% of female gonorrhea cases also had chlamydia infection. 70 patients had syphilis. 36 of them had secondary stage syphilis. No one had HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection. The most efficacious antibiotics for gonorrhea were ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and spectinomycin (100% susceptibility). 31% and 26% of isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole, respectively. Public facilities in Madagascar do not have the capabilities to diagnosis chlamydia, resulting in many untreated chlamydia cases. These findings stress the need to improve combined treatment of gonorrhea and chlamydia infection and for educational efforts to increase awareness of genital ulcer disease. PMID:7871444

Harms, G; Matull, R; Randrianasolo, D; Andriamiadana, J; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Kirsch, T; Hof, U; Rarivoharilala, E; Korte, R

1994-01-01

271

Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.  

PubMed

Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

2014-02-01

272

Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada).  

PubMed

Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities. PMID:24714888

Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

2014-03-01

273

Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

2009-01-01

274

Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

275

High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Students of a Minority-Serving University in a Community with a High HIV/AIDS Prevalence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…

Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.

2008-01-01

276

Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Results We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Discussion Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population. PMID:24236121

Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W. N.; de Vlas, Sake J.

2013-01-01

277

Sexual selection on song and cuticular hydrocarbons in two distinct populations of Drosophila montana  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection has the potential to contribute to population divergence and speciation. Most studies of sexual selection in Drosophila have concentrated on a single signaling modality, usually either courtship song or cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which can act as contact pheromones. We have examined the relationship between both signal types and reproductive success using F1–3 offspring of wild-collected flies, raised in the lab. We used two populations of the Holarctic species Drosophila montana that represent different phylogeographic clades that have been separate for ca. 0.5 million years (MY), and differ to some extent in both traits. Here, we characterize the nature and identify the targets of sexual selection on song, CHCs, and both traits combined within the populations. Three measures of courtship outcome were used as fitness proxies. They were the probability of mating, mating latency, and the production of rejection song by females, and showed patterns of association with different traits that included both linear and quadratic selection. Courtship song predicted courtship outcome better than CHCs and the signal modalities acted in an additive rather than synergistic manner. Selection was generally consistent in direction and strength between the two populations and favored males that sang more vigorously. Sexual selection differed in the extent, strength, and nature on some of the traits between populations. However, the differences in the directionality of selection detected were not a good predictor of population differences. In addition, a character previously shown to be important for species recognition, interpulse interval, was found to be under sexual selection. Our results highlight the complexity of understanding the relationship between within-population sexual selection and population differences. Sexual selection alone cannot predict differences between populations. PMID:22408728

Veltsos, Paris; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Butlin, Roger K; Hoikkala, Anneli; Ritchie, Michael G

2012-01-01

278

Characteristics of victims of sexual abuse by gender and race in a community corrections population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White women, African American men, and African American women) using univariate and logistic regression analyses, which were conducted separately for each group. White women were the most likely to report a history of sexual abuse (26.5%), followed by African American women (16.0%), White men (4.0%), and African American men (1.1%). For all groups, histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were associated with a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with substance abuse problems for women but not the men. Cannabis dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the White women while cocaine dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the African American women. Several other variables were associated with sexual abuse for women but not men, including lower education (White women only), a history of violent offenses (White women only), and living in a shelter (African American women only). African American men tended to have higher levels of education; this was the only variable uniquely associated with either male group. Receiving psychiatric medications was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except African American men and a history of sex for drugs was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except White men. Consistent with national sample, women, particularly White women, were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. The gender-race differences for the sociodemographic factors associated with sexual abuse, particularly the risk of substance abuse for women, suggest the need for tailored interventions for sexual abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:22203627

Clark, C Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Islam, M Aminul; Hanover, Erin E; Cropsey, Karen L

2012-06-01

279

Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population  

PubMed Central

People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information mavens may serve as an ideal point of intervention in attempts to modify health beliefs with the goal of reducing health disparities among these populations. PMID:21683493

Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

2011-01-01

280

Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population.  

PubMed

People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n = 325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information mavens may serve as an ideal point of intervention in attempts to modify health beliefs with the goal of reducing health disparities among these populations. PMID:21683493

Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

2011-07-01

281

Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.  

PubMed

The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

2014-01-01

282

Sexual Practices and Sexual Satisfaction: A Population Based Study of Chinese Urban Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined sexual satisfaction and its social and behavioral correlates among urbanites aged 20–64 in China, using\\u000a data from a nationally representative sample of 1,194 women and 1,217 men with a spouse or other long-term sexual partner\\u000a with whom they had sex during the last year. The results from structural equation models suggest a multiplex set of determinants\\u000a of

William L. Parish; Ye Luo; Ross Stolzenberg; Edward O. Laumann; Gracia Farrer; Suiming Pan

2007-01-01

283

Sexual and Gender Minority Health: What We Know and What Needs to Be Done  

PubMed Central

We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. PMID:18445789

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Makadon, Harvey J.; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

2008-01-01

284

Studying allozyme variation in sexual and apomictic Taraxacum and Pilosella (Asteraceae) populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allozyme spectra of peroxidase, esterase, superoxid dismutase, tyrosinase, alcohol dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were examined in populations of sexual (Taraxacum serotinum and Pilosella echioides) and apomictic (T. officinale and P. officinarum) plant species. The heterozygosity in these populations (0.455–0.620) proved to be considerably higher than the average level characteristic of plant populations (0.058–0.185). The populations examined did not

A. S. Kashin; V. E. Anfalov; Yu. A. Demochko

2005-01-01

285

Initial Design of Culturally Informed Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Developing an mHealth Intervention for Young Sexual Minority Men With Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression  

PubMed Central

Background To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. Objective This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. Methods We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. Results General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users’ ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. Conclusions This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities. PMID:24311444

Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

2013-01-01

286

Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.  

PubMed Central

One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small population size are expressed at the end of the species' life history. PMID:15315900

Ahtiainen, Jari J.; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

2004-01-01

287

Sexual reproduction and population dynamics: the role of polygyny and demographic sex differences.  

PubMed Central

Most models of population dynamics do not take sexual reproduction into account (i.e., they do not consider the role of males). However, assumptions behind this practice--that no demographic sex differences exist and males are always abundant enough to fertilize all the females--are usually not justified in natural populations. On the contrary, demographic sex differences are common, especially in polygynous species. Previous models that consider sexual reproduction report a stabilizing effect through mixing of different genotypes, thus suggesting a decrease in the propensity for complex of dynamics in sexually reproducing populations. Here we show that considering the direct role of males in reproduction and density dependence leads to the conclusion that a two-sex model is not necessarily more stable compared with the corresponding one-sex model. Although solutions exist where sexual reproduction has a stabilizing effect even when no genotypic variability is included (primarily when associated with monogamy), factors like polygyny, sex differences in survival or density dependence, and possible alterations of the primary sex ratio (the Trivers-Willard mechanism), may enlarge the parametric region of complex dynamics. Sexual reproduction therefore does not necessarily increase the stability of population dynamics and can have destabilizing effects, at least in species with complicated mating systems and sexual dimorphism. PMID:9606132

Lindström, J; Kokko, H

1998-01-01

288

Sexual size dimorphism in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): effects of population density  

E-print Network

Sexual size dimorphism in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): effects of population density Myl�ne Le dimorphism were investigated using 22 years of data on individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis individuelle des Mouflons d'Am�rique (Ovis canadensis) de la population de Ram Mountain, Alberta. Le nombre de

Festa-Bianchet, Marco

289

Pheromonally Mediated Sexual Isolation Among Denning Populations of Red-Sided Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we examined whether pheromonally mediated sexual isolation exists between denning populations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) in Manitoba, Canada. Simultaneous choice tests conducted during the breeding season revealed that adult males from a hibernaculum in central Manitoba displayed a strong courtship preference for females from their own population over females from a

Michael P. LeMaster; Robert T. Mason

2003-01-01

290

Psychosocial variables associated with sexual risk behavior among an urban seventh grade population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the psychosocial factors associated with sexual risk behavior among low socio-economic, minority middle school students in a large urban school district in Houston, Texas and is presented in the form of three articles. Article One examines the association between knowledge, perceived risk of HIV\\/STD, and self-reported lifetime engagement in vaginal sex among seventh grade students. The purpose

Toan H Ha

2008-01-01

291

Prevalence of sexual violence and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban african-american population.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans. PMID:23686528

Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

2014-12-01

292

Antagonism between sexual and natural selection in experimental populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Trade-offs between life-history components are a central concept of evolution and ecology. Sexual and natural selection seem particularly apt to impose antagonistic selective pressures. When sex is not integrated into reproduction, as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, natural selection can impair or even eliminate it. In this study, a genetic trade-off between the sexual and asexual phases of the yeast life cycle was suggested by sharp declines in the mating and sporulation abilities of unrelated genotypes that were propagated asexually in minimal growth medium and in mice. When sexual selection was applied to populations that had previously evolved asexually, sexual fitness increased but asexual fitness declined. No such negative correlation was observed when sexual selection was applied to an ancestral strain: sexual and asexual fitness both increased. Thus, evolutionary history affected the evolution of genetic correlations, as fitness increases in a population already well adapted to the environment were more likely to come at the expense of sexual functions. PMID:16405156

Zeyl, Clifford; Curtin, Ciara; Karnap, Kristin; Beauchamp, Elspeth

2005-10-01

293

Allelic and genotypic diversity in long-term asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum in comparison with sexual populations.  

PubMed

Many aphid species exhibit geographical variation in the mode of reproduction that ranges from cyclical parthenogenesis with a sexual phase to obligate parthenogenesis (asexual reproduction). Theoretical studies predict that organisms reproducing asexually should maintain higher allelic diversity per locus but lower genotypic diversity than organisms reproducing sexually. To corroborate this hypothesis, we evaluated genotypic and allelic diversities in the sexual and asexual populations of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Microsatellite analysis revealed that populations in central Japan are asexual, whereas populations in northern Japan are obligatorily sexual. No mixed populations were detected in our study sites. Phylogenetic analysis using microsatellite data and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences revealed a long history of asexuality in central Japan and negated the possibility of the recent origin of the asexual populations from the sexual populations. Asexual populations exhibited much lower genotypic diversity but higher allelic richness per locus than did sexual populations. Asexual populations consisted of a few predominant clones that were considerably differentiated from one another. Sexual populations on alfalfa, an exotic plant in Japan, were most closely related to asexual populations associated with Vicia sativa L. The alfalfa-associated sexual populations harboured one COI haplotype that was included in the haplotype clade of the asexual populations. Available evidence suggests that the sexuality of the alfalfa-associated populations has recently been restored through the northward migration and colonization of alfalfa by V. sativa-associated lineages. Therefore, our results support the theoretical predictions and provide a new perspective on the origin of sexual populations. PMID:19207245

Kanbe, Takashi; Akimoto, Shin-ichi

2009-03-01

294

Population genetic structure of sexual and parthenogenetic damselflies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that obligate asexual lineages may persist in the long term if they escape from negative interactions with either sexual lineages or biological enemies; and thus, parthenogenetic populations will be more likely to occur in places that are difficult for sexuals to colonize, or those in which biological interactions are rare, such as islands or island-like habitats. Ischnura hastata is the only known example of natural parthenogenesis within the insect order Odonata, and it represents also a typical example of geographic parthenogenesis, as sexual populations are widely distributed in North America, whereas parthenogenetic populations of this species have only been found at the Azores archipelago. In order to gain insight in the origin and distribution of parthenogenetic I. hastata lineages, we have used microsatellites, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, to examine the population genetic structure of this species over a wide geographic area. Our results suggest that sexual populations of I. hastata in North America conform to a large subdivided population that has gone through a recent spatial expansion. A recent single long distance dispersal event, followed by a demographic expansion, is the most parsimonious hypothesis explaining the origin of the parthenogenetic population of this species in the Azores islands. PMID:21915148

Lorenzo-Carballa, M O; Hadrys, H; Cordero-Rivera, A; Andres, J A

2012-01-01

295

Population genetic structure of sexual and parthenogenetic damselflies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.  

PubMed

It has been postulated that obligate asexual lineages may persist in the long term if they escape from negative interactions with either sexual lineages or biological enemies; and thus, parthenogenetic populations will be more likely to occur in places that are difficult for sexuals to colonize, or those in which biological interactions are rare, such as islands or island-like habitats. Ischnura hastata is the only known example of natural parthenogenesis within the insect order Odonata, and it represents also a typical example of geographic parthenogenesis, as sexual populations are widely distributed in North America, whereas parthenogenetic populations of this species have only been found at the Azores archipelago. In order to gain insight in the origin and distribution of parthenogenetic I. hastata lineages, we have used microsatellites, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, to examine the population genetic structure of this species over a wide geographic area. Our results suggest that sexual populations of I. hastata in North America conform to a large subdivided population that has gone through a recent spatial expansion. A recent single long distance dispersal event, followed by a demographic expansion, is the most parsimonious hypothesis explaining the origin of the parthenogenetic population of this species in the Azores islands. PMID:21915148

Lorenzo-Carballa, M O; Hadrys, H; Cordero-Rivera, A; Andrés, J A

2012-04-01

296

The Importance of Sexual and Clonal Reproduction for Population Dynamics in the Understory Herb Calathea marantifolia (Marantaceae).  

E-print Network

??I addressed how light availability influences sexual and clonal offspring production, demographic performance and contribution to population dynamics by studying the Neotropical understory herb Calathea… (more)

Matlaga, David Packard

2008-01-01

297

[Allozyme variation in sexual and apomictic Taraxacum and Pilosella (Asteraceae) populations].  

PubMed

Allozyme spectra of peroxidase, esterase, superoxid dismutase, tyrosinase, alcohol dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were examined in populations of sexual (Taraxacum serotinum and Pilosella echioides) and apomictic (T. officinalis and P. officinarum) plant species. The heterozygosity in these populations (0.455-0.620) proved to be considerably higher than the average level characteristic of plant populations (0.058-0.185). The populations examined did not differ in the mean phenotype number mu, i.e., they exhibited the same diversity (3.213-3.380). The proportion of rare phenotypes h also did not differ between the sexual and apomictic species of the same genus, whereas this parameter in the Pilosella populations (0.150-0.174) was significantly higher than in the Taraxacum ones (0.093-0.114). The populations were characterized by numerous isozyme spectra (more than 11 per populations) and displayed multiple allelism (the mean allele frequency was 3.63-4.38 per locus). They exhibited a high percentage of rare (occurring at a frequency lower than 5%) spectra (35-80%). This indicates that agamic complexes, to which these populations belong, may have a more complicated genetic structure of both apomictic and sexual populations than the species that do not belong to agamic complexes. PMID:15810610

Kashin, A S; Anfalov, V E; Demochko, Iu A

2005-02-01

298

Sexually transmitted infections clinics as strategic venues for targeting high risk populations for HIV research and sexual health interventions.  

PubMed

Puerto Rico has one of the highest incidence rates of HIV in the U.S. Concurrent with increases in sexually transmitted infections (STI), an increasing share of the new infections in PR are associated with sexual transmission. Much of the available research on sexual risk in PR derives from STI/HIV surveillance data. There is limited social and epidemiological research on sexual risk in PR, particularly in hidden and often hard-to-reach populations at high risk. Despite the absence of substantial resources that most epidemiological studies require, a research collaboration was initiated in 2007 between researchers in the School of Public Health at the University of Puerto Rico and the Centro Latinoamericano de Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual (CLETS), one of the largest publicly funded centers for STI/HIV screening and treatment in the San Juan metropolitan area. Structured as a case study in the development of community-based research collaborations, this paper describes the early history and development of the project, including formative research, recruitment and training of students, and evolution in the study design that contributed to the current configuration of the ongoing "Core" study. Preliminary data are presented, highlighting data from a number of subpopulations that may contribute to our understanding of the role of behavioral risk in the STI/HIV epidemics in PR. More generally, the paper may guide the development of similar collaboration elsewhere in the Caribbean where HIV risk is increasing but where resources for research in high risk settings and groups are scarce. PMID:21932709

Clatts, Michael C; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; García, Hermes; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L; Colón-López, Vivian; Pérez-Rios, Naydi; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G

2011-09-01

299

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men. PMID:22390442

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

2012-01-01

300

Population structure influences sexual conflict in wild populations of water striders  

PubMed Central

Summary In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we found that males from the perennial stream were significantly more aggressive than those from the ephemeral stream. We also found that dispersers were significantly more aggressive than non-dispersers within each stream. These field results illustrate the relevance of the MLS framework in our understanding of the evolution of sexual conflict. PMID:24049189

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J.; Holt, Galen P.; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, JohnW.

2013-01-01

301

Population genetic consequences of extreme variation in sexual and clonal reproduction in an aquatic plant.  

PubMed

Most plants combine sexual reproduction with asexual clonal reproduction in varying degrees, yet the genetic consequences of reproductive variation remain poorly understood. The aquatic plant Butomus umbellatus exhibits striking reproductive variation related to ploidy. Diploids produce abundant viable seed whereas triploids are sexually sterile. Diploids also produce hundreds of tiny clonal bulbils, whereas triploids exhibit only limited clonal multiplication through rhizome fragmentation. We investigated whether this marked difference in reproductive strategy influences the diversity of genotypes within populations and their movement between populations by performing two large-scale population surveys (n = 58 populations) and assaying genotypic variation using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). Contrary to expectations, sexually fertile populations did not exhibit higher genotypic diversity than sterile populations. For each cytotype, we detected one very common and widespread genotype. This would only occur with a very low probability (< 10-7) under regular sexual recombination. Compatibility analysis also indicated that the pattern of genotypic variation largely conformed to that expected with predominant clonal reproduction. The potential for recombination in diploids is not realized, possibly because seeds are outcompeted by bulbils for safe sites during establishment. We also failed to find evidence for more extensive movement of fertile than sterile genotypes. Aside from the few widespread genotypes, most were restricted to single populations. Genotypes in fertile populations were very strongly differentiated from those in sterile populations, suggesting that new triploids have not arisen during the colonization of North America. The colonization of North America involves two distinct forms of B. umbellatus that, despite striking reproductive differences, exhibit largely clonal population genetic structures. PMID:12535085

Eckert, Christopher G; Lui, Keiko; Bronson, Kelly; Corradini, Pierre; Bruneau, Anne

2003-02-01

302

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-05-01

303

Pheromonally mediated sexual isolation among denning populations of red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis.  

PubMed

Utilizing behavioral experiments and chemical analyses, we examined whether pheromonally mediated sexual isolation exists between denning populations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamtnophis sirtalis parietalis) in Manitoba, Canada. Simultaneous choice tests conducted during the breeding season revealed that adult males from a hibernaculum in central Manitoba displayed a strong courtship preference for females from their own population over females from a hibernaculum in western Manitoba, whereas males from the western Manitoba hibernaculum showed no such preference. In addition. trailing experiments testing the response of males from the two hibernacula to familiar and unfamiliar female trails showed similar results, demonstrating that the observed male preference is mediated through chemical cues. Subsequent chemical analysis of the female sexual attractiveness pheromone. a homologous series of long-chain saturated and (omega-9 cis-unsaturated methyl ketones responsible for eliciting male courtship behavior and trailing behavior in garter snakes, showed significant variation in the composition of the pheromone between the two populations. Specifically, the two populations varied in the relative concentrations of individual unsaturated methyl ketones expressed by females. These results suggest that sexual isolation exists to a degree among denning populations of red-sided garter snakes due to variation in the expression of the female sexual attractiveness pheromone. PMID:12775159

Lemaster, Michael P; Mason, Robert T

2003-04-01

304

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-06-01

305

The role of sexual and asexual reproduction in structuring high latitude populations of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotypic composition of populations of the asexually viviparous coral Pocillopora damicornis varies in a manner that challenges classical models of the roles of sexual and asexual reproduction. On the geographically isolated Hawaiian reefs and high latitude reefs in Western Australia, P. damicornis populations are highly clonal although it has been argued that sexual reproduction via broadcast spawning generates widely

K J Miller; D J Ayre

2004-01-01

306

Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

2013-01-01

307

Lifetime sexual assault prevalence rates and reporting practices in an emergency department population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Studies suggest significant rates of female sexual assault (SA); the majority of SAs remain unreported, and few victims receive medical care. The purpose of this study was to determine lifetime prevalence rates of SA in an emergency department population and to assess reporting patterns to police, physicians, and social service agencies. Methods: A verbally administered survey was given

Kim M. Feldhaus; Debra Houry; Robin Kaminsky

2000-01-01

308

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual  

E-print Network

to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens- gests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates

Bi, Xin

309

Sexual violence among two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to compare the prevalence of, and relationship between, age at first experience of sexual violence and HIV and other health risk behaviors in two populations of men at high risk of HIV infection. Data were drawn from two cohorts: Vanguard, a prospective study of young men who have sex with men (MSM), and VIDUS, the Vancouver Injection

Paula Braitstein; Jérôme J. Asselin; Arn Schilder; Mary-Lou Miller; Nancy Laliberté; Martin T. Schechter; Robert S. Hogg

2006-01-01

310

Multiple sexual signals and behavioral reproductive isolation in a diverging population.  

PubMed

Sexual trait divergence has been shown to play a role in the evolution of reproductive isolation. While variation in multiple sexual signals is common among closely related species, little is known about the role of these different axes of phenotype variation with respect to the evolution of behavioral reproductive isolation. Here we study a unique population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica transitiva) that can be distinguished phenotypically from its neighboring populations only on the basis of two features of male plumage: exaggerated expression of both long tail streamers and dark ventral coloration. Using phenotype manipulation experiments, we conducted a paternity study to examine whether both traits are sexually selected. Our results show that an exaggerated form of the local male phenotype (with both tail elongation and color darkening) is favored by local females, whereas males whose phenotypes were manipulated to look like males of neighboring subspecies suffered paternity losses from their social mates. These results confirm the multiple signaling role of the unique tail and color combination in our diverging population and suggest a novel possibility according to which multiple sexual signals may also be used to discriminate among males from nearby populations when prezygotic reproductive isolation is adaptive. PMID:24021403

Vortman, Yoni; Lotem, Arnon; Dor, Roi; Lovette, Irby; Safran, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

311

Genetic data on 15 STRs in a population sample of religious minority of Old Believers residing in the northeastern Poland.  

PubMed

This study provides a 15 STRs database for a population sample of Old Believers (n = 136) living in the northeastern Poland for the use as a highly discriminatory system of genetic markers in population studies and in personal identification. Significant differences revealed between the Old Believers and the autochthonous Poles by using RxC test as well as F(ST) and F(IS) estimates suggest a certain degree of genetic isolation of this religious minority. PMID:15607591

Pepinski, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawronska, Malgorzata; Janica, Jerzy; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Soltyszewski, Ireneusz

2005-02-10

312

Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

2013-01-01

313

The evolution of sexual size dimorphism in the house finch. II. Population divergence in relation to local selection.  

PubMed

Recent colonization of ecologically distinct areas in North America by the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was accompanied by strong population divergence in sexual size dimorphism. Here we examined whether this divergence was produced by population differences in local selection pressures acting on each sex. In a long-term study of recently established populations in Alabama, Michigan, and Montana, we examined three selection episodes for each sex: selection for pairing success, overwinter survival, and within-season fecundity. Populations varied in intensity of these selection episodes, the contribution of each episode to the net selection, and in the targets of selection. Direction and intensity of selection strongly differed between sexes, and different selection episodes often favored opposite changes in morphological traits. In each population, current net selection for sexual dimorphism was highly concordant with observed sexual dimorphism--in each population, selection for dimorphism was the strongest on the most dimorphic traits. Strong directional selection on sexually dimorphic traits, and similar intensities of selection in both sexes, suggest that in each of the recently established populations, both males and females are far from their local fitness optimum, and that sexual dimorphism has arisen from adaptive responses in both sexes. Population differences in patterns of selection on dimorphism, combined with both low levels of ontogenetic integration in heritable sexually dimorphic traits and sexual dimorphism in growth patterns, may account for the close correspondence between dimorphism in selection and observed dimorphism in morphology across house finch populations. PMID:11209788

Badyaev, A V; Hill, G E; Stoehr, A M; Nolan, P M; McGraw, K J

2000-12-01

314

Sexual violence and neonatal outcomes: a Norwegian population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to explore the association between sexual violence and neonatal outcomes. Design National cohort study. Setting Women were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) while attending routine ultrasound examinations from 1999 to 2008. Population A total of 76?870 pregnant women. Methods Sexual violence and maternal characteristics were self-reported in postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Neonatal outcomes were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Risk estimations were performed with linear and logistic regression analysis. Outcome measures: gestational age at birth, birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results Of 76?870 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence. A total of 4.7% delivered prematurely, 2.7% had children with a birth weight <2500?g and 8.1% children were small for their gestational age. Women reporting moderate or severe sexual violence (rape) had a significantly reduced gestational length (2?days) when the birth was provider-initiated in an analysis adjusted for age, parity, education, smoking, body mass index and mental distress. Those exposed to severe sexual violence had a significantly reduced gestational length of 0.51?days with a spontaneous start of birth. Crude estimates showed that severe sexual violence was associated with PTB, LBW and SGA. When controlling for the aforementioned sociodemographic and behavioural factors, the association was no longer significant. Conclusions Sexual violence was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Moderate and severe violence had a small but significant effect on gestational age; however, the clinical influence of this finding is most likely limited. Women exposed to sexual violence in this study reported more of the sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with PTB, LBW and SGA compared with non-abused women.

Henriksen, Lena; Schei, Berit; Vangen, Siri; Lukasse, Mirjam

2014-01-01

315

Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and asexual microevolution.  

PubMed

An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV(+) patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. The incidence of these infections increased dramatically in the 1990s and remains elevated. These infections are attributable to three clonal lineages of C. gattii, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, with only VGIIa identified once previously in the Pacific Northwest prior to the start of the outbreak, albeit in a less virulent form. This study addresses the origin and emergence of this outbreak, using whole-genome sequencing and comparison of both outbreak and global isolates. We show that VGIIa arose mitotically from a less virulent clonal group, possibly via the action of a mutator phenotype, while VGIIb was likely introduced from Australia, and VGIIc appears to have emerged in the United States or in an undersampled locale via sexual reproduction. This work shows that multiple processes can contribute to the emergence of an outbreak. PMID:25073643

Billmyre, R Blake; Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A; Cuomo, Christina A; Kronstad, James W; Heitman, Joseph

2014-01-01

316

Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population  

PubMed Central

African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

2014-01-01

317

Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.

He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei

318

Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. PMID:23002267

Travnicek, Pavel; Jersakova, Jana; Kubatova, Barbora; Krejcikova, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lucanova, Magdalena; Krajnikova, Eva; Tesitelova, Tamara; Stipkova, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedren, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Curn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

2012-01-01

319

Associations Between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

PubMed Central

Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess: (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the association between caregiver support and bullying in both groups, and (c) whether sexual orientation moderates the interactive effect of caregiver support and bullying on depressive symptoms. Data come from a survey of students in 22 Boston public high schools; 99 of the 832 girls in the analytic sample were SM. We used chi-square statistics to examine group differences, and multiple regression to estimate the association between the caregiver support, sexual orientation, being bullied, and depressive symptomatology. SM girls reported similar levels of caregiver support as heterosexual girls, but reported higher levels of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely to report nonphysical bullying. Tests for interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that bullying, caregiver support, and sexual orientation are independently associated with depressive symptomatology. PMID:22707917

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

320

The Relationship between Sexual Minority Verbal Harassment And Utilization of Health Services: Results from Countywide Risk Assessment Survey (CRAS) 2004  

PubMed Central

We examined the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation-based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County-funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, orbisexual. Those who reported being verbally harassed received significantly more services overall than those who were not verbally harassed, and service utilization varied by sexual orientation. These findings inform future efforts to identify and assess social discrimination in health and social service settings. PMID:23044662

Hoyt D'Anna, Laura; Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Fisher, Dennis G.; Janson, Michael; Chen, Cristy; Malotte, C. Kevin

2012-01-01

321

"Sexual" Population Structure and Genetics of the Malaria Agent P. falciparum  

PubMed Central

The population genetics and structure of P. falciparum determine the rate at which malaria evolves in response to interventions such as drugs and vaccines. This has been the source of considerable recent controversy, but here we demonstrate the organism to be essentially sexual, in an area of moderately high transmission in the Lower Shire Valley, Malawi. Seven thousand mosquitoes were collected and dissected, and genetic data were obtained on 190 oocysts from 56 infected midguts. The oocysts were genotyped at three microsatellite loci and the MSP1 locus. Selfing rate was estimated as 50% and there was significant genotypic linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the pooled oocysts. A more appropriate analysis searching for genotypic LD in outcrossed oocysts and/or haplotypic LD in the selfed oocysts found no evidence for LD, indicating that the population was effectively sexual. Inbreeding estimates at MSP1 were higher than at the microsatellites, possibly indicative of immune action against MSP1, but the effect was confounded by the probable presence of null mutations. Mating appeared to occur at random in mosquitoes and evidence regarding whether malaria clones in the same host were related (presumably through simultaneous inoculation in the same mosquito bite) was ambiguous. This is the most detailed genetic analysis yet of P. falciparum sexual stages, and shows P. falciparum to be a sexual organism whose genomes are in linkage equilibrium, which acts to slow the emergence of drug resistance and vaccine insensitivity, extending the likely useful therapeutic lifespan of drugs and vaccines. PMID:17637829

Mzilahowa, Themba; McCall, Philip J.; Hastings, Ian M.

2007-01-01

322

Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated\\u000a by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered\\u000a by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive\\u000a symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives

Sarah Missinne; Piet Bracke

323

The Group-Level Consequences of Sexual Conflict in Multigroup Populations  

PubMed Central

In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within-and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced) of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics. PMID:22039491

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Gallup, Andrew C.

2011-01-01

324

RECESSIVE MUTATIONS FROM NATURAL POPULATIONS OF NEUROSPORA CRASSA THAT ARE EXPRESSED IN THE SEXUAL DIPLOPHASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were system- atically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also

JOHN F. LESLIE; B. RAJU

1985-01-01

325

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

326

Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal inter-course among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. METHODS A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6% black, and 41.8% Hispanic), mean age 12.5 years (SD = 0.63) from 10 middle schools in a large southeastern US public school district completed a cross-sectional survey using audio computer-assisted self-interviews. Main outcomes included lifetime and past 3-months’ experience of vaginal, oral, and anal sex; condom use; age of initiation; and number of lifetime partners. RESULTS Overall, 12.0% of students had engaged in vaginal sex, 7.9% in oral sex, and 6.5% in anal sex. Among students who had initiated intercourse, approximately two thirds were currently sexually active and one quarter reported ?4 lifetime partners. Six percent had engaged in 1 type of intercourse, 4% in 2 types of intercourse, and 4% in all 3 types of intercourse; vaginal sex was typically initiated at an earlier or at the same age as other types of intercourse. Only 2% had engaged in oral sex without engaging in vaginal sex. Although black students were significantly more likely to have initiated sex compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Hispanic students who had initiated each type of intercourse were more likely to be currently sexually active and to have engaged in recent unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS A small percentage of early adolescents are engaging in multiple sexual behaviors. These findings have implications for early adolescent school-based sexual health education. PMID:19292852

Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

2010-01-01

327

Sexually dimorphic spatial learning varies seasonally in two populations of deer mice.  

PubMed

Spatial learning in photoperiodically induced breeding (reproductive) and non-breeding (non-reproductive) adult male and female deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was examined in a Morris water-maze task. Sexually mature, adult male and female deer mice that were derived from either a mainland population (P. m. artemisiae) or an island population (P. m. angustus) were required to learn the spatial position of a hidden, submerged platform in a water maze. Deer mice were tested either during the breeding season (summer; long day photoperiod) or during the non-breeding season (winter; short day photoperiod) with a total of six blocks of four trials conducted in a single day. Retention was tested with two probe trials which occurred one and three days after acquisition. During the breeding season male spatial task acquisition was superior to female spatial task acquisition for both populations. In contrast, during the non-breeding season there were no significant sex differences in spatial acquisition for either population. This change in sexually dimorphic spatial learning was due to female spatial-performance decreasing from non-breeding season to the breeding season and male spatial-performance increasing over the same period. Both populations displayed similar seasonal variations in sexually dimorphic water-maze task performance. There were, however, overall population differences in water-maze task performance that were related to the ecology of the mice, with the insular mice displaying shorter latencies to reach the hidden platform than did the mainland deer mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8173954

Galea, L A; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P; Innes, D; Hargreaves, E L

1994-01-28

328

CVD Risk among Men Participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001-10: Differences by Sexual Minority Status  

PubMed Central

Background Recent research indicates sexual minority women are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to Heterosexual women; however, few studies of CVD risk exist for sexual minority men (SMM). This study aimed to determine whether disparities in CVD risk exist for SMM and if CVD risk is consistent across subgroups of SMM. Methods This study utilized publicly available data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), pooled from 2001 to 2010. CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham General CVD Risk Score and operationalized as the ratio of a participant’s vascular and chronological age. Differences in this ratio were examined between Heterosexual and SMM as a whole, and within subgroups of SMM. Results SMM had vascular systems that were on average 4.0% (95% CI = ?7.5%, ?0.4%) younger than their Heterosexual counterparts; however, adjustment for education and history of hard drug use rendered this difference statistically insignificant. Analysis of SMM subgroups revealed increased CVD risk for Bisexual men and decreased CVD risk for both Gay and Homosexually-experienced Heterosexual men when compared to Heterosexual men. Differences in CVD risk persisted for only Bisexual and Homosexually-experienced Heterosexual men after adjustment for education and history of hard drug use. Conclusion Subgroups of SMM are at increased risk for CVD compared to Heterosexual men, and this increased risk cannot be completely attributed to differences in demographic characteristics or negative health behaviors. PMID:23766523

Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Flick, Louise H.; Burroughs, Thomas E.; Bowen, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

329

The Impact of Aging on Sexual Function and Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Review of Population-Based Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function

Richard Hayes; Lorraine Dennerstein

2005-01-01

330

Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches  

PubMed Central

Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

2013-01-01

331

Stark sexual display divergence among jumping spider populations in the face of gene flow.  

PubMed

Gene flow can inhibit evolutionary divergence by eroding genetic differences between populations. A current aim in speciation research is to identify conditions in which selection overcomes this process. We focused on a state of limited differentiation, asking whether selection enables divergence with gene flow in a set of Habronattus americanus jumping spider populations that exhibit three distinct male sexual display morphs. We found that each population is at high frequency or fixed for a single morph. These strong phenotypic differences contrast with low divergence at 210 AFLP markers, suggesting selection has driven or maintains morph divergence. Coinciding patterns of isolation by distance and 'isolation by phenotype' (i.e. increased genetic divergence among phenotypically contrasting populations) across the study area support several alternative demographic hypotheses for display divergence, each of which entails gene flow. Display-associated structure appears broadly distributed across the genome and the markers producing this pattern do not stand out from background levels of differentiation. Overall, the results suggest selection can promote stark sexual display divergence in the face of gene flow among closely related populations. PMID:25266277

Blackburn, Gwylim S; Maddison, Wayne P

2014-11-01

332

[Hamburg model-project for minors who are at risk for sexual offending: co-operation between the institutions in Hamburg, Germany].  

PubMed

When children and adolescents show deviant sexual behavior, co-operation between institutions of the youth welfare service is necessary in order to prevent further assaults. As a part of the Hamburg model project for minors who are at risk for sexual offending we evaluated the existing case-unspecific co-operation between the city's institutions. Selection of the sample resulted in a diagram of co-operation between institutions that have or might have contact to sexual deviant children or juveniles. By analyzing 147 online-surveys, comprising quantitative as well as qualitative questions, revealed a comprehensive system rich in resources but only little case-unspecific cooperation. Highest average rating in co-operation was given to the non-governmental institutions and the police. The inquiry of reasons for the co-operation indicated a demand for specialized diagnostics and advice. Positively evaluated were an efficient and fast processing, an unbureaucratic handling of the case and constant availability. Pointed out negatively were "not-reacting", trivializing and a lack of capacities. In order to improve the level of information and the range of intervention programs, training of professionals in school and the youth welfare service is needed. PMID:21290851

Spehr, Aranke; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Briken, Peer

2010-01-01

333

Promoting Career Opportunities in Nursing to the Minority and Male Population of Galveston.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a project was undertaken to increase the number of minority and male students entering and completing the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Galveston College (GC) in Texas. The goal of the project was achieved in three interrelated phases. The initial phase focused on establishing an outreach program within the community. The…

Garcia, Viola Ruth

334

The Unique Leadership Needs of Minority Student Populations: Crafting a Leadership Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how college-level minority student leaders make meaning of those leadership experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 students. Major findings noted a strong personal motivation to participate in student leadership positions. Further research on the impact of familial…

Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

2011-01-01

335

The maintenance of sex, clonal dynamics, and host-parasite coevolution in a mixed population of sexual and asexual snails.  

PubMed

Sexual populations should be vulnerable to invasion and replacement by ecologically similar asexual females because asexual lineages have higher per capita growth rates. However, as asexual genotypes become common, they may also become disproportionately infected by parasites. The Red Queen hypothesis postulates that high infection rates in the common asexual clones could periodically favor the genetically diverse sexual individuals and promote the short-term coexistence of sexual and asexual populations. Testing this idea requires comparison of competing sexual and asexual lineages that are attacked by natural parasites. To date no such data have been available. Here, we report on long-term dynamics and parasite coevolution in a "mixed" (sexual and asexual) population of snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). We found that, within 7-10 years, the most common clones were almost completely replaced by initially rare clones in two different habitats, while sexuals persisted throughout the study period. The common clones, which were initially more resistant to infection, also became more susceptible to infection by sympatric (but not allopatric) parasites over the course of the study. These results are consistent with the Red Queen hypothesis and show that the coevolutionary dynamics predicted by the theory may also favor sexual reproduction in natural populations. PMID:19441961

Jokela, Jukka; Dybdahl, Mark F; Lively, Curtis M

2009-07-01

336

Rapid evolution of a sexually selected trait following population establishment in a novel habitat.  

PubMed

Colonization of novel environments creates new selection pressures. Sexually selected traits are affected by the physical and social environment and should be especially susceptible to change, but this has rarely been studied. In southern California, dark-eyed juncos, (Junco hyemalis) naturally breed in mixed-coniferous temperate forests, typically from 1500 m to 3000 m in elevation. In the early 1980s, a small population became established in a coastal habitat, the University of California, San Diego campus, which has a mild, Mediterranean climate. I show that a sexually and socially selected signaling trait--the amount of white in the tail--has declined by approximately 22% as compared to mountain juncos. I address three main factors that could explain the difference between mountain and coastal juncos: phenotypic plasticity, genetic drift, and selection. Results indicate that the first two can be ruled out as the sole cause of the plumage change, which implies that selection contributed to the genetic differentiation from the mountain population. The estimated rate of evolution is about 0.2 haldanes, comparable with rates of change in systems where individuals have been artificially introduced into new environments (e.g., guppies and Drosophila). This is the first study to demonstrate evolution of a sexually selected trait after only several generations resulting from a natural invasion into a novel environment. PMID:15058729

Yeh, Pamela J

2004-01-01

337

"Do You Have Any Idea Who You Just Hired?!?" A Study of Open and Closeted Sexual Minority K-12 Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indepth interviews with two female and two male school leaders, one of each gender who were "closeted" in their sexuality and one of each who were "open." Foucault's sovereign and disciplinary power and normalization conceptually framed the study. Interviewee's fear of disclosure resulted in reproducing heteronormative power. At the same time, all…

Fraynd, Donald J.; Capper, Colleen A.

2003-01-01

338

Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

2009-01-01

339

Health and demographic characteristics of respondents in an Australian national sexuality survey: comparison with population norms  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To assess the representativeness of survey participants by systematically comparing volunteers in a national health and sexuality survey with the Australian population in terms of self reported health status (including the SF-36) and a wide range of demographic characteristics. Design: A cross sectional sample of Australian residents were compared with demographic data from the 1996 Australian census and health data from the 1995 National Health Survey. Setting: The Australian population. Participants: A stratified random sample of adults aged 18–59 years drawn from the Australian electoral roll, a compulsory register of voters. Interviews were completed with 1784 people, representing 40% of those initially selected (58% of those for whom a valid telephone number could be located). Main results: Participants were of similar age and sex to the national population. Consistent with prior research, respondents had higher socioeconomic status, more education, were more likely to be employed, and less likely to be immigrants. The prevalence estimates, means, and variances of self reported mental and physical health measures (for example, SF-36 subscales, women's health indicators, current smoking status) were similar to population norms. Conclusions: These findings considerably strengthen inferences about the representativeness of data on health status from volunteer samples used in health and sexuality surveys. PMID:12239200

Purdie, D; Dunne, M; Boyle, F; Cook, M; Najman, J

2002-01-01

340

Sexual systems and population genetic structure in an annual plant: testing the metapopulation model.  

PubMed

The need for reproductive assurance during dispersal, along with the pressure of local mate competition, means that the importance of frequent or repeated colonization is implicit in the literature on sexual system evolution. However, there have been few empirical tests of the association between colonization history and sexual system in plants, and none within a single species. Here we use patterns of genetic diversity to provide such a test in the Mercurialis annua species complex, which spans the range of systems from self-compatible monoecy through androdioecy to dioecy. This variation has been hypothesized to result from differing patterns of metapopulation turnover and recolonization. Because monoecy should be favored during colonization, androdioecy and dioecy will be maintained only in regions with low rates of local extinction and recolonization, and these differences should also be reflected in patterns of neutral genetic diversity. We show that monoecious populations of M. annua display lower within-population genetic diversity than androdioecious populations and higher genetic differentiation than dioecious and androdioecious populations, as predicted by metapopulation models. In contrast, regional diversity in M. annua appears to be primarily a product of postglacial range expansion from two refugia in the eastern and western Mediterranean Basin. PMID:16673344

Obbard, Darren J; Harris, Stephen A; Pannell, John R

2006-03-01

341

Comparison of sexual assaults by strangers and known assailants in an urban population of women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of sexual assaults by strangers and those by people known to the victims in an urban community-based population of women. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Care Centre, Women's College Hospital, Toronto. PARTICIPANTS: All 677 women who presented to the centre between June 1, 1991, and Sept. 30, 1993, and for whom the victim-assailant relationship was known. OUTCOME MEASURES: Assailant's relationship to victim, sex of assailant, number of assailants, number, type and location of assaults, use of weapons, type of coercion and extent of physical trauma or injury. RESULTS: Sexual assault by a person known to the victim accounted for 456 (67.4%) of the assaults reported. In 344 cases the person was known more than 24 hours; 99 (28.8%) were current or previous boyfriends or spouses. Assailants who were strangers were more likely to assault the victim more than once (t = -2.42, 355 degrees of freedom [df], p < 0.05), force the victim to perform fellatio (chi 2 = 8.63, 1 df, p < 0.005), use weapons (chi 2 = 12.01, 1 df, p < 0.001) and use physical coercion (chi 2 = 4.42, 1 df, p < 0.05), whereas assailants who were known to the victims were more likely to assault a woman who was sleeping or drugged (chi 2 = 10.38, 1 df, p < 0.005). Sexual assault by a known assailant was more likely to occur in the home of the victim (chi 2 = 36.27, 1 df, p < 0.001) or the assailant (chi 2 = 8.46, 1 df, p < 0.005), whereas sexual assault by a stranger was more likely to occur outdoors (chi 2 = 89.80, 1 df, p < 0.001) or in a vehicle (chi 2 = 32.81, 1 df, p < 0.001). Overall, the mean number of trauma sites was greater among victims assaulted by strangers than among those assaulted by people they knew (t = -4.29, 180 df, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Two thirds of the sexual assaults in this urban population were committed by people known to the victims, and over two thirds of these assaults were associated with physical trauma. Improved victim services and prevention strategies should be built on this knowledge. PMID:7553516

Stermac, L E; Du Mont, J A; Kalemba, V

1995-01-01

342

International differences in alcohol use according to sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high volume and

Kim Bloomfield; Matthias Wicki; Sharon Wilsnack; Tonda Hughes; Gerhard Gmel

2011-01-01

343

The Role of Sexual Selection and Conflict in Mediating Among-Population Variation in Mating Strategies and Sexually Dimorphic Traits in Sepsis punctum  

PubMed Central

The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive traits is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it has the potential to limit gene flow among populations, contributing to speciation. Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. Flies from five distinct populations were reared at high or low food, generating high and low quality males. The expression of body size, forelimb morphology and courtship rate were each greater at high food, but high food males experienced higher mating success or reduced latency to first copulation in only one of the populations. Among populations, overall mating success increased with the degree of male-bias in overall body size and forelimb modification, suggesting that these traits have evolved as a means of increasing male mating rate. The increased mating success observed in large-male populations raises the question of why variation in magnitude of dimorphism persists among populations. One reason may be that costs of producing a large size constrain the evolution of ever-larger males. We found no evidence that juvenile mortality under food stress was greater for large-male populations, but development time was considerably longer and may represent an important constraint in an ephemeral and competitive growth environment. PMID:23227145

Dmitriew, Caitlin; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

2012-01-01

344

Ionizing stellar population in the disc of NGC 3310 - I. The impact of a minor merger on galaxy evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of minor mergers predict little enhancement in the global star formation activity. However, it is still unclear the impact they have on the chemical state of the whole galaxy and on the mass build-up in the galaxy bulge and disc. We present a two-dimensional analysis of NCG 3310, currently undergoing an intense starburst likely caused by a recent minor interaction, using data from the PPAK Integral Field Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxies Survey (PINGS). With data from a large sample of about a hundred H II regions identified throughout the disc and spiral arms, we derive, using strong-line metallicity indicators and direct derivations, a rather flat gaseous abundance gradient. Thus, metal mixing processes occurred, as in observed galaxy interactions. Spectra from PINGS data and additional multiwavelength imaging were used to perform a spectral energy distribution fitting to the stellar emission and a photoionization modelling of the nebulae. The ionizing stellar population is characterized by single populations with a narrow age range (2.5-5 Myr) and a broad range of masses (104-6 × 106 M?). The effect of dust grains in the nebulae is important, indicating that 25-70 per cent of the ultraviolet photons can be absorbed by dust. The ionizing stellar population within the H II regions represents typically a few per cent of the total stellar mass. This ratio, a proxy to the specific star formation rate, presents a flat or negative radial gradient. Therefore, minor interactions may indeed play an important role in the mass build-up of the bulge.

Miralles-Caballero, D.; Díaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Sánchez, S. F.

2014-05-01

345

Changes and Correlates in Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Chinese Adult Women----Population Based Surveys in 2000 and 2006  

PubMed Central

The sexual transmission of HIV and STI is becoming a major public health concern in China. However, studies on sexuality in China remain scant, particularly those that analyze female sexuality. This study is to investigate the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships among adult women, and to examine trends and correlates for having more than one lifetime sexual partner. Multiple sexual partnership (MSP), coded as having one or none vs. two or more lifetime sexual partners, was the key binary outcome measure. The data were from two national probability surveys on sexual behaviors in China carried out in 2000 and 2006. The sample size of adult women was 1899 in 2000 (total sample n= 3812), and 2626 in 2006 (n=5404). Overall prevalence of MSP increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 29.6% in 2006 (Chi-square test, sig.=0.000). The most rapid changes took place among women with less education, those who worked in blue collar jobs and lower social status positions, and those living in rural areas or small towns. Women who were better educated, lived in big cities, and held management level occupations exhibited less change but had a higher baselines prevalence of MSP, suggesting that changes in MSP behavior may occur initially among women of higher socioeconomic status. Based on the 2006 dataset, significant positive correlates of MSP included more years of education, being in a long-term relationship, being middle aged, having a lower status job, going out dancing at entertainments venues, and being a state of overall health in the past 12 months. The significant recent increase in MSP among women reinforces the need to examine China’s sexual revolution in the context of a rapidly transitioning society. Findings regarding female sexuality also raise new questions to be explored in further sexuality studies, in order to better understand population sexual behaviors and to inform future HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21660755

Yingying, Huang; Smith, Kumi; Suiming, Pan

2011-01-01

346

Allele distribution of 15 STR loci in a population sample of the Lithuanian minority residing in the Northeastern Poland.  

PubMed

Allele frequencies for the 15 STRs included in the AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit were determined in a population sample of 140 unrelated individuals of the Lithuanian minority residing in the Northeastern Poland. Departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for loci VWA, TPOX and D7S820 did not sustain after applying Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Exact tests disequilibrium analysis revealed five departures from independence out of 105 pair-wise comparisons. The combined MP and PE for all 15 loci are 5.00 x 10(-17) and 0.9999, respectively. PMID:15240022

Pepinski, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawronska, Malgorzata; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Janica, Jerzy; Soltyszewski, Ireneusz

2004-08-11

347

Significance of temporal changes on sexual dimorphism of cranial measurements of Indian population.  

PubMed

Revision of discriminant function formulae has always been advocated by anthropologist to take into account the changing pattern of sexual dimorphism due to temporal/secular changes. The present study aims to track temporal changes in cranial measurements of temporally distinct North Indian population and providing updated sex discriminating formulae. A total of 483 adult (20-65 years) crania representing contemporary and sub-recent populations collected from two medical colleges in North India. A total of 11 variables were measured to observe the changes in cranial dimension over time. Analysis of data demonstrated significant sexual and population (contemporary vs sub-recent sample) variations over time. The contemporary males and females exhibited larger cranial dimensions but it expressed less dimorphism than their predecessors. A trend toward brachycephalization was also observed in contemporary females. Maximum cranial length (84%) and biauricular breadth (79%) represent the most dimorphic variables for contemporary and sub-recent sample, respectively. The possible causes of such variations are discussed. PMID:25043554

Saini, Vineeta

2014-09-01

348

Health of a Punjabi ethnic minority in Glasgow: a comparison with the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare common health experiences of a South Asian (predominantly Punjabi) population with that of the general population, according to sex, and to related patterns of health in the fourth decade of life to the pattern of hospital admission and mortality documented in the published reports. DESIGN AND SETTING--A cross sectional survey with interviews and physical measures was undertaken in

R Williams; R Bhopal; K Hunt

1993-01-01

349

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01

350

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-12-01

351

[Sexual orientations].  

PubMed

In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

Schweizer, K; Brunner, F

2013-02-01

352

The realized effect of postpollination sexual selection in a natural plant population.  

PubMed Central

The ultimate importance of postpollination sexual selection has remained elusive, largely because of the difficulty of assigning paternity in the field. Here I use a powerful new molecular marker (AFLP) for paternity analysis in a natural population of the outcrossing angiosperm Persoonia mollis (Proteaceae) to assess male reproductive success following equal pollination of 15 pollen donors on each of 6310 pistils. These results were contrasted with male reproductive success of these same plants following natural mating. Following equal pollination, there was a significant departure from equal siring success, indicating a potential for postpollination sexual selection. The most successful pollen donor sired more than twice the expected number of seeds, and this was largely consistent across recipient plants. However, siring success following natural mating was significantly different from siring success following artificial pollination and showed that the reproductive gains to be made from superior pollen performance did not translate into increased reproductive success following natural mating. As the ecological context for post-pollination sexual selection is strong in P. mollis, I suggest that pollen competition may ultimately have only a weak effect on non-random male mating success under natural conditions because the realized opportunities for pollen competition within pistils are limited. PMID:11075703

Krauss, S L

2000-01-01

353

Prevalence and predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships in a predominantly african american population in jackson, Mississippi.  

PubMed

Concurrent sexual partnerships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, have been associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). How best to measure concurrency and the personal characteristics and predictors of concurrency are not yet well understood. We compared two frequently used concurrency definitions, including a self-reported measure based on participant response regarding overlapping sex with partners, and the UNAIDS measure based on overlapping dates of last sex and intention to have sex again. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and structural predictors of concurrency among 1,542 patients at an urban STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Nearly half (44 %) reported concurrency based on self-reported sex with other partners, and 26 % reported concurrency according to the UNAIDS concurrency measure. Using the self-reported concurrency measure, the strongest predictors of concurrency were perceived partner concurrency, drug use at last sex, having more than 10 lifetime partners, and being recently incarcerated. Strongest predictors of concurrency using the UNAIDS measure were lifetime number of partners and perceived partner concurrency. Concurrency is highly prevalent in this population in the Deep South and social, structural and behavioral factors were important predictors of concurrency for both measures. Future research should use time anchored data collection methods and biomarkers to assess whether both definitions of concurrency are associated with HIV outcomes. PMID:24803130

Nunn, Amy; MacCarthy, Sarah; Barnett, Nancy; Rose, Jennifer; Chan, Philip; Yolken, Annajane; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Barnes, Arti; Riggins, Reginald; Moore, Elya; Simmons, Dantrell; Parker, Sharon; Mena, Leandro

2014-12-01

354

Intragenomic conflict in populations infected by Parthenogenesis Inducing Wolbachia ends with irreversible loss of sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background The maternally inherited, bacterial symbiont, parthenogenesis inducing (PI) Wolbachia, causes females in some haplodiploid insects to produce daughters from both fertilized and unfertilized eggs. The symbionts, with their maternal inheritance, benefit from inducing the production of exclusively daughters, however the optimal sex ratio for the nuclear genome is more male-biased. Here we examine through models how an infection with PI-Wolbachia in a previously uninfected population leads to a genomic conflict between PI-Wolbachia and the nuclear genome. In most natural populations infected with PI-Wolbachia the infection has gone to fixation and sexual reproduction is impossible, specifically because the females have lost their ability to fertilize eggs, even when mated with functional males. Results The PI Wolbachia infection by itself does not interfere with the fertilization process in infected eggs, fertilized infected eggs develop into biparental infected females. Because of the increasingly female-biased sex ratio in the population during a spreading PI-Wolbachia infection, sex allocation alleles in the host that cause the production of more sons are rapidly selected. In haplodiploid species a reduced fertilization rate leads to the production of more sons. Selection for the reduced fertilization rate leads to a spread of these alleles through both the infected and uninfected population, eventually resulting in the population becoming fixed for both the PI-Wolbachia infection and the reduced fertilization rate. Fertilization rate alleles that completely interfere with fertilization ("virginity alleles") will be selected over alleles that still allow for some fertilization. This drives the final resolution of the conflict: the irreversible loss of sexual reproduction and the complete dependence of the host on its symbiont. Conclusions This study shows that dependence among organisms can evolve rapidly due to the resolution of the conflicts between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes, and without requiring a mutualism between the partners. PMID:20667099

2010-01-01

355

Short-term population differences in the genetic architecture of life history traits related to sexuality in an aphid species  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important factors that determine the evolutionary trajectory of a suite of traits in a population is the structure of the genetic variance–covariance matrix (G). We studied the cyclically parthenogenetic aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, whose populations exhibit two types of reproductive lineages respectively specialized in sexuality (that is, cyclically parthenogenetic lineages) and in asexuality (that is, obligate parthenogenetic

R F Nespolo; C C Figueroa; M Plantegenest; J C Simon

2008-01-01

356

Demography of the demosponge Amphimedon compressa: Evaluation of the importance of sexual versus asexual recruitment to its population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used size-based population matrix models to describe the demography of the demosponge Amphimedon compressa. The relative importance of growth, survivorship, and recruitment to population growth (?) was assessed by performing elasticity and life table response experiment (LTRE) analyses. We also evaluated the relative contribution of sexual and asexual recruitment to ? by analyzing four different scenarios: (1) the combined

Alex E. Mercado-Molina; Alberto M. Sabat; Paul M. Yoshioka

2011-01-01

357

Differences in Chemical Sexual Signals May Promote Reproductive Isolation and Cryptic Speciation between Iberian Wall Lizard Populations  

PubMed Central

Interpopulational variation in sexual signals may lead to premating reproductive isolation and speciation. Genetic and morphological studies suggest that the Iberian wall lizard, Podarcis hispanica, forms part of a “species complex” with several cryptic species. We explored the role of chemical sexual signals in interpopulational recognition between five distinct populations of Iberian wall lizards in Central Spain. Results showed that these populations differed in morphology and in composition and proportion of chemical compounds in femoral gland secretions of males. Tongue-flick experiments indicated that male and female lizards discriminated and were more interested in scents of lizards from their own area (i.e., Northern versus Southern populations), but did not discriminate between all populations. Moreover, only males from the populations that are geographically located more far away preferred scent of females from their own population. These data suggest that, at least between some populations, there may be reproductive isolation mediated by chemical signals and cryptic speciation. PMID:22288019

Gabirot, Marianne; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, Jose

2012-01-01

358

A Population-Based and Longitudinal Study of Sexual Behavior and Multidrug-Resistant HIV Among Patients in Clinical Care  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based and longitudinal information regarding sexual risk behavior among patients with multidrug resistant (MDR) HIV and their sexual partners is of great public health and clinical importance. Objective To characterize the HIV sexual risk behaviors of patients with and without drug-resistant HIV in the clinical care setting over time. Measurements 393 HIV-positive patients completed questionnaires of self-reported sexual risk behaviors at approximate 6-month intervals extending over 24 months. HIV viral load and genotypic drug resistance obtained during the same time points were matched to the behavioral data. Multidrug resistance was defined as having resistance to 2 or 3 antiretroviral (ARV) drug classes. Results In serial cross-sectional analyses, 393 patients (44% female and 79% heterosexual) contributed 919 matched behavioral and virologic results over the 24 months of data collection. Of these, 250 patients (64%) reported having sex during at least 1 survey period resulting in greater than 10,000 sexual events with more than 1000 partners. Unprotected sexual behavior was reported by 45% of sexually active patients, resulting in 34% of all sex events that exposed 29% of all partners. Of these patients with unprotected sexual events, 31% had HIV drug resistance 11.6% with resistance to 2 classes of ARVs (2-class), and 1.8% with 3-class ARV resistance at the time of a sexual risk event. Close to 1000 or 28% of all unprotected sexual events involved resistant strains (11% of these with resistance to 2 classes and 0.2% with 3-class resistance, exposing 20% of unprotected sexual partners to resistant HIV (8% to 2-class and 0.6% to 3-class resistance). In longitudinal analysis among the 78 patients who reported a cumulative total of 12 months of sexual history and had resistance testing, 38% reported engaging in unprotected sexual behavior. There was substantial and complex variation in the distribution of unprotected sexual events and in the detection of resistance over time. Conclusion In this study of HIV sexual risk and resistance over time among HIV-infected patients in clinical care, a substantial proportion engaged in unprotected sex and had drug-resistant HIV, frequently exposing partners to 1- or 2-class resistant HIV strains. However, relatively few exposures involved 3-class resistance. The dynamics of sexual risk behavior and HIV drug resistance are complex and vary over time and urgently require both general and targeted interventions to reduce transmission of resistant HIV.

2006-01-01

359

A Population-Based and Longitudinal Study of Sexual Behavior and Multidrug-Resistant HIV Among Patients in Clinical Care  

PubMed Central

Background Population-based and longitudinal information regarding sexual risk behavior among patients with multidrug resistant (MDR) HIV and their sexual partners is of great public health and clinical importance. Objective To characterize the HIV sexual risk behaviors of patients with and without drug-resistant HIV in the clinical care setting over time. Measurements 393 HIV-positive patients completed questionnaires of self-reported sexual risk behaviors at approximate 6-month intervals extending over 24 months. HIV viral load and genotypic drug resistance obtained during the same time points were matched to the behavioral data. Multidrug resistance was defined as having resistance to 2 or 3 antiretroviral (ARV) drug classes. Results In serial cross-sectional analyses, 393 patients (44% female and 79% heterosexual) contributed 919 matched behavioral and virologic results over the 24 months of data collection. Of these, 250 patients (64%) reported having sex during at least 1 survey period resulting in greater than 10,000 sexual events with more than 1000 partners. Unprotected sexual behavior was reported by 45% of sexually active patients, resulting in 34% of all sex events that exposed 29% of all partners. Of these patients with unprotected sexual events, 31% had HIV drug resistance – 11.6% with resistance to 2 classes of ARVs (2-class), and 1.8% with 3-class ARV resistance at the time of a sexual risk event. Close to 1000 or 28% of all unprotected sexual events involved resistant strains (11% of these with resistance to 2 classes and 0.2% with 3-class resistance, exposing 20% of unprotected sexual partners to resistant HIV (8% to 2-class and 0.6% to 3-class resistance). In longitudinal analysis among the 78 patients who reported a cumulative total of 12 months of sexual history and had resistance testing, 38% reported engaging in unprotected sexual behavior. There was substantial and complex variation in the distribution of unprotected sexual events and in the detection of resistance over time. Conclusion In this study of HIV sexual risk and resistance over time among HIV-infected patients in clinical care, a substantial proportion engaged in unprotected sex and had drug-resistant HIV, frequently exposing partners to 1- or 2-class resistant HIV strains. However, relatively few exposures involved 3-class resistance. The dynamics of sexual risk behavior and HIV drug resistance are complex and vary over time and urgently require both general and targeted interventions to reduce transmission of resistant HIV. PMID:16926811

Kozal, Michael J.; Amico, K. Rivet; Chiarella, Jennifer; Cornman, Deborah; Fisher, William; Fisher, Jeffrey; Friedland, Gerald

2006-01-01

360

Changes and correlates in multiple sexual partnerships among Chinese adult women--population-based surveys in 2000 and 2006.  

PubMed

The sexual transmission of HIV and STI is becoming a major public health concern in China. However, studies on sexuality in China remain scant, particularly those that analyze female sexuality. This study is to investigate the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among adult women, and to examine trends and correlates for having more than one lifetime sexual partner. MSP, coded as having one or none vs. two or more lifetime sexual partners, was the key binary outcome measure. The data were from two national probability surveys on sexual behaviors in China carried out in 2000 and 2006. The sample size of adult women was 1899 in 2000 (total sample n=3812), and 2626 in 2006 (n=5404). Overall prevalence of MSP increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 29.6% in 2006 (chi-square test, significance = 0.000). The most rapid changes took place among women with less education, those who worked in blue-collar jobs and lower social-status positions, and those living in rural areas or small towns. Women who were better educated, lived in big cities, and held management-level occupations exhibited less change but had a higher baselines prevalence of MSP, suggesting that changes in MSP behavior may occur initially among women of higher socioeconomic status. Based on the 2006 data-set, significant positive correlates of MSP included more years of education, being in a long-term relationship, being middle aged, having a lower-status job, going out dancing at entertainments venues, and being a state of overall health in the past 12 months. The significant recent increase in MSP among women reinforces the need to examine China's sexual revolution in the context of a rapidly transitioning society. Findings regarding female sexuality also raise new questions to be explored in further sexuality studies, in order to better understand population sexual behaviors and to inform future HIV-prevention efforts. PMID:21660755

Yingying, Huang; Smith, Kumi; Suiming, Pan

2011-06-01

361

Alcohol and Sexuality Research in the AIDS Era: Trends in Publication Activity, Target Populations and Research Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research addressing relationships between alcohol and human sexuality has proliferated, due in part to efforts to characterize\\u000a alcohol’s role in HIV risk behavior. This study provides a descriptive review of the alcohol–sexuality literature, using abstracts\\u000a from 264 identified studies to estimate changes in publication activity, target populations, and the prevalence of HIV-related\\u000a studies over time. We also examine methodological trends

Christian S. Hendershot; William H. George

2007-01-01

362

Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities  

PubMed Central

The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations. PMID:23418562

Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

2013-01-01

363

Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained. PMID:20485547

McCormick, Mark I; Ryen, Christopher A; Munday, Philip L; Walker, Stefan P W

2010-01-01

364

Mating-type distribution and genetic diversity of Cercospora sojina populations on soybean from Arkansas: evidence for potential sexual reproduction.  

PubMed

Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:23721180

Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H

2013-10-01

365

FACTORS RELATING TO SUPERVISORS' INITIATION AND FREQUENCY OF DISCUSSION REGARDING SEXUAL ORIENTATION IN CLINICAL SUPERVISION OF INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOTHERAPY  

E-print Network

, & Hermes, 1984; Murphy, Rawlings, & Howe, 2002). LGB individuals seek services at rates higher than those observed in the general population (Liddle, 1997), and they may present with concerns uniquely related to their status as sexual minorities (Burkard... are significantly more likely to initiate discussions of sexual orientation in supervision than those with lower competency ratings. ? Hypothesis 1b: Supervisors who identify as sexual minorities, compared to heterosexuals, are significantly more likely...

Genther, Diane Yvonne

2011-08-31

366

Sexual harassment victimization and perpetration among high school students.  

PubMed

This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. PMID:25288593

Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S

2014-10-01

367

Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

368

Moroccan women with a history of child sexual abuse and its long-term repercussions: A population-based epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Childhood sexual abuse is defined as sexual contact imposed on a child whose development is still, from the emotional, cognitive and maturity point of view, lacking. The objective of this epidemiological study, conducted among a representative sample of the female population aged 20 and over in Casablanca, Morocco, is to determine the prevalence of the childhood sexual abuse and

K. Mchichi Alami; N. Kadri

2004-01-01

369

Minority Student Response to the Anthropology of Asian Black Populations. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1970, the University of Chicago has offered three undergraduate anthropology courses on Philippine Negrito and Malay and Thai aboriginal black populations. Between 1975 and 1981, 72 students, including American blacks, Filipinos, and other Asians, attended the courses. The instructor's observations of students' responses to the courses…

Warren, Charles P.

370

Comparison of sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern and northern populations of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that the genetic divergence and reproductive incompatibility between closely related species and/or populations is often viewed as an important step toward speciation. In this study, sexual compatibility in crosses between the southern XS population and the northern TA population of the polyandrous cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi was investigated by testing their mating preferences, mating latency, copulation duration, and reproductive performances of post-mating. In choice mating experiments, the percentages of matings were significantly higher in intra-population crosses than in inter-population crosses. Both isolation index (I) and index of pair sexual isolation (IPSI ) indicated partial mating incompatibility or assortative mating in crosses between the two different geographical populations. In single pair mating experiments, XS females in inter-population crosses mated significantly later and copulated significantly shorter than those in intra-population crosses. However, TA females in inter-population crosses mated significantly earlier and copulated longer than those in intra-population crosses, suggesting that larger XS males may enhance heterotypic mating. The lifetime fecundity was highest in XS homotypic matings, lowest in TA homotypic matings, and intermediate in heterotypic matings between their parents. The inter-population crosses resulted in significantly lower egg hatching rate and shorter female longevity than intra-population crosses. These results demonstrated that there exist some incompatibilities in premating, postmating-prezygotic, and postzygotic stages between the southern XS population and northern TA population of the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi. PMID:24339338

Liu, Xing-Ping; Tu, Xiao-Yun; He, Hai-Min; Chen, Chao; Xue, Fang-Sen

2014-12-01

371

Brave New Love: The Threat of High-Tech "Conversion" Therapy and the Bio-Oppression of Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the neurochemical bases of human love and attachment, as well as of the genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and experiential factors that conspire to shape an individual's sexual orientation, is increasing exponentially. This research raises the vexing possibility that we may one day be equipped to modify such variables directly, allowing for the creation of “high-tech” conversion therapies or other suspect interventions. In this article, we discuss the ethics surrounding such a possibility, and call for the development of legal and procedural safeguards for protecting vulnerable children from the application of such technology. We also consider the more difficult case of voluntary, adult “conversion” and argue that in rare cases, such attempts might be permissible under strict conditions. PMID:24587962

Earp, Brian D.; Sandberg, Anders; Savulescu, Julian

2014-01-01

372

Distribution of ?-Globin Gene Mutations in Thalassemia Minor Population of Kerman Province, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Mutations in ?-globin gene may result in ?-thalassemia major, which is one of the most common genetic disorders in Iran and some other countries. Knowing the beta-globin mutation spectrum improves the efficiency of prenatal diagnosis in the affected fetuses (major ?-thalassemia) of heterozygote couples. Methods: Couples with high hemoglobin A2 and low mean corpuscular volume were studied as suspicious of ?-thalassemia carriers in Genetic Laboratory of Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran. We used amplification refractory mutation system, reverse hybridization, and DNA sequencing to determine the spectrum of ?-globin gene mutation in the people who involved with ?-thalassemia minor in this province. Results: Among the 266 subjects, 17 different types of mutation in ?-globin gene were identified. Three of the mutations account for 77.1% of the studied cases. IVSI-5(G> C) was the most frequent mutation (66.2%) followed by IVSII-I (G> A) (6%) and Fr 8–9 (+G) (4.9%). The less frequent mutations include: IVSI-6(T> C), codon 15 (G>A), codon 44 (-C), codon 39 (C>T), codon 8 (-AA), codon30 (G> C), IVSI-110 (G > A), codon 36–37 (-T), 619bp deletion, codon 5 (-CT), IVSI-25bp del, codon 41–42(-TTCT), IVSI-I (G> A), and ?nt30 (T>A) were accounted for 19.5%. Unknown alleles comprised 3.4% of the mutations. Conclusion: However, the frequencies of different mutations reported here are significantly different from those found in other part of the world and even other Iranian provinces. Reporting a number of these mutations in the neighboring countries such as Pakistan can be explained by gene flow phenomenon. PMID:23113009

Saleh-Gohari, N; Bazrafshani, MR

2010-01-01

373

Management strategies of iron accumulation in a captive population of black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor).  

PubMed

During routine health screens for black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor) in a captive setting, serum iron and ferritin were analyzed as well as total iron binding capacity and total iron saturation. Trends for ferritin and percent iron saturation showed steady increases since 2003 in four of four animals (three males; one female) with two animals (one male; one female) consistently showing higher elevations over conspecifics. The historical diet had been comprised of a commercial or in-house complete pelleted feed; several species of fresh browse, Bermuda grass, alfalfa and timothy hays, as well as enrichment and training items (apples, carrots, sweet potatoes, and a small amount of leafy greens and vegetables). In 2009, one of the three male rhinoceroses showed a threefold increase in ferritin and concurrently exhibited clinical signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, and disinterest in training. The lone female showed a twofold increase; she also became reproductively acyclic in the prior year. The male was immobilized for examination and phlebotomy. During the same time period, a new version of the complete pelleted feed, with a reduced amount of iron, was introduced. Subsequent to the diet change, the male's ferritin levels have consistently declined, and the female started cycling again. Even with these corrective steps to reduce iron levels, levels of iron saturation remained high, and ferritin levels were still above 1,500 ng/ml. Therapeutic phlebotomy was instituted via a rigorous training program that allowed phlebotomies over a 30-min time frame. This was possible because of a long-term training program for the animals, consistent training personnel, routine collection of samples on a monthly basis, and general comfort level of the animals in the restraint chute. The results of this integrated approach showed some significant improvements and an overall positive impact on the animals. PMID:23156710

Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Corcoran, Michelle E; Fleming, Gregory J; Valdes, Eduardo V

2012-09-01

374

Morphometric modelling of ageing in the human pubic symphysis: sexual dimorphism in an Australian population.  

PubMed

Despite the prominent use of the pubic symphysis for age estimation in forensic anthropology, little has been documented regarding the quantitative morphological and micro-architectural changes of this surface. Specifically, utilising post-mortem computed tomography data from a large, contemporary Australian adult population, this study aimed to evaluate sexual dimorphism in the morphology and bone composition of the symphyseal surface; and temporal characterisation of the pubic symphysis in individuals of advancing age. The sample consisted of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) scans of the pubic symphysis (slice thickness: 0.5mm, overlap: 0.1mm) of 200 individuals of Caucasian ancestry aged 15-70 years, obtained in 2011. Surface rendering reconstruction of the symphyseal surface was conducted in OsiriX(®) (v.4.1) and quantitative analyses in Rapidform XOS™ and Osteomeasure™. Morphometric variables including inter-pubic distance, surface area, circumference, maximum height and width of the symphyseal surface and micro-architectural assessment of cortical and trabecular bone compositions were quantified using novel automated engineering software capabilities. The major results of this study are correlated with the macroscopic ossification and degeneration pattern of the symphyseal surface, demonstrating significant age-related changes in the morphometric and bone tissue variables between 15 and 70 years. Regardless of sex, the overall dimensions of the symphyseal surface increased with age, coupled with a decrease in bone mass in the trabecular and cortical bone compartments. Significant differences between the ventral, dorsal and medial cortical surfaces were observed, which may be correlated to bone formation activity dependent on muscle activity and ligamentous attachments. Our study demonstrates significant sexual dimorphism at this site, with males exhibiting greater surface dimensions than females. These baseline results provide a detailed insight into the changes in the structure of the pubic symphysis with ageing and sexually dimorphic features associated with the cortical and trabecular bone profiles. PMID:24468016

Lottering, Nicolene; Reynolds, Mikaela S; MacGregor, Donna M; Meredith, Matthew; Gregory, Laura S

2014-03-01

375

Species Detection and Identification in Sexual Organisms Using Population Genetic Theory and DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences of a group of specimens may include clades of two kinds: those produced by stochastic processes (random genetic drift) within a species, and clades that represent different species. The ratio of the mean pairwise sequence difference between a pair of clades (K) to the mean pairwise sequence difference within a clade (?) can be used to determine whether the clades are samples from different species (K/??4) or the same species (K/?<4) with probability ?0.95. Previously I applied this criterion to delimit species of asexual organisms. Here I use data from the literature to show how it can also be applied to delimit sexual species using four groups of sexual organisms as examples: ravens, spotted leopards, sea butterflies, and liverworts. Mitochondrial or chloroplast genes are used because these segregate earlier during speciation than most nuclear genes and hence detect earlier stages of speciation. In several cases the K/? ratio was greater than 4, confirming the original authors' intuition that the clades were sufficiently different to be assigned to different species. But the K/? ratio split each of two liverwort species into two evolutionary species, and showed that support for the distinction between the common and Chihuahuan raven species is weak. I also discuss some possible sources of error in using the K/? ratio; the most significant one would be cases where males migrate between different populations but females do not, making the use of maternally inherited organelle genes problematic. The K/? ratio must be used with some caution, like all other methods for species delimitation. Nevertheless, it is a simple theory-based quantitative method for using DNA sequences to make rigorous decisions about species delimitation in sexual as well as asexual eukaryotes. PMID:23308113

Birky, C. William

2013-01-01

376

Seroprevalence of 13 common pathogens in a rapidly growing U.S. minority population: Mexican Americans from San Antonio, TX  

PubMed Central

Background Infection risks vary among individuals and between populations. Here we present information on the seroprevalence of 13 common infectious agents in a San Antonio-based sample of Mexican Americans. Mexican Americans represent the largest and most rapidly growing minority population in the U.S., and they are also considered a health disparities population. Methods We analyzed 1227 individuals for antibody titer to Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus-1, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), varicella zoster virus (VZV), adenovirus-36, hepatitis A virus, and influenza A and B. Seroprevalence was examined as a function of sex, age, household income, and education. Results Seroprevalence estimates ranged from 9% for T. gondii to 92% for VZV, and were similar in both sexes except for HSV-2, which was more prevalent in women. Many pathogens exhibited a significant seroprevalence change over the examined age range (15-94 years), with 7 pathogens increasing and HHV-6 decreasing with age. Socioeconomic status significantly correlated with serostatus for some pathogens. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate substantial seroprevalence rates of these common infections in this sample of Mexican Americans from San Antonio, Texas that suffers from high rates of chronic diseases including obesity and type-2 diabetes. PMID:22018212

2011-01-01

377

Risk Factors for Chronic Subdural Hematoma after a Minor Head Injury in the Elderly: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the major comorbidities in elderly resulting in disability and death. Early recognition of CSDH is important for early management. However, manifestations of CSDH are nonspecific and subtle. Therefore, identification of risk factors of CSDH can offer clinical follow-up strategies for patients after episodes of head injury. The purpose of the study aimed at identifying risk factors of CSDH of Taiwanese. Analysis of data from the National Health Insurance provides important information on predictive factors influencing the early diagnosis of CSDH in elderly patients following minor head injuries. The current study is the first nationwide population-based study in Taiwan, showing that old age (?75 years), male gender, and coexisting hydrocephalus are significantly predictive factors, irrespective to their medical comorbidities.

Tseng, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Ann-Jeng; Lin, Wen-Hsiung; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Hsiao, Sheng-Huang

2014-01-01

378

Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years.  

PubMed

Despite the use of different methodologies, target populations, and clinical definitions of sexual problems, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the occurrence of sexual difficulties is a very common experience among men from the general population regardless of their age. The objective of this study was to present epidemiological data on the prevalence of sexual difficulties in a community sample of 650 sexually active Portuguese men, stratified by age, marital status, and educational level. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing sexual function in the previous four weeks (International Index of Erectile Function). Results showed that sexual difficulties were relatively common among this sample. Rapid ejaculation was the most frequently reported sexual difficulty (23.2%), followed by erectile difficulties (10.2%), orgasm problems (8.2%), and low desire (2.9%) in the previous four weeks. With the exception of rapid ejaculation, all categories showed age-specific prevalence rates, with sexual difficulties increasing gradually in men above age 45. Age was a significant predictor of all sexual difficulties except rapid ejaculation, and lower educational levels were related to orgasm difficulties. Findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating a high prevalence of sexual difficulties among men in the general population and highlight the importance and the need to implement sexual health promotion programs in the target population. PMID:23573897

Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro J

2014-01-01

379

Sexual orientation and health : general and minority stress factors explaining health differences between lesbian, gay, bisexual and heterosexual individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies show that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals report more health problems than heterosexual individuals. However, several important gaps remain in the knowledge regarding the explanations for these health differences. In general, there is a lack of differentiation between subgroups in the LGB population, a lack of specific attention for older LGB individuals and LGB youth who grow

L. S. Kuyper

2011-01-01

380

Enriching Ploidy Level Diversity: the Role of Apomictic and Sexual Biotypes of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae) that Coexist in Polyploid Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to generate variation in ploidy and reproductive mode was compared in facultatively apomictic versus sexual maternal\\u000a plants that coexist in two model populations. The population structure was studied in polyploid hybrid swarms comprised of\\u000a Hieracium pilosella (usually sexual, less commonly apomictic), H. bauhini (apomictic), and their hybrids (sexual, apomictic, or sterile). Relationships among established biotypes were proposed on

Anna Krahulcová; Olga Rotreklová; František Krahulec; Radka Rosenbaumová; Ivana Pla?ková

2009-01-01

381

Adaptive divergence and speciation among sexual and pseudoviviparous populations of Festuca  

PubMed Central

Pseudovivipary is an environmentally induced flowering abnormality in which vegetative shoots replace seminiferous (sexual) inflorescences. Pseudovivipary is usually retained in transplantation experiments, indicating that the trait is not solely induced by the growing environment. Pseudovivipary is the defining characteristic of Festuca vivipara, and arguably the only feature separating this species from its closest seminiferous relative, Festuca ovina. We performed phylogenetic and population genetic analysis on sympatric F. ovina and F. vivipara samples to establish whether pseudovivipary is an adaptive trait that accurately defines the separation of genetically distinct Festuca species. Chloroplast and nuclear marker-based analyses revealed that variation at a geographical level can exceed that between F. vivipara and F. ovina. We deduced that F. vivipara is a recent species that frequently arises independently within F. ovina populations and has not accumulated significant genetic differentiation from its progenitor. We inferred local gene flow between the species. We identified one amplified fragment length polymorphism marker that may be linked to a pseudovivipary-related region of the genome, and several other markers provide evidence of regional local adaptation in Festuca populations. We conclude that F. vivipara can only be appropriately recognized as a morphologically and ecologically distinct species; it lacks genetic differentiation from its relatives. This is the first report of a ‘failure in normal flowering development' that repeatedly appears to be adaptive, such that the trait responsible for species recognition constantly reappears on a local basis. PMID:20959864

Chiurugwi, T; Beaumont, M A; Wilkinson, M J; Battey, N H

2011-01-01

382

Recessive Mutations from Natural Populations of NEUROSPORA CRASSA That Are Expressed in the Sexual Diplophase  

PubMed Central

Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were systematically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also detected. Limited complementation tests indicate that most of the 106 recovered mutations are unique.—The recessive diplophase (= sexual phase) mutations were uncovered by crossing each wild-collected isolate to a marked two-chromosome double-reciprocal translocation strain as "balancer." Surviving progeny receive approximately 60% of their genome from the wild parent, but receive the mating-type allele from the "balancer" parent. These progeny were backcrossed to the wild parent and were also crossed with a standard laboratory strain (fl). Reduced fertility in the backcross vs. normal fertility in the cross with the laboratory standard signals the presence of a recessive mutation in the wild-collected isolate.—Most of the mutants (95 of 106) fall into two major classes: those producing barren perithecia with no or few viable ascospores (51) and those with spore maturation defects (44). Most of the recessive barrens result either from an early block in meiosis or ascus development (25) or from a late disturbance in postmeiotic ascus behavior (18).—These recessive mutations are formally equivalent to recessive lethals in higher eukaryotes and may be important in determining the breeding structure of natural Neurospora populations. PMID:2933298

Leslie, John F.; Raju, Namboori B.

1985-01-01

383

Does injury prevention education initiate household changes in a Spanish-speaking minority population?  

PubMed

Young children from low income families are among the most affected population of unintentional injury. This non-randomized longitudinal study examined knowledge for home and child safety with an injury prevention training offered to parents of children who reside in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Eighty eight parents received the training and pre-and post-test surveys were used to measure knowledge outcomes. A follow-up survey was conducted 2 months after the educational intervention to identify how many parents reported household and safety behavior changes as a result of the training. The most significant change in behavior, as it pertains to the household, was related to locking and storage of dangerous cleaning chemicals. Other significant changes in behavior were in areas that directly related to the child such as learning how to swim, use of sun block and fire safety in the home. This study suggests that tailored trainings can improve parent knowledge and change in behaviors for the promotion of safety activities to avoid risks for unintentional injuries. Further, the study identified certain at-risk areas that need to be addressed from an educational perspective. These areas include bicycle and water safety; specifically, the use of protective gear when bicycling; understanding and adhering to traffic rules when bicycling; and, the dangers of drowning in small quantities of water. PMID:23974955

Setien, Miguel A; Han, Daikwon; Zuniga, Genny Carrillo; Mier, Nelda; Lucio, Rose L; Treviño, Laura

2014-02-01

384

Behavioural surveillance of sexually-related risk behaviours of the Chinese male general population in Hong Kong: A benchmark study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to establish a behavioural surveillance system (BSS) for sexually-related risk behaviours of the Hong Kong adult male general population. Benchmark data were obtained by interviewing 1,020 male respondents, age 18 to 60. The results showed that: (1) 14% of the respondents had engaged in commercial sex in the past six months, (2) 27% of

J. T. F. Lau; P. C. Siah

2001-01-01

385

Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the relationship of sexual orientation and gender to four sets of factors: (a) family history, (b) incarceration, (c) substance use, and (d) depression and suicide, in a population of homeless adolescents.Methods: A sample of homeless adolescents was recruited in Portland, Oregon and assessed using semi-structured interviews at baseline, three months and six months. A total of 532

John W Noell; Linda M Ochs

2001-01-01

386

A population based study investigating the association between sexual and relationship satisfaction and psychological distress among heterosexuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined if sexual and relationship satisfaction are differentially associated with mental health issues. Using data from a population-based computer assisted telephone survey, a total of 3800 respondents with a regular heterosexual partner were included in the current analyses. Two methods of scoring the K6 were used to produce measures of moderate psychological distress and serious psychological distress. Overall,

Kent Patrick; Wendy Heywood; Anthony M. A. Smith; Judy M. Simpson; Julia M. Shelley; Juliet Richters; Marian K. Pitts

2012-01-01

387

Among-population variation in adipose fin size parallels the expression of other secondary sexual characteristics in  

E-print Network

secondary sexual characteristics in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Peter A. H. Westley Ã? Stephanie M size of mature male sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, among five popu- lations. Populations differed. Reimchen and Temple (2004) experimentally removed adipose fins from juvenile steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus

Carlson, Stephanie

388

Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702

Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

2014-06-01

389

Sexual Orientation and Outcomes in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been well documented that sexual minority individuals are significantly more likely to be college educated than heterosexual individuals [Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. "Demography," 37(2), 139-154;…

Carpenter, Christopher S.

2009-01-01

390

Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts

Rubén Rabaneda-Bueno; Miguel Á. Rodríguez-Gironés; Carmen Fernández-Montraveta; Eva de Mas; David H. Wise; Jordi Moya-Laraño; Robert Brooks

2008-01-01

391

E2 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is predictive for obesity status in Roma minority population of Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority, founder population characterized by unique genetic background modeled by culturally determined endogamy. The present study explores whether the widely found cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk effects of ACE I/D, APOE (?2, ?3, ?4), eNOS-VNTR and LEP G2548A polymorphisms can be replicated in this specific population. Methods and Results The community-based study was carried on 208 adult Bayash Roma living in rural settlements of eastern and northern Croatia. Risk effect of four CVD candidate polymorphisms are related to the most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes: obesity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference), hypertension and hyperlipidemia (triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol). For all of them the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The extent to which the phenotypic status is related to genotype was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The strongest associations were found for ?2 allele of the APOE as a predictor of waist circumference (OR 3.301; 95%CI 1.254-8.688; p = 0.016) as well as for BMI (OR 3.547; 95%CI 1.471-8.557; p = 0.005). It is notable that ?3 allele of APOE gene turned out to be a protective genetic factor determining low lipid levels. Conclusion The strength of the relation and the similarity of the results obtained for both tested indicators of obesity provide firm evidence that APOE plays an important role in obesity development in the Roma population. PMID:21244662

2011-01-01

392

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant  

PubMed Central

Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5–1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex. PMID:21768368

Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R.; Bacci, Mauricio; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D.; Mueller, Ulrich G.

2011-01-01

393

Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand's Official Statistics System  

PubMed Central

Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens. PMID:23840231

Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.

2013-01-01

394

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: A Comparison Between Latino and Normative Samples of Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years

Maureen C. Kenny; Sandy K. Wurtele

2012-01-01

395

Laboratory mating trials indicate incipient speciation by sexual selection among populations of the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malawi.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that sexual selection may have played a major role in the rapid evolution of hundreds of species of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. We report the results of a laboratory test of assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes from five closely related geographical populations differing in male courtship colour. Paternity of clutches was tested using microsatellite DNA typing of offspring. Out of 1955 offspring typed, 1296 (66.3%) were sired by the male from the same population as the female, which is more than three times the rate expected if females do not differentiate among males of the different populations (20%). This result indicates that mate preferences of geographical races are strongly differentiated, consistent with the races representing incipient geographical species diverging under sexual selection exerted by female preferences for different male courtship colours. PMID:15209099

Knight, Mairi E.; Turner, George F.

2004-01-01

396

Prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of sexual problems in portugal: a population-based study with women aged 18 to 79 years.  

PubMed

Studies on epidemiology of female sexual problems consistently indicate high prevalence rates worldwide, suggesting that this clinical presentation should be considered as a public health concern. However, there are no published studies on prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal. The present study investigated the prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of female sexual problems in a Portuguese community sample. In addition, the authors assessed the role of sociodemographic predictors of women's sexual difficulties. The authors recruited 500 women using quota methods to resemble the Portuguese population according to its demographic characteristics. Participants answered to the Female Sexual Function Index and to a sociodemographic questionnaire. Findings indicated that 37.9% of the Portuguese women reported symptoms of sexual problems. Symptoms of lack of sexual desire was the most frequent sexual difficulty with 25.4% of the women reporting low desire most times or always, followed by symptoms of orgasmic (16.8%), sexual arousal (15.1%), and lubrication difficulties (12.9%), dyspareunia (9.8%), and vaginismus (6.6%). Results indicated that age was a significant predictor of female sexual problems. Results also indicated that symptoms of female sexual problems are a significant health concern in Portugal, suggesting that public policies should be developed to promote sexual health. PMID:24364817

Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

2015-01-01

397

Sexual and topological differences in palmprint and ridge density in the caucasian Spanish population.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that variation in ridge breadth is of biological, medical, and genetic interest, it has not received as much attention as other dermatoglyphic characteristics. Recently, sex differences in mean epidermal ridge breadth have been proposed in the field of forensic identification in order to infer gender from fingerprints found at the scene of a crime left by an unknown donor. The aim of this research was to analyze sexual, bimanual, and topological variations in epidermal ridge breadth on palmprints taken from a Spanish population sample for subsequent application in inferring gender from the palm marks. The material used in the present study was obtained from the palmprints of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) from the Caucasian Spanish. Since ridge breadth varies according to age, subjects of similar ages were recruited to ensure that growth had finished. Therefore, in order to assess topological variation in ridge density or number of ridges in a given space, the count was carried out for the five palmar areas: hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second interdigital, third interdigital, and fourth interdigital. This allowed the segmentation of 2000 ridge count areas for analysis. For this, two methods were used, one described by Cummins et al. (the ridge count was carried out along a 1cm line) and the other by Acree (the number of ridges per 25 mm(2) of surface area). The results obtained by the second method can be compared with those obtained for the ten fingers from this same sample and evaluated in a previous study. The results have demonstrated the existence of topological differences in ridge thickness on the epidermal palm surface; also females present a significantly higher ridge density than men and, therefore, have narrower ridges over the entire palmar surface. Those sexual differences found in the sample population can be used for inferring the gender from palm marks left by an unknown donor. The hypotheses that could explain the variability in ridge breadth are evaluated according to the obtained results. PMID:23601151

Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción

2013-06-10

398

What are effective approaches to increasing rates of organ donor registration among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify effective interventions to increase organ donor registration and improve knowledge about organ donation among ethnic minorities in North America and the UK. Design Systematic review. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Central searched up to November 2012, together with four trials databases and the grey literature. Review methods A systematic search followed by assessment of eligibility and quality. An interpretive and thematic approach to synthesis was undertaken. This examined the nature and delivery of interventions in relation to a range of outcomes: verified registration, changing knowledge and a measured shift towards greater readiness. Results 18 studies were included in the review, comprising educational and mass media interventions. Mass media interventions alone reported no significant change in the intention or willingness to register. Educational interventions either alone or combined with mass media approaches were more effective in increasing registration rates, with a strong interpersonal component and an immediate opportunity to register identified as important characteristics in successful change. Conclusions Effective interventions need to be matched to the populations’ stage of readiness to register. Measured outcomes should include registration and shifts along the pathway towards this behavioural outcome. PMID:24362010

Deedat, Sarah; Kenten, Charlotte; Morgan, Myfanwy

2013-01-01

399

Evaluating the effectiveness of selected residential energy conservation strategies on black, elderly, and poor minority population groups  

SciTech Connect

The effect of high energy costs has been uneven for different population groups. For 1979, households of black, elderly, and poor persons were estimated to spend 8.9%, 8.6%, and 14.3% of their income on residential energy, respectively, compared to 6.2% for the average US household. This gap was highest in the northeastern US. This paper analyzes the potential effect of selected energy conservation strategies on energy consumption and expenditures in minority households. Four strategies that improve the thermal integrity of a structure were selected. The preliminary effects were measured for the targeted categories of black, elderly, and poor households in terms of: (1) the number of households affected, (2) energy savings in Btu, and (3) expenditure savings as a percentage of the household's primary heating fuel bill. The evaluation indicates that the savings potential can be significant in many instances. For example, adding attic insulation where none was present in single-family homes with black, elderly, and poor households could lower space heating fuel bills by 30 to 50%. Savings vary greatly by region and fuel type, and impacts of the other three strategies were somewhat lower.

Teotia, A.; Levine, E.; South, D.; Anderson, J.; Conley, L.

1984-01-01

400

Multi-level sexual selection: individual and family-level selection for mating success in a historical human population.  

PubMed

Precopulatory sexual selection is the association between fitness and traits associated with mate acquisition. Although sexual selection is generally recognized to be a powerful evolutionary force, most investigations are limited to characters belonging to individuals. A broader multilevel perspective acknowledges that individual fitness can be affected by aspects of mating success that are characters of groups, such as families. Parental mating success in polygynous or polyandrous human societies may exemplify traits under group-level sexual selection. Using fitness measures that account for age-structure, I measure multilevel selection for mate number over 55 years in a human population with declining rates of polygyny. Sexual selection had three components: individual-level selection for ever-mating (whether an individual mated) and individual- and family-level selection for polyandry and polygyny. Family- and individual-level selection for polygyny was equally strong, three times stronger than family-level selection for polyandry and more than an order of magnitude stronger than individual-level selection for polyandry. However, individual-level selection for polyandry and polygyny was more effective at explaining relative fitness variance than family-level selection. Selection for ever-mating was the most important source of sexual selection for fitness; variation for ever-mating explained 23% of relative fitness variance. PMID:23730758

Moorad, Jacob A

2013-06-01

401

Multi-level sexual selection: Individual and family-level selection for mating success in a historical human population  

PubMed Central

Precopulatory sexual selection is the association between fitness and traits associated with mate acquisition. While sexual selection is generally recognized to be a powerful evolutionary force, most investigations are limited to characters belonging to individuals. A broader multi-level perspective acknowledges that individual fitness can be affected by aspects of mating success that are characters of groups, such as families. Parental mating success in polygynous or polyandrous human societies may exemplify traits under group-level sexual selection. Using fitness measures that account for age-structure, I measure multi-level selection for mate number over 55 years in a human population with declining rates of polygyny. Sexual selection had three components: individual-level selection for ever-mating (whether or not an individual mated) and individual- and family-level selection for polyandry and polygyny. Family- and individual-level selection for polygyny was equally strong, three times stronger than family-level selection for polyandry and more than an order of magnitude stronger than individual-level selection for polyandry. However, individual-level selection for polyandry and polygyny was more effective at explaining relative fitness variance than family-level selection. Selection for ever-mating was the most important source of sexual selection for fitness; variation for ever-mating explained 23% of relative fitness variance. PMID:23730758

Moorad, Jacob

2013-01-01

402

Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with clonal, partially clonal, and/or sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Many microbial, fungal, or oomcyete populations violate assumptions for population genetic analysis because these populations are clonal, admixed, partially clonal, and/or sexual. Furthermore, few tools exist that are specifically designed for analyzing data from clonal populations, making analysis difficult and haphazard. We developed the R package poppr providing unique tools for analysis of data from admixed, clonal, mixed, and/or sexual populations. Currently, poppr can be used for dominant/codominant and haploid/diploid genetic data. Data can be imported from several formats including GenAlEx formatted text files and can be analyzed on a user-defined hierarchy that includes unlimited levels of subpopulation structure and clone censoring. New functions include calculation of Bruvo’s distance for microsatellites, batch-analysis of the index of association with several indices of genotypic diversity, and graphing including dendrograms with bootstrap support and minimum spanning networks. While functions for genotypic diversity and clone censoring are specific for clonal populations, several functions found in poppr are also valuable to analysis of any populations. A manual with documentation and examples is provided. Poppr is open source and major releases are available on CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/package=poppr. More supporting documentation and tutorials can be found under ‘resources’ at: http://grunwaldlab.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:24688859

Tabima, Javier F.; Grunwald, Niklaus J.

2014-01-01

403

Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations.  

PubMed

Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens exhibit either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to coexist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in the form of 'false dawn' inundations (where the first hydration is ephemeral and causes loss of early hatching individuals) may provide an advantage to the sexual subpopulation, which shows greater variation in hatching times following inundation. We explore the potential role of environmental stochasticity in this system using life-history data analysis, climate data, and matrix projection models. In the absence of environmental stochasticity, the population growth rate is significantly lower in sexual subpopulations. Climate data reveal that 'false dawn' inundations are common. Using matrix projection modelling with and without environmental stochasticity, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can restore appreciable balance to the system, in terms of population growth rates. This provides support for the role of environmental stochasticity in helping to explain the maintenance of sex and the occurrence of geographical parthenogenesis. PMID:24836646

Park, A W; Vandekerkhove, J; Michalakis, Y

2014-08-01

404

Alcohol and sexuality research in the AIDS era: trends in publication activity, target populations and research design.  

PubMed

Research addressing relationships between alcohol and human sexuality has proliferated, due in part to efforts to characterize alcohol's role in HIV risk behavior. This study provides a descriptive review of the alcohol-sexuality literature, using abstracts from 264 identified studies to estimate changes in publication activity, target populations, and the prevalence of HIV-related studies over time. We also examine methodological trends by estimating the prevalence of experimental vs. non-experimental studies. Findings show considerable increases in research activity and diversity of populations studied since the mid-1980's and highlight the emergence of HIV-related studies as a focal point of alcohol-sexuality research efforts. Results also demonstrate a substantial decline in the proportion of studies utilizing experimental methods, in part because of frequent use of non-experimental approaches in studies of alcohol and HIV risk behavior. We discuss implications and review the role of experiments in evaluating causal relationships between alcohol and sexual risk behavior. PMID:16897352

Hendershot, Christian S; George, William H

2007-03-01

405

Morphometric analysis of pelvic sexual dimorphism in a contemporary Western Australian population.  

PubMed

Requisite to routine casework involving unidentified skeletal remains is the formulation of an accurate biological profile, including sex estimation. Choice of method(s) is invariably related to preservation and by association, available bones. It is vital that the method applied affords statistical quantification of accuracy rates and predictive confidence so that evidentiary requirements for legal submission are satisfied. Achieving the latter necessitates the application of contemporary population-specific standards. This study examines skeletal pelvic dimorphism in contemporary Western Australian individuals to quantify the accuracy of using pelvic measurements to estimate sex and to formulate a series of morphometric standards. The sample comprises pelvic multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) scans from 200 male and 200 female adults. Following 3D rendering, the 3D coordinates of 24 landmarks are acquired using OsiriX® (v.4.1.1) with 12 inter-landmark linear measurements and two angles acquired using MorphDb. Measurements are analysed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant functions analyses employing jackknife validation of classification results. All except two linear measurements are dimorphic with sex differences explaining up to 65 % of sample variance. Transverse pelvic outlet and subpubic angle contribute most significantly to sex discrimination with accuracy rates between 100 % (complete pelvis-10 variables) and 81.2 % (ischial length). This study represents the initial forensic research into pelvic sexual dimorphism in a Western Australian population. Given these methods, we conclude that this highly dimorphic bone can be used to classify sex with a high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:24789357

Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Marks, Murray K

2014-09-01

406

Women, Alcohol, and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also

Linda J. Beckman; Kimberly T. Ackerman

407

Sexual satisfaction in the elderly female population: A special focus on women with gynecologic pathology.  

PubMed

SEXUAL FUNCTION IN AGING WOMEN: Sexuality is an integral part of human expressions. Mental health plays a major role in sexuality. Several psychological interventions are proposed to increase the sexual quality of life in older women with diverse gynecologic pathology. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing brief strategies can be easily implemented in clinics to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. THE IMPACT OF FEMALE PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERS ON SEXUAL FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN: Female pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. These disorders increase dramatically with increasing age. Urinary incontinence has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on a woman's sexual function. Among sexually active older women with urinary incontinence, 22% report being moderately or extremely worried that sexual activity would cause urine loss. An increased prevalence of sexual distress [9% (6/76) vs. 1.3% (2/216), p=0.005] has been reported in sexually active women over 40 years old with urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence can improve sexual function in older women. Among sexually active women (N=53) who underwent midurethral slings procedures for the correction of urinary incontinence, increased coital frequency, decrease fear of incontinence with coitus, decreased embarrassment due to incontinence was reported six months after surgery. Pelvic organ prolapse, a hernia of the vagina resulting in a visible vaginal bulge, has also been associated with a negative impact on sexual function. Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q stage III or IV) have been demonstrated to have decreased body image reporting that they are more self-conscious about their appearance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9, 51], feel less feminine (AOR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2, 15) and less sexually attractive (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4, 17) compared with women who have normal pelvic support. Both vaginal and abdominal approaches to surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been demonstrated to improve sexual function. MENTAL HEALTH: Mental health plays a major role in older woman's sexuality. Sexual interest and satisfaction is tied to emotional expressivity, women's self-worth, feelings of depression and loneliness as well as cognitive function. Research has shown that both general practitioners and specialists lack training in sexual assessments. Behavioral health specialists, such as a psychologist, can play an integral role in helping to facilitate communication between the patient and the provider. A main focus of communication training is to facilitate open and genuine conversation between the provider and the patient. Providers are encouraged to ask open ended questions while patients are encouraged to discuss symptoms while coping with an internal state of anxiety. Despite the known prevalence of sexual dysfunction among older women, few studied empirically based interventions have been published with these women. This speaks to the general assumption among medical professionals that having the "sex talk" in older women with gynecological pathology is not important or relevant. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing some of the aforementioned brief strategies can be easily implemented in comprehensive gynecology clinics in order to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. PMID:21943557

Ratner, Elena S; Erekson, Elisabeth A; Minkin, Mary Jane; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A

2011-11-01

408

Runaway Youths and Sexual Victimization: Gender Differences in an Adolescent Runaway Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data collected from 149 runaways (15-20 years old) revealed that 38% of the males and 73% of the females reported having been sexually abused. Sexually abused females were significantly more likely than nonabused females to engage in delinquent/criminal activities. (CL)

McCormack, Arlene; And Others

1986-01-01

409

Bridging Populations—Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Prevalence in Clients and Partners of Female Sex Workers, Bangkok, Thailand 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to estimate HIV prevalence and assess sexual behaviors in a high-risk and difficult-to-reach population\\u000a of clients of female sex workers (FSWs). A modified variation of respondent-driven sampling was conducted among FSWs in Bangkok,\\u000a where FSWs recruited 3 FSW peers, 1 client, and 1 nonpaying partner. After informed consent was obtained, participants completed\\u000a a questionnaire,

Neha S. Shah; Ray W. Shiraishi; Wonchart Subhachaturas; Abhijeet Anand; Sara J. Whitehead; Suvimon Tanpradech; Chomnad Manopaiboon; Keith M. Sabin; Kimberley K. Fox; Andrea Y. Kim

410

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the

Melissa D. Conrad; Andrew W. Gorman; Julia A. Schillinger; Pier Luigi Fiori; Rossana Arroyo; Nancy Malla; Mohan Lal Dubey; Jorge Gonzalez; Susan Blank; William E. Secor; Jane M. Carlton

2012-01-01

411

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659

Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.

2012-01-01

412

Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction for the presence of sexual dysfunction within a Ghanaian urological population.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction (SD) is devastating to a man's ego and its presence could defeat his purpose of masculinity. A number of studies have explored and reported on existing comorbidities between SD and medical conditions for which urological problems are no exception. However, in Ghana there is paucity of data exploring the epidemiological, etiological and health associations of medical conditions with SD. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence, types and determinants of SD in a sample of Ghanaian men with urological conditions. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and April 2013 at the Urology clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the Northern Region of Ghana. A total of 200 participants were enrolled in the study. All participants were evaluated by using a semistructured questionnaire and the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction questionnaire. An overall response rate of 47.5% was estimated after 69 patients refused to partake in the study; 6 patients found the questionnaire too sensitive and refused to participate and 30 participants returned incomplete questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 36.5±13.8 years and ranged from 18 to 70 years. The estimated prevalence of SD was 71.6%. The prevalence of the various SD domains was as follows: non-sensuality (71.6%), premature ejaculation (70.5%), non-communication (69.5%), impotence and infrequency (68.4%), dissatisfaction (61.1%) and avoidance (57.9%). Participants who were married, consumed alcoholic beverages, smoked cigarettes and aging males who had children were at a greater risk of developing SD. Urologic patients have a high prevalence of SD that is dependent on marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status and aged patients with children. PMID:24430277

Amidu, N; Quaye, L; Afoko, A A; Karikari, P; Gandau, B B N; Amoah, E O; Nuwoku, E

2014-01-01

413

Cancer and Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States, outpacing deaths due to heart disease. During the year 2005, an\\u000a estimated 1,372,910 persons in the United States were expected to be diagnosed with cancer, and 570,280 persons were expected\\u000a to die from it—more than 1500 people per day (American Cancer Society, 2005). These estimates do not include noninvasive

Deborah J. Bowen; Ulrike Boehmer; Marla Russo