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Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial/ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of Connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexualminority individuals in New York City and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race/ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race/ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminate validity both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexualminority individuals.
Two questions were addressed regarding suicide attempts among sexual-minority youths: Who should be classified as a sexualminority, and what constitutes a suicide attempt? Results from 2 studies indicated that sexual-minority youths, broadly defined in terms of sexual orientation and recruitment venue, were slightly more likely than heterosexual youths to report a suicide attempt. To afford a more accurate assessment
This chapter examines the ways that minority status of African-American, Latina, or Asian-American women within sexualminority\\u000a populations shapes the lived experience of women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Consider the following:\\u000a In 2008 elections, voters elected Barbara “Bobbi” Lopez, an out Latina lesbian, to the San Francisco school board. In the\\u000a same election, California voters cast statewide
As illustrated above, lesbian and bisexual women of color often find themselves at the margins of the racial, gender, and\\u000a sexual orientation groups to which they belong. As members of multiple stigmatized groups, they face stigma and discrimination\\u000a on multiple fronts, yet their experiences and needs are rarely fully understood or addressed in social movements and communities\\u000a that focus on
The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexualminority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexualminority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during
This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…
Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.
|This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…
Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.
Research examining how sexualminorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexualminority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and
JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman
Physical, psychological, and social vulnerabilities of sexualminority youth are well documented. Yet factors that protect this population from these risks remain relatively unknown. Previous researchers suggest that (1) a sense of safety, meaningful relationships with others, and positive identity development are protective and (2) social support programs focusing on sexualminority youth (Queer Youth Space) have a positive impact.
As part of a larger study, we investigated the feasibility of using Internet research to capture the demographic characteristics\\u000a of a largely closeted sexualminority and to report such characteristics in the first national study of transgender persons\\u000a ever attempted in the United States. To achieve a nonclinical national sample, online convenience sampling was used. Of 1,373\\u000a surveys received, 1,229
B. R. Simon Rosser; J. Michael Oakes; Walter O. Bockting; Michael Miner
Developmental scientists should seriously reconsider traditional empirical and theoretical paradigms that narrowly define sexual-minority adolescents in terms of those who adopt a culturally defined sexual identity label. A broader consideration of youth populations who have same-sex desires but who might not necessarily identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual, lead one to a very different understanding of sexual-minority youths than is
The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low
The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity
This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexualminority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexualminoritypopulations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexualminority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges
Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger
Research examining how sexualminorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexualminority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexualminority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexualminority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research.
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc
Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexualminority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111
Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A
|Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)|
Among the most maligned and harassed students in high schools are those who are perceived not to fit the norms for sexual behavior. These include gay and lesbian students, bisexual students, transgendered students, effeminate heterosexual males, and masculine-acting heterosexual females. Together these students are the targets of a wide range of negative behaviors from subtle exclusion to physical assault. In
It is estimated that up to 10% of the U.S. population is lesbian or gay. Being a member of a sexualminority group places youth at risk. Along with the challenges all adolescents deal with, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth must cope with prejudice, discrimination, and violence in schools or in their families. While mentoring programs…
This booklet discusses issues facing sexualminority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a guide for…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
|Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for SexualMinorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.|
Sexualminority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexualminority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexualminority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexualminority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexualminority) completed measures of sexualminority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexualminority youth reported higher levels of sexualminority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexualminority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexualminority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexualminority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexualminority youth. PMID:23292751
Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S
|This research investigates the development of conflict between sexualminority identity and religious identity in sexualminority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexualminority identity. Retrospectively reported…
|Sexual self-identification is seen as a finding of oneself. Much of the literature on the victimization of sexualminority youth takes the underlying reality of sexual orientations as given, and then addresses the objectionable ways in which minority youth are treated. That is, sexual classifications are taken as real, whereas the social…
Sexual self-identification is seen as a finding of oneself. Much of the literature on the victimization of sexualminority youth takes the underlying reality of sexual orientations as given, and then addresses the objectionable ways in which minority youth are treated. That is, sexual classifications are taken as real, whereas the social responses…
This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minoritysexual orientation. Fifteen sexualminority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261
|Scientists should reconsider traditional empirical and theoretical paradigms that narrowly define sexual-minority adolescents in terms of those who adopt a culturally defined sexual identity label such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This will lead to a different understanding of sexual-minority youths than is apparent in most published studies.…
Sexualminorities are overrepresented among homeless youths, and this is often related to reactions to their status as sexualminorities. While on the streets, they are at increased risk for victimization, substance and alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and mental health issues compared to homeless heterosexual youths. This article uses ecological systems theory to examine psychosocial problems associated with homelessness
Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K–12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexualminority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexualminorities to be degenerates from which children should be protected, coupled with
Holly N. Bishop; Chadwick Caraway; David L. Stader
Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexualminority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexualminorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexualminority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexualminorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group.
Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.
|Sexualminority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexualminority youth create a hostile social environment that…
Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.
This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexualminority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one’s sexual orientation, and greater openness about one’s sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexualminorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexualminorities.
White, Yohann R. G.; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo
This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexualminority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one's sexual orientation, and greater openness about one's sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexualminorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexualminorities. PMID:21052478
White, Yohann R G; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo
The purpose of this study was to provide data addressing Diamond's (this issue) 4 problem areas in sexual orientation research by comparing gay, bisexual, and questioning male youth who report attempting suicide with those who do not. Secondary analyses were conducted with 2 datasets, 1 with a gay support group (n = 51) and the other with online youth (n = 681). Reported suicide attempts ranged from 39% among support-group youth, to 25% among Internet gay support group youth, to 9% among Internet non-support group youth. Sexual orientation, behavior, and identity did not predict suicidal attempt status, but suicide attempters experienced higher levels of both generic life stressors (low self-esteem, substance use, victimization) and gay-related stressors, particularly those directly related to visible (femininity) and behavioral (gay sex) aspects of their sexual identity. Support-group attendance was related to higher levels of suicidality and life stressors, as well as certain resiliency factors. Results suggest that there exists a minority of sexual-minority youth who are at risk but that it would be inappropriate to characterize the entire population as such. PMID:14710459
The problem and the solution. The purpose of this article is to (a) present insights from economics on earnings of sexualminorities and (b) discuss the implications for human resource development in terms of career development. In economic research, the focus has been on finding earnings differentials between sexualminorities and heterosexuals. One issue with this approach is whether the
The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexualminority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexualminority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…
We describe the dilemmas we encountered in the informed consent process for an HIV prevention project targeting Black gay, bisexual, and non-gay identified young men. We highlight the complexities of applying informed parental consent procedures to sexualminority youth and identify some of the challenges that researchers who work with sexualminority youth face when they must balance the needs
Robin Lin Miller; Draco Forte; Bianca Della Marie Wilson; George J. Greene
|The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexualminority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexualminority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…
In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexualminority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexualminorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexualminority community have
Deeanna M. Button; Daniel J. OConnell; Roberta Gealt
|Drawing attention to the very unique and complex needs of stigmatized sexualminority youth, the authors explore the therapeutic potential of person-centered counseling in helping lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/sexual (LGBT) adolescents who are working toward the acceptance and disclosure of their sexual identity. They suggest that…
A variety of models have been proposed to understand the process of coming to terms with a sexualminority identity. What has not been so clearly explored is how an individual's satisfaction with his or her sexual identity develops over the life course. This article explores satisfaction with sexual identity in a large cohort (N = 2,269) of self-identified lesbians, gay
Objective Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexualminorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. Method Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18–30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexualminorities. Results Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexualminorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexualminorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexualminorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm.
Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger
Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were
Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson
|Like all teens, sexualminority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexualminority youths from ongoing…
This article explores the discursive construction of sexual identity through organizational storytelling, in the London office of a global investment bank, InvestCo. Work on the identity of sexualminorities in work organizations is rare, and even more so in the context of an institution such as a bank. Minoritysexual identities have largely been ignored by the organizational studies and
\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of studies on minority stress among sexualminorities. Few of these studies have explored the ways in which regional or spatial factors influenced the amount of minority stress that lesbians, gay men and bisexuals (LGBs) endure. To see if living in rural and small towns creates stressful social environments for LGBs
Traumatic experiences are common among populations living with HIV; furthermore, the minority stress model indicates that sexualminority group members, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), are more likely to experience negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma, given the stress of minority stigma. The current study examined the prevalence of traumatic events and the impact of these events on trauma symptoms in a sample of 113 MSM and 51 men who have sex with women (MSW) who are living with HIV/AIDS. Rates of experiencing trauma were similar for both MSM and MSW. However, MSM, as sexualminority group members, were more likely to report symptoms of trauma and dissociation than MSW. The current study indicates that MSM may experience additional negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma. Findings are discussed in the context of implications for HIV prevention with sexualminority group members. PMID:21344319
Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexualminority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g.,\\u000a elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid\\u000a to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexualminorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their\\u000a correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide
Jack E. Burkhalter; Jennifer L. Hay; Elliot Coups; Barbara Warren; Yuelin Li; Jamie S. Ostroff
This Article analyzes the application of employment discrimination law to sexualminorities--lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender and intersex individuals. It evaluates Title VII and state anti-discrimination laws' treatment of these individuals, and is the first article to use masculinities research, theoretical and empirical, to explain employment discrimination against sexualminorities.\\u000aWhile the Article concludes that new legislation would further the interests
Clinicians working with sexualminority youth (SMY) should be knowledgeable about the contemporary language around sexuality and gender used by adolescent clients. Such knowledge contributes to the clinical environment and aids clinicians in developing therapeutic relationships. However, individuals working with SMY should also be aware of the potential impact of social environment and individual context on SMYs language and terminology.
Sexualminority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual
Heidi M. Levitt; Julia A. Puckett; Maria R. Ippolito; Sharon G. Horne
Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14-18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. PMID:22868248
The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexualminority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexualminority youths that community-based social workers may encounter in their day-to-day practice. As such, the present study on risk and protective factors related to suicidality surveyed 182 sexualminority youths (14 to 21 years of age) who sought assistance at a community-based social services agency in Denver. Similar to existing literature, the findings suggest that risk factors related to suicidality include hopelessness, methamphetamine use, homelessness, and in-school victimization. However, unlike studies of the general youth population, this study found that African American and male sexualminority youths were not at a lower risk of suicidality than sexualminority youths who were, respectively, white or female. In addition, our findings suggest that the presence of gay-straight alliances in schools may function as a protective resource for sexualminority youths. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:18610818
Walls, N Eugene; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope
Background Sexualminority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of adolescents. The present study sought to examine whether deficits in emotion regulation could account for disparities in internalizing symptoms between sexualminority and heterosexual adolescents. Methods The present study utilized longitudinal data from a racially/ethnically diverse (68% non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino) community sample of 1,071 middle school students (ages 11–14). Results Adolescents who endorsed same-sex attraction evidenced higher rates of internalizing symptoms at both time points. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexualminority adolescents exhibited greater deficits in emotion regulation (rumination and poor emotional awareness) than their heterosexual peers. Emotion regulation deficits in turn mediated the relationship between sexualminority status and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusions The results demonstrate the importance of considering normative psychological processes in the development of internalizing symptomatology among sexualminority adolescents, and suggest emotion regulation deficits as specific targets of prevention and intervention efforts with this population. Future studies are needed to determine whether stigma-related stressors are responsible for emotion regulation deficits among sexualminority youth.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan
Objectives We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexualminority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results Sexualminorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexualminorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexualminority youths.
Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn
National trends in minority utilization of mental health services are reviewed, and recommendations are made for needed research. In relation to their representation in the population, blacks use services more than expected, and Asian American\\/Pacific Islanders use services less; Hispanics and Native American\\/Alaska Islander use varies according to type of service. Hospitalization accounts for part of the increase in minority
High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking have been identified as the three major modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While these risk factors affect the entire U.S. population, minorities--Blacks, His...
Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexualminority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…
|The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexualminority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…
The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH) among Black sexualminority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexualminority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.
Graham, Louis F.; Aronson, Robert E.; Nichols, Tracy; Stephens, Charles F.; Rhodes, Scott D.
Racial\\/ethnic minority groups in the United States report high rates of inactivity and need intervention because of the associated\\u000a health risks. This article discusses the use of informational, environmental and policy, and behavioral and social approaches\\u000a to increase physical activity in minoritypopulations. Although all of the strategies have been used with varying degrees\\u000a of success, social support interventions have
This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexualminority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two different types of interventions, that is, panel discussion and video and discussion. Repeated measures analyses revealed significant reductions in the measures of sexualminority stigma and that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20391011
Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) populations are susceptible to stress-related mental health disorders because of daily imposed stigma and prejudice. Yet minimal information exists from the perspective of sexualminority youth about how to support them in managing a challenging social environment during critical stages of development. Through the lens of youth from two geographic communities this study examined
This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.
This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexualminority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two
I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexualminorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.
Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexualminority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…
Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.
|Several decades of research tell us that sexualminority youth are among those most at risk for the negative outcomes of frequent concern in the lives of young people: academic failure, emotional distress, compromised relationships, risk behavior, and suicidality. We know much less about resilience, the characteristics and factors that explain or…
This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexualminorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexualminorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the
This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexualminorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexualminorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the
Young sexualminority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexualminority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today that it is accepting applications for projects that create and implement cancer control and prevention programs in minority and underserved communities to address the disparities in cancer rates within certain subgroups of the United States population.
Positive associations between religious involvement and psychosocial health outcomes have been amply documented. However, many of these studies have not accounted for the sexual identification of the participants sampled and have been limited in their conceptualization of religiosity. The religious context may be a source of conflict for some sexualminority individuals. As such, additional research is needed to examine
Recent studies have shown that transgender people are at high risk for HIV. Few studies, however, have directly compared the HIV risks and sexual health of transgender persons with that of other sexualminoritypopulations. This study used baseline data of intervention studies targeting transgender persons, men who have sex with men, and women who have sex with women and
Walter Bockting; Chiung-Yu Huang; Hua Ding; Beatrice “Bean” Robinson; B. R. Simon Rosser
|This article provides an overview of the current status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students on community college campuses, and gives an idea of offerings and programs available at some campuses and districts. A primary difficulty in researching this subject is the anonymity of much of the LGBT population. The "coming out"…
Objectives I examined how sexualminority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association. Methods I used multinomial logistic regression to analyze aggregated data from the 1991 to 2010 General Social Survey, a population-based data set (n = 13 480). Results Respondents with only different-sex partners or with any same-sex partners reported similar levels of health. With socioeconomic status added to the model, respondents with any same-sex partners reported worse health than those with only different-sex partners, but only if sexual intercourse with same-sex partners occurred in the previous 5 years. Age and sex moderated this relationship: having any same-sex partners was associated with worse health for women but not men and among younger adults only. Conclusions The relationship between sexualminority status and self-rated health varies across sociodemographic groups. Future research should use population-level data to examine other health outcomes and continue to explore how the intersection of sexualminority status and other sociodemographic indicators shapes health.
Despite growing evidence to suggest that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals experience a range of stressors and consequences related to their sexualminority status, no known studies to date have employed focus group discussion to explore and document their perceptions of sexualminority stress. In this exploratory study, we present focus group data on a range of sexualminority stressors as described by 43 gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women. We explore gender and sexual identity differences in the respondents' perceptions of heteronormativity, disclosure issues in different social settings, sources of support, and strategies for coping with stress. Respondents reported that women's same-sex relationships were eroticized and distorted to accommodate heterosexual male desire, while men were negatively depicted as sexually promiscuous and deviant. These differing stereotypes held important consequences for disclosure decisions and affected men's and women's social interactions with heterosexual men. Bisexual respondents reported unique strategies to cope with exclusion and isolation associated with misunderstandings about their sexual identities. Directions for future research on sexualminority stress are discussed. PMID:19319738
|The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had…
This article provides an overview of the critical risk factors that negatively impact the health, safety, personal wellness, and educational achievement of sexualminority youth. Contemporary and landmark studies of the key stressors faced by sexualminority are reviewed with an emphasis on Canadian data. Sexualminority youth often encounter multiple risk factors, have fewer protective factors (such as a
This aim of this study is to examine predictors of specific motivations for engaging in cutting behavior among a community\\u000a sample of sexualminority youth. The study involved secondary analysis of data collected by a community-based organization\\u000a serving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their allies. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses\\u000a were conducted using a final sample of
Sarah J. NickelsN; N. Eugene Walls; Julie Anne Laser; Hope Wisneski
Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n?=?29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes
Sexual selection is a competition between conspecific individuals to acquire mates and maximize their reproductive success. This can lead to the development of conspicuous secondary sexual traits under several possible mechanisms. Since these sexual characters can be used as potential discriminant features in species recognition, it seems legitimate to think of a potential role of sexual selection in population divergence.
This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexualminority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes. PMID:23626503
Hequembourg, Amy L; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking remain major public health issues. Particularly, smoking has been associated\\u000a with increased risk of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Literature indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual\\u000a minority) persons smoke more than the general population. Additionally, young adulthood is the second-most prevalent period\\u000a of smoking uptake. Given this constellation of risk correlates, the authors
The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexualminorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexualminorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas. PMID:24147586
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexualminority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexualminority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexualminority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536
Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G M; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H; D'Augelli, Anthony R
Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexualminority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexualminority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexualminority adolescent populations.
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
How and why sexualminorities select a primary care physician is critical to the development of methods for attracting these clients to a physician's practice. Data obtained from a sample of sexualminorities in a mid-size city in our nation's heartland would indicate that these patients are loyal when the primary care physician has a positive attitude toward their sexual
Sexualminority group members are at a higher risk for mental health difficulties than are heterosexual individuals. The results of this study showed that college student sexualminorities were common in counseling centers and that they were more likely than heterosexual students to seek counseling. The results also showed that sexual orientation…
McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.
This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexualminority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health, stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals aged 16 to 24 years old in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexualminorities (n
Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexualminorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexualminorities. In this
Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez
The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexualminority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexualminority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexualminority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexualminority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexualminority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexualminority male youths than non-minority youths and sexualminority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexualminority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexualminority male adolescents. PMID:22771037
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming
The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexualminority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexualminority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexualminority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexualminority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexualminority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexualminority male youths than non-minority youths and sexualminority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexualminority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexualminority male adolescents.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming
The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women’s experiences seeking\\u000a support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141\\u000a heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went\\u000a to friends and parents for
Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: 'local scale' competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies. PMID:23339246
McDonald, Grant C; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso
The author discusses policies that were developed in China in the 1980s specifically for the minoritypopulations, and describes how they differ from the country's general population policies. These differences center on a greater leniency toward fertility among minorities, such as a permitted norm of two children, and, in some cases, three or four children per couple. The author also describes recent demographic trends among the minoritypopulations, with particular reference to falling fertility rates and continuing high general mortality and infant mortality rates. Aspects of the age and sex structure, educational status, and literacy of the minoritypopulations are also reviewed. PMID:12284918
|A study using national data on minority college students and institutional heterogeneity revealed that minority groups are better represented at some universities than others, relative to their proportions in the state population. State racial heterogeneity is a major determinant of African-American representation. For other minority groups,…
Asthma affects almost 23 million people in the United States and ranks as a leading cause of health disparities among minority and low socioeconomic groups, with the largest impact on minority children. This article will examine how fragmented health care in the United States contributes to asthma care disparities in minoritypopulations and will discuss how health care reform may
Women with minoritysexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minoritysexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minoritysexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minoritysexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minoritysexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minoritysexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexualminorities are discussed.
Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.
The burden and disparity of asthma in race\\/ethnic minorities present a significant challenge. In this review, we will evaluate\\u000a data on asthma epidemiology in minorities, examine potential reasons for asthma disparities, and discuss strategies of intervention\\u000a and culturally sensitive care.
|This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexualminority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexualminority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed…
Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.
Few studies explore sexual-minority women's experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual-minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: (1) stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and (2) factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and
Megan Condit; Kai Kitaji; Laurie A Drabble; Karen Trocki
In this article the author describes the historical context for research on sexualminority women's drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; the author summarizes gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexualminority women's drinking over the past several decades and reviews recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus
Sexualminority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexualminority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexualminority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexualminority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexualminority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexualminorities, sexualminority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141
Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S
Sexualminorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework
The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexualminority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexualminority youths that community-based social workers may…
The problem and the solution. This article situates sexualminority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development (HRD) missions of individual development, career development, and organizational development. Implications for HRD professionals engaging sexualminority issues within
Background Sexualminority women (SMW) have been shown to be at increased risk for abuse, smoking, and chronic physical health problems\\u000a compared with heterosexual women. In the general population, abuse and smoking are associated with physical health problems.\\u000a However, there has been little research on their associations among SMW.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose The current study examined a mediational model of abuse, smoking, and self-reported
Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexualminorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexualminority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexualminority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexualminority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexualminority adults.
Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron
Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexualminorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents
Jenna A. Glover; Renee V. Galliher; Trenton G. Lamere
Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men. PMID:17109233
Objectives. We compared the prevalence of current homelessness among adolescents reporting a minoritysexual orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, or heterosexual with same-sex sexual partners) with that among exclusively heterosexual adolescents. Methods. We combined data from the 2005 and 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample of public school students in grades 9 though 12 (n = 6317). Results. Approximately 25% of lesbian/gay, 15% of bisexual, and 3% of exclusively heterosexual Massachusetts public high school students were homeless. Sexual-minority males and females had an odds of reporting current homelessness that was between 4 and 13 times that of their exclusively heterosexual peers. Sexual-minority youths’ greater likelihood of being homeless was driven by their increased risk of living separately from their parents or guardians. Conclusions. Youth homelessness is linked with numerous threats such as violence, substance use, and mental health problems. Although discrimination and victimization related to minoritysexual orientation status are believed to be important causal factors, research is needed to improve our understanding of the risks and protective factors for homelessness and to determine effective strategies to prevent homelessness in this population.
Goodenow, Carol S.; Nichols, Lauren; Austin, S. Bryn
The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men’s alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexualminorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexualminorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexualminorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexualminorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on non-drinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men’s patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexualminorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexualminorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexualminorities and other stigmatized groups.
Parrott, Dominic J.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger
The impact of homonegativity on both sexualminorities and heterosexuals is profoundly debilitating. Due to the implicit power of their privileged status, heterosexually-identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexualminority oppression. Because minimal research exists around heterosexual identity issues, broadly, and sexualminority ally development, specifically, it is difficult to promote such ally work without
The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexualminority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexualminority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexualminority youth. PMID:22831848
BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexualminorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexualminorities are at increased risk for psychotic symptoms and to explore mediating pathways. Method A cross-sectional survey was performed assessing cumulative incidence of psychotic symptoms with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two separate random general population samples (NEMESIS-1 and NEMESIS-2). Participants were sexually active and aged 18???64 years (n??=??5927, n??=??5308). Being lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) was defined as having sexual relations with at least one same-sex partner during the past year. Lifetime experience of any psychotic symptom was analysed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, educational level, urbanicity, foreign-born parents, living without a partner, cannabis use and other drug use. RESULTS: The rate of any psychotic symptom was elevated in the LGB population as compared with the heterosexual population both in NEMESIS-1 [odds ratio (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71???3.84] and NEMESIS-2 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.42???3.71). Childhood trauma, bullying and experience of discrimination partly mediated the association. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that LGB orientation is associated with psychotic symptoms adds to the growing body of literature linking minority status with psychosis and other mental health problems, and suggests that exposure to minority stress represents an important mechanism. PMID:23710972
Gevonden, M J; Selten, J P; Myin-Germeys, I; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; van Os, J; Veling, W
This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexualminority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexualminorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexualminority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems. PMID:23687399
Cardiovascular disease disproportionately affects minoritypopulations, in part because of multiple sociocultural factors\\u000a that directly affect compliance with antihypertensive medication regimens. Compliance is a complex health behavior determined\\u000a by a variety of socioeconomic individual, familial, and cultural factors. In general, provider-patient communication has been\\u000a shown to be linked to patient satisfaction, compliance, and health outcomes. In multicultural and minoritypopulations,
Joseph R. Betancourt; J. Emilio Carrillo; Alexander R. Green
Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) CHAPS partnerships. Staff who agreed to take part were asked to complete a questionnaire online. The online survey was completed by 1241 ethnic minority MSM, 416 men born in South and Central America or Central and Eastern Europe, and 13,717 white British MSM; 67 ethnic minority MSM took part in the online qualitative interview. In addition 364 people working in sexual health clinics and 124 health promotion workers from around Britain completed an online questionnaire. Discussion The findings from this study will improve our understanding of the sexual health and needs of ethnic minority MSM in Britain.
Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations in sexualminority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to…
Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred; Riggle, Ellen D. B.
|Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations in sexualminority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to…
Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred; Riggle, Ellen D. B.
Sexualminority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…
|Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…
Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.
The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexualminority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale survey study conducted at 5 high schools. They were matched
Trish Williams; Jennifer Connolly; Debra Pepler; Wendy Craig
|Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexualminority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…
Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexualminority groups. Participants
Several states have enacted statutes to protect minors from harmful or obscene materials disseminated over the Internet, as well as from pedophiles seeking to use the Internet to lure them into sexual conduct. State and federal courts have diverged in their analysis of the Dormant Commerce Clause's impact on state regulation in these areas. While state courts have held that
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority
Jonathan Elford; Eamonn McKeown; Rita Doerner; Simon Nelson; Nicola Low; Jane Anderson
After studying the effects of imitation on the mixed population of adaptive agents with different memories competing in a minority game, we have found that when the pure population lies in a crowded regime, the introduction of imitation can considerably improve cooperation among agents in a money market.
|The social, economic, and health status advances experienced by Minnesota's White population have eluded significant numbers of the State's Black and Indian populations. This report contains statistical data and analyses of the health status of minorities in Minnesota. The information is meant to contribute to an intensified effort to improve the…
Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Center for Health Statistics.
Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexualminorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity. PMID:24175889
Using original French panel data, my analysis showed that the enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both of rapes and other sexual offences, compared with the rapes- and minorsexual offences-reducing impact of an increase in the enforcement activity for minorsexual offences. This result invalidates the predictions of the broken windows theory in the case of
In sexualpopulation, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexualpopulations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor.
Neher, Richard A.; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I.
To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national program to combat this plight. PMID:19499745
Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G
There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minoritypopulations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed.
This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime sexually transmitted infections,
Amy L. Hequembourg; David Bimbi; Jeffrey T. Parsons
The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line. PMID:22772657
Sexualminorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexualminorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders.
Sexualminorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexualminorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders. PMID:19702379
In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic\\/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth in order to increase understanding of the diversity of
|In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…
Recent research on adolescent mothers and the age of their sexual partners has stimulated discussion of whether legal action should be taken against adult men who engage in sexual intercourse with minors. A nonrandom poll that started as casual questions but extended over 6 months to 52 doctors initiated this review. It became apparent that the primary care physicians (pediatrics, family medicine, and internal medicine) had little, if any, understanding of some key legal facts in Texas associated with adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, especially when adult partners are involved. This article provides a legislative overview for practitioners in an attempt to clarify the law, remediate any deficiency of knowledge, and remind physicians of their role in reporting sexual abuse of minors. PMID:10434769
|Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…
Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas
Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations\\u000a in sexualminority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal\\u000a and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to test group differences in associations between
Sharon Scales Rostosky; Fred Danner; Ellen D. B. Riggle
Few studies explore sexualminority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexualminority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions.
Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexualminorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexualminorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed.
Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel
|Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexualminority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and…
In general, spores of B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. Sphaericus and B. subtilis strains germinated uniformly within a short time of incubation in a germination medium. In contrast, spores of B, circulans, B. brevis, B. laterosporus, B. pulvifaciens, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis and B. coagulans strains were usually slow and/or uneven germinators under the same conditions of incubation. The former group of Bacillus strains occur frequently in soils as the predominant population and the latter group of Bacillus species are found in many cases as minorpopulations. The minorpopulations of Bacillus were isolated with difficulty by the standard dilution-plate technique, but could easily be enriched by treating the soil sample in a germination medium for 2 to 3 hours at 30 to 35 degrees C, followed by heating it at 65 degrees C for 10 minutes ("minor-shifted isolation"). Using this technique, the minor Bacillus strains could be isolated from samples containing 100- to 1,000-fold more of the rapid germinators of Bacillus. PMID:7096200
Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minoritypopulation concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.
Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical environments in which these communities exist. PMID:16532664
Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexualminority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs accounted for 7.5 percent of the sample. Data were analyzed to ascertain prevalence of risks and explore group differences. Compared with peers, SMY self-reports indicated higher prevalence rates on all indicators of health and mental health need. SMYs reported more sexual activity, more sexually transmitted disease diagnoses, a higher perceived risk for HIV/AIDS, and more forgone medical care than peers.Also compared with peers, SMYs reported higher levels of anxiety depression, suicidality, and physical and sexual victimization and higher rates of unmet mental health need. SMYs also reported greater concerns about confidentiality and were less likely to use school-based services.The majority of SMYs reported same-sex attraction only. Social work and other helping professionals should incorporate same-sex attraction questions into assessment protocols to target services for this population. School- and office-based providers must consider whether their services are welcoming and offer sufficient assurances of confidentiality to facilitate access by SMYs. PMID:21936333
On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexualminority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexualminority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…
|On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexualminority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexualminority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…
Objective: To assess developmental differences in the psychological functioning, substance use, coping style, social support, HIV knowledge, and risky sexual behavior of at-risk, minority adolescent girls; to assess developmental differences in psychosocial correlates of risky sexual behavior in older and younger adoles- cents. Method: Participants included 164 minority teens, ages 12-19, who were receiving medical care in an ado- lescent
Pamela J. Bachanas; Mary K. Morris; Jennifer K. Lewis-Gess; Eileen J. Sarett-Cuasay; Adriana L. Flores; Kimberly S. Sirl; Mary K. Sawyer
Sexualminority youth (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning youth) must function in a society that condones homophobia. Rendered invisible through the stigma attached to their identification as sexualminorities, they are conveniently forgotten by the institutions charged with facilitating their education. Results from a research study conducted by Sears (1991), indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be
In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substance abuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexualminorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55–64 years had significantly more problems with substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals
Sexualminority youth, as they progress through elementary, middle, and secondary schools in the United States, are confronted every day with taunts, epithets, and a host of other negative, insulting, and derogatory words from their peers designed to bring them into conformity with the dominant majority culture's view of \\
|Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexualminority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…
Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope
Objectives: This paper examines the prevalence of tobacco use among sexualminorities in the US through a systematic review of literature from 1987 to May 2007. Methods: Seven databases were searched for peer- reviewed research (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library via Wiley InterScience, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Health Source: Nursing\\/Academic, Institute for Scientific
|This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction…
Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.
|Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexualminority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, &…
This report explores suicide protective and risk factors for lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) youth and offers a Cumulative Factor Model constructed from these factors. Numerous studies to date have concluded that a youth's sexualminority identity is a key risk factor for suicide. Few studies however have explored the internal and external protective factors that may cumulate to increase
Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexualminority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…
The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexualminority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, research examining correlates of oppression among sexualminority persons has used primarily White samples and has failed to attend to and investigate the complexity of Asian American LGBQ persons’ experiences. This study examined the relations between multiple external and internalized oppressions
Although sexualminority (SM) adolescent girls are at high risk for suicidal behavior, very little is known about their use of mental health services (MHS). Therefore, we examined survey data from a sample of Boston high school students to compare the prevalence of MHS use among SM and heterosexual girls.We used chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of group
Using original French panel data, this paper investigates the relevance of the broken windows theory in case of an offence category featured by the absence of monetary benefits. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent effect of sanctions for rapes and minorsexual offences. The enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both for rapes
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexualminority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors
Bryan N. Cochran; K. Michelle Peavy; Ana Mari Cauce
This paper outlines the public mental health response to sexualminorities in the United States. Information from the academic literature, federal and state initiatives, and the work of the organized lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities is placed in an historical context of mental health attitudes toward homosexuality. In addition to recommendations for future directions in research and treatment,
|This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…
Hierarchical multiple regression is used to examine whether student school engagement predicts grade point average (GPA) and fear-based truancy among 315 sexualminority youth aged 13 to 24 years. Results indicate that student school engagement is a significant predictor of GPA, and this relationship is strongest in the presence of a gay–straight alliance. Having an adult ally at school is
Kristie L. Seelman; N. Eugene Walls; Cynthia Hazel; Hope Wisneski
Hierarchical multiple regression is used to examine whether student school engagement predicts grade point average (GPA) and fear-based truancy among 315 sexualminority youth aged 13 to 24 years. Results indicate that student school engagement is a significant predictor of GPA, and this relationship is strongest in the presence of a gay–straight alliance. Having an adult ally at school is
Kristie L. Seelman; N. Eugene Walls; Cynthia Hazel; Hope Wisneski
We examined the motivations of sexualminority adults to vacation at a sexualminority-focused campground and how sexual orientation identity management was associated with leisure motivations. Twenty-nine men and 12 women who owned seasonal homes participated. In responses to open-ended questions, participants expressed many of the motivations typically associated with seasonal home leisure (e.g., socializing, escape, relax). The most frequently
Developing effective safer-sex programs for women living with HIV\\/AIDS (WLH\\/A) is a national HIV prevention priority. Existing programs focus predominantly on heterosexual women's experiences and ignore the needs of sexualminority women (SMW). Thus, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 sexualminority WLH\\/A to better understand their sexual risk behaviors and corresponding HIV prevention needs. Most of the interviewees were
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved.
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Campbell, Richard T.; Diaz, Rafael M.
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved. PMID:20420293
Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Diaz, Rafael M
|Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minoritypopulation concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…
The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free
Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes; Vito Latora; Yamir Moreno; Elio V. Profumo
Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students' academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by…
CRCHD SPN Pilot: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant MinorityPopulations (CANIMP) Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant MinorityPopulations (CANIMP) Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant
CRCHD SPN Publications: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant MinorityPopulations (CANIMP) Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Publications Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant MinorityPopulations (CANIMP) Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant
...for a Cooperative Agreement To Prevent Cancer in MinorityPopulations; Notice Federal...for a Cooperative Agreement To Prevent Cancer in MinorityPopulations AGENCY: Office...demonstration cooperative agreement to establish a cancer prevention project in Philadelphia,...
This study examined self-reported adult sexual functioning in individuals reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a representative sample of the Australian population. A sample of 1793 persons, aged 18–59 years, were randomly selected from the electoral roll for Australian states and territories in April 2000. Respondents were interviewed about their health status and sexual experiences, including unwanted
Jake M. Najman; Michael P. Dunne; David M. Purdie; Francis M. Boyle; Peter D. Coxeter
This article compares heterosexual and sexualminority street-involved youth across a number of sociodemographic, risk and current mental health, victimization and delinquency measures with a particular focus on gender differences. The sample consists of 147 homeless and street-involved young men and women aged 16–21 years in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses indicate that many of the differences between the heterosexual
Tyler J. Frederick; Lori E. Ross; Tara L. Bruno; Patricia G. Erickson
Using original French panel data, this paper investigates the relevance of the broken windows theory in case of an offence\\u000a category featured by the absence of monetary benefits. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent\\u000a effect of sanctions for rapes and minorsexual offences. The enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both\\u000a for rapes
The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the frequency of cancers to develop priorities for cancer policy, prevention, services and research for black and minority ethnic populations in Britain. Data on populations originating in the Indian sub-continent, and Caribbean and African Commonwealth were extracted from published works. Cancers were ranked (top seven) on the basis of the number of cases, actual frequency, and also on relative frequency (SMR, SRR, PMR). Cancer was found to be a common cause of death. For example, during 1979-83 the proportion of deaths resulting from neoplasms in immigrants living in England and Wales was 11% for Indian and African men aged 20-49, and 19% for Caribbeans. The corresponding proportions were higher among women. The pattern of cancer depended on the method used to assess rankings. On the basis of the number of cases the top 3 ranking cancers for adults were breast, long and neoplasms of the lymphatic system. Based on SMR's cancer of the gallbladder, liver and oral cavity ranked amongst the top 3 for adults. For children the top ranking cancers were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, central nervous system tumours and neuroblastoma. Variations by ethnic group were more evident in the rankings of relative frequency than in rankings based on numbers of cases. In conclusion, the most common and preventable cancers among minority ethnic populations were the same as those for the general population. The different cancer pattern based on SMRs highlight additional needs and provide potential models for research into understanding the causes of these cancers. Health services policy and practice should ensure that the common and preventable cancers take priority over rare cancers and those for which there is no effective treatment or prevention. Priorities for policy, prevention, clinical care and research should be set separately, for they differ.
While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are legally liable when their minor children commit offenses. Since parents are essential to the successful rehabilitation of minors who have sexually offended, the impact of legal liability on parental engagement in therapy must be examined. This article will explore the conflicting issues of age, legal responsibility, parental responsibility, and therapeutic effectiveness in the Israeli context and propose a means for resolution. PMID:23350541
Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians.
Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel
Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexualminority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants: A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods: Random or census samples from
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexualminority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants: A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods: Random or census samples from post-secondary
The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences\\u000a exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction\\u000a is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well\\u000a as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an
Anthropologists and forensic pathologist determine the sex of skeletons by analyzing quantitative and qualitative characters in the bone remains. Generally, the skull and os coxae are the elements most used, but they are not always preserved. In such cases, the investigator needs to have available other techniques based on different remains. The aim of the present work is to develop and describe discriminating functions for sex determination in a recent Spanish population using metacarpal morphology. A sample of bones corresponding to a contemporary Spanish population deposited at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) was analyzed. This sample comprised 697 metacarpals, corresponding to 79 adult individuals (37 men and 42 women). These allowed us to obtain 120 unifactorial discriminant functions. We selected the 10 equations, one for each metacarpal from both hands, that provided the best sexual discrimination. The correct sex classification rank progressed from 81%, for right (R) metacarpals IV and V, to 91%, for left (L) metacarpal II. The results suggest that metacarpals are structures that can be used for sex determination in paleoanthropological and forensic identifications. PMID:17018074
Barrio, Pedro A; Trancho, Gonzalo J; Sánchez, José A
|Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexualminority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…
|The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…
Objectives. (1) To explore sexual behaviour and relationships amongst Black and minority ethnic (BME) teenagers in East London. (2) To examine how these relationships are shaped by culture, gender, peer norms and religion. (3) To describe the implications for sexual health policy and practice in urban, multicultural areas.Design. This report draws primarily on the qualitative arm of a mixed methods
Shamser Sinha; Katherine Curtis; Amanda Jayakody; Russell Viner; Helen Roberts
|Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexualminority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…
Sexuality and the experience of sexualminorities in the workplace are under-researched areas. The research reported here - a case study in one government department in the UK - utilizes a discursive research method to uncover a theme that is at the centre of this experience - silence. In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with individuals eliciting their stories on
|The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual…
Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexualminority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the
Although the governments of the United States and Japan differ markedly in racial ideology, official crime statistics in both nations reflect political arrangements which marginalize minoritypopulations. In both nations, official crime statistics reveal more about the attempts of majority populations to label minoritypopulations as a criminal class than about variations in criminal behavior across racial populations. While there
While research examining healthcare experiences of sexualminority individuals is growing, thus far research has been limited on lesbian gender identity and its relationship to physical and mental health. This study explores access to and experiences of healthcare with a sample of 516 butch and femme identified lesbian and bisexual women. In comparison to femme-identified women, it was found that butch women had routine gynecological examinations significantly less frequently, perceived poorer treatment in healthcare settings, were more likely to be out within healthcare settings, placed more importance on securing LGBT-positive healthcare practitioners, and had more difficulty finding LGBT-positive medical doctors. No differences were found for mental health. The results suggest that butch women may be more at risk for physical health concerns than femme women, in particular those illnesses that can be prevented or treated with regular gynecological care (e.g., uterine or cervical cancer). Implications of the study include greater awareness among healthcare professionals of sexualminority gender identity in addition to sexual identity, and more support for butch-identified women to access vital healthcare services. PMID:19042908
Background In asexual populations, mutators may be expected to hitchhike with associated beneficial mutations. In sexualpopulations, recombination is predicted to erode such associations, inhibiting mutator hitchhiking. To investigate the effect of recombination on mutators experimentally, we compared the frequency dynamics of a mutator allele (msh2?) in sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Mutator strains increased in frequency at the expense of wild-type strains in all asexual diploid populations, with some approaching fixation in 150 generations of propagation. Over the same period of time, mutators declined toward loss in all corresponding sexual diploid populations as well as in haploid populations propagated asexually. Conclusions We report the first experimental investigation of mutator dynamics in sexualpopulations. We show that a strong mutator quickly declines in sexualpopulations while hitchhiking to high frequency in asexual diploid populations, as predicted by theory. We also show that the msh2? mutator has a high and immediate realized cost that is alone sufficient to explain its decline in sexualpopulations. We postulate that this cost is indirect; namely, that it is due to a very high rate of recessive lethal or strongly deleterious mutation. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that msh2? also has unknown directly deleterious effects on fitness, and that these effects may differ between haploid asexual and sexualpopulations. Despite these reservations, our results prompt us to speculate that the short-term cost of highly deleterious recessive mutations can be as important as recombination in preventing mutator hitchhiking in sexualpopulations.
The genetic structure, as assessed by isozymes, is described for three populations of outbreeding sexuals, three populations of obligate agamosperms, and six accessions of inbreeding sexual Taraxacum. Fifteen loci in 10 isozyme systems were identified, and isozyme bands were previously shown to be allelic in sexual × sexual and were confirmed as allelic in sexual × agamosperm crosses. Sexual ×
We show that a simple model of an evolving sexualpopulation, which dates back to some of the earliest work in theoretical population genetics, exhibits an unexpected and previously unobserved phase transition between ordered and disordered states. This behavior is not present in populations evolving asexually without recombination and is thus important in any comparison of sexual and asexual populations. In order to calculate the details of the phase transition, we use techniques from statistical physics. We introduce the correlation of the population as the order parameter of the system and use maximum entropy inference to find the state of the population at any time.
Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexualminorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency. PMID:19197644
Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G
The fight against HIV/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of human rights for all, including sexualminorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political and human rights perspective to the analysis of the global response to the pandemic, and I introduce the concept of policy networks for a better understanding of these dynamics. Second, I argue that, in the case of Mexico, the constitution of HIV/AIDS policy networks, which incorporate civil society and state actors, such as sexualminority activists and public officials, and their actions—both domestic and international—have resulted in a more inclusive HIV/AIDS policy-making process. However, serious human rights violations of HIV/AIDS patients and sexualminorities still remain. PMID:21751474
An increasing number of researchers have explored connections between substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sexual assault histories in civilian women. Despite literature suggesting the prevalence of substance abuse and sexual assault for female veterans, few studies have investigated these variables in a female veteran population. Thus, this paper was designed to provide preliminary information about this group of
Background: Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) have a complex and bi-directional relationship. We examined the relationships between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression, sexual activity and sexual satisfaction.Methods: A population survey of men aged 40–70 years was carried out in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia in 1997–1998. A questionnaire was used to collect life style, sexual behaviors and
Alfredo Nicolosi; Edson D. Moreira; Marco Villa; Dale B. Glasser
In exchange for a free physical examination, 116 minority group youths from inner-city middle schools in Texas consented to answer open-ended questions about their sexual behavior, contraceptive knowledge, and type and source of knowledge of sexuality. The students ranged in age from 12-15 years (mean age, 13 years); 27% were Hispanic and 73% were black. Sex education was not a part of the curriculum at the 4 schools from which respondents were drawn. When asked what sex meant to them, 37% of female adolescents and 23% of males indicated they did not know or it did not mean anything. Among remaining students, recreation was identified as the central meaning be males (23% of total), while females tended to cite romance (21% of total). Only 47% were able to list at least 1 question they had about sex; most common were questions about the morality of premarital intercourse and the experience of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. 89% of females and 57% of males were able to name at least 1 contraceptive method, generally condoms (44%), abstinence (36%), and the pill (8%). Hispanic females named the highest number of contraceptive methods on average (2.2), followed by black females (1.9), Hispanic males (1.8), and black males (1.3). Among female adolescents, 53% listed their mother as their primary source of knowledge about sexual matters and 6% listed a friend. Among males, fathers (17%) and friends (17%) were the most frequent knowledge sources. The fact that these young adolescents view their parents as credible and approachable sources of information about sexuality suggests that school counselors should encourage such communication. aT the same time, the expressed need for more information on the moral aspects of sexuality indicates that values should be incorporated into any sex education program developed for this age group. PMID:12342896
Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexualminority adolescents. Methods. Data were collected in 2008 by means of a computer-based questionnaire completed at school by 513 young Dutch adolescents (12–15 years old) during regular class times. Eleven percent of these students, who were enrolled in 8 different schools, reported having at least some feelings of same-sex attraction. Results. Adolescents with same-sex attractions in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as less consistent and clear reported significantly more mental health problems than their peers with no same-sex attractions in the same schools. Such differences were absent in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as more consistent and clear. There were no such effects of cultural pluralism. Conclusions. Our results suggest that schools with consistent and clear rules and expectations mitigate the risk for mental health problems among students with same-sex attractions and underscore the importance of structural measures for the health of sexualminority youth.
Bos, Henny M. W.; Collier, Kate L.; Metselaar, Marijke
Racial\\/ethnic minority adolescent girls bear a disproportionate risk for HIV and face barriers to autonomous sexual decision making, but parental messages may help protect against sexual risk taking. The authors examined African American and Hispanic girls' sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention practices, parent—adolescent communication about sexual pressure, and maternal gender norms (N = 118). Teens were more likely
Anne M. Teitelman; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Julie A. Cederbaum
69 sexually active females aged 13-19 attending the General Pediatric Clinic of the Mount Zion Medical Center of the University of California-San Francisco were interviewed to learn about their AIDS-related concerns, risk behaviors, and psychosocial/situational determinants of condom use. 90% of the sample is African-American. The authors also aimed to define the accuracy of personal AIDS risk-assessment, the relative importance of AIDS in relation to other concerns, and the broader context of sexual experience and attitudes in the population. The girls were generally quite concerned about AIDS, but often more worried about poverty-related issues. 41% reported knowing someone with AIDS, they had an average of 3 partners, 55% had a sexually transmitted disease in the past, and 77% had been pregnant in the past. Despite these factors, most perceived themselves to be at low personal risk because of their current monogamy, lack of intravenous drug use, and implicit trust in their partner's safety. The girls generally did not discuss with their partners their actual HIV risk in terms of past behavior. 98% were aware that condoms may prevent AIDS, but only 64% used condoms half of the time or less when they had sex. Even then, condoms were used mainly for contraception. These sexual histories and behavior indicate the need for concern regarding AIDS risk in the urban minoritypopulation of sexually active, adolescent girls. Programs aimed at AIDS prevention among urban minority adolescents need to be cognizant of the larger personal and sociocultural context in which teenagers are making health-behavior choices. PMID:8075092
The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578029
Drosophila nigricruria has a distribution ranging from northern Mexico to Chile. It is a relatively rare species, primarily limited to cactus deserts or pine-oak associations at altitudes of 1200 to 2100 meters above sea level. The species comprises two cytological races with a zone of hybridization in the Oaxaca and Puebla regions of Mexico. Despite the zone of hybridization, gene flow for chromosome 4 genes is limited, or non-existent, between the two races. Sexual isolation tests were run using a population from the northern race, a hybrid population, and a population that is essentially southern. Sexual discrimination among these strains was on the same order of magnitude as that found between geographical populations of other species. There was no evidence to indicate that sexual isolation is any stronger between the cytological races of nigricruria than one might expect between any two geographical populations within a species. PMID:874304
This meta-analysis featuring 12 national adult studies and 16 state/regional youth studies of sexuality and mental health finds that sexualminorities--as a likely consequence of place-contingent minority stress--experience mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation much more frequently than their heterosexual counterparts. By interrogating the geographic variations in the findings, such as high rates of poor mental health outcomes in the United Kingdom, large gay-heterosexual disparities in the Netherlands, and lower and improving rates of both outcomes and risk factors in Vermont and British Columbia, this study asserts that policy regimes, health programming, and the ways in which sexualminorities are constructed in places all contribute to their mental health. PMID:19515600
To answer a key question ('Are Australian sexual health clinics attracting priority populations?'), we used data from 44 Australian sexual health clinics between 2004 and 2011. We assessed the proportion of patients that were from priority populations (deemed to be at risk of sexually transmissible infections) and compared this to their proportions in the general population using data from Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Study of Health and Relationships. A ?(2)-test was used. A total of 278154 new patients attended during 2004-2011. The proportions from each priority population were significantly higher (P<0.01 for all) than for the general population: young people aged 15-29 years (58.1% v. 20.1%), men who have sex with men (26.0% v. 6.0%), female sex workers (10.8% v. 0.5%), and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (4.2% v. 2.3%). This study confirms that Australian sexual health clinics attract higher proportions of priority populations and are thus meeting their mandate as defined in the 2010-2013 National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy. PMID:23962540
Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Ryder, Nathan; McNulty, Anna; Chen, Marcus Y; Marshall, Lewis; O'Connor, Catherine C; Dickson, Bridget; Grulich, Andrew E; Hellard, Margaret E; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca J
Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ''environmental racism'' by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differenc...
Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities. The rate of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to increase globally. The disproportionately high rate of ESRD among the many growing indigenous populations and racial\\/ethnic minorities in the United States highlights the need to reassess present treatment strategies to more appropriately identify and manage chronic kidney disease
Susanne B. Nicholas; NAUREEN TAREEN; ASHRAF ZADSHIR; DAVID MARTINS; DEYU PAN; Keith C. Norris
Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017
An increasing number of researchers have explored connections between substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sexual assault histories in civilian women. Despite literature suggesting the prevalence of substance abuse and sexual assault for female veterans, few studies have investigated these variables in a female veteran population. Thus, this paper was designed to provide preliminary information about this group of women. The results of this preliminary study suggest a high incidence of PTSD related to sexual trauma in a substance-abusing population of female veterans and a high incidence of substance abuse among female veterans who presented requesting help for sexual trauma. Suggestions for future study include examination of comparison samples of female veterans with and without PTSD and substance abuse across a variety of dimensions, including psychiatric symptoms, substance use, treatment utilization, and impact of treatment. Implications for assessment are highlighted. PMID:10023609
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexualminority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed. PMID:18032292
Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari
Objective Adult posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) and a biomarker index of current health risk in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors was investigated in relation to CSA severity, disclosure and other peri-and post-trauma factors. Methods A community sample of 94 African American and Latina women CSA survivors was assessed. Results Severe CSA predicted PSS overall, avoidance/numbing symptoms and greater biomarker risk, and was not mediated by post-trauma variables. Moderate CSA severity was mediated by post-trauma disclosure, predicted re-experiencing symptoms but was unrelated to biomarker risk. No overall ethnic differences were found. Conclusions Results suggest targets for interventions to improve the well-being of minority women CSA survivors.
Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Sciolla, Andres; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.
Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ?16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988
Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C
Previous research has shown that sexualminority (i.e., nonheterosexual) individuals report increased problematic substance use involvement, compared with their sexual majority counterparts. We hypothesize that feelings of an unstable sense of self (i.e., identity disturbance) may potentially drive problematic substance use. The purpose of the current study is to examine identity disturbance among sexualminorities as a potential explanatory mechanism of increased sexualminority lifetime rates of substance dependence. Measures of identity disturbance and three indicators of sexual orientation from lifetime female (n = 16,629) and male (n = 13,553) alcohol/illicit drug users in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Findings generally showed that the increased prevalence of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, and combined alcohol/illicit drug dependence as well as a younger age of alcohol use initiation among sexualminority women was associated with elevated levels of identity disturbance. The results were consistent with a mediational role for identity disturbance in explaining the association between sexualminority status and substance dependence and were generally replicated among male sexualminority respondents. The current research suggests that identity disturbance, a predictor of substance use, may contribute to heightened risk for substance dependence among certain subgroups of sexualminority individuals. PMID:21480677
|Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…
|Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexualminority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…
Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.
|Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexualminority women may be less interested in breast…
Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexualminority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…
Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.
|This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexualminorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed…
This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students’ attitudes about sexualminorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race\\/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more frequently in their views than did Whites or
In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems\\u000a of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minoritypopulations are highlighted. Despite the fact that\\u000a minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed\\u000a that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods
Jeanne-Marie R. StacciariniMona; Mona M. Shattell; Maria Coady; Brenda Wiens
Using survey responses from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this paper reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Such experiences are conceptualized in terms of enacted stigma (criminal victimization, harassment, and discrimination based on sexual orientation) and felt stigma (perceptions that sexualminorities
It is well documented that racial and ethnic minoritypopulations disproportionately use hospital emergency departments for safety-net care. But what is not known is whether emergency department crowding is disproportionately affecting minoritypopulations and potentially aggravating existing health care disparities, including poorer outcomes for minorities. We examined ambulance diversion, a proxy measure for crowding, at 202 California hospitals. We found that hospitals serving large minoritypopulations were more likely to divert ambulances than were hospitals with a lower proportion of minorities, even when controlling for hospital ownership, emergency department capacity, and other hospital demographic and structural factors. These findings suggest that establishing more-uniform criteria to regulate diversion may help reduce disparities in access to emergency care. PMID:22869655
Hsia, Renee Yuen-Jan; Asch, Steven M; Weiss, Robert E; Zingmond, David; Liang, Li-Jung; Han, Weijuan; McCreath, Heather; Sun, Benjamin C
The National Multicultural Seminar on mental retardation among minority disadvantaged populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastatin...
This study examines the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of the Croatian-speaking minority of Molise and evaluates its potential genetic relatedness to the neighbouring Italian groups and the Croatian parental population. Intermatch, genetic distance, and admixture analyses highlighted the genetic similarity between the Croatians of Molise and the neighbouring Italian populations and demonstrated that the Croatian-Italian ethnic minority presents features lying
Carla Babalini; Cristina Martínez-Labarga; Helle-Viivi Tolk; Toomas Kivisild; Rita Giampaolo; Tiziana Tarsi; Irene Contini; Lovorka Bara?; Branka Jani?ijevi?; Irena Martinovi? Klari?; Marijana Peri?i?; Anita Sujoldži?; Richard Villems; Gianfranco Biondi; Pavao Rudan; Olga Rickards
The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS; Derogatis, Rosen, Leiblum, Burnett, & Heiman, 2002) within a Dutch population of approximately 350 women with and without sexual complaints. The main conclusions of this study are that the multidimensional
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.
Diego G Bassani; Lilian S Palazzo; Jorge U Béria; Luciana P Gigante; Andréia CL Figueiredo; Denise RGC Aerts; Beatriz CW Raymann
Methods: Suboptimal bowel preparation, present in over 20% of colonoscopies, can severely compromise the effectiveness of the colonoscopy procedure. We surveyed 93 primarily urban minority men and women who underwent asymptomatic ‘screening’ colonoscopy regarding their precolonoscopy bowel-preparation experience. Results: Print materials alone (39.8%) and in-person verbal instructions alone (35.5%) were reportedly the most common modes of instruction from the gastroenterologists. Liquid-containing laxative (70.6%) was the most common laxative agent; a clear liquid diet (69.6%) the most common dietary restriction. Almost half of the participants mentioned ‘getting the laxative down’ as one of the hardest parts of the preparation; 40.9% mentioned dietary restrictions. The 24.7% who mentioned ‘understanding the instructions’ as one of the hardest parts were more likely to be non-US born and to have lower education and income. There was no relationship between difficulty in understanding instructions and mode of instruction or preparation protocol. One quarter suggested that a smaller volume and/or more palatable liquid would have made the preparation easier. Three quarters agreed that it would have been helpful to have someone to guide them through the preparation process. Conclusions: These findings suggest a variety of opportunities for both physician- and patient-directed educational interventions to promote higher rates of optimal colonoscopy bowel preparation.
Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.; Zybert, Patricia; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Shmukler, Celia; Neugut, Alfred I.; Shea, Steven
Coming out has long been depicted as a process that is conducive to personal growth. However, LGBTQ psychology has yet to\\u000a conduct systematic, theoretically informed research to study how individuals experience coming out growth (COG) and the impact\\u000a of such experiences on the lives of sexualminorities. The present investigation seeks to address these gaps in the literature\\u000a through an
To test the hypothesis that breast cancer incidence rates are higher in areas where more lesbian women reside. In this secondary\\u000a analysis, we are linking Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) breast cancer data from 1996 to 2004 with Census\\u000a 2000 data. From the Census 2000 data on female same-sex partnered households, we derive a measure of sexualminority women
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly
Anne M. Teitelman; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Mercedes M. Morales-Aleman; Cris M. Sullivan
|This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…
Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.
In the adult human innominate, pubis length and sciatic notch width are generally considered to offer the best prospect for\\u000a reliable sex identification. Population variation in the extent of sexual dimorphism in these features was examined in two\\u000a temporally distinct European skeletal collections of documented age and sex. (English and Dutch). A complex relationship was\\u000a found to exist between pubis
Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexualpopulations with aging is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between two regions, initially speaking different languages, is studied. We find that individuals speaking both languages do not prefer any of these regions and have a different age structure than individuals speaking only one language.
Background Among women in the general population, childhood physical abuse (CPA) is associated with poor adult health status and engagement in health risk behaviors. Sexualminority women (SMW) are at elevated risk of CPA, have higher rates of smoking, and may be at higher risk for poorer general health. In this study, we examined the influences of CPA on health status in a diverse sample of SMW. We hypothesized that SMW with a history of CPA would report poorer health than those without such histories and that early onset of smoking–an important health risk behavior–would mediate the relationship between CPA and current health status. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the influence of CPA on early health risk behavior (i.e., age of smoking onset) and current perceived health status in a community based sample of 368 SMW. Results More than one fifth of the sample (21.5%) reported a history of CPA. One fourth of the sample was current smokers; the average age of smoking onset was 19 to 20 years old. The mean level of self-rated health status was between “fair” and “good.” When relationships were simultaneously estimated, the effect of CPA on health status was mediated by two sequential smoking factors: CPA was associated with earlier age of smoking onset, and age of smoking onset was associated with current smoker status. Being a current smoker had a negative effect on perceived health status. Implications for Practice and/or Policy These results suggest that tobacco use is an important pathway by which CPA influences current health status. Prevention and early intervention initiatives should focus on the reduction of CPA among SMW to eliminate the long-term health consequences of adverse childhood events among SMW.
Matthews, Alicia K.; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Alvy, Lisa
Dutch sexualminority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexualminority members. PMID:23358856
Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W
The notion of sexual cannibalism is introduced in a simple model of population growth derived from the Bernardes model (J. Phys. I 5 (1995) 1501). The effect of sexual cannibalism is studied at the level of a population of individuals. Even in presence of cannibalism, a population can survive and stabilize for a birth rate b > 2. Before reaching a stable situation, the evolution of the (sexual cannibalism) population presents an unexpected pattern which is not present in the non-cannibalism case.
Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810
Objective: The aim of this project was to examine whether the degree of disclosure of one's sexual orientation could be a predictor of certain health seeking behaviors including illegal drug use, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual practices, medication compliance and health care utilization. We hypothesized a positive correlation between the degree of self disclosure, or \\
Sexual health is a complex, multidimensional construct. In analyzing race and ethnicity in sexual health, this article examines 2 domains of discourse: (1) preventive sexual health, a public health oriented domain of discourse concerned with the prevention of disease, and (2) eudaemonic sexual health, a domain of discourse concerned with attainment of sexual pleasure within a moral context. Research on the sexual health of ethnic minoritypopulations is typically focused on preventive sexual health. There is an underemphasis on eudaemonic discourses when applied to ethnic minority persons, particularly in the examination of ethnic variations in sexual dysfunction. Medicalization of sexual dysfunction, control of minoritysexualities, and ethnically oriented cultural scenarios are cited as reasons for this underemphasis. Exploring racial/ethnic aspects of eudaemonic sexual health can deepen understanding of sexual health in multiple domains and strengthen the ability to promote sexual health for all. PMID:15129041
We have investigated the rate of substitution of advantageous mutations in populations of haploid organisms where the rate of recombination can be controlled. We have verified that in all the situations recombination speeds up adaptation through recombination of beneficial mutations from distinct lineages in a single individual, and so reducing the intensity of clonal interference. The advantage of sex for adaptation is even stronger when deleterious mutations occur since now recombination can also restore genetic background free of deleterious mutations. However, our simulation results demonstrate that evidence of clonal interference, as increased mean selective effect of fixed mutations and reduced likelihood of fixation of small-effect mutations, are also present in sexualpopulations. What we see is that this evidence is delayed when compared to asexual populations.
Gouveia, Joseilme F.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Sátiro, Caio; Campos, Paulo R. A.
Research studies, statistical reports, and popular press releases report the small numbers of women and minoritypopulations involved with computer-based information technologies. This study examines the epistemological structure of computer science, analyses the historical development of computing with implications for current theory and practice, and explicates field data from a 1994-1996 qualitative survey questionnaire and interview research study searching out
Background Ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of sexual or physical abuse and sexually transmitted infections represent a vulnerable population at risk for HIV. Community-based interventions for behavior modification and subsequent risk reduction have not been effective among these women. Objectives To evaluate the effects of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention model versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Design Controlled randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up Settings Southwestern United States, Metropolitan community-based clinic Participants Mexican-and-African American adolescent women aged 14-18 years with a history of abuse or sexually transmitted infection seeking sexual health care Methods Extensive preliminary study for intervention development was conducted including individual interviews, focus groups, secondary data analysis, pre-testing and feasibility testing for modification of an evidence-based intervention prior to testing in the randomized controlled trial. Following informed consents for participation in the trial, detailed interviews concerning demographics, abuse history, sexual risk behavior, sexual health and physical exams were obtained. Randomization into either control or intervention groups was conducted. Intervention participants received workshop, support group and individual counseling sessions. Control participants received abuse and enhanced clinical counseling. Follow-up including detailed interview and physical exam was conducted at 6 and 12 months following study entry to assess for infection. Intention to treat analysis was conducted to assess intervention effects using chi-square and multiple regression models. Results 409 Mexican-(n=342) and African-(n=67) American adolescent women with abuse and sexually transmitted infection histories were enrolled; 90% intervention group attendance; longitudinal follow-up at 6 (93%) and 12 (94%) months. Intervention (n=199) versus control (n=210) group participants experienced fewer infections at 0-6 (0% vs. 6.6%, p=0.001), 6-12 (3.6% vs. 7.8%, p=0.005, CI 95% lower-upper .001-.386) and 0-12 (4.8% vs. 13.2%, p=0.002, CI 95% lower-upper, .002-.531) month intervals. Conclusions A cognitive behavioral intervention specifically designed for ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of abuse and sexually transmitted infection was effective for prevention of infection. These results provide evidence for development of evidence-based interventions for sexually transmitted infection/HIV. Implications include translation to community-clinic-based settings for prevention of adverse outcomes regarding sexual health of adolescent women.
The risk of male to female transmission of HIV is impacted by baseline inflammation in the female genital tract, semen viral load and seminal plasma’s ability to induce specific patterns of cervical cytokine signalling and influx of immune cell populations. Disruption of the epithelial barrier during non-consensual intercourse may trigger further inflammation and initiation of cell-signalling pathways, thus facilitating transmission of HIV and expansion of local infection. Adolescent and pregnant women are at high risk for sexual violence and may exhibit alterations of genital mucosal immunity that promote immune activation, making them uniquely vulnerable to HIV acquisition.
The objectives of this study were to compare the sensitivities of field populations and a laboratory culture of a duckweed species (Lemna minor) to the herbicide atrazine using three different endpoints and to determine whether sensitivity to atrazine was affected by past exposure to the herbicide. L. minor cultures were purchased commercially or collected from field sites within an agricultural watershed and exposed to atrazine for 7 days under greenhouse conditions. Populations differed significantly in their sensitivity to atrazine. Biomass was more sensitive than frond number, while chlorophyll fluorescence was not a sensitive endpoint. Overall, the sensitivity of the various populations to atrazine was not strongly related to measures of past exposure to agriculture stressors. Positive correlations between biomass twenty-five percent inhibition concentrations (IC25s), biomass estimated marginal means and in-stream atrazine concentrations were observed, providing evidence that atrazine exposure is linked to a decrease in sensitivity to atrazine. However, IC25s generated for each population were similar, ranging from 19 to 40 and 57 to 92 ?g/L atrazine for biomass and frond data respectively, and likely do not represent biologically significant differences in atrazine sensitivity. Given the small range in sensitivity observed between populations, commercial laboratory cultures appear to provide a good estimate of the sensitivity of field populations of L. minor to atrazine and should continue to be used in regulatory phytotoxicity testing. PMID:23535915
Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327
Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive, holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth, we examine the integration of same-sex desire, behavior, and identity in the general life story and the selective appropriation of elements of "master narratives" of sexual identity development. Narratives were characterized by challenges to integrate desire, behavior, and identity into a configuration that conformed to the received sexual taxonomy. Implications for theory and further research on sexual identity development are discussed. PMID:19636732
Hammack, Phillip L; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew
Despite the increasing number of non-Caucasians in the United States, the overwhelming majority of research into both depression and sexuality has been conducted with European-American (Caucasian) samples. Sexual dysfunction and depression often co-occur, impacting relationship satisfaction, quality of life, and treatment adherence. These issues may be particularly salient for African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American women, yet this area of research has
Roseanne DeFronzo Dobkin; Sandra R. Leiblum; Raymond C. Rosen; Matthew Menza; Humberto Marin
The importance of sexual selection in population divergence is of much interest, mainly because it is thought to cause reproductive isolation and hence could lead to speciation. Sexually selected traits have been hypothesized to diverge faster between populations than other traits, presumably because of differences in the strength, mechanism or dynamics of selection. We investigated this by quantifying population divergence
E I Svensson; L Kristoffersen; K Oskarsson; S Bensch
The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse
Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function
Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba
Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,
Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström
The factor structure and reliability of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was evaluated in a Finnish population based\\u000a sample of 2,081 women, age 33–43 years. In addition, associations between female sexual function and age, psychological distress,\\u000a alcohol use, hormone based contraceptives, child sexual abuse (CSA), and adult sexual abuse were examined. The results supported\\u000a a six factor solution for the
Katarina Witting; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Markus Varjonen; Ingrid Wager; Maria Höglund; Ada Johansson; Nina Vikström; N. Kenneth Sandnabba
Adolescent and young adult minority women account for approximately 20% of new cases of HIV in this age group each year in the United States. It is vital to understand factors that influence sexual risk behavior in this population in order to prevent secondary transmission of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in- depth interviews were conducted with 26 Black and Latina young women aged 16 to 24 years, infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission. The study explored factors related to continued unprotected sex with male partners. Since learning of their HIV infection, 23% reported multiple episodes of unprotected vaginal and/or anal sex, 27% reported condom use for some but not all of the time, 42% reported condom use all of the time and 7% were not sexually active. Among the highest risk participants partner refusal to use a condom, having the same HIV sero-status as partner, negative attitudes toward condoms, beliefs about HIV transmission, and fear of disclosure to new partners were associated with risky sex. The data suggests that more research is needed to develop more intensive interventions that address the role of gender power inequity for this sub-set of young women living with HIV.
Summary Population density affects the dynamics of mate acquisition and the opportunity for sexual selection in natural populations of the seed bug, Neacoryphus bicrucis Say (Hemiptera : Lygaeidae). The opportunity for sexual selection and the intensity of directional sexual selection on body length increased as the population density declined within a season for a population in a small, disjunct patch
Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line. PMID:19364716
Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T
Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…
Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew
This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…
Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143
Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun
|This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…
RNA viruses within infected individuals exist as a population of evolutionary-related variants. Owing to evolutionary change affecting the constitution of this population, the frequency and/or occurrence of individual viral variants can show marked or subtle fluctuations. Since the development of massively parallel sequencing platforms, such viral populations can now be investigated to unprecedented resolution. A critical problem with such analyses is the presence of sequencing-related errors that obscure the identification of true biological variants present at low frequency. Here, we report the development and assessment of the Quality Assessment of Short Read (QUASR) Pipeline (http://sourceforge.net/projects/quasr) specific for virus genome short read analysis that minimizes sequencing errors from multiple deep-sequencing platforms, and enables post-mapping analysis of the minority variants within the viral population. QUASR significantly reduces the error-related noise in deep-sequencing datasets, resulting in increased mapping accuracy and reduction of erroneous mutations. Using QUASR, we have determined influenza virus genome dynamics in sequential samples from an in vitro evolution of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1/09) influenza from samples sequenced on both the Roche 454 GSFLX and Illumina GAIIx platforms. Importantly, concordance between the 454 and Illumina sequencing allowed unambiguous minority-variant detection and accurate determination of virus population turnover in vitro.
Watson, Simon J.; Welkers, Matthijs R. A.; Depledge, Daniel P.; Coulter, Eve; Breuer, Judith M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Kellam, Paul
Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide\\u000a meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies\\u000a centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive,\\u000a holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth,
Phillip L. Hammack; Elisabeth Morgan Thompson; Andrew Pilecki
Using a sample of 628 homeless youth and young adults from eight US cities, this study examines whether the relationship between\\u000a having been in custody of social services and suicide attempts, and the relationship between engaging in survival sex and\\u000a suicide attempts differ based on sexual orientation. Findings suggest that being in custody of social services is associated\\u000a with a
N. Eugene Walls; Cathryn Potter; James Van Leeuwen
PURPOSE We wanted to explore the context of help seeking for reproductive and nonreproductive health concerns by urban adolescent girls. METHODS We undertook a qualitative study using in-depth interviews of African American and Latina girls (n = 22) aged 13 to 19 years attending public high schools in the Bronx, NY. RESULTS Before the onset of sexual activity, most girls meet health needs within the context of the family, relying heavily on mothers for health care and advice. Many new needs and concerns emerge at sexual debut. Key factors modulating girls’ ability to address their health needs and concerns include (1) the strategy of selective disclosure of information perceived to be harmful to close family relationships or threaten privacy; (2) the desire for personalized care, modeled on the emotional and physical care received from mother; and (3) relationships with physicians that vary in quality, ranging from distant relationships focused on providing information to close continuity relationships. Core values shaping these processes include privacy, a close relationship with the mother, and a perception of sexual activity as dangerous. No girl was able to meet her specific reproductive health needs within the mother-daughter relationship. Some find nonmaternal sources of personalized health care and advice for reproductive health needs, but many do not. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent girls attempt to meet reproductive health needs within a context shaped by values of privacy and close mother-daughter relationships. Difficulty balancing these values often results in inadequate support and care.
McKee, M. Diane; Karasz, Alison; Weber, Catherine M.
Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of Botryotinia fuckeliana) causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants including grapes. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of a grape pathogenic population of B. cinerea in the area of Eger, Hungary. A total of 109 isolates from 12 areas were sampled. Based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin (tub1) locus, they all belong to group II, a phylogenetic species within B. cinerea. Seventy-four isolates were classified as transposa, with both the Flipper and Boty transposons, and 10 were classified as vacuma, lacking both transposons. The remaining isolates contained either only Flipper (13) or Boty (12). Multilocus analysis of sequences from tub1 and two other loci (elongation factor 1-alpha, tef1, and a minisatellite from the intron of an ATPase, MSB1) led to poor phylogenetic resolution of strains in individual clades. Analysis of five microsatellites (Bc2, Bc3, Bc5, Bc6, and Bc10) resulted in 55 microsatellite haplotypes within the 109 strains. No correlation was detected among individual haplotypes and the presence/absence of Flipper and/or Boty, the geographic origin, or the year of isolation. Application of the index of association, the chi-square test, and the phi test consistently indicated that the population of Hungarian isolates of B. cinerea undergoes sexual reproduction. However, the index of association test suggested the presence of some clonality, and the fixation index showed a low or occasionally moderate level of fixation in the Flipper populations. We conclude that the B. cinerea populations in Hungary consist of a strongly recombining group II phylogenetic species. PMID:19000006
Váczy, Kálmán Z; Sándor, Erzsébet; Karaffa, Levente; Fekete, Erzsébet; Fekete, Eva; Arnyasi, Mariann; Czeglédi, Levente; Kövics, György J; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P
Identity (identities indeed) constitutes the inner core of a person which Article 8 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child rightfully acknowledges. Given the illustrative and not exhaustive nature of Article 8, the right of a child, which includes an adolescent under the age of 18, to identity covers respect for his or her sexualminority
Although sexualminority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…
Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah
Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…
Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.
|Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A…
|Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…
Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.
|Although sexualminority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…
Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah
Low-income populations, especially those belonging to minority groups, are among the most vulnerable groups before, during, and after a natural disaster. One of the factors that can be attributed to their vulnerability is the ineffectiveness of traditional risk communication systems in reaching this population. Many low-income populations are distrustful of government agencies and those who typically communicate risk messages. Consequently,
Randy Rowel; Payam Sheikhattari; Tanyka M. Barber; Myrtle Evans-Holland
Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minoritypopulation with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ?$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minoritypopulation with chronic low back pain was moderately feasible and may be more effective than usual care for reducing pain and pain medication use.
Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry
In sexualpopulations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic “linkage block” with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.
Neher, Richard A.; Kessinger, Taylor A.; Shraiman, Boris I.
In sexualpopulations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480
Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I
Objective: Prior work on racial/ethnic disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples that include an array of diagnostic and quality indicators and substantial non-English speaking minorities. Using nationally representative data (n=8762), we evaluate differences in access to and quality of depression treatments between ethnic/racial minority patients and non-Latino whites. Method: Access to mental health care was assessed by whether or not any mental health treatment was received in the past year. Quality treatment for acute depression was defined as four or more specialty/general health provider visits in the past year plus antidepressant use for 30 days or more; or eight or more specialty mental health provider visits of at least 30 minutes in length, with no antidepressant use. Results: For those with last year depressive disorder, 63.7% of Latinos, 68.7% of Asians and 58.8% of African Americans, vs. 40.2% of non-Latino whites, did not access any last year mental health treatment (significantly different at p<0.001). We also found that the disparities in the likelihood of both having access and receiving quality care for depression are significantly different for all minority groups as contrasted to non-Latino whites, except Latinos (marginally significant). Conclusion: Simply relying on present healthcare systems without considering the unique barriers to quality care that apply for ethnic and racial minorities is unlikely to affect the pattern of disparities observed. Populations reluctant to come to the clinic for depression care may have correctly anticipated the limited quality available in usual care.
People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information mavens may serve as an ideal point of intervention in attempts to modify health beliefs with the goal of reducing health disparities among these populations.
|Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…
Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail
Attempting to avoid some of the most common methodological problems involved in research on sexual child abuse, we collected data on crimes, perpetrators, and sanctions in all convicted cases of sexual child abuse in a defined population during a 5-year period. This approach provided amply documented and ascertained cases with precise definitions and descriptions of the crimes involved, no clinical
Anita Carlstedt; Anders Forsman; Henrik Soderstrom
The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has been characterised by the predominance of heterosexual transmission. Patterns of sexual behaviour have been implicated in the spread of the epidemic, but few quantitative data are available on sexual behaviour in rural populations in Africa. This paper reports data from a survey of 1117 adults aged 15–54 years selected randomly from twelve rural
Katua Munguti; Heiner Grosskurth; James Newell; Kesheni Senkoro; Frank Mosha; James Todd; Philippe Mayaud; Awena Gavyole; Maria Quigley; Richard Hayes
Sperm competition and cryptic female choice are likely to exert strong postcopulatory sexual selection and may amplify or ameliorate selection acting via male mating success. However, relatively few studies have estimated the potential strength of postcopulatory sexual selection acting within natural populations. Field crickets in the genus Teleogryllus have been used extensively as laboratory models to study the evolution of
Allele frequency data and statistical parameters for D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA loci were determined in a sample of 120 healthy unrelated individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic minority group living in Yunnan province, China. We observed 132 alleles with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0042 to 0.5333. The forensic statistical parameters from the data of all the loci showed high values. All loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The obtained frequency distributions were compared with previously published other population data, and significant differences were found between Yi population and Korean, Chinese Tibetan, Uigur, Ewenki, Han, Hui population at some STR loci. Our results of present study were valuable for forensic application and Chinese population genetic studies. These population data enriched Chinese genetic informational resources. PMID:18249578
Objectives. We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67 359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Compared with heterosexuals, sexualminorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Conclusions. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexualminorities is needed.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identified patients report receiving substandard care from healthcare providers. They face the fear and disturbing reality of discrimination when accessing health care. Without culturally sensitive treatment, nursing and other health professions do not properly care for this population. Following the recent trend towards awareness and need for inclusion of LGBTQ populations in healthcare, this paper provides a summary of the current literature on the treatment and needs of LGBTQ people and describes focus groups conducted to explore perceptions regarding provider behaviors. It concludes with a list of behaviors that enhance or impede quality care that can serve as a guide for healthcare professionals. PMID:23721392
Rounds, Kelsey E; McGrath, Barbara Burns; Walsh, Elaine
We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.
Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.
Objective We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexualminority men engaged with medical care. Method HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban setting. Participants (M age = 44.1 years, 36% non-White) filled out a computer-assisted survey and had health-related data extracted from their electronic medical records. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among the latent factors of adult abuse and partner violence (each comprising indicators of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse) and the measured variables: viral load, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), HIV medication adherence, and emergency room (ER) visits. Mediation was tested for the latent construct mental health problems, comprising depression, anxiety, symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Results The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, ?2(123) = 157.05, p = .02, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in viral load (13%), HRQOL (41%), adherence (7%), and ER visits (9%), as well as the latent variable mental health problems (24%). Only 1 direct link emerged: a positive association between adult abuse and ER visits. Conclusions Findings indicate a significant role of IPV and mental health problems in the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV care providers should assess for IPV history and mental health problems in all patients and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments that include a focus on health behaviors.
Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.
The population consequences of sexual selection remain empirically unexplored. Comparative studies, involving extinction risk, have yielded different results as to the effect of sexual selection on population densities make contrasting predictions. Here, we investigate the relationship between sexual dimorphism (SD) and population productivity in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using 13 populations that have evolved in isolation. Geometric morphometric methods and image analysis are employed to form integrative measures of sexual dimorphism, composed of variation in weight, size, body shape, and pigmentation. We found a positive relationship between SD and adult fitness (net adult offspring production) across our study populations, but failed to find any association between SD and juvenile fitness (egg-to-adult survival). Several mechanisms may have contributed to the pattern found, and variance in sexual selection regimes across populations, either in female choice for "good genes" or in the magnitude of direct benefits provided by their mates, would tend to produce the pattern seen. However, our results suggest that evolutionary constraints in the form of intralocus sexual conflict may have been the major generator of the relationship seen between SD and population fitness. PMID:18182072
Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) to that of neutral genetic markers (FST) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The QST/FST ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits.
This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 17 tribal villages of the Kundam block of the Jabalpur district\\u000a of India. Individuals with sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes were enumerated and the specimens were collected for\\u000a the laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, bacterial vaginosis and syphilis\\u000a sero-reactivity were diagnosed by standard microbiological techniques. Chlamydia infection was
The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White women, African American men, and African American women) using univariate and logistic regression analyses, which were conducted separately for each group. White women were the most likely to report a history of sexual abuse (26.5%), followed by African American women (16.0%), White men (4.0%), and African American men (1.1%). For all groups, histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were associated with a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with substance abuse problems for women but not the men. Cannabis dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the White women while cocaine dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the African American women. Several other variables were associated with sexual abuse for women but not men, including lower education (White women only), a history of violent offenses (White women only), and living in a shelter (African American women only). African American men tended to have higher levels of education; this was the only variable uniquely associated with either male group. Receiving psychiatric medications was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except African American men and a history of sex for drugs was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except White men. Consistent with national sample, women, particularly White women, were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. The gender-race differences for the sociodemographic factors associated with sexual abuse, particularly the risk of substance abuse for women, suggest the need for tailored interventions for sexual abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:22203627
Clark, C Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Islam, M Aminul; Hanover, Erin E; Cropsey, Karen L
SEER Program 128 CANCER CONTROL IN MINORITY AND UNDERSERVED POPULATIONS C ancer affects various population subgroups in the United States in distinct ways. The statistics in this monograph show that black men have the highest incidence rate of cancer, due to excesses of prostate and lung andbronchus cancers, while American Indian men in NewMexico have the lowest rate.
PURPOSE Poor blood pressure control is common in the United States. We conducted a study to determine whether health coaching with home titration of antihypertensive medications can improve blood pressure control compared with health coaching alone in a low-income, predominantly minoritypopulation. METHODS We randomized 237 patients with poorly controlled hypertension at a primary care clinic to receive either home blood pressure monitoring, weekly health coaching, and home titration of blood pressure medications if blood pressures were elevated (n = 129) vs home blood pressure monitoring and health coaching but no home titration (n = 108). The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months. RESULTS Both the home-titration arm and the no–home-titration arm had a reduction in systolic blood pressure, with no significant difference between them. When both arms were combined and analyzed as a before-after study, there was a mean decrease in systolic blood pressure of 21.8 mm Hg (P <.001) as well as a decrease in the number of primary care visits from 3.5 in the 6 months before the study to 2.6 during the 6-month study period (P <.001) and 2.4 in the 6 months after the study (P <.001). The more coaching encounters patients had, the greater their reduction in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Blood pressure control in a low-income, minoritypopulation can be improved by teaching patients to monitor their blood pressure at home and having nonprofessional health coaches assist patients, in particular, by counseling them on medication adherence. The improved blood pressure control can be achieved while reducing the time spent by physicians.
Margolius, David; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Bennett, Heather; Wong, Jennifer; Ngo, Victoria; Padilla, Guillermo; Thom, David H.
Associations among sexual victimization and the psychosocial functioning of African American and Latina pregnant and parenting adolescents were examined. Forty-seven (17.7%) of the 265 participants reported histories of sexual victimization, most of which was unwanted sexual intercourse. The victimized adolescents reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and life stress and, although the two groups reported no differences in their levels
One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small population size are expressed at the end of the species' life history.
Ahtiainen, Jari J; Alatalo, Rauno V; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura
We study the evolutionary minority game (EMG) using a statistical mechanics approach. We derive a theory for the steady-state population distribution of the agents. The theory is based on an “adiabatic approximation” in which short time fluctuations in the population distribution are integrated out to obtain an effective equation governing the steady-state distribution. We discover the mechanism for the transition from segregation (into opposing groups) to clustering (towards cautious behaviors). The transition is determined by two generic factors: the market impact (of the agents’ own actions) and the short time market inefficiency (arbitrage opportunities) due to fluctuations in the numbers of agents using opposite strategies. A large market impact favors “extreme” players who choose fixed opposite strategies, while large market inefficiency favors cautious players. The transition depends on the number of agents (N) and the effective rate of strategy switching. When N is small, the market impact is relatively large; this favors the extreme behaviors. Frequent strategy switching, on the other hand, leads to a clustering of the cautious agents.
Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays to detect chlamydial cervicitis were performed on samples from 1,320 sexually active university women. Seventy-five had positive tests. Demographic, history, symptom, and physical examination variables were insufficient to predict infection accurately. Concludes that screening during routine visits with this…
Habitat fragmentation can have important conservation consequences for clonal plant species that possess self-incompatibility mechanisms, as lack of genetic variability within remnant populations may result in sexual reproductive failure. Allozymes and RAPDs were used in this study to determine the extent of clonality in remnant Victorian populations of the northern sandalwood, Santalum lanceolatum (Santalaceae), a species that has been heavily
Cindy L Warburton; Elizabeth A James; Yvonne J Fripp; Stephen J Trueman; Helen M Wallace
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited
T. G. M. Sandfort; F. Bakker; F. G. Schellevis; I. Vanwesenbeeck
Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited
THEO G. M. SANDFORT; FLOOR BAKKER; FRANÇOIS G. SCHELLEVIS; INE VANWESENBEECK
|The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…
Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.
Objective: To evaluate the short-term effect of a first trimester induced abortion on sexuality in a Chinese population. Studydesign: Thisisacross-sectionalstudy.Onehundredand fourwomen attendingthepost-abortionclinic 3-4monthsafterafirsttrimester induced abortion were recruited. They completed a self-administered questionnaire anonymously. The associations of various factors with sexual behavior after abortion were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Results: More than 30% of thewomen reported a reduction in both
Measures of sexual dimorphism have been used extensively to predict the social organization and ecology of animal and human\\u000a populations. There is, however, no universally accepted measure of phenotypic differences between the sexes. Most indices\\u000a of sexual dimorphism fail to incorporate all of the information contained in a random data set. In an attempt to have a better\\u000a alternative, an
In spite of its evolutionary importance, little is known about intraspecific variation in sexual selection. In the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma, absolute adult sex ratio varies within and between populations because of differences in mortality rates, creating natural opportunities for variation in the intensity of sexual selection. Sex ratios in Oklahoma, U.S.A., are variably male biased, but approach 1:1 in
Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection in Europe, with an increasing proportion of them acquiring HIV after migration. This transformation in the epidemic pattern has raised concerns about the sexual mixing and preventive behaviours of migrants. This paper aims at exploring how racial boundaries shape sexual networks and structure prevention practices among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses are based on a French survey carried out among 1874 individuals born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged 18-49 and living in Paris and its surroundings. Our results provide evidence of the existence of African sexual networks, over and beyond those of national origin. The intra-African segregation of these sexual networks leads to sexual contacts between migrants from low- and high-HIV prevalence countries, which probably contribute to the development of the epidemic amongst these migrants. Moreover, racially-based perceptions of HIV-related risk seem to produce a specific attitude toward prevention practices as shown by higher rates of condom use among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa with a partner born outside sub-Saharan Africa. As a consequence, community-based approaches to HIV prevention should take into account the identification of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa as a racial minority and not only focus on national borders. PMID:23659520
Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior. PMID:8372937
Minor histocompatibility (H) antigens are allogeneic target molecules having significant roles in alloimmune responses after human leukocyte antigen–matched solid organ and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Minor H antigens are instrumental in the processes of transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease, and in the curative graft-versus-tumor effect of SCT. The latter characteristic enabled the current application of selected minor H antigens in clinical
Eric Spierings; Matthijs Hendriks; Léna Absi; Angelica Canossi; Sonal Chhaya; John Crowley; Harry Dolstra; Jean-François Eliaou; Tom Ellis; Jürgen Enczmann; Maria E Fasano; Thibaut Gervais; Clara Gorodezky; Brigitte Kircher; David Laurin; Mary S Leffell; Pascale Loiseau; Mari Malkki; Miroslaw Markiewicz; Miryam Martinetti; Etsuko Maruya; Narinder Mehra; Fatma Oguz; Machteld Oudshoorn; Noemi Pereira; Rajni Rani; Ruhena Sergeant; Jackie Thomson; Thuong Hien Tran; Hannu Turpeinen; Kuo-Liang Yang; Renata Zunec; Mary Carrington; Peter de Knijff; Els Goulmy
Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of community walking programs to improve health (e.g., reduce blood pressure, improve lipid profile) and prevent obesity (e.g., maintain or reduce BMI and body fat) in rural, high risk, minoritypopulations. Original data will be presented from ...
|In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minoritypopulations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on…
Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.
Purpose: Examined attitudes and practices related to readiness and use of health technologies for telecare among an older minoritypopulation residing in affordable housing. Design and Methods: A model of successful aging based on Rowe and Kahn is used as a conceptual framework. Eighty-five respondents with an average age of 73 completed a self-administered survey that assessed receptivity to health
Elizabeth M. Bertera; Binh Q. Tran; Ellen M. Wuertz; Aisha A. Bonner
We investigated whether predation by the minor grison (Galictis cuja , a small mustelid) played a key role in limiting a wild cavy population (Cavia magna ), ultimately leading to its local extinction. Radio-telemetry and capture-mark-recapture techniques were used to estimate grison predation rates (kill rates), time-specific probabilities of apparent mortality (population loss rate), overall mortality and grison predation for
Objectives:To evaluate the role of ethnic foods as predictors of intake levels of selected nutrients that are important during pregnancy among the Bedouin Arab minoritypopulation in southern Israel, and to compare the main food predictors for Bedouin intakes of the selected nutrients with those for the region's Jewish majority population.Subjects\\/Methods:Ethnic foods\\/recipes (n=122) reported in the Bedouin Nutrition Study (BNS)
We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152
|Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…
US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical\\/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural
Monica Rivera Mindt; Desiree Byrd; Pedro Saez; Jennifer Manly
Conflicts of interest between mates can promote the evolution of male traits that reduce female fitness and that drive coevolution between the sexes. The rate of adaptation depends on the intensity of selection and its efficiency, which depends on drift and genetic variability. This leads to the largely untested prediction that coevolutionary adaptations such as those driven by sexual conflict should evolve faster in large populations. We tested this using the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where harm inflicted by males is well documented. Although most experimental evolution studies remove sexual conflict, we reintroduced it in populations in which it had been experimentally removed. Both population size and standing genetic variability were manipulated in a factorial experimental design. After 90 generations of relaxed conflict (monogamy), the reintroduction of sexual conflicts for 30 generations favored males that harmed females and females that were more resistant to the genital damage inflicted by males. Males evolved to become more harmful when population size was large rather than when initial genetic variation was enriched. Our study shows that sexual selection can create conditions in which males can benefit from harming females and that selection may tend to be more intense and effective in larger populations. PMID:21050188
Gay, Laurène; Hosken, David J; Eady, Paul; Vasudev, Ram; Tregenza, Tom
Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures—flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism.
Summary In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we found that males from the perennial stream were significantly more aggressive than those from the ephemeral stream. We also found that dispersers were significantly more aggressive than non-dispersers within each stream. These field results illustrate the relevance of the MLS framework in our understanding of the evolution of sexual conflict.
Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J.; Holt, Galen P.; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, JohnW.
Background Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two strictly sexual (Dahlica charlottae and Siederia rupicolella) and one strictly asexual (D. fennicella). These species compete for the same resources and share the same parasitoids. Results Allelic richness was comparable between the sexual species but it was higher than in the asexual species. All species showed high heterozygote deficiency and a large variation was observed among FIS values across loci and populations. Large genetic differentiation was observed between populations confirming the poor dispersal ability of these species. The asexual species showed lower genotype diversity than the sexual species. Nevertheless, genotype diversity was high in all asexual populations. Conclusion The three different species show a similar population structure characterised by high genetic differentiation among populations and low dispersal. Most of the populations showed high heterozygote deficiency likely due to the presence of null alleles at most of the loci and/or to the Wahlund effect. Although the parthenogenetic D. fennicella shows reduced genetic diversity compared to the sexual species, it still shows surprisingly high genotype diversity. While we can not totally rule out the presence of cryptic sex, would explain this high genotype diversity, we never observed sex in the parthenogenetic D. fennicella, nor was there any other evidence of this. Alternatively, a non-clonal parthenogenetic reproduction, such as automictic thelytoky, could explain the high genotypic diversity observed in D. fennicella.
Grapputo, Alessandro; Kumpulainen, Tomi; Mappes, Johanna; Parri, Silja
Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417
Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam
Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.
Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam
Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture.
Although sexualminority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess: (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the association between caregiver support and bullying in both groups, and (c) whether sexual orientation moderates the interactive effect of caregiver support and bullying on depressive symptoms. Data come from a survey of students in 22 Boston public high schools; 99 of the 832 girls in the analytic sample were SM. We used chi-square statistics to examine group differences, and multiple regression to estimate the association between the caregiver support, sexual orientation, being bullied, and depressive symptomatology. SM girls reported similar levels of caregiver support as heterosexual girls, but reported higher levels of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely to report nonphysical bullying. Tests for interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that bullying, caregiver support, and sexual orientation are independently associated with depressive symptomatology.
Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah
Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber
The genotypic composition of populations of the asexually viviparous coral Pocillopora damicornis varies in a manner that challenges classical models of the roles of sexual and asexual reproduction. On the geographically isolated Hawaiian reefs and high latitude reefs in Western Australia, P. damicornis populations are highly clonal although it has been argued that sexual reproduction via broadcast spawning generates widely
We examined the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation-based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County-funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, orbisexual. Those who reported being verbally harassed received significantly more services overall than those who were not verbally harassed, and service utilization varied by sexual orientation. These findings inform future efforts to identify and assess social discrimination in health and social service settings. PMID:23044662
Hoyt D'Anna, Laura; Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Janson, Michael; Chen, Cristy; Malotte, C Kevin
Study Objective: Studies suggest significant rates of female sexual assault (SA); the majority of SAs remain unreported, and few victims receive medical care. The purpose of this study was to determine lifetime prevalence rates of SA in an emergency department population and to assess reporting patterns to police, physicians, and social service agencies. Methods: A verbally administered survey was given
Postcopulatory sexual selection affects the evolution of numerous features ranging from mating behavior to seminal fluid toxicity to thesize of gametes. Inan earlier study of theeffect of sperm competitionrisk on spermsize evolution, experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were maintained either by outcrossing (sperm competition present) or by selfing (no sperm competition), and after 60 generations, significantly larger sperm
CRAIG W. LAMUNYON; O USSAMA BOUBAN; ASHER D. CUTTER
Local adaptation to divergent environmental conditions can promote popu- lation genetic differentiation even in the absence of geographic barriers and hence lead to speciation. But what mechanisms contribute to reproductive isolation among diverging populations? We tested for natural and sexual selection against immigrants in a fish species inhabiting (and adapting to) nonsulphidic surface habitats, sulphidic surface habitats and a sulphidic
M. TOBLER; R. RIESCH; C. M. TOBLER; T. SCHULZ-MIRBACH
In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed...
Individuals in the United States who do not speak English well (referred to as language-minority individuals) represent a major challenge for health and social service agencies, educators, policy planners, and researchers. Although only about 3 percent of...
R. M. Li P. McCardle R. L. Clark K. Kinsella D. Berch
BackgroundSmoking prevalence rates in some ethnic minority groups are elevated relative to the majority population. Thus, identifying cessation interventions that are effective for these groups is important. This article reviews published studies that examine effects of smoking cessation interventions relevant to racial ethnic minoritypopulations.
Deirdre Lawrence; Jessica E Graber; Sherry L Mills; Helen I Meissner; Richard Warnecke
This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…
The degree of sexual dimorphism in human populations is influenced by stress, social role and by labour division. However,\\u000a studies on ethnographic populations provided contradictory results. Unfortunately, most of these studies were based on stature\\u000a only, which, as we could observe in a survey on pre-protohistoric circum-Medirerranean samples, is a poor indicator of functionally\\u000a related dimorphism.\\u000a \\u000a A number of skeletal
BackgroundIn Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15–49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors.Methods and FindingsWe conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability
Sheri D. Weiser; Karen Leiter; Michele Heisler; Willi McFarland; Fiona Percy-de Korte; Sonya M. DeMonner; Sheila Tlou; Nthabiseng Phaladze; Vincent Iacopino; David R. Bangsberg
In this article we examine the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation–based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County–funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, or
Laura Hoyt DAnna; Hannah-Hanh D. Nguyen; Grace L. Reynolds; Dennis G. Fisher; Michael Janson; Cristy Chen; C. Kevin Malotte
It appears that landmark epidemiological studies have shown that certain conditions and/or environmental factors to increased risk for developing certain diseases, in this instance cardiovascular diseases. These conditions have been labeled risk factors, so it appears that many of the variables, i.e., risk factors, which lead to diseases have been identified. Since many of them are alterable, they could be altered in a favorable direction. Thus, the future should consist of education and dissemination of information/knowledge which could result in a reduction in the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases as well as a decrease in its incidence and prevalence in minoritypopulations. Special techniques should be used so that the information is available to citizens of all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Education may be the best way to approach this complex issue, e.g., obesity as a risk factor for diabetes and hypertension. Obesity is an alterable risk factor and perhaps not an independent one. It is probably interrelated with socioeconomic and cultural factors, which would make it a product of multiple factors which have led it to being considered an independent risk factor. It is, therefore, necessary to develop special techniques to investigate methods to identify the contribution of various components to the development of a risk factor. This could enable us to develop a solution for either improving or removing the factors that lead to the development of a risk factor. One example of this would be to become knowledgeable about the correct types of food to eat, the proper preparation and consumption of these foods, and the level of exercise or activity needed to burn appropriate calories in order to prevent obesity. It is not the obesity per se that is the etiology for a specific condition or disease, it is a combination of the influence of the environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors in conjunction with the resultant end product, obesity, that is the etiology for the conditions or diseases associated with it. Senators and other government agents should strongly encourage people to employ techniques to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, i.e., insurance companies should pay for training, educational sessions, and participation in activities/programs which are aimed at informing or instructing the public on how to reduce risk factors. This would be a preventive approach for medical conditions and would be much better than waiting until conditions requiring pharmacological or surgical intervention develop. The health care reform bill should have a built-in component to promote techniques and methodologies to reduce the probability of developing medical conditions. PMID:8778768
Randall, O S; Retta, T M; Ordor, O E; Courtney, B L
The environmental change experienced by many contemporary populations of organisms poses a serious risk to their survival. From the theory of evolutionary rescue, we predict that the combination of sex and genetic diversity should increase the probability of survival by increasing variation and thereby the probability of generating a type that can tolerate the stressful environment. We tested this prediction by comparing experimental populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that differ in sexuality and in the initial amount of genetic diversity. The lines were serially propagated in an environment where the level of stress caused by salt increased over time from fresh water to the limits of marine conditions. In the long term, the combination of high diversity and obligate sexuality was most effective in supporting evolutionary rescue. Most of the adaptation to high-salt environments in the obligate sexual-high diversity lines had occurred by midway through the experiment, indicating that positive genetic correlations of adaptation to lethal stress with adaptation to sublethal stress greatly increased the probability of evolutionary rescue. The evolutionary rescue events observed in this study provide evidence that major shifts in ways of life can arise within short time frames through the action of natural selection in sexualpopulations. PMID:23106714
Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited to participate, 65% took part in the survey. Sexual orientation was assessed in persons aged 18 years and older and reported by 98.2% of 9684 participants. The respondents’ characteristics are comparable with those of the Dutch general population. Results. Gay/lesbian participants reported more acute mental health symptoms than heterosexual people and their general mental health also was poorer. Gay/lesbian people more frequently reported acute physical symptoms and chronic conditions than heterosexual people. Differences in smoking, alcohol use, and drug use were less prominent. Conclusions. We found that sexual orientation was associated with mental as well as physical health. The causal processes responsible for these differences by sexual orientation need further exploration.
Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Bakker, Floor; Schellevis, Francois G.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine
Objective. We investigated whether the proportion of Black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated with neonatal mortality for Black and White VLBW infants. Methods. We analyzed medical records linked to secondary data sources for 74050 Black and White VLBW infants (501 g to 1500 g) treated by 332 hospitals participating in the Vermont Oxford Network from 1995 to 2000. Hospitals where more than 35% of VLBW infants treated were Black were defined as “minority-serving.” Results. Compared with hospitals where less than 15% of the VLBW infants were Black, minority-serving hospitals had significantly higher risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates (White infants: odds ratio [OR]=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.56; Black infants: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.64; Pooled: OR = 1.28, 95% CI=1.10, 1.50). Higher neonatal mortality in minority-serving hospitals was not explained by either hospital or treatment variables. Conclusions. Minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. Because VLBW Black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals, higher neonatal mortality rates at these hospitals may contribute to racial disparities in infant mortality in the United States.
Although the most basic tenets of addiction assessment and treatment are minimally affected by gender and cultural concerns, an empathic understanding of the social and psychological values and experiences of specific populations helps the addiction specialist provide effective appropriate care. Homosexual men, having experienced developmental and social challenges related to both the cultural repression and vilification of homosexuality and the
The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of
Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.
He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei
|In 1991, a project was undertaken to increase the number of minority and male students entering and completing the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Galveston College (GC) in Texas. The goal of the project was achieved in three interrelated phases. The initial phase focused on establishing an outreach program within the community. The…
Objective: To investigate how religion influences care pathways for black and minority ethnic individuals with dementia. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to explore how religion affects later presentation to care services, absence of care-seeking and dissatisfaction with care. Exclusion and Inclusion criteria were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. Included studies were
Jemma L. Regan; Sarmishtha Bhattacharyya; Peter Kevern; Tanvir Rana
This study examined the career decisions of 54 high school students who participated in the Research Apprenticeship Program (RAP) at Ohio State University during 1990-92. RAP is a precollege program which aims to provide meaningful experiences in various aspects of health-related research for minority high school students and teachers. RAP…
|This report covers the first phase of a study on the development, administration and evaluation of a Pre-Retirement Education Research and Training Program for Minority Program Leadership Aides. Thirty-eight Aides, all Black, were trained in an intensive 66-hour program to act as PREP Aides in assisting with the development of PREP Life Planning…
Research has demonstrated that mental disorders are one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. The level of mental health need is particularly high for members of racial and ethnic minority groups who, despite similar to higher mental disorder and disability prevalence rates, use fewer mental health services in comparison to whites and tend to receive poorer
Objective: This study examined the utility of Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation (RARE) as a tool for gaining insights into the social dynamics underlying HIV\\/AIDS in predominantly minority communities at high risk of HIV infection. Further, it identified factors influencing access to treatment and services in communities at risk of HIV infection. Methods: A structured synthesis design was applied to
Graham Watts; William Livingood; Carolyn Woodhouse; Christopher H. Bates; Dawn Goodridge Carney; Deidre Kelley
Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need.
Norris, Keith C.; Baker, Richard S.; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J.; Riley, Wayne J.; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y.; Gibbons, Gary
Results: At baseline, 31% of males and 8% of females reported sexual initiation; by the 10th grade, these figures were 66% and 52%, respectively. Recent intercourse among males increased from 20% at baseline to 39% in eighth grade; 54% reported recent sex and 6% had made a part- ner pregnant by 10th grade. Among females, recent intercourse tripled from baseline
The ability to locate the right research tool at the right time for recruitment and retention of minority and health disparity populations is a challenge. This article provides an introduction to a number of recruitment and retention tools in a National Institute on Aging Health Disparities Toolbox and to this special edition on challenges and opportunities in recruitment and retention of minoritypopulations in Alzheimer disease and dementia research. The Health Disparities Toolbox and Health Disparities Resource Persons Network are described along with other more established resource tools including the Alzheimer Disease Center Education Cores, Alzheimer Disease Education and Referral Center, and Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research. Nine featured articles are introduced. The articles address a range of concerns including what we know and do not know, conceptual and theoretical perspectives framing issues of diversity and inclusion, success as a result of sustained investment of time and community partnerships, the significant issue of mistrust, willingness to participate in research as a dynamic personal attribute, Helpline Service and the amount of resources required for success, assistance in working with Limited English Proficiency elders, and sage advice from social marketing and investigations of health literacy as a barrier to recruitment and retention. Finally, an appeal is made for scientists to share tools for the National Institute on Aging Health Disparity Toolbox and to join the Health Disparities Resource Persons Network. PMID:22720317
Application and comparison of sex discriminant functions in different populations led to the conclusion that a certain combination\\u000a and weighting of a few sex dimorphism variables (in this study we only used craniometric variables) can give a good discrimination\\u000a between male and female individuals, independent of the racial group to which this function is applied.\\u000a \\u000a In our study, the sex-discriminatory
Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.
Background:A syndromic approach has been advocated for identification and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in countries where diagnostic laboratory tests are not consistently available. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to discover the prevalence of STD syndromes in tribal population of central India.Methods:All married men and women in the age group of 15–49 years from selected villages were enumerated
V G Rao; A Anvikar; D Savargaonkar; J Bhat; R Yadav; B K Tiwary; A Abbad
In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within-and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced) of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics.
A growing body of research amply documents health disparities related to substance abuse among sexualminority women. However, relatively little research has examined risk factors or predictors of substance use in this population and even less has explored differences among sexualminority subgroups. Using data from 8850 women aged 25–30 years in the 2003 survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study
Spatial learning in photoperiodically induced breeding (reproductive) and non-breeding (non-reproductive) adult male and female deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was examined in a Morris water-maze task. Sexually mature, adult male and female deer mice that were derived from either a mainland population (P. m. artemisiae) or an island population (P. m. angustus) were required to learn the spatial position of a hidden, submerged platform in a water maze. Deer mice were tested either during the breeding season (summer; long day photoperiod) or during the non-breeding season (winter; short day photoperiod) with a total of six blocks of four trials conducted in a single day. Retention was tested with two probe trials which occurred one and three days after acquisition. During the breeding season male spatial task acquisition was superior to female spatial task acquisition for both populations. In contrast, during the non-breeding season there were no significant sex differences in spatial acquisition for either population. This change in sexually dimorphic spatial learning was due to female spatial-performance decreasing from non-breeding season to the breeding season and male spatial-performance increasing over the same period. Both populations displayed similar seasonal variations in sexually dimorphic water-maze task performance. There were, however, overall population differences in water-maze task performance that were related to the ecology of the mice, with the insular mice displaying shorter latencies to reach the hidden platform than did the mainland deer mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8173954
Galea, L A; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P; Innes, D; Hargreaves, E L
Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function
In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.
Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))
In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.
Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
Physical interactions between amino-acids are essential for protein structure and activity, while protein-protein interactions and regulatory interactions are central to cellular function. As a consequence of these interactions, the combined effect of two mutations can differ from the sum of the individual effects of the mutations. This phenomenon of genetic interaction is known as epistasis. However, the importance of epistasis and its effects on evolutionary dynamics are poorly understood, especially in sexualpopulations where recombination breaks up existing combinations of alleles to produce new ones. Here, we present a computational model of selection dynamics involving many epistatic loci in a recombining population. We demonstrate that a large number of polymorphic interacting loci can, despite frequent recombination, exhibit cooperative behavior that locks alleles into favorable genotypes leading to a population consisting of a set of competing clones. As the recombination rate exceeds a certain critical value this ``genotype selection'' phase disappears in an abrupt transition giving way to ``allele selection'' - the phase where different loci are only weakly correlated as expected in sexually reproducing populations. Clustering of interacting sets of genes on a chromosome leads to the emergence of an intermediate regime, where localized blocks of cooperating alleles lock into genetic modules. Large populations attain highest fitness at a recombination rate just below critical, suggesting that natural selection might tune recombination rates to balance the beneficial aspect of exploration of genotype space with the breaking up of synergistic allele combinations.
Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship. PMID:22771575
Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B
Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexualminority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high volume and
Kim Bloomfield; Matthias Wicki; Sharon Wilsnack; Tonda Hughes; Gerhard Gmel
Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations.
|Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexualminority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexualminority students who were not clients. Among sexualminority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…
Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.
Socioeconomic and health disadvantage is widespread within and across indigenous communities in the world, leading to differentials in morbidity and mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, among indigenous populations are an emerging public health concern. The focus of this paper is on examining the STI epidemiology in indigenous communities in various parts of the world utilizing a range of data sources. Most of the STI research on global indigenous communities has concentrated on developed countries, neglecting more than half the world's indigenous people in the developing countries. This has resulted in major gaps in data at global level for STIs and HIV/AIDS among indigenous populations. Available data show that the prevalence of STIs is increasing among the indigenous communities and in several instances, the rates of these infections are higher than among non-indigenous populations. However, HIV still remains low when compared with the rates of other STIs. The paper argues that there is an urgent need to collect more comprehensive and reliable data at the global level across various indigenous communities. There is also an opportunity to reverse current trends in STIs through innovative, evidence-based and culturally appropriate targeted sexual health programmes. PMID:24052012
Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites.
The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations.
The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive traits is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it has the potential to limit gene flow among populations, contributing to speciation. Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. Flies from five distinct populations were reared at high or low food, generating high and low quality males. The expression of body size, forelimb morphology and courtship rate were each greater at high food, but high food males experienced higher mating success or reduced latency to first copulation in only one of the populations. Among populations, overall mating success increased with the degree of male-bias in overall body size and forelimb modification, suggesting that these traits have evolved as a means of increasing male mating rate. The increased mating success observed in large-male populations raises the question of why variation in magnitude of dimorphism persists among populations. One reason may be that costs of producing a large size constrain the evolution of ever-larger males. We found no evidence that juvenile mortality under food stress was greater for large-male populations, but development time was considerably longer and may represent an important constraint in an ephemeral and competitive growth environment.
|A study was conducted to determine whether college tuition increases in Arizona were placing a disproportionate burden on individuals at lower income levels. Statistical data from the 10-year census reports were analyzed to calculate tuition as a percentage of per capital income for the following groups: total population, White non-Hispanics,…
The composition and needs of culturally diverse older populations should encourage hospitals to address the conflicting demands for access and delivery of ethnically sensitive services. Health communication that is patient-centered and provides culturally and linguistically appropriate care has the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health…
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model eukaryotic organism for classical genetics and genomics, and yet its ecology is still largely unknown. In this work, a population genetic analysis was performed on five yeast populations isolated from wine-making areas with different enological practices using simple sequence repeats and restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA as molecular markers on 292 strains. In accordance with other studies, genome size estimation suggests that native S. cerevisiae strains are mainly homothallic and diploids. Analysis of mtDNA data showed that yeast populations from nonindustrial areas have 40% higher genetic diversity than populations isolated from industrial areas, demonstrating that industrial enological practices are likely to affect native yeast populations negatively by reducing its biodiversity. On the other hand, genetic differentiation analysis based on their microsatellite showed no correlation between genetic and geographic distance and a nonsignificant value when a Mantel test was applied. Finally, in the five populations studied, positive inbreeding (F(is)) values from 0.4 to 0.75, a low but significant level of linkage disequilibrium and a high number of multilocus genotypes were detected. These results strongly advocate that sexual reproduction is frequent enough to erase clonal signature in natural populations and that self-fertilization is the main mating system. PMID:19016866
In sperm-dependent sexual/asexual mating systems, male mate choice is critical for understanding the mechanisms behind apparent stability observed in natural populations. The gynogenetic Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) requires sperm from sexual males (e.g. Poecilia latipinna) to trigger embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. Consequently, males should try to avoid or reduce the cost of mating with asexuals. We investigated male mate choice by documenting the presence of sperm in natural populations and found that a higher proportion of sexual females had sperm than asexuals. In addition, among those females that had sperm, sexuals had more sperm than asexuals. Our results hint at a role for male mate choice as a stabilizing factor in such systems. PMID:18319207
Objectives To investigate time trends in age at first heterosexual intercourse (FHI) and associated factors. Methods Data were collected from a national probability sample of the general population aged 18–49?years. Results Median age at FHI was 17?years for men and 18?years for women, but declined from 18?years to 17?years in men born after the early 1960s and in women born after the early 1970s. Early FHI (before age 16) was reported by 15.2% of men and 7.4% of women, but in recent cohorts (born 1975–82), proportions were similar in both sexes (16.9% and 14.4%, respectively). In women, higher educational level and acquiring most knowledge about sex from parents or in school were associated with later age at FHI. Half the women with early FHI judged the event to have occurred too soon. 4.2% of women with early FHI reported coercion at FHI, compared to 0.9% overall. The main factor associated with early FHI in men was not living with both parents up to the age of 15. Individuals with early FHI were more likely to report higher risk sexual behaviour as well as teenage motherhood and, for men, not having used a condom at FHI and bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Three in four individuals with early FHI thought they had inadequate sexual knowledge at FHI. Many would have liked to have learned more from parents and in school. Conclusions Improved sexual education among young Slovenians should aim to delay FHI until a more mature age and to be better prepared for safer sex.
The sexual transmission of HIV and STI is becoming a major public health concern in China. However, studies on sexuality in China remain scant, particularly those that analyze female sexuality. This study is to investigate the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among adult women, and to examine trends and correlates for having more than one lifetime sexual partner. MSP, coded as having one or none vs. two or more lifetime sexual partners, was the key binary outcome measure. The data were from two national probability surveys on sexual behaviors in China carried out in 2000 and 2006. The sample size of adult women was 1899 in 2000 (total sample n=3812), and 2626 in 2006 (n=5404). Overall prevalence of MSP increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 29.6% in 2006 (chi-square test, significance = 0.000). The most rapid changes took place among women with less education, those who worked in blue-collar jobs and lower social-status positions, and those living in rural areas or small towns. Women who were better educated, lived in big cities, and held management-level occupations exhibited less change but had a higher baselines prevalence of MSP, suggesting that changes in MSP behavior may occur initially among women of higher socioeconomic status. Based on the 2006 data-set, significant positive correlates of MSP included more years of education, being in a long-term relationship, being middle aged, having a lower-status job, going out dancing at entertainments venues, and being a state of overall health in the past 12 months. The significant recent increase in MSP among women reinforces the need to examine China's sexual revolution in the context of a rapidly transitioning society. Findings regarding female sexuality also raise new questions to be explored in further sexuality studies, in order to better understand populationsexual behaviors and to inform future HIV-prevention efforts. PMID:21660755
Background and Aims The Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority, founder population characterized by unique genetic background modeled by culturally determined endogamy. The present study explores whether the widely found cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk effects of ACE I/D, APOE (?2, ?3, ?4), eNOS-VNTR and LEP G2548A polymorphisms can be replicated in this specific population. Methods and Results The community-based study was carried on 208 adult Bayash Roma living in rural settlements of eastern and northern Croatia. Risk effect of four CVD candidate polymorphisms are related to the most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes: obesity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference), hypertension and hyperlipidemia (triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol). For all of them the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The extent to which the phenotypic status is related to genotype was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The strongest associations were found for ?2 allele of the APOE as a predictor of waist circumference (OR 3.301; 95%CI 1.254-8.688; p = 0.016) as well as for BMI (OR 3.547; 95%CI 1.471-8.557; p = 0.005). It is notable that ?3 allele of APOE gene turned out to be a protective genetic factor determining low lipid levels. Conclusion The strength of the relation and the similarity of the results obtained for both tested indicators of obesity provide firm evidence that APOE plays an important role in obesity development in the Roma population.
Single-stranded guanine (G)-rich sequences at the 3' end of human telomeres provide ample opportunities for physiologically relevant structures, such as G-quadruplexes, to form and interconvert. Population equilibrium in this long sequence is expected to be intricate and beyond the resolution of ensemble-average techniques, such as circular dichroism, NMR, or X-ray crystallography. By combining a force-jump method at the single-molecular level and a statistical population deconvolution at the sub-nanometer resolution, we reveal a complex population network with unprecedented transition dynamics in human telomeric sequences that contain four to eight TTAGGG repeats. Our kinetic data firmly establish that G-triplexes are intermediates to G-quadruplexes while long-loop G-quadruplexes are misfolded populationminorities whose formation and disassembly are faster than G-triplexes or regular G-quadruplexes. The existence of misfolded DNA supports the emerging view that structural and kinetic complexities of DNA can rival those of RNA or proteins. While G-quadruplexes are the most prevalent species in all the sequences studied, the abundance of a misfolded G-quadruplex in a particular telomeric sequence decreases with an increase in the loop length or the number of long-loops in the structure. These population patterns support the prediction that in the full-length 3' overhang of human telomeres, G-quadruplexes with shortest TTA loops would be the most dominant species, which justifies the modeling role of regular G-quadruplexes in the investigation of telomeric structures. PMID:23327686
Cercospora leaf spot, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most economically damaging foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. Although most C. beticola populations display characteristics reminiscent of sexual recombination, no teleomorph has been described. To assess whether populations in northern United States have characteristics consistent with sexual reproduction, 1024 isolates collected over a 3-y period were analyzed for frequency and distribution of mating type genes. After clone correction, an approximately equal distribution of mating types was found for each sampling year. Mating type frequency was also assessed in individual lesions. Lesions always consisted of isolates with a single mating type and microsatellite haplotype, but both mating types and up to five microsatellite haplotypes could be found on an individual leaf. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes were sequenced from 28 MAT1-1 and 28 MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Three MAT1-1-1 nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded a single amino acid sequence. For MAT1-2-1, five nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded four protein variants. MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 gene expression analyses were conducted on plants inoculated with either or both mating types. MAT1-1-1 expression remained low, but MAT1-2-1 spiked during late stages of colonization. A segment of the MAT1-2-1 coding sequence was also found in MAT1-1 isolates. Taken together, these results suggest that C. beticola has the potential for sexual reproduction. PMID:22483049
Bolton, Melvin D; Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana; Weiland, John J; Rudolph, Kurt; Birla, Keshav; Rengifo, Judith; Campbell, Larry G
Prostate cancer (PC) is the principal malignancy affecting African descent men in the Caribbean and the USA. Disparities in incidence, prevalence, and mortality in these populations are poorly understood. We evaluated the urologic characteristics and sexual behaviors of men with histologically confirmed PC (cases) and age-matched controls in the nationwide Prostate Cancer in a Black Population (PCBP) study conducted in Barbados. Cases were around 1.5 to 3 times more likely to report symptoms of prostatic enlargement, hematuria/hematospermia, and previous prostatitis. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were similar among cases (24.5%) and controls (26.7%). First sexual intercourse before the age of 16 was associated with an increased likelihood of both low- (Gleason score < 7; OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03-1.66) and high-grade PC (Gleason score ? 7; OR 1.82; 1.11-2.99). PC risk decreased with later age of sexual debut (P-trend = 0.004). More lifetime sexual partners was associated with increased odds of high grade PC (P-trend = 0.02). The contribution of sexual behaviors to the development and the outcomes of PC is likely due to multiple mechanisms, and further study will be necessary to elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in this and similar populations. PMID:23533778
Hennis, Anselm J M; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Nemesure, Barbara; Leske, M Cristina
Prostate cancer (PC) is the principal malignancy affecting African descent men in the Caribbean and the USA. Disparities in incidence, prevalence, and mortality in these populations are poorly understood. We evaluated the urologic characteristics and sexual behaviors of men with histologically confirmed PC (cases) and age-matched controls in the nationwide Prostate Cancer in a Black Population (PCBP) study conducted in Barbados. Cases were around 1.5 to 3 times more likely to report symptoms of prostatic enlargement, hematuria/hematospermia, and previous prostatitis. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were similar among cases (24.5%) and controls (26.7%). First sexual intercourse before the age of 16 was associated with an increased likelihood of both low- (Gleason score < 7; OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03–1.66) and high-grade PC (Gleason score ? 7; OR 1.82; 1.11–2.99). PC risk decreased with later age of sexual debut (P-trend = 0.004). More lifetime sexual partners was associated with increased odds of high grade PC (P-trend = 0.02). The contribution of sexual behaviors to the development and the outcomes of PC is likely due to multiple mechanisms, and further study will be necessary to elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in this and similar populations.
Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Nemesure, Barbara; Leske, M. Cristina
Background: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a risk factor for thyroid lymphoma, and clonal B cell populations in HT support this link. The literature on B cell clonality in HT is controversial. Aims: To identify clonal B cell populations in HT and to assess their usefulness in differentiating HT from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and predicting future development of lymphoma. Methods: DNA from formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded blocks of thyroid specimens from 10 patients with HT and two thyroid MALT lymphomas was analysed for B cell clonality by seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using FRIII/LJH and FRIII/VLJH primers to amplify the IgH gene VDJ region. In one case, PCR products were sequenced. Immunohistochemistry was performed by labelled streptavidin–biotin technique using antibodies to: CD45, CD45RO, CD3, CD20, and cytokeratin. Results: The histopathological and clinical findings were characteristic of HT. Clonal bands were seen in three and a polyclonal smear pattern was seen in seven cases. The clonal bands in HT were associated with a background smear, and could not be reproduced from other blocks from the same case or from deeper sections of the same block. The clonal bands in thyroid lymphomas were not associated with a background smear and were reproducible. None of the patients with clonal B cells has developed malignant lymphoma during a follow up of 10–13 years. Conclusions: B cell clonal bands in HT have different features from those in lymphoma (non-pure and non-reproducible) and do not predict future development of lymphoma.
Saxena, A; Alport, E C; Moshynska, O; Kanthan, R; Boctor, M A
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a groundbreaking report on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health in 2011, finding limited evidence of tobacco disparities. We examined IOM search terms and used 2 systematic reviews to identify 71 articles on LGBT tobacco use. The IOM omitted standard tobacco-related search terms. The report also omitted references to studies on LGBT tobacco use (n = 56), some with rigorous designs. The IOM report may underestimate LGBT tobacco use compared with general population use.
Lee, Joseph G. L.; Blosnich, John R.; Melvin, Cathy L.
ABSTRACT Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:23721180
Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H
Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexualminority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49 % identified as men; 72 % Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160
There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason\\u000a is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly\\u000a population-based 2005–2006 survey of all adult twins (20–47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex\\u000a sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed
Niklas Långström; Qazi Rahman; Eva Carlström; Paul Lichtenstein
Until present, functions for sexual discrimination of a Spanish population from series of known sex and age were not available. In this work, we present a sample of 132 femora (72 females and 60 males) belonging to a Spanish population of adult individuals of known filiation deposited in the Complutense University of Madrid. The ten mathematical functions which yield a higher sexual discrimination in each part of the femur, were selected. The resulting percentages of correspondence varied between 84 and 97% when each variable was considered independently, and a 99% is obtained with two variables of the epiphyses combined. PMID:9068175
Trancho, G J; Robledo, B; López-Bueis, I; Sánchez, J A
Phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences of a group of specimens may include clades of two kinds: those produced by stochastic processes (random genetic drift) within a species, and clades that represent different species. The ratio of the mean pairwise sequence difference between a pair of clades (K) to the mean pairwise sequence difference within a clade (?) can be used to determine whether the clades are samples from different species (K/? ? 4) or the same species (K/?<4) with probability ? 0.95. Previously I applied this criterion to delimit species of asexual organisms. Here I use data from the literature to show how it can also be applied to delimit sexual species using four groups of sexual organisms as examples: ravens, spotted leopards, sea butterflies, and liverworts. Mitochondrial or chloroplast genes are used because these segregate earlier during speciation than most nuclear genes and hence detect earlier stages of speciation. In several cases the K/? ratio was greater than 4, confirming the original authors' intuition that the clades were sufficiently different to be assigned to different species. But the K/? ratio split each of two liverwort species into two evolutionary species, and showed that support for the distinction between the common and Chihuahuan raven species is weak. I also discuss some possible sources of error in using the K/? ratio; the most significant one would be cases where males migrate between different populations but females do not, making the use of maternally inherited organelle genes problematic. The K/? ratio must be used with some caution, like all other methods for species delimitation. Nevertheless, it is a simple theory-based quantitative method for using DNA sequences to make rigorous decisions about species delimitation in sexual as well as asexual eukaryotes. PMID:23308113
STUDY OBJECTIVES--To describe mathematically the relationship between patterns of sexual mixing in the general population and those of people with gonorrhoea infection, and hence to estimate the sexual mixing matrix for the general population. DESIGN--Integration of data describing sexual behaviour in the general population, with data describing sexual behaviour and mixing among individuals infected with gonorrhoea. Use of these data in a simple mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of gonorrhoea infection. SETTING--The general population of London and a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic in west London. PARTICIPANT--These comprised 1520 men and women living in London who were randomly selected for the national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles and 2414 heterosexual men and women who presented to the GUM clinic with gonorrhoea. MAIN RESULTS--The relationship between sexual mixing among people with gonorrhoea and sexual mixing in the general population is derived mathematically. An empirical estimate of the sexual mixing matrix for the general population is presented. The results provide tentative evidence that individuals with high rates of acquisition of sexual partners preferentially select other individuals with high rates as partners (assortative mixing). CONCLUSIONS--Reliable estimates of sexual mixing have been shown to be important for understanding the evolution of the epidemics of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. The possibility of estimating patterns of sexual mixing in the general population from information routinely collected in gonorrhoea contact tracing programmes is demonstrated. Furthermore, the approach we describe could, in principle, be used to estimate the same patterns of mixing, using contact tracing data for other sexually transmitted diseases, thus providing a way of validating our results.
Abstract Sexual signals are often critical for mate attraction and reproduction, although their conspicuousness exposes them to parasites and predators. We document the near-disappearance of song, the sexual signal of crickets, and its replacement with a novel silent morph, in a population subject to strong natural selection by a deadly acoustically orienting parasitoid fly. On the Hawaiian Island of Kauai, more than 90% of male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) shifted in less than 20 generations from a normal-wing morphology to a mutated wing that renders males unable to call (flatwing). Flatwing morphology protects male crickets from the parasitoid, which uses song to find hosts, but poses obstacles for mate attraction, since females also use the males' song to locate mates. Field experiments support the hypothesis that flatwings overcome the difficulty of attracting females without song by acting as ‘satellites’ to the few remaining callers, showing enhanced phonotaxis to the calling song that increases female encounter rate. Thus, variation in behaviour facilitated establishment of an otherwise maladaptive morphological mutation.
Zuk, Marlene; Rotenberry, John T; Tinghitella, Robin M
Background Widely distributed species with populations adapted to different environmental conditions can provide valuable opportunities for tracing the onset of reproductive incompatibilities and their role in the speciation process. Drosophila montana, a D. virilis group species found in high latitude boreal forests in Nearctic and Palearctic regions around the globe, could be an excellent model system for studying the early stages of speciation, as a wealth of information concerning this species' ecology, mating system, life history, genetics and phylogeography is available. However, reproductive barriers between populations have hereto not been investigated. Results We report both pre- and postmating barriers to reproduction between flies from European (Finnish) and North American (Canadian) populations of Drosophila montana. Using a series of mate-choice designs, we show that flies from these two populations mate assortatively (i.e., exhibit significant sexual isolation) while emphasizing the importance of experimental design in these kinds of studies. We also assessed potential postmating isolation by quantifying egg and progeny production in intra- and interpopulation crosses and show a significant one-way reduction in progeny production, affecting both male and female offspring equally. Conclusion We provide evidence that allopatric D. montana populations exhibit reproductive isolation and we discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Our data emphasize the importance of experimental design in studies on premating isolation between recently diverged taxa and suggest that postmating barriers may be due to postcopulatory-prezygotic mechanisms. D. montana populations seem to be evolving multiple barriers to gene flow in allopatry and our study lays the groundwork for future investigations of the genetic and phenotypic mechanisms underlying these barriers.
This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical technique of auto-correlation, we determined that the most important predictor of female sexual functioning is prior level of sexual functioning. Partner-related factors (change in partner status and feelings for partner) also had significant effects. PMID:15205073
Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were systematically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also detected. Limited complementation tests indicate that most of the 106 recovered mutations are unique.—The recessive diplophase (= sexual phase) mutations were uncovered by crossing each wild-collected isolate to a marked two-chromosome double-reciprocal translocation strain as "balancer." Surviving progeny receive approximately 60% of their genome from the wild parent, but receive the mating-type allele from the "balancer" parent. These progeny were backcrossed to the wild parent and were also crossed with a standard laboratory strain (fl). Reduced fertility in the backcross vs. normal fertility in the cross with the laboratory standard signals the presence of a recessive mutation in the wild-collected isolate.—Most of the mutants (95 of 106) fall into two major classes: those producing barren perithecia with no or few viable ascospores (51) and those with spore maturation defects (44). Most of the recessive barrens result either from an early block in meiosis or ascus development (25) or from a late disturbance in postmeiotic ascus behavior (18).—These recessive mutations are formally equivalent to recessive lethals in higher eukaryotes and may be important in determining the breeding structure of natural Neurospora populations.
Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch.
Leung, Elaine S.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.
Random mating and recombination in heterothallic ascomycetes should result in high genotypic diversity, 1:1 mating-type ratios, and random associations of alleles, or linkage equilibrium, at different loci. To test for random mating in populations of the grape powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator, we sampled isolates from vineyards of Vitis vinifera in Burdett, NY (NY09) and Winchester, VA (VA09) at the end of the epidemic in fall 2009. We also sampled isolates from the same Winchester, VA vineyard in spring 2010 at the onset of the next epidemic. Isolates were genotyped for mating type and 11 microsatellite markers. In the spring sample, which originated from ascospore infections, nearly every isolate had a unique genotype. In contrast, fall populations were less diverse. In all, 9 of 45 total genotypes in VA09 were represented by two or more isolates; 3 of 40 total genotypes in NY09 were represented by two or more isolates, with 1 genotype represented by 20 isolates. After clone correction, mating-type ratios in the three populations did not deviate from 1:1. However, even with clone correction, we detected significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) in all populations. Mantel tests detected positive correlations between genetic and physical distances within vineyards. Spatial autocorrelation showed aggregations up to 42 and 3 m in VA09 and NY09, respectively. Spatial autocorrelation most likely results from short dispersal distances. Overall, these results suggest that spatial genetic aggregation and clonal genotypes that arise during the asexual phase of the epidemic contribute to persistent LD even though populations undergo sexual reproduction annually. PMID:22755546
Brewer, Marin Talbot; Frenkel, Omer; Milgroom, Michael G
Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexualminoritypopulations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexualminority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens.
Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.
Clonal plant species have been shown to adopt different strategies to persist in heterogeneous environments by changing relative investments in sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. As a result, clonal diversity and genetic variation may be different along environmental gradients. We examined the regional and local population structure of the clonal rhizomatous forest herb Paris quadrifolia in a complex of forest
Hans Jacquemyn; Rein Brys; Olivier Honnay; Martin Hermy; Isabel Roldán-Ruiz
Purpose: To explore the relationship of sexual orientation and gender to four sets of factors: (a) family history, (b) incarceration, (c) substance use, and (d) depression and suicide, in a population of homeless adolescents.Methods: A sample of homeless adolescents was recruited in Portland, Oregon and assessed using semi-structured interviews at baseline, three months and six months. A total of 532
This paper provides a description and analysis of a late Pleistocene human from Liujiang, China. Although most scholars have interpreted the cranium as male, sexing of the pelvis has been more problematic. I argue that this ambiguity reflects variation in the pattern of sexual dimorphism in the pelvis between human populations in different regions. Although the direction of the differences
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were
This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical
Sexuality is an integral factor when considering quality of life. Psychologists and mental health providers have a responsibility to promote patients' rights to sexual expression, but also to protect patients when impairments interfere with the ability to make informed decisions. Rehabilitation facilities struggle with this issue, especially the question of ability to consent. The Sexual Consent and Education Assessment (SCEA),
Clinicians agree that knowledge of clients' sexual victimization histories are invaluable in conceptualizing cases and choosing treatment interventions; however, the routine assessment of sexual assault in clinical practice is not standard (e.g., Hurst, MacDonald, Say, & Reed, 2003; Pruitt & Kappius, 1992). This article reviews recent research related to prevalence rates, short- and long-term consequences of sexual assault, available screening
Danielle R. Probst; Jessica A. Turchik; Eric H. Zimak; Jamie L. Huckins
Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10(-8)) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we discuss the potential importance of evolutionarily labile traits with significant fitness consequences, such as migratory behavior and habitat preference, in facilitating divergence of the spoonbills. PMID:20705906
Yeung, Carol K L; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien
This thesis will examine the effects of residential segregation, exclusionary zoning, and gentrification on low-income minorities in inner cities. The research will show the relationship between housing inequalities and institutional classism and racism. In addition, the research will examine the use of public policies and regulations that maintain the existing isolation and concentration of minorities and low-income families through disinvestment.
Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexualpopulations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexualpopulations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexualpopulations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex. PMID:21768368
Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexualpopulations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexualpopulations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexualpopulations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5–1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified a failure to provide education for vulnerable populations such as prisoners as a contributing factor to the epidemic of sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Despite this recognition, little is known about prisoners' level of knowledge of STIs compared with the general population. Using computer-assisted telephone interviews, we compared a representative sample of 2289 Australian prisoners, aged 18-59 years from New South Wales and Queensland prisons with a representative community sample of 3536 participants from these two states. Prisoners had significantly better knowledge than the general community of chlamydia-related questions, while knowledge of herpes (genital and oral) was slightly better in the community sample. Prisoners who were aged over 25 years, not married, female, self-identified as either homosexual or bisexual and reported a history of STIs tended to have better STI knowledge levels. Despite their more disadvantaged backgrounds, prisoners demonstrated relatively good health literacy in relation to STIs. Ongoing education about the transmission risks of STIs for prisoners and the general community is needed. PMID:21729956
Malacova, E; Butler, T; Richters, J; Yap, L; Grant, L; Richards, A; Smith, A M A; Donovan, B
La Réunion, one of the three Mascarene islands located in the Indian Ocean, remained devoid of inhabitants until it was first colonized by the French in the middle of the 17th century. The continuous flow of foreign-born slaves and immigrant workers from Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and China to work on coffee and sugar cane plantations led to the island becoming a melting pot of people of multiple ethnic origins. To establish the impact of the different incoming ethnic groups on the present Reunionese gene pool, we have sequenced both hypervariable regions I and II of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, the 9 bp COII/tRNA(Lys) deletion, and four SNPs located in the coding region in a total of 41 samples of the general population, and a further 18 STRs and 35 SNPs on the Y chromosome in 26 of these samples. Our results show that there was a strong sexual bias (asymmetrical gene flow) in the peopling of La Réunion, where admixture events were mainly between male settlers and females from the incoming slave groups. Most of the Y-chromosome gene pool is of European/Middle Eastern ancestry (85%), whereas the mtDNA gene pool is mainly of Indian and East Asian ancestry (70%). The absence of genetic diversity within these two major components of the mtDNA gene pool suggests these populations may have witnessed strong founder effects during the colonization process. PMID:18186507
We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender\\u000a sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older\\u000a from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women\\u000a (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women
It has been suggested that sexual selection may have played a major role in the rapid evolution of hundreds of species of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. We report the results of a laboratory test of assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes from five closely related geographical populations differing in male courtship colour. Paternity of clutches was tested using microsatellite DNA typing of offspring. Out of 1955 offspring typed, 1296 (66.3%) were sired by the male from the same population as the female, which is more than three times the rate expected if females do not differentiate among males of the different populations (20%). This result indicates that mate preferences of geographical races are strongly differentiated, consistent with the races representing incipient geographical species diverging under sexual selection exerted by female preferences for different male courtship colours.
There has been growing interest in the determinants of the annual timing of biological phenomena, or phenology, in wild populations, but research on vertebrate taxa has primarily focused on the phenology of reproduction. We present here analyses of the phenology of the annual growth of a secondary sexual characteristic, antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) males. The long-term individual-based data from a wild population of red deer on the Isle of Rum, Scotland allow us to consider ecological factors influencing variation in the phenology of growth of antlers, and the implications of variation in antler growth phenology with respect to the phenotype of antler grown (antler mass) and annual breeding success. The phenology of antler growth was influenced by local environmental conditions: higher population density delayed both the start date (during spring) and the relative end date (in late summer) of antler growth, and warmer temperatures in the September and April prior to growth advanced start and end dates, respectively. Furthermore, there was variation between individuals in this phenotypic plasticity of start date, although not in that of end date of growth. The phenology of antler growth impacted on the morphology of antlers grown, with individuals who started and ended growth earliest having the heaviest antlers. The timing of antler growth phenology was associated with breeding success in the following mating season, independently of the mass of antlers grown: an earlier start of antler growth was associated with siring a higher number of the calves born the following spring. Our results suggest that the phenology of traits that are not directly correlated with offspring survival may also regularly show correlations with fitness. PMID:20480184
Clements, Michelle N; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Albon, Steve D; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B
Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also
Despite the fact that variation in ridge breadth is of biological, medical, and genetic interest, it has not received as much attention as other dermatoglyphic characteristics. Recently, sex differences in mean epidermal ridge breadth have been proposed in the field of forensic identification in order to infer gender from fingerprints found at the scene of a crime left by an unknown donor. The aim of this research was to analyze sexual, bimanual, and topological variations in epidermal ridge breadth on palmprints taken from a Spanish population sample for subsequent application in inferring gender from the palm marks. The material used in the present study was obtained from the palmprints of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) from the Caucasian Spanish. Since ridge breadth varies according to age, subjects of similar ages were recruited to ensure that growth had finished. Therefore, in order to assess topological variation in ridge density or number of ridges in a given space, the count was carried out for the five palmar areas: hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second interdigital, third interdigital, and fourth interdigital. This allowed the segmentation of 2000 ridge count areas for analysis. For this, two methods were used, one described by Cummins et al. (the ridge count was carried out along a 1cm line) and the other by Acree (the number of ridges per 25 mm(2) of surface area). The results obtained by the second method can be compared with those obtained for the ten fingers from this same sample and evaluated in a previous study. The results have demonstrated the existence of topological differences in ridge thickness on the epidermal palm surface; also females present a significantly higher ridge density than men and, therefore, have narrower ridges over the entire palmar surface. Those sexual differences found in the sample population can be used for inferring the gender from palm marks left by an unknown donor. The hypotheses that could explain the variability in ridge breadth are evaluated according to the obtained results. PMID:23601151
To explore the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Iran. A total of 2626 women aged 20–60 years old were interviewed by 41 female general practitioners and answered a self-administered questionnaire on several aspects of FSD including desire, arousal, pain and orgasmic disorders (OD). Criteria of sexual dysfunction followed classification by DSM-IV. The sexual function was
The knowledge of sexual dimorphisms is important in many aspects of paleodemography and paleobiology. One major problem lies\\u000a in a correct sexual diagnosis. However, due to the different methodologies employed to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism,\\u000a the comparison of the results remains difficult. The Greene t-test (1989) is accurate for a comparative analysis of raw data.\\u000a On the basis
Mate choice may impose both linear (i.e., directional) and nonlinear (i.e., quadratic and correlational) sexual selection on advertisement traits. Traditionally, mate recognition and sensory tun- ing have been thought to impose stabilizing (i.e., negative quadratic) sexual selection, whereas adaptive mate choice effects directional se- lection. It has been suggested that adaptive choice may exert positive quadratic and\\/or correlational sexual selection.
Although many programs have been developed to reduce adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including HIV), with some showing promise in reducing sexual risk-taking behavior, little guidance has been given as to how to adapt existing interventions to new communities. When adapting a program, effective elements deemed necessary to change behaviors need to be preserved, while cultural competence and
Susan R. Tortolero; Christine M. Markham; Guy S. Parcel; Ronald J. Peters; S. Liliana Escobar-Chaves; Karen Basen-Engquist; Holly L. Lewis
Most surveys of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among lesbians and gay men find no increased risk in comparison with heterosexuals. However, the majority of this work has relied on convenience samples drawn from the visible lesbian and gay community. The authors examined differences in 1-year prevalence of six psychiatric syndromes among sexually active individuals in the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse who reported either exclusive heterosexuality (n = 9,714) or having any same-gender sex partners (n = 194) in the prior year. Although nearly three quarters of homosexually active individuals did not meet criteria for any of the six syndromes assessed, in multivariate logistic regression analyses, homosexually active men were more likely than other men to evidence major depression and panic attack syndromes. In contrast, homosexually active women were more likely than other women to be classified with alcohol or drug dependency syndromes. Both men and women reporting any same-gender sex partners were more likely than others to have used mental health services in the year prior to interview. These findings suggest a small increased risk among homosexually active populations in 1-year psychiatric morbidity and use of mental health care services.
In order to estimate the three independent components of mating behaviour, sexual selection in females, sexual selection in males and mating pattern, we studied the distribution of shell colour morphs among mating pairs and between copulating and non-copulating snails in four subsamples of a natural population ofL. mariae. The colour of the shell, the sex and a qualitative estimate of
SEXUAL FUNCTION IN AGING WOMEN: Sexuality is an integral part of human expressions. Mental health plays a major role in sexuality. Several psychological interventions are proposed to increase the sexual quality of life in older women with diverse gynecologic pathology. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing brief strategies can be easily implemented in clinics to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. THE IMPACT OF FEMALE PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERS ON SEXUAL FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN: Female pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. These disorders increase dramatically with increasing age. Urinary incontinence has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on a woman's sexual function. Among sexually active older women with urinary incontinence, 22% report being moderately or extremely worried that sexual activity would cause urine loss. An increased prevalence of sexual distress [9% (6/76) vs. 1.3% (2/216), p=0.005] has been reported in sexually active women over 40 years old with urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence can improve sexual function in older women. Among sexually active women (N=53) who underwent midurethral slings procedures for the correction of urinary incontinence, increased coital frequency, decrease fear of incontinence with coitus, decreased embarrassment due to incontinence was reported six months after surgery. Pelvic organ prolapse, a hernia of the vagina resulting in a visible vaginal bulge, has also been associated with a negative impact on sexual function. Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q stage III or IV) have been demonstrated to have decreased body image reporting that they are more self-conscious about their appearance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9, 51], feel less feminine (AOR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2, 15) and less sexually attractive (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4, 17) compared with women who have normal pelvic support. Both vaginal and abdominal approaches to surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been demonstrated to improve sexual function. MENTAL HEALTH: Mental health plays a major role in older woman's sexuality. Sexual interest and satisfaction is tied to emotional expressivity, women's self-worth, feelings of depression and loneliness as well as cognitive function. Research has shown that both general practitioners and specialists lack training in sexual assessments. Behavioral health specialists, such as a psychologist, can play an integral role in helping to facilitate communication between the patient and the provider. A main focus of communication training is to facilitate open and genuine conversation between the provider and the patient. Providers are encouraged to ask open ended questions while patients are encouraged to discuss symptoms while coping with an internal state of anxiety. Despite the known prevalence of sexual dysfunction among older women, few studied empirically based interventions have been published with these women. This speaks to the general assumption among medical professionals that having the "sex talk" in older women with gynecological pathology is not important or relevant. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing some of the aforementioned brief strategies can be easily implemented in comprehensive gynecology clinics in order to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. PMID:21943557
Ratner, Elena S; Erekson, Elisabeth A; Minkin, Mary Jane; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A
Purpose: This paper reports on the prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse from a national community-based sample of 1633 adult lesbians. Design: The descriptive analysis includes a comparison of mental and physical health variables commonly reported in adult survivors of childhood abuse in two subsamples, one who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse and one who did
Explaining the factors that determine the distribution of mating success among males is essential to our understanding of sexual selection. Classic theory has focused on how competition among males and female choice for traits of the male or his territory drive sexual selection. Recent theory has also shown that female mate choice copying can alter the strength and direction of
This study employed a risk and resilience paradigm to examine the correlates of youth with and without clinically significant sexual concerns (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) in a child welfare sample. Participants were 158 youth in substitute care with sexual behavior problems, as well as their caregivers. A multivariate classification tree analysis yielded an overall classification rate of 88%. Youth
Amy M. Lyons; Scott C. Leon; Christopher Zaddach; Erica J. Luboyeski; Maryse Richards
The ability of clinical and actuarial variables to predict criminal behavior was investigated in a sample of 342 sexual offenders that was previously used in a study by Hall and Proctor (1987). Discriminant analyses suggested that a linear combination of actuarial variables was significantly predictive of sexual reoffenses against adults and of nonsexual violent and nonviolent reoffending. However, clinical judgment
|Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)|
Past and future suicide attempt rates among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) young people were compared with those of heterosexual young people. A sample of Norwegian students (N = 2,924; grades 7–12) was followed in 3 data collection waves. Risk factors included previous suicide attempt, depressed mood, eating problems, conduct problems, early sexual debut, number of sexual partners, pubertal timing,
Background Evidence suggests that multiple concurrent sexual partnering may be a key driver of the high HIV prevalence among young women in South Africa. However, little is known about whether and to what extent women who have multiple sexual partners also engage in other high risk sexual behaviors such as inconsistent condom use. And yet, multiple concurrent sexual partnering is of little epidemiological relevance if all partners in these sexual networks use condoms consistently. This study assesses the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and HIV, and predictors of inconsistent condom use among women aged 16–24 with multiple sexual partners in a peri-urban setting in South Africa. Methods We used Respondent Driven Sampling, a sampling strategy for hard-to-reach populations to recruit 259 women aged 16–24 in a bio-behavioral cross-sectional survey in the Western Cape province. Estimates of population proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool 5.6 (RDSAT). The primary outcome was inconsistent condom use in the past three months. Results Young women reported an average of 7 partners in the past 3 months and a high prevalence of sexual risk behaviors: concurrency (87%), transactional sex (91%) and age mixing (59%). Having >5 sexual partners in the last 3 months doubled the risk of unprotected sex (OR 2.43, CI 1.39–4.25). HIV prevalence was 4% among 16–19 year olds, increasing threefold (12%) at age 20–24. Discussion Multiple sexual partnering, where a high number of partners are acquired in a short space of time, is a fertile context for unprotected and risky sexual behavior. The young women featured in this survey present with a constellation of high-risk sexual behaviors that cluster to form a risk syndrome. Carefully tailored repeat bio-behavioral surveillance surveys are recommended for this sub-population.
Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Ekstrom, Anna Mia