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1

Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial/ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of Connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race/ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race/ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminate validity both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals.

Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

2011-01-01

2

Suicide Attempts Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Population and Measurement Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two questions were addressed regarding suicide attempts among sexual-minority youths: Who should be classified as a sexual minority, and what constitutes a suicide attempt? Results from 2 studies indicated that sexual-minority youths, broadly defined in terms of sexual orientation and recruitment venue, were slightly more likely than heterosexual youths to report a suicide attempt. To afford a more accurate assessment

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

2001-01-01

3

Minority Status Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the ways that minority status of African-American, Latina, or Asian-American women within sexual minority\\u000a populations shapes the lived experience of women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Consider the following:\\u000a In 2008 elections, voters elected Barbara “Bobbi” Lopez, an out Latina lesbian, to the San Francisco school board. In the\\u000a same election, California voters cast statewide

Jessie Daniels

4

Minority Sexual Status Among Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As illustrated above, lesbian and bisexual women of color often find themselves at the margins of the racial, gender, and\\u000a sexual orientation groups to which they belong. As members of multiple stigmatized groups, they face stigma and discrimination\\u000a on multiple fronts, yet their experiences and needs are rarely fully understood or addressed in social movements and communities\\u000a that focus on

Kelly D. Brooks; Lisa Bowleg; Kathryn Quina

5

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

6

Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…

Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.

2011-01-01

7

Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…

Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.

2011-01-01

8

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and

JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman

2011-01-01

9

Queer Youth Space: A Protective Factor for Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, psychological, and social vulnerabilities of sexual minority youth are well documented. Yet factors that protect this population from these risks remain relatively unknown. Previous researchers suggest that (1) a sense of safety, meaningful relationships with others, and positive identity development are protective and (2) social support programs focusing on sexual minority youth (Queer Youth Space) have a positive impact.

Kenta Asakura

2010-01-01

10

Capturing the social demographics of hidden sexual minorities: An internet study of the transgender population in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study, we investigated the feasibility of using Internet research to capture the demographic characteristics\\u000a of a largely closeted sexual minority and to report such characteristics in the first national study of transgender persons\\u000a ever attempted in the United States. To achieve a nonclinical national sample, online convenience sampling was used. Of 1,373\\u000a surveys received, 1,229

B. R. Simon Rosser; J. Michael Oakes; Walter O. Bockting; Michael Miner

2007-01-01

11

A critique of research on sexual-minority youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental scientists should seriously reconsider traditional empirical and theoretical paradigms that narrowly define sexual-minority adolescents in terms of those who adopt a culturally defined sexual identity label. A broader consideration of youth populations who have same-sex desires but who might not necessarily identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual, lead one to a very different understanding of sexual-minority youths than is

RITCH C. SAVIN-WILLIAMS

2001-01-01

12

Sexual Identity Development Among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores how ethnicity influences sexual identity development. Among 139 sexual-minority male youths, measures of sexual identity development assessed the timing and sequencing of developmental milestones, disclosure of sexual identity to others, internalized homophobia, and same- and opposite-sex relationship histories. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low

Eric M. Dubé; Ritch C. Savin-Williams

1999-01-01

13

Sexual Identity Trajectories Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Gender Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity

Ritch C. Savin-Williams; Lisa M. Diamond

2000-01-01

14

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges

Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger

2009-01-01

15

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research.

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

2011-01-01

16

Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.  

PubMed

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

2013-08-13

17

Alcoholism and Minority Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)|

Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

1991-01-01

18

Violence and Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most maligned and harassed students in high schools are those who are perceived not to fit the norms for sexual behavior. These include gay and lesbian students, bisexual students, transgendered students, effeminate heterosexual males, and masculine-acting heterosexual females. Together these students are the targets of a wide range of negative behaviors from subtle exclusion to physical assault. In

James Lock

2002-01-01

19

Mentoring Sexual Minority Youth. Technical Assistance Packet #2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is estimated that up to 10% of the U.S. population is lesbian or gay. Being a member of a sexual minority group places youth at risk. Along with the challenges all adolescents deal with, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth must cope with prejudice, discrimination, and violence in schools or in their families. While mentoring programs…

Jucovy, Linda

20

Sexual Minority Students. Technical Assistance Sampler On.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet discusses issues facing sexual minority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a guide for…

California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

21

Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.|

Gu, Steven

2005-01-01

22

Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

2013-01-05

23

Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

Ream, Geoffrey L.

24

Schools as Sites for Constructing Minority Sexual Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sexual self-identification is seen as a finding of oneself. Much of the literature on the victimization of sexual minority youth takes the underlying reality of sexual orientations as given, and then addresses the objectionable ways in which minority youth are treated. That is, sexual classifications are taken as real, whereas the social…

Diorio, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

25

Schools as Sites for Constructing Minority Sexual Orientations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual self-identification is seen as a finding of oneself. Much of the literature on the victimization of sexual minority youth takes the underlying reality of sexual orientations as given, and then addresses the objectionable ways in which minority youth are treated. That is, sexual classifications are taken as real, whereas the social responses…

Diorio, Joseph A.

2006-01-01

26

Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.  

PubMed

This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

Pendragon, Diane K

2010-01-01

27

A Critique of Research on Sexual-Minority Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scientists should reconsider traditional empirical and theoretical paradigms that narrowly define sexual-minority adolescents in terms of those who adopt a culturally defined sexual identity label such as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This will lead to a different understanding of sexual-minority youths than is apparent in most published studies.…

Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

2001-01-01

28

Psychosocial Problems Associated With Homelessness in Sexual Minority Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minorities are overrepresented among homeless youths, and this is often related to reactions to their status as sexual minorities. While on the streets, they are at increased risk for victimization, substance and alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and mental health issues compared to homeless heterosexual youths. This article uses ecological systems theory to examine psychosocial problems associated with homelessness

Maurice N. Gattis

2009-01-01

29

A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K–12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which children should be protected, coupled with

Holly N. Bishop; Chadwick Caraway; David L. Stader

2010-01-01

30

Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority  

PubMed Central

Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group.

Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

2013-01-01

31

Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

32

Mental Health Needs of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one’s sexual orientation, and greater openness about one’s sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexual minorities.

White, Yohann R. G.; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo

2010-01-01

33

Mental Health Needs of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica.  

PubMed

This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one's sexual orientation, and greater openness about one's sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexual minorities. PMID:21052478

White, Yohann R G; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo

2010-04-01

34

Suicide attempts among sexual-minority male youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to provide data addressing Diamond's (this issue) 4 problem areas in sexual orientation research by comparing gay, bisexual, and questioning male youth who report attempting suicide with those who do not. Secondary analyses were conducted with 2 datasets, 1 with a gay support group (n = 51) and the other with online youth (n = 681). Reported suicide attempts ranged from 39% among support-group youth, to 25% among Internet gay support group youth, to 9% among Internet non-support group youth. Sexual orientation, behavior, and identity did not predict suicidal attempt status, but suicide attempters experienced higher levels of both generic life stressors (low self-esteem, substance use, victimization) and gay-related stressors, particularly those directly related to visible (femininity) and behavioral (gay sex) aspects of their sexual identity. Support-group attendance was related to higher levels of suicidality and life stressors, as well as certain resiliency factors. Results suggest that there exists a minority of sexual-minority youth who are at risk but that it would be inappropriate to characterize the entire population as such. PMID:14710459

Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Ream, Geoffrey L

2003-12-01

35

Sexual Minorities, Earnings, and Career Development: Insights From Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The purpose of this article is to (a) present insights from economics on earnings of sexual minorities and (b) discuss the implications for human resource development in terms of career development. In economic research, the focus has been on finding earnings differentials between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. One issue with this approach is whether the

Jasper B. van Loo; Tonette S. Rocco

2009-01-01

36

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

37

Protecting Sexual Minority Youth from Research Risks: Conflicting Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the dilemmas we encountered in the informed consent process for an HIV prevention project targeting Black gay, bisexual, and non-gay identified young men. We highlight the complexities of applying informed parental consent procedures to sexual minority youth and identify some of the challenges that researchers who work with sexual minority youth face when they must balance the needs

Robin Lin Miller; Draco Forte; Bianca Della Marie Wilson; George J. Greene

2006-01-01

38

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

39

Sexual Minority Youth Victimization and Social Support: The Intersection of Sexuality, Gender, Race, and Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have

Deeanna M. Button; Daniel J. OConnell; Roberta Gealt

2012-01-01

40

Applying Person-Centered Counseling to Sexual Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing attention to the very unique and complex needs of stigmatized sexual minority youth, the authors explore the therapeutic potential of person-centered counseling in helping lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/sexual (LGBT) adolescents who are working toward the acceptance and disclosure of their sexual identity. They suggest that…

Lemoire, S. Jim; Chen, Charles P.

2005-01-01

41

Identity Satisfaction Over the Life Course in Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of models have been proposed to understand the process of coming to terms with a sexual minority identity. What has not been so clearly explored is how an individual's satisfaction with his or her sexual identity develops over the life course. This article explores satisfaction with sexual identity in a large cohort (N = 2,269) of self-identified lesbians, gay

Mark Henrickson; Stephen Neville

2012-01-01

42

Determinants of Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities in a Community Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexual minorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. Method Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18–30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexual minorities. Results Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexual minorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexual minorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm.

Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

2011-01-01

43

An exploration of multisystemic factors contributing to sexual risk-taking in minority suburban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were

Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson

2012-01-01

44

Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

2007-01-01

45

Sexuality and the city: exploring the experience of minority sexual identity through storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the discursive construction of sexual identity through organizational storytelling, in the London office of a global investment bank, InvestCo. Work on the identity of sexual minorities in work organizations is rare, and even more so in the context of an institution such as a bank. Minority sexual identities have largely been ignored by the organizational studies and

JAMES WARD; DIANA WINSTANLEY

2004-01-01

46

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

47

Rural location and exposure to minority stress among sexual minorities in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been an increase in the number of studies on minority stress among sexual minorities. Few of these studies have explored the ways in which regional or spatial factors influenced the amount of minority stress that lesbians, gay men and bisexuals (LGBs) endure. To see if living in rural and small towns creates stressful social environments for LGBs

Eric Swank; David M. Frost; Breanne Fahs

2012-01-01

48

Sexual minority status and trauma symptom severity in men living with HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Traumatic experiences are common among populations living with HIV; furthermore, the minority stress model indicates that sexual minority group members, such as men who have sex with men (MSM), are more likely to experience negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma, given the stress of minority stigma. The current study examined the prevalence of traumatic events and the impact of these events on trauma symptoms in a sample of 113 MSM and 51 men who have sex with women (MSW) who are living with HIV/AIDS. Rates of experiencing trauma were similar for both MSM and MSW. However, MSM, as sexual minority group members, were more likely to report symptoms of trauma and dissociation than MSW. The current study indicates that MSM may experience additional negative psychological outcomes after exposure to trauma. Findings are discussed in the context of implications for HIV prevention with sexual minority group members. PMID:21344319

Kamen, Charles; Flores, Sergio; Taniguchi, Stacy; Khaylis, Anna; Lee, Susanne; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

2011-02-23

49

Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g.,\\u000a elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid\\u000a to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their\\u000a correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide

Jack E. Burkhalter; Jennifer L. Hay; Elliot Coups; Barbara Warren; Yuelin Li; Jamie S. Ostroff

2011-01-01

50

Erasing Boundaries: Masculinities, Sexual Minorities, and Employment Discrimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article analyzes the application of employment discrimination law to sexual minorities--lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender and intersex individuals. It evaluates Title VII and state anti-discrimination laws' treatment of these individuals, and is the first article to use masculinities research, theoretical and empirical, to explain employment discrimination against sexual minorities.\\u000aWhile the Article concludes that new legislation would further the interests

Ann C. McGinley

2010-01-01

51

Articulating identities: Language and practice with multiethnic sexual minority youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians working with sexual minority youth (SMY) should be knowledgeable about the contemporary language around sexuality and gender used by adolescent clients. Such knowledge contributes to the clinical environment and aids clinicians in developing therapeutic relationships. However, individuals working with SMY should also be aware of the potential impact of social environment and individual context on SMYs language and terminology.

Lauren McInroy; Shelley L. Craig

2012-01-01

52

Sexual Minority Women's Gender Identity and Expression: Challenges and Supports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual

Heidi M. Levitt; Julia A. Puckett; Maria R. Ippolito; Sharon G. Horne

2012-01-01

53

Conceptualization of sexual partner relationship steadiness among ethnic minority adolescent women: implications for evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14-18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. PMID:22868248

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

2012-08-03

54

Suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths receiving social services.  

PubMed

The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may encounter in their day-to-day practice. As such, the present study on risk and protective factors related to suicidality surveyed 182 sexual minority youths (14 to 21 years of age) who sought assistance at a community-based social services agency in Denver. Similar to existing literature, the findings suggest that risk factors related to suicidality include hopelessness, methamphetamine use, homelessness, and in-school victimization. However, unlike studies of the general youth population, this study found that African American and male sexual minority youths were not at a lower risk of suicidality than sexual minority youths who were, respectively, white or female. In addition, our findings suggest that the presence of gay-straight alliances in schools may function as a protective resource for sexual minority youths. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:18610818

Walls, N Eugene; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

2008-01-01

55

Emotion regulation and internalizing symptoms in a longitudinal study of sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of adolescents. The present study sought to examine whether deficits in emotion regulation could account for disparities in internalizing symptoms between sexual minority and heterosexual adolescents. Methods The present study utilized longitudinal data from a racially/ethnically diverse (68% non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic/Latino) community sample of 1,071 middle school students (ages 11–14). Results Adolescents who endorsed same-sex attraction evidenced higher rates of internalizing symptoms at both time points. Structural equation modeling indicated that sexual minority adolescents exhibited greater deficits in emotion regulation (rumination and poor emotional awareness) than their heterosexual peers. Emotion regulation deficits in turn mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusions The results demonstrate the importance of considering normative psychological processes in the development of internalizing symptomatology among sexual minority adolescents, and suggest emotion regulation deficits as specific targets of prevention and intervention efforts with this population. Future studies are needed to determine whether stigma-related stressors are responsible for emotion regulation deficits among sexual minority youth.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

2010-01-01

56

Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths.

Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn

2012-01-01

57

Community mental health and ethnic minority populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

National trends in minority utilization of mental health services are reviewed, and recommendations are made for needed research. In relation to their representation in the population, blacks use services more than expected, and Asian American\\/Pacific Islanders use services less; Hispanics and Native American\\/Alaska Islander use varies according to type of service. Hospitalization accounts for part of the increase in minority

Freda K. Cheung; Lonnie R. Snowden

1990-01-01

58

Directory of Cardiovascular Resources for Minority Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High blood pressure, high blood cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking have been identified as the three major modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While these risk factors affect the entire U.S. population, minorities--Blacks, His...

1989-01-01

59

The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

60

Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

2010-01-01

61

Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH) among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

Graham, Louis F.; Aronson, Robert E.; Nichols, Tracy; Stephens, Charles F.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2011-01-01

62

Physical activity interventions in minority populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial\\/ethnic minority groups in the United States report high rates of inactivity and need intervention because of the associated\\u000a health risks. This article discusses the use of informational, environmental and policy, and behavioral and social approaches\\u000a to increase physical activity in minority populations. Although all of the strategies have been used with varying degrees\\u000a of success, social support interventions have

Dori Pekmezi; Ernestine Jennings

2009-01-01

63

Interventions to reduce sexual minority stigma in sororities.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexual minority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two different types of interventions, that is, panel discussion and video and discussion. Repeated measures analyses revealed significant reductions in the measures of sexual minority stigma and that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20391011

Hussey, Heather D; Bisconti, Toni L

2010-01-01

64

Supporting the emotional and psychological well being of sexual minority youth: Youth ideas for action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) populations are susceptible to stress-related mental health disorders because of daily imposed stigma and prejudice. Yet minimal information exists from the perspective of sexual minority youth about how to support them in managing a challenging social environment during critical stages of development. Through the lens of youth from two geographic communities this study examined

Tamara S. Davis; Susan Saltzburg; Chris R. Locke

2009-01-01

65

Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies.

Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.

2012-01-01

66

Interventions to Reduce Sexual Minority Stigma in Sororities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexual minority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two

Heather D. Hussey; Toni L. Bisconti

2010-01-01

67

Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

2012-02-01

68

Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

2007-01-01

69

Beyond Risk: Resilience in the Lives of Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several decades of research tell us that sexual minority youth are among those most at risk for the negative outcomes of frequent concern in the lives of young people: academic failure, emotional distress, compromised relationships, risk behavior, and suicidality. We know much less about resilience, the characteristics and factors that explain or…

Russell, Stephen T.

2005-01-01

70

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: Exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M Sulfridge

2012-01-01

71

An ethnographic analysis of adolescent sexual minority website usage: exploring notions of information seeking and sexual identity development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this five-year virtual ethnography of GLBT (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender) youth demonstrates an understanding of the

Rocky M. Sulfridge

2012-01-01

72

Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

73

New Project Launched to Study Minority Populations  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today that it is accepting applications for projects that create and implement cancer control and prevention programs in minority and underserved communities to address the disparities in cancer rates within certain subgroups of the United States population.

74

Sexual Minority Young Adult Religiosity, Sexual Orientation Conflict, Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive associations between religious involvement and psychosocial health outcomes have been amply documented. However, many of these studies have not accounted for the sexual identification of the participants sampled and have been limited in their conceptualization of religiosity. The religious context may be a source of conflict for some sexual minority individuals. As such, additional research is needed to examine

Angie Dahl; Renee Galliher

2010-01-01

75

Are Transgender Persons at Higher Risk for HIV Than Other Sexual Minorities? A Comparison of HIV Prevalence and Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that transgender people are at high risk for HIV. Few studies, however, have directly compared the HIV risks and sexual health of transgender persons with that of other sexual minority populations. This study used baseline data of intervention studies targeting transgender persons, men who have sex with men, and women who have sex with women and

Walter Bockting; Chiung-Yu Huang; Hua Ding; Beatrice “Bean” Robinson; B. R. Simon Rosser

2005-01-01

76

Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides an overview of the current status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students on community college campuses, and gives an idea of offerings and programs available at some campuses and districts. A primary difficulty in researching this subject is the anonymity of much of the LGBT population. The "coming out"…

Leider, Steven

77

Sexual Minority Status and Self-Rated Health: The Importance of Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Objectives I examined how sexual minority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association. Methods I used multinomial logistic regression to analyze aggregated data from the 1991 to 2010 General Social Survey, a population-based data set (n = 13 480). Results Respondents with only different-sex partners or with any same-sex partners reported similar levels of health. With socioeconomic status added to the model, respondents with any same-sex partners reported worse health than those with only different-sex partners, but only if sexual intercourse with same-sex partners occurred in the previous 5 years. Age and sex moderated this relationship: having any same-sex partners was associated with worse health for women but not men and among younger adults only. Conclusions The relationship between sexual minority status and self-rated health varies across sociodemographic groups. Future research should use population-level data to examine other health outcomes and continue to explore how the intersection of sexual minority status and other sociodemographic indicators shapes health.

Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2013-01-01

78

An exploration of sexual minority stress across the lines of gender and sexual identity.  

PubMed

Despite growing evidence to suggest that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals experience a range of stressors and consequences related to their sexual minority status, no known studies to date have employed focus group discussion to explore and document their perceptions of sexual minority stress. In this exploratory study, we present focus group data on a range of sexual minority stressors as described by 43 gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women. We explore gender and sexual identity differences in the respondents' perceptions of heteronormativity, disclosure issues in different social settings, sources of support, and strategies for coping with stress. Respondents reported that women's same-sex relationships were eroticized and distorted to accommodate heterosexual male desire, while men were negatively depicted as sexually promiscuous and deviant. These differing stereotypes held important consequences for disclosure decisions and affected men's and women's social interactions with heterosexual men. Bisexual respondents reported unique strategies to cope with exclusion and isolation associated with misunderstandings about their sexual identities. Directions for future research on sexual minority stress are discussed. PMID:19319738

Hequembourg, Amy L; Brallier, Sara A

2009-01-01

79

Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Youths' Peer Relationships: Experiences, Expectations, and Implications for Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had…

Diamond, Lisa M.; Lucas, Sarah

2004-01-01

80

Research exploring the health, wellness, and safety concerns of sexual minority youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the critical risk factors that negatively impact the health, safety, personal wellness, and educational achievement of sexual minority youth. Contemporary and landmark studies of the key stressors faced by sexual minority are reviewed with an emphasis on Canadian data. Sexual minority youth often encounter multiple risk factors, have fewer protective factors (such as a

Kristopher Wells

2009-01-01

81

Differences in Motivations of Cutting Behavior Among Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This aim of this study is to examine predictors of specific motivations for engaging in cutting behavior among a community\\u000a sample of sexual minority youth. The study involved secondary analysis of data collected by a community-based organization\\u000a serving lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their allies. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses\\u000a were conducted using a final sample of

Sarah J. NickelsN; N. Eugene Walls; Julie Anne Laser; Hope Wisneski

82

Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n?=?29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes

2012-01-01

83

How can sexual selection promote population divergence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection is a competition between conspecific individuals to acquire mates and maximize their reproductive success. This can lead to the development of conspicuous secondary sexual traits under several possible mechanisms. Since these sexual characters can be used as potential discriminant features in species recognition, it seems legitimate to think of a potential role of sexual selection in population divergence.

Sophie Questiau

1999-01-01

84

Sexual victimization and health-related indicators among sexual minority men.  

PubMed

This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes. PMID:23626503

Hequembourg, Amy L; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2011-01-01

85

Disparities in Smoking and Acute Respiratory Illnesses Among Sexual Minority Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking remain major public health issues. Particularly, smoking has been associated\\u000a with increased risk of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Literature indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual\\u000a minority) persons smoke more than the general population. Additionally, young adulthood is the second-most prevalent period\\u000a of smoking uptake. Given this constellation of risk correlates, the authors

John Blosnich; Traci Jarrett; Kimberly Horn

2010-01-01

86

"Honk against homophobia": rethinking relations between media and sexual minorities.  

PubMed

The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexual minorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexual minorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas. PMID:24147586

Venzo, Paul; Hess, Kristy

2013-11-01

87

Relationship trajectories and psychological well-being among sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536

Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G M; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H; D'Augelli, Anthony R

2010-06-10

88

Relationship trajectories and psychological well-being among sexual minority youth  

PubMed Central

Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations.

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2010-01-01

89

Sexual Minorities and Selection of a Primary Care Physician in a Midwestern U.S. City  

Microsoft Academic Search

How and why sexual minorities select a primary care physician is critical to the development of methods for attracting these clients to a physician's practice. Data obtained from a sample of sexual minorities in a mid-size city in our nation's heartland would indicate that these patients are loyal when the primary care physician has a positive attitude toward their sexual

Chalmer E. Labig Jr; Tim O. Peterson

2006-01-01

90

Sexual Orientation Minorities in College Counseling: Prevalence, Distress, and Symptom Profiles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority group members are at a higher risk for mental health difficulties than are heterosexual individuals. The results of this study showed that college student sexual minorities were common in counseling centers and that they were more likely than heterosexual students to seek counseling. The results also showed that sexual orientation…

McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

91

An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health, stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals aged 16 to 24 years old in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n

Maurice N. Gattis

2012-01-01

92

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development Among Gay–Bisexual–Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. In this

Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez

2009-01-01

93

Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. PMID:22771037

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

2012-06-28

94

Social Networks and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming

2012-01-01

95

Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women’s Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women’s experiences seeking\\u000a support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141\\u000a heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an inquiry about a time they went\\u000a to friends and parents for

Carly K. Friedman; Elizabeth M. Morgan

2009-01-01

96

Sexual networks: measuring sexual selection in structured, polyandrous populations.  

PubMed

Sexual selection is traditionally measured at the population level, assuming that populations lack structure. However, increasing evidence undermines this approach, indicating that intrasexual competition in natural populations often displays complex patterns of spatial and temporal structure. This complexity is due in part to the degree and mechanisms of polyandry within a population, which can influence the intensity and scale of both pre- and post-copulatory sexual competition. Attempts to measure selection at the local and global scale have been made through multi-level selection approaches. However, definitions of local scale are often based on physical proximity, providing a rather coarse measure of local competition, particularly in polyandrous populations where the local scale of pre- and post-copulatory competition may differ drastically from each other. These limitations can be solved by social network analysis, which allows us to define a unique sexual environment for each member of a population: 'local scale' competition, therefore, becomes an emergent property of a sexual network. Here, we first propose a novel quantitative approach to measure pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection, which integrates multi-level selection with information on local scale competition derived as an emergent property of networks of sexual interactions. We then use simple simulations to illustrate the ways in which polyandry can impact estimates of sexual selection. We show that for intermediate levels of polyandry, the proposed network-based approach provides substantially more accurate measures of sexual selection than the more traditional population-level approach. We argue that the increasing availability of fine-grained behavioural datasets provides exciting new opportunities to develop network approaches to study sexual selection in complex societies. PMID:23339246

McDonald, Grant C; James, Richard; Krause, Jens; Pizzari, Tommaso

2013-01-21

97

New trends in national minority population since the 1980s.  

PubMed

The author discusses policies that were developed in China in the 1980s specifically for the minority populations, and describes how they differ from the country's general population policies. These differences center on a greater leniency toward fertility among minorities, such as a permitted norm of two children, and, in some cases, three or four children per couple. The author also describes recent demographic trends among the minority populations, with particular reference to falling fertility rates and continuing high general mortality and infant mortality rates. Aspects of the age and sex structure, educational status, and literacy of the minority populations are also reviewed. PMID:12284918

Zhang, T

1992-01-01

98

Minority Representation in Higher Education: The Impact of Population Heterogeneity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study using national data on minority college students and institutional heterogeneity revealed that minority groups are better represented at some universities than others, relative to their proportions in the state population. State racial heterogeneity is a major determinant of African-American representation. For other minority groups,…

Mentzer, Marc S.

1993-01-01

99

Health Care Reform and Asthma Care Disparities in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma affects almost 23 million people in the United States and ranks as a leading cause of health disparities among minority and low socioeconomic groups, with the largest impact on minority children. This article will examine how fragmented health care in the United States contributes to asthma care disparities in minority populations and will discuss how health care reform may

Lisa Cambridge

2011-01-01

100

Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women  

PubMed Central

Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

101

The Challenge of Asthma in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden and disparity of asthma in race\\/ethnic minorities present a significant challenge. In this review, we will evaluate\\u000a data on asthma epidemiology in minorities, examine potential reasons for asthma disparities, and discuss strategies of intervention\\u000a and culturally sensitive care.

Albin B. Leong; Clare D. Ramsey; Juan C. Celedón

102

Understanding Suicide among Sexual Minority Youth in America: An Ecological Systems Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed…

Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.

2011-01-01

103

Sexual-Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections Between Drinking, Relational Contexts, Stress, and Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies explore sexual-minority women's experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual-minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: (1) stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and (2) factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and

Megan Condit; Kai Kitaji; Laurie A Drabble; Karen Trocki

2011-01-01

104

Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author describes the historical context for research on sexual minority women's drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; the author summarizes gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women's drinking over the past several decades and reviews recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus

Tonda Hughes

2011-01-01

105

Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking Between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.  

PubMed

Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S

2013-01-17

106

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma Get Under the Skin? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework

Mark L. Hatzenbuehler

2009-01-01

107

Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

2008-01-01

108

Framing the Issue\\/Framing the Question: A Proposed Framework for Organizational Perspectives on Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. This article situates sexual minority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development (HRD) missions of individual development, career development, and organizational development. Implications for HRD professionals engaging sexual minority issues within

Tonette S. Rocco; Hilary Landorf; Antonio Delgado

2009-01-01

109

Victimization, Smoking, and Chronic Physical Health Problems Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sexual minority women (SMW) have been shown to be at increased risk for abuse, smoking, and chronic physical health problems\\u000a compared with heterosexual women. In the general population, abuse and smoking are associated with physical health problems.\\u000a However, there has been little research on their associations among SMW.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The current study examined a mediational model of abuse, smoking, and self-reported

Keren Lehavot; Jane M. Simoni

110

A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults.

Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

2011-01-01

111

Identity Development and Exploration Among Sexual Minority Adolescents: Examination of a Multidimensional Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents

Jenna A. Glover; Renee V. Galliher; Trenton G. Lamere

2009-01-01

112

Minority stress and sexual problems among African-American gay and bisexual men.  

PubMed

Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men. PMID:17109233

Zamboni, Brian D; Crawford, Isiaah

2006-11-16

113

High Burden of Homelessness Among Sexual-Minority Adolescents: Findings From a Representative Massachusetts High School Sample  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the prevalence of current homelessness among adolescents reporting a minority sexual orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, or heterosexual with same-sex sexual partners) with that among exclusively heterosexual adolescents. Methods. We combined data from the 2005 and 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample of public school students in grades 9 though 12 (n = 6317). Results. Approximately 25% of lesbian/gay, 15% of bisexual, and 3% of exclusively heterosexual Massachusetts public high school students were homeless. Sexual-minority males and females had an odds of reporting current homelessness that was between 4 and 13 times that of their exclusively heterosexual peers. Sexual-minority youths’ greater likelihood of being homeless was driven by their increased risk of living separately from their parents or guardians. Conclusions. Youth homelessness is linked with numerous threats such as violence, substance use, and mental health problems. Although discrimination and victimization related to minority sexual orientation status are believed to be important causal factors, research is needed to improve our understanding of the risks and protective factors for homelessness and to determine effective strategies to prevent homelessness in this population.

Goodenow, Carol S.; Nichols, Lauren; Austin, S. Bryn

2011-01-01

114

The Link Between Alcohol Use and Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities: An Event-Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men’s alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on non-drinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men’s patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

Parrott, Dominic J.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

2010-01-01

115

PROCESSES LEADING SELF-IDENTIFIED HETEROSEXUALS TO DEVELOP INTO SEXUAL MINORITY SOCIAL JUSTICE ALLIES: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of homonegativity on both sexual minorities and heterosexuals is profoundly debilitating. Due to the implicit power of their privileged status, heterosexually-identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual minority oppression. Because minimal research exists around heterosexual identity issues, broadly, and sexual minority ally development, specifically, it is difficult to promote such ally work without

Julie Marie Duhigg

2007-01-01

116

"There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848

Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

2012-07-23

117

Sexual minority status and psychotic symptoms: findings from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Studies (NEMESIS).  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Ethnic minority position is associated with increased risk for psychotic outcomes, which may be mediated by experiences of social exclusion, defeat and discrimination. Sexual minorities are subject to similar stressors. The aim of this study is to examine whether sexual minorities are at increased risk for psychotic symptoms and to explore mediating pathways. Method A cross-sectional survey was performed assessing cumulative incidence of psychotic symptoms with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in two separate random general population samples (NEMESIS-1 and NEMESIS-2). Participants were sexually active and aged 18???64 years (n??=??5927, n??=??5308). Being lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) was defined as having sexual relations with at least one same-sex partner during the past year. Lifetime experience of any psychotic symptom was analysed using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, educational level, urbanicity, foreign-born parents, living without a partner, cannabis use and other drug use. RESULTS: The rate of any psychotic symptom was elevated in the LGB population as compared with the heterosexual population both in NEMESIS-1 [odds ratio (OR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71???3.84] and NEMESIS-2 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.42???3.71). Childhood trauma, bullying and experience of discrimination partly mediated the association. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that LGB orientation is associated with psychotic symptoms adds to the growing body of literature linking minority status with psychosis and other mental health problems, and suggests that exposure to minority stress represents an important mechanism. PMID:23710972

Gevonden, M J; Selten, J P; Myin-Germeys, I; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; van Dorsselaer, S; van Os, J; Veling, W

2013-05-28

118

An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths.  

PubMed

This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems. PMID:23687399

Gattis, Maurice N

2013-01-01

119

Hypertension in multicultural and minority populations: Linkin communication to compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease disproportionately affects minority populations, in part because of multiple sociocultural factors\\u000a that directly affect compliance with antihypertensive medication regimens. Compliance is a complex health behavior determined\\u000a by a variety of socioeconomic individual, familial, and cultural factors. In general, provider-patient communication has been\\u000a shown to be linked to patient satisfaction, compliance, and health outcomes. In multicultural and minority populations,

Joseph R. Betancourt; J. Emilio Carrillo; Alexander R. Green

1999-01-01

120

Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) CHAPS partnerships. Staff who agreed to take part were asked to complete a questionnaire online. The online survey was completed by 1241 ethnic minority MSM, 416 men born in South and Central America or Central and Eastern Europe, and 13,717 white British MSM; 67 ethnic minority MSM took part in the online qualitative interview. In addition 364 people working in sexual health clinics and 124 health promotion workers from around Britain completed an online questionnaire. Discussion The findings from this study will improve our understanding of the sexual health and needs of ethnic minority MSM in Britain.

2010-01-01

121

Religiosity and Alcohol Use in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations in sexual minority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to…

Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

2008-01-01

122

Religiosity and Alcohol Use in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations in sexual minority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to…

Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

2008-01-01

123

School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

2006-01-01

124

Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

2010-01-01

125

Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale survey study conducted at 5 high schools. They were matched

Trish Williams; Jennifer Connolly; Debra Pepler; Wendy Craig

2005-01-01

126

Relationship Trajectories and Psychological Well-Being among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2010-01-01

127

Intimate Partner Violence Among Sexual Minorities in Japan: Exploring Perceptions and Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexual minority groups. Participants

Anthony S. DiStefano

2009-01-01

128

The Dormant Commerce Clause and State Regulation of the Internet: Are Laws Protecting Minors From Sexual Predators Constitutionally Different Than Those Protecting Minors From Sexually Explicit Materials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several states have enacted statutes to protect minors from harmful or obscene materials disseminated over the Internet, as well as from pedophiles seeking to use the Internet to lure them into sexual conduct. State and federal courts have diverged in their analysis of the Dormant Commerce Clause's impact on state regulation in these areas. While state courts have held that

Chin Pann

2005-01-01

129

Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

2011-01-01

130

Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority

Jonathan Elford; Eamonn McKeown; Rita Doerner; Simon Nelson; Nicola Low; Jane Anderson

2010-01-01

131

Cooperation in the Mixed Population Minority Game with Imitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After studying the effects of imitation on the mixed population of adaptive agents with different memories competing in a minority game, we have found that when the pure population lies in a crowded regime, the introduction of imitation can considerably improve cooperation among agents in a money market.

Quan, Hong-Jun; Wang, Bing-Hong; Hui, Pak-Ming; Luo, Xiao-Shu

2001-09-01

132

Minority Populations in Minnesota: A Health Status Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The social, economic, and health status advances experienced by Minnesota's White population have eluded significant numbers of the State's Black and Indian populations. This report contains statistical data and analyses of the health status of minorities in Minnesota. The information is meant to contribute to an intensified effort to improve the…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, Minneapolis. Center for Health Statistics.

133

Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.  

PubMed

Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity. PMID:24175889

Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

2013-12-01

134

Broken windows theory and marginal deterrence: Does the punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Evidence from French panel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using original French panel data, my analysis showed that the enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both of rapes and other sexual offences, compared with the rapes- and minor sexual offences-reducing impact of an increase in the enforcement activity for minor sexual offences. This result invalidates the predictions of the broken windows theory in the case of

Nicolas G Vaillant; Site Vauban

135

Emergence of clones in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sexual population, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexual populations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor.

Neher, Richard A.; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I.

2013-01-01

136

[Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].  

PubMed

To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national program to combat this plight. PMID:19499745

Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

2009-02-01

137

The health status of minority populations in the United States.  

PubMed Central

There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed.

Nickens, H. W.

1991-01-01

138

Sexual Victimization and Health-Related Indicators Among Sexual Minority Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime sexually transmitted infections,

Amy L. Hequembourg; David Bimbi; Jeffrey T. Parsons

2011-01-01

139

Online or off-line victimisation and psychological well-being: a comparison of sexual-minority and heterosexual youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare sexual-minority and heterosexual youths' exposure to sexual abuse off-line, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment with regard to prevalence, psychological well-being and support seeking. A nationally representative sample of 3,432 Swedish high school seniors completed an anonymous school-based survey about sexuality, health, sexual abuse and online-related sexual victimisation or harassment. Sexual-minority adolescents reported a greater rate of sexual abuse, problematic sexual meetings off-line with person/s met online and online harassment, compared to heterosexual youth. When compared to non-victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised heterosexual adolescents and non-victimised and victimised sexual-minority adolescents reported more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence. Same-sex sexual orientation was related to more psychiatric symptoms, lower self-esteem and a weaker sense of coherence even when controlled for victimisation and gender. Compared to victimised heterosexual adolescents, victimised sexual-minority adolescents were more likely to seek support because of sexual abuse (females) or Internet-related problems (males and females). Results for sexual-minority youth were basically the same whether sexual orientation was assessed as sexual identity or as sexual or emotional attraction. Health care providers are challenged to not only provide the same care to sexual-minority youth who seek counselling or psychiatric treatment for mental health problems or problems related to victimisation that all adolescents should receive but also to find ways to address topics like prevention of sexual abuse and risk-taking behaviour online or off-line. PMID:22772657

Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

2012-07-08

140

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get Under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

PubMed Central

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2009-01-01

141

How does sexual minority stigma "get under the skin"? A psychological mediation framework.  

PubMed

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders. PMID:19702379

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L

2009-09-01

142

A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic\\/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth in order to increase understanding of the diversity of

Hyeouk Chris Hahm; Chris Adkins

2009-01-01

143

A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

2009-01-01

144

Legal issues associated with sexual activity between adults and minors in Texas: a review.  

PubMed

Recent research on adolescent mothers and the age of their sexual partners has stimulated discussion of whether legal action should be taken against adult men who engage in sexual intercourse with minors. A nonrandom poll that started as casual questions but extended over 6 months to 52 doctors initiated this review. It became apparent that the primary care physicians (pediatrics, family medicine, and internal medicine) had little, if any, understanding of some key legal facts in Texas associated with adolescent sexuality and pregnancy, especially when adult partners are involved. This article provides a legislative overview for practitioners in an attempt to clarify the law, remediate any deficiency of knowledge, and remind physicians of their role in reporting sexual abuse of minors. PMID:10434769

Smith, P B; Mumford, D M; Foreman, S

1999-07-01

145

Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

2006-01-01

146

Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.  

PubMed

Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

2009-11-04

147

Religiosity and Alcohol Use in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations\\u000a in sexual minority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal\\u000a and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to test group differences in associations between

Sharon Scales Rostosky; Fred Danner; Ellen D. B. Riggle

2008-01-01

148

Sexual Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections between drinking, relational contexts, stress and coping  

PubMed Central

Few studies explore sexual minority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions.

Condit, Megan; Kitaji, Kai; Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen

2011-01-01

149

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed.

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

150

Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially Based Risk Factors of Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and…

Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

2012-01-01

151

An enrichment isolation procedure for minor Bacillus populations.  

PubMed

In general, spores of B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. Sphaericus and B. subtilis strains germinated uniformly within a short time of incubation in a germination medium. In contrast, spores of B, circulans, B. brevis, B. laterosporus, B. pulvifaciens, B. polymyxa, B. pumilus, B. licheniformis and B. coagulans strains were usually slow and/or uneven germinators under the same conditions of incubation. The former group of Bacillus strains occur frequently in soils as the predominant population and the latter group of Bacillus species are found in many cases as minor populations. The minor populations of Bacillus were isolated with difficulty by the standard dilution-plate technique, but could easily be enriched by treating the soil sample in a germination medium for 2 to 3 hours at 30 to 35 degrees C, followed by heating it at 65 degrees C for 10 minutes ("minor-shifted isolation"). Using this technique, the minor Bacillus strains could be isolated from samples containing 100- to 1,000-fold more of the rapid germinators of Bacillus. PMID:7096200

Wakisaka, Y; Koizumi, K

1982-04-01

152

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

153

Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations.  

PubMed

Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical environments in which these communities exist. PMID:16532664

Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

2006-01-01

154

Comparing health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths and their peers.  

PubMed

Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs accounted for 7.5 percent of the sample. Data were analyzed to ascertain prevalence of risks and explore group differences. Compared with peers, SMY self-reports indicated higher prevalence rates on all indicators of health and mental health need. SMYs reported more sexual activity, more sexually transmitted disease diagnoses, a higher perceived risk for HIV/AIDS, and more forgone medical care than peers.Also compared with peers, SMYs reported higher levels of anxiety depression, suicidality, and physical and sexual victimization and higher rates of unmet mental health need. SMYs also reported greater concerns about confidentiality and were less likely to use school-based services.The majority of SMYs reported same-sex attraction only. Social work and other helping professionals should incorporate same-sex attraction questions into assessment protocols to target services for this population. School- and office-based providers must consider whether their services are welcoming and offer sufficient assurances of confidentiality to facilitate access by SMYs. PMID:21936333

Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

2011-08-01

155

Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2010-01-01

156

Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2010-01-01

157

Psychological Adjustment, Substance Use, HIV Knowledge, and Risky Sexual Behavior in At-Risk Minority Females: Developmental Differences During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess developmental differences in the psychological functioning, substance use, coping style, social support, HIV knowledge, and risky sexual behavior of at-risk, minority adolescent girls; to assess developmental differences in psychosocial correlates of risky sexual behavior in older and younger adoles- cents. Method: Participants included 164 minority teens, ages 12-19, who were receiving medical care in an ado- lescent

Pamela J. Bachanas; Mary K. Morris; Jennifer K. Lewis-Gess; Eileen J. Sarett-Cuasay; Adriana L. Flores; Kimberly S. Sirl; Mary K. Sawyer

2002-01-01

158

Attitudes, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers Regarding The Educational Isolation of Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority youth (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning youth) must function in a society that condones homophobia. Rendered invisible through the stigma attached to their identification as sexual minorities, they are conveniently forgotten by the institutions charged with facilitating their education. Results from a research study conducted by Sears (1991), indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be

Renée Mudrey; Aida Medina-Adams

2006-01-01

159

Unmet Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Sexual Minority Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substance abuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55–64 years had significantly more problems with substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals

Martha A. Jessup; Suzanne L. Dibble

2012-01-01

160

Sexual Minority Youth in the Schools: Issues and Desirable Counselor Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority youth, as they progress through elementary, middle, and secondary schools in the United States, are confronted every day with taunts, epithets, and a host of other negative, insulting, and derogatory words from their peers designed to bring them into conformity with the dominant majority culture's view of \\

Mark Pope

161

Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

2010-01-01

162

Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA, 1987 to May 2007: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This paper examines the prevalence of tobacco use among sexual minorities in the US through a systematic review of literature from 1987 to May 2007. Methods: Seven databases were searched for peer- reviewed research (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library via Wiley InterScience, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Health Source: Nursing\\/Academic, Institute for Scientific

J G L Lee; G K Griffin; C L Melvin

2010-01-01

163

Psychosocial Concerns of Sexual Minority Youth: Complexity and Caution in Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction…

Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.

2009-01-01

164

Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, &…

Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

2010-01-01

165

Suicide Protective and Risk Factors for Sexual Minority Youth: Applying the Cumulative Factor Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report explores suicide protective and risk factors for lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) youth and offers a Cumulative Factor Model constructed from these factors. Numerous studies to date have concluded that a youth's sexual minority identity is a key risk factor for suicide. Few studies however have explored the internal and external protective factors that may cumulate to increase

Philip A. Rutter

2008-01-01

166

Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

2010-01-01

167

Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

2012-01-01

168

Examining the Relationships Between Multiple Oppressions and Asian American Sexual Minority Persons’ Psychological Distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) persons come from diverse cultural groups with diverse racial and ethnic identities. However, research examining correlates of oppression among sexual minority persons has used primarily White samples and has failed to attend to and investigate the complexity of Asian American LGBQ persons’ experiences. This study examined the relations between multiple external and internalized oppressions

Dawn M. Szymanski; Arpana Gupta

2009-01-01

169

Mental Health Service Contacts Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls in Boston Public High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sexual minority (SM) adolescent girls are at high risk for suicidal behavior, very little is known about their use of mental health services (MHS). Therefore, we examined survey data from a sample of Boston high school students to compare the prevalence of MHS use among SM and heterosexual girls.We used chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of group

Jeremy D. Kidd; J. LEE WHITE; RENEE M. JOHNSON

2012-01-01

170

Does punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Longitudinal evidence from France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using original French panel data, this paper investigates the relevance of the broken windows theory in case of an offence category featured by the absence of monetary benefits. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent effect of sanctions for rapes and minor sexual offences. The enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both for rapes

Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; François-Charles Wolff

2009-01-01

171

Substance Abuse Treatment Providers' Explicit and Implicit Attitudes Regarding Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors

Bryan N. Cochran; K. Michelle Peavy; Ana Mari Cauce

2007-01-01

172

Sexual Minorities and Mental Health: The Need for a Public Health Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines the public mental health response to sexual minorities in the United States. Information from the academic literature, federal and state initiatives, and the work of the organized lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities is placed in an historical context of mental health attitudes toward homosexuality. In addition to recommendations for future directions in research and treatment,

Karina K. Uldall; Nancy B. Palmer

2004-01-01

173

Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

2010-01-01

174

Student School Engagement Among Sexual Minority Students: Understanding the Contributors to Predicting Academic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical multiple regression is used to examine whether student school engagement predicts grade point average (GPA) and fear-based truancy among 315 sexual minority youth aged 13 to 24 years. Results indicate that student school engagement is a significant predictor of GPA, and this relationship is strongest in the presence of a gay–straight alliance. Having an adult ally at school is

Kristie L. Seelman; N. Eugene Walls; Cynthia Hazel; Hope Wisneski

2012-01-01

175

Student School Engagement Among Sexual Minority Students: Understanding the Contributors to Predicting Academic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hierarchical multiple regression is used to examine whether student school engagement predicts grade point average (GPA) and fear-based truancy among 315 sexual minority youth aged 13 to 24 years. Results indicate that student school engagement is a significant predictor of GPA, and this relationship is strongest in the presence of a gay–straight alliance. Having an adult ally at school is

Kristie L. Seelman; N. Eugene Walls; Cynthia Hazel; Hope Wisneski

2011-01-01

176

Sexual Minority Adults at a Seasonal Home Campground: An Examination of Common, Unique, and Diverse Leisure Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the motivations of sexual minority adults to vacation at a sexual minority-focused campground and how sexual orientation identity management was associated with leisure motivations. Twenty-nine men and 12 women who owned seasonal homes participated. In responses to open-ended questions, participants expressed many of the motivations typically associated with seasonal home leisure (e.g., socializing, escape, relax). The most frequently

Steven E. Mock; Erica M. Hummel

2012-01-01

177

Shattering the Myth of Invulnerability: Exploring the Prevention Needs of Sexual Minority Women Living with HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing effective safer-sex programs for women living with HIV\\/AIDS (WLH\\/A) is a national HIV prevention priority. Existing programs focus predominantly on heterosexual women's experiences and ignore the needs of sexual minority women (SMW). Thus, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 16 sexual minority WLH\\/A to better understand their sexual risk behaviors and corresponding HIV prevention needs. Most of the interviewees were

Michelle Teti; Lisa Bowleg

2011-01-01

178

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

Bradley, Beverly

2012-01-01

179

Social Integration and Health: Community Involvement, Stigmatized Identities, and Sexual Risk in Latino Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved.

Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Campbell, Richard T.; Diaz, Rafael M.

2013-01-01

180

Social integration and health: community involvement, stigmatized identities, and sexual risk in Latino sexual minorities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual understanding and practical application of social integration theory to health behaviors. We test whether community involvement in AIDS and GLBT organizations moderates the relationship of racial and homosexual stigmata to sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men and transgender persons of Latin American origin or descent. We use structural equation modeling to analyze data from a sample of 643 individuals recruited via respondent-driven sampling. Among those not involved in community organizations, homosexual and racial stigmata are related to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, which is linked to sexual risk behavior. Among the involved group, the stigmata are not linked to sexual activity under the influence of alcohol and drugs, or to sexual risk behavior. The moderating role of community involvement seems to be more salient in those currently involved than those ever involved. PMID:20420293

Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M; Campbell, Richard T; Diaz, Rafael M

2010-03-01

181

Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

2012-01-01

182

Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free

Jesús Gómez-Gardeñes; Vito Latora; Yamir Moreno; Elio V. Profumo

2008-01-01

183

A Religious Experience? Personal, Parental, and Peer Religiosity and the Academic Success of Sexual-Minority Youth Using Nationally Representative Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students' academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by…

Gottfried, Michael A.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

2012-01-01

184

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP) Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant

185

CRCHD SPN Publications: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Publications: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Publications Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP) Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant

186

60 FR 21366 - Availability of Funds for a Cooperative Agreement To Prevent Cancer in Minority Populations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for a Cooperative Agreement To Prevent Cancer in Minority Populations; Notice Federal...for a Cooperative Agreement To Prevent Cancer in Minority Populations AGENCY: Office...demonstration cooperative agreement to establish a cancer prevention project in Philadelphia,...

1995-05-01

187

Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Sexual Dysfunction in Adulthood: An Australian Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined self-reported adult sexual functioning in individuals reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a representative sample of the Australian population. A sample of 1793 persons, aged 18–59 years, were randomly selected from the electoral roll for Australian states and territories in April 2000. Respondents were interviewed about their health status and sexual experiences, including unwanted

Jake M. Najman; Michael P. Dunne; David M. Purdie; Francis M. Boyle; Peter D. Coxeter

2005-01-01

188

Exploring gender and sexual minority status among street-involved youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares heterosexual and sexual minority street-involved youth across a number of sociodemographic, risk and current mental health, victimization and delinquency measures with a particular focus on gender differences. The sample consists of 147 homeless and street-involved young men and women aged 16–21 years in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses indicate that many of the differences between the heterosexual

Tyler J. Frederick; Lori E. Ross; Tara L. Bruno; Patricia G. Erickson

2011-01-01

189

Does punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Longitudinal evidence from France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using original French panel data, this paper investigates the relevance of the broken windows theory in case of an offence\\u000a category featured by the absence of monetary benefits. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent\\u000a effect of sanctions for rapes and minor sexual offences. The enforcement activity of rapes is the most deterrent factor both\\u000a for rapes

Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; François-Charles Wolff

2010-01-01

190

Cancer in minority ethnic populations: priorities from epidemiological data.  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the frequency of cancers to develop priorities for cancer policy, prevention, services and research for black and minority ethnic populations in Britain. Data on populations originating in the Indian sub-continent, and Caribbean and African Commonwealth were extracted from published works. Cancers were ranked (top seven) on the basis of the number of cases, actual frequency, and also on relative frequency (SMR, SRR, PMR). Cancer was found to be a common cause of death. For example, during 1979-83 the proportion of deaths resulting from neoplasms in immigrants living in England and Wales was 11% for Indian and African men aged 20-49, and 19% for Caribbeans. The corresponding proportions were higher among women. The pattern of cancer depended on the method used to assess rankings. On the basis of the number of cases the top 3 ranking cancers for adults were breast, long and neoplasms of the lymphatic system. Based on SMR's cancer of the gallbladder, liver and oral cavity ranked amongst the top 3 for adults. For children the top ranking cancers were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, central nervous system tumours and neuroblastoma. Variations by ethnic group were more evident in the rankings of relative frequency than in rankings based on numbers of cases. In conclusion, the most common and preventable cancers among minority ethnic populations were the same as those for the general population. The different cancer pattern based on SMRs highlight additional needs and provide potential models for research into understanding the causes of these cancers. Health services policy and practice should ensure that the common and preventable cancers take priority over rare cancers and those for which there is no effective treatment or prevention. Priorities for policy, prevention, clinical care and research should be set separately, for they differ.

Bhopal, R. S.; Rankin, J.

1996-01-01

191

Parents of minors who have sexually abused: legal liability and clinical interventions.  

PubMed

While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are legally liable when their minor children commit offenses. Since parents are essential to the successful rehabilitation of minors who have sexually offended, the impact of legal liability on parental engagement in therapy must be examined. This article will explore the conflicting issues of age, legal responsibility, parental responsibility, and therapeutic effectiveness in the Israeli context and propose a means for resolution. PMID:23350541

Oz, Sheri

2013-01-01

192

Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians.

Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

2011-01-01

193

Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.  

PubMed

Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

Lema, V M

1997-11-01

194

Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants: A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods: Random or census samples from

John Blosnich; Robert Bossarte

2012-01-01

195

Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially-Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants: A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods: Random or census samples from post-secondary

John Blosnich; Robert Bossarte

2012-01-01

196

Non-Erotic Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences\\u000a exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction\\u000a is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well\\u000a as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an

Katharine Lacefield; Charles Negy

197

Metacarpal sexual determination in a Spanish population.  

PubMed

Anthropologists and forensic pathologist determine the sex of skeletons by analyzing quantitative and qualitative characters in the bone remains. Generally, the skull and os coxae are the elements most used, but they are not always preserved. In such cases, the investigator needs to have available other techniques based on different remains. The aim of the present work is to develop and describe discriminating functions for sex determination in a recent Spanish population using metacarpal morphology. A sample of bones corresponding to a contemporary Spanish population deposited at the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM) was analyzed. This sample comprised 697 metacarpals, corresponding to 79 adult individuals (37 men and 42 women). These allowed us to obtain 120 unifactorial discriminant functions. We selected the 10 equations, one for each metacarpal from both hands, that provided the best sexual discrimination. The correct sex classification rank progressed from 81%, for right (R) metacarpals IV and V, to 91%, for left (L) metacarpal II. The results suggest that metacarpals are structures that can be used for sex determination in paleoanthropological and forensic identifications. PMID:17018074

Barrio, Pedro A; Trancho, Gonzalo J; Sánchez, José A

2006-09-01

198

Comparing Health and Mental Health Needs, Service Use, and Barriers to Services among Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…

Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.

2011-01-01

199

How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

2012-01-01

200

‘People Make Assumptions About Our Communities’: Sexual Health Amongst Teenagers from Black and Minority Ethnic Backgrounds in East London  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. (1) To explore sexual behaviour and relationships amongst Black and minority ethnic (BME) teenagers in East London. (2) To examine how these relationships are shaped by culture, gender, peer norms and religion. (3) To describe the implications for sexual health policy and practice in urban, multicultural areas.Design. This report draws primarily on the qualitative arm of a mixed methods

Shamser Sinha; Katherine Curtis; Amanda Jayakody; Russell Viner; Helen Roberts

2007-01-01

201

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

202

The Absent Presence: Negative Space within Discourse and the Construction of Minority Sexual Identity in the Workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexuality and the experience of sexual minorities in the workplace are under-researched areas. The research reported here - a case study in one government department in the UK - utilizes a discursive research method to uncover a theme that is at the centre of this experience - silence. In-depth semi-structured interviews were carried out with individuals eliciting their stories on

James Ward; Diana Winstanley

2003-01-01

203

Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

2008-01-01

204

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the

Colleen M. Fisher

2012-01-01

205

Crime, politics, and minority populations: Use of official statistics in the united states and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the governments of the United States and Japan differ markedly in racial ideology, official crime statistics in both nations reflect political arrangements which marginalize minority populations. In both nations, official crime statistics reveal more about the attempts of majority populations to label minority populations as a criminal class than about variations in criminal behavior across racial populations. While there

Paul E. Knepper; David M. Potter

1998-01-01

206

Effects of gender identity on experiences of healthcare for sexual minority women.  

PubMed

While research examining healthcare experiences of sexual minority individuals is growing, thus far research has been limited on lesbian gender identity and its relationship to physical and mental health. This study explores access to and experiences of healthcare with a sample of 516 butch and femme identified lesbian and bisexual women. In comparison to femme-identified women, it was found that butch women had routine gynecological examinations significantly less frequently, perceived poorer treatment in healthcare settings, were more likely to be out within healthcare settings, placed more importance on securing LGBT-positive healthcare practitioners, and had more difficulty finding LGBT-positive medical doctors. No differences were found for mental health. The results suggest that butch women may be more at risk for physical health concerns than femme women, in particular those illnesses that can be prevented or treated with regular gynecological care (e.g., uterine or cervical cancer). Implications of the study include greater awareness among healthcare professionals of sexual minority gender identity in addition to sexual identity, and more support for butch-identified women to access vital healthcare services. PMID:19042908

Hiestand, K R; Horne, S G; Levitt, H M

2007-01-01

207

Mutator dynamics in sexual and asexual experimental populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

Background In asexual populations, mutators may be expected to hitchhike with associated beneficial mutations. In sexual populations, recombination is predicted to erode such associations, inhibiting mutator hitchhiking. To investigate the effect of recombination on mutators experimentally, we compared the frequency dynamics of a mutator allele (msh2?) in sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Mutator strains increased in frequency at the expense of wild-type strains in all asexual diploid populations, with some approaching fixation in 150 generations of propagation. Over the same period of time, mutators declined toward loss in all corresponding sexual diploid populations as well as in haploid populations propagated asexually. Conclusions We report the first experimental investigation of mutator dynamics in sexual populations. We show that a strong mutator quickly declines in sexual populations while hitchhiking to high frequency in asexual diploid populations, as predicted by theory. We also show that the msh2? mutator has a high and immediate realized cost that is alone sufficient to explain its decline in sexual populations. We postulate that this cost is indirect; namely, that it is due to a very high rate of recessive lethal or strongly deleterious mutation. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that msh2? also has unknown directly deleterious effects on fitness, and that these effects may differ between haploid asexual and sexual populations. Despite these reservations, our results prompt us to speculate that the short-term cost of highly deleterious recessive mutations can be as important as recombination in preventing mutator hitchhiking in sexual populations.

2011-01-01

208

The genetic structure of populations of sexual and asexual Taraxacum (dandelions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure, as assessed by isozymes, is described for three populations of outbreeding sexuals, three populations of obligate agamosperms, and six accessions of inbreeding sexual Taraxacum. Fifteen loci in 10 isozyme systems were identified, and isozyme bands were previously shown to be allelic in sexual × sexual and were confirmed as allelic in sexual × agamosperm crosses. Sexual ×

Jane Hughes; A J Richards

1988-01-01

209

Phase Transitions in Sexual Populations Subject to Stabilizing Selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that a simple model of an evolving sexual population, which dates back to some of the earliest work in theoretical population genetics, exhibits an unexpected and previously unobserved phase transition between ordered and disordered states. This behavior is not present in populations evolving asexually without recombination and is thus important in any comparison of sexual and asexual populations. In order to calculate the details of the phase transition, we use techniques from statistical physics. We introduce the correlation of the population as the order parameter of the system and use maximum entropy inference to find the state of the population at any time.

Rogers, A.

2003-04-01

210

Identity development and exploration among sexual minority adolescents: examination of a multidimensional model.  

PubMed

Based on a multidimensional model of sexual identity development, the current study examined self-labeling, romantic, and sexual experiences among middle and late adolescent sexual minorities. Eighty-two youths between the ages of 14 and 21 were recruited from gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) community centers and associated Internet groups. Differences between males and females and between middle and late adolescents were first examined. Males reported markedly different patterns of self-labeling and romantic experiences, relative to females, but few age differences emerged. Additionally, patterns of association between self-labeling and sexual or romantic experiences provided support for the multidimensional model of identity development and exploration. Finally, significant associations emerged between relationship experiences and relational competency, such that adolescents who described themselves as isolated from intimate interpersonal relationships reported less relational esteem and more relational depression than those who reported predominantly engaging in same-sex romantic relationships. In addition, alternative styles of engaging in interpersonal relationships (e.g., same-sex intimate friendships, heterosexual dating) also were also associated with increased relational competency. PMID:19197644

Glover, Jenna A; Galliher, Renee V; Lamere, Trenton G

2009-01-01

211

HIV/AIDS and sexual minorities in Mexico: a globalized struggle for the protection of human rights.  

PubMed

The fight against HIV/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of human rights for all, including sexual minorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political and human rights perspective to the analysis of the global response to the pandemic, and I introduce the concept of policy networks for a better understanding of these dynamics. Second, I argue that, in the case of Mexico, the constitution of HIV/AIDS policy networks, which incorporate civil society and state actors, such as sexual minority activists and public officials, and their actions—both domestic and international—have resulted in a more inclusive HIV/AIDS policy-making process. However, serious human rights violations of HIV/AIDS patients and sexual minorities still remain. PMID:21751474

Torres-Ruiz, Antonio

2011-01-01

212

Substance Abuse and Sexual Trauma in a Female Veteran Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of researchers have explored connections between substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sexual assault histories in civilian women. Despite literature suggesting the prevalence of substance abuse and sexual assault for female veterans, few studies have investigated these variables in a female veteran population. Thus, this paper was designed to provide preliminary information about this group of

Tania M. Davis; Peggy S. Wood

1999-01-01

213

A population study of the association between sexual function, sexual satisfaction and depressive symptoms in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Depression and erectile dysfunction (ED) have a complex and bi-directional relationship. We examined the relationships between erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms or diagnosed depression, sexual activity and sexual satisfaction.Methods: A population survey of men aged 40–70 years was carried out in Brazil, Italy, Japan and Malaysia in 1997–1998. A questionnaire was used to collect life style, sexual behaviors and

Alfredo Nicolosi; Edson D. Moreira; Marco Villa; Dale B. Glasser

2004-01-01

214

Contraceptive and sexuality knowledge among inner-city middle school students from minority groups.  

PubMed

In exchange for a free physical examination, 116 minority group youths from inner-city middle schools in Texas consented to answer open-ended questions about their sexual behavior, contraceptive knowledge, and type and source of knowledge of sexuality. The students ranged in age from 12-15 years (mean age, 13 years); 27% were Hispanic and 73% were black. Sex education was not a part of the curriculum at the 4 schools from which respondents were drawn. When asked what sex meant to them, 37% of female adolescents and 23% of males indicated they did not know or it did not mean anything. Among remaining students, recreation was identified as the central meaning be males (23% of total), while females tended to cite romance (21% of total). Only 47% were able to list at least 1 question they had about sex; most common were questions about the morality of premarital intercourse and the experience of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. 89% of females and 57% of males were able to name at least 1 contraceptive method, generally condoms (44%), abstinence (36%), and the pill (8%). Hispanic females named the highest number of contraceptive methods on average (2.2), followed by black females (1.9), Hispanic males (1.8), and black males (1.3). Among female adolescents, 53% listed their mother as their primary source of knowledge about sexual matters and 6% listed a friend. Among males, fathers (17%) and friends (17%) were the most frequent knowledge sources. The fact that these young adolescents view their parents as credible and approachable sources of information about sexuality suggests that school counselors should encourage such communication. aT the same time, the expressed need for more information on the moral aspects of sexuality indicates that values should be incorporated into any sex education program developed for this age group. PMID:12342896

Smith, P B; Chacko, M R; Bermudez, A

1989-11-01

215

School Environment and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youths: A Study Among Dutch Young Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexual minority adolescents. Methods. Data were collected in 2008 by means of a computer-based questionnaire completed at school by 513 young Dutch adolescents (12–15 years old) during regular class times. Eleven percent of these students, who were enrolled in 8 different schools, reported having at least some feelings of same-sex attraction. Results. Adolescents with same-sex attractions in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as less consistent and clear reported significantly more mental health problems than their peers with no same-sex attractions in the same schools. Such differences were absent in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as more consistent and clear. There were no such effects of cultural pluralism. Conclusions. Our results suggest that schools with consistent and clear rules and expectations mitigate the risk for mental health problems among students with same-sex attractions and underscore the importance of structural measures for the health of sexual minority youth.

Bos, Henny M. W.; Collier, Kate L.; Metselaar, Marijke

2010-01-01

216

Parent—Adolescent Communication About Sexual Pressure, Maternal Norms About Relationship Power, and STI\\/HIV Protective Behaviors of Minority Urban Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Racial\\/ethnic minority adolescent girls bear a disproportionate risk for HIV and face barriers to autonomous sexual decision making, but parental messages may help protect against sexual risk taking. The authors examined African American and Hispanic girls' sexually transmitted infection (STI) and HIV prevention practices, parent—adolescent communication about sexual pressure, and maternal gender norms (N = 118). Teens were more likely

Anne M. Teitelman; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Julie A. Cederbaum

2008-01-01

217

The impact of AIDS on an urban population of high-risk female minority adolescents: implications for intervention.  

PubMed

69 sexually active females aged 13-19 attending the General Pediatric Clinic of the Mount Zion Medical Center of the University of California-San Francisco were interviewed to learn about their AIDS-related concerns, risk behaviors, and psychosocial/situational determinants of condom use. 90% of the sample is African-American. The authors also aimed to define the accuracy of personal AIDS risk-assessment, the relative importance of AIDS in relation to other concerns, and the broader context of sexual experience and attitudes in the population. The girls were generally quite concerned about AIDS, but often more worried about poverty-related issues. 41% reported knowing someone with AIDS, they had an average of 3 partners, 55% had a sexually transmitted disease in the past, and 77% had been pregnant in the past. Despite these factors, most perceived themselves to be at low personal risk because of their current monogamy, lack of intravenous drug use, and implicit trust in their partner's safety. The girls generally did not discuss with their partners their actual HIV risk in terms of past behavior. 98% were aware that condoms may prevent AIDS, but only 64% used condoms half of the time or less when they had sex. Even then, condoms were used mainly for contraception. These sexual histories and behavior indicate the need for concern regarding AIDS risk in the urban minority population of sexually active, adolescent girls. Programs aimed at AIDS prevention among urban minority adolescents need to be cognizant of the larger personal and sociocultural context in which teenagers are making health-behavior choices. PMID:8075092

Overby, K J; Kegeles, S M

1994-05-01

218

From the margins to the center: ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault.  

PubMed

The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578029

Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie

2009-07-02

219

Cytological differentiation and sexual isolation between populations of Drosophila nigricruria.  

PubMed

Drosophila nigricruria has a distribution ranging from northern Mexico to Chile. It is a relatively rare species, primarily limited to cactus deserts or pine-oak associations at altitudes of 1200 to 2100 meters above sea level. The species comprises two cytological races with a zone of hybridization in the Oaxaca and Puebla regions of Mexico. Despite the zone of hybridization, gene flow for chromosome 4 genes is limited, or non-existent, between the two races. Sexual isolation tests were run using a population from the northern race, a hybrid population, and a population that is essentially southern. Sexual discrimination among these strains was on the same order of magnitude as that found between geographical populations of other species. There was no evidence to indicate that sexual isolation is any stronger between the cytological races of nigricruria than one might expect between any two geographical populations within a species. PMID:874304

Wasserman, M; Koepfer, H R

220

Mental health in sexual minorities: recent indicators, trends, and their relationships to place in North America and Europe.  

PubMed

This meta-analysis featuring 12 national adult studies and 16 state/regional youth studies of sexuality and mental health finds that sexual minorities--as a likely consequence of place-contingent minority stress--experience mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation much more frequently than their heterosexual counterparts. By interrogating the geographic variations in the findings, such as high rates of poor mental health outcomes in the United Kingdom, large gay-heterosexual disparities in the Netherlands, and lower and improving rates of both outcomes and risk factors in Vermont and British Columbia, this study asserts that policy regimes, health programming, and the ways in which sexual minorities are constructed in places all contribute to their mental health. PMID:19515600

Lewis, Nathaniel M

2009-05-15

221

Are Australian sexual health clinics attracting priority populations?  

PubMed

To answer a key question ('Are Australian sexual health clinics attracting priority populations?'), we used data from 44 Australian sexual health clinics between 2004 and 2011. We assessed the proportion of patients that were from priority populations (deemed to be at risk of sexually transmissible infections) and compared this to their proportions in the general population using data from Australian Bureau of Statistics and the Australian Study of Health and Relationships. A ?(2)-test was used. A total of 278154 new patients attended during 2004-2011. The proportions from each priority population were significantly higher (P<0.01 for all) than for the general population: young people aged 15-29 years (58.1% v. 20.1%), men who have sex with men (26.0% v. 6.0%), female sex workers (10.8% v. 0.5%), and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (4.2% v. 2.3%). This study confirms that Australian sexual health clinics attract higher proportions of priority populations and are thus meeting their mandate as defined in the 2010-2013 National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy. PMID:23962540

Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Ryder, Nathan; McNulty, Anna; Chen, Marcus Y; Marshall, Lewis; O'Connor, Catherine C; Dickson, Bridget; Grulich, Andrew E; Hellard, Margaret E; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

222

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ''environmental racism'' by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differenc...

L. A. Nieves A. L. Nieves

1995-01-01

223

Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities. The rate of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to increase globally. The disproportionately high rate of ESRD among the many growing indigenous populations and racial\\/ethnic minorities in the United States highlights the need to reassess present treatment strategies to more appropriately identify and manage chronic kidney disease

Susanne B. Nicholas; NAUREEN TAREEN; ASHRAF ZADSHIR; DAVID MARTINS; DEYU PAN; Keith C. Norris

2005-01-01

224

Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.  

PubMed

Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

2008-06-17

225

Substance abuse and sexual trauma in a female veteran population.  

PubMed

An increasing number of researchers have explored connections between substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sexual assault histories in civilian women. Despite literature suggesting the prevalence of substance abuse and sexual assault for female veterans, few studies have investigated these variables in a female veteran population. Thus, this paper was designed to provide preliminary information about this group of women. The results of this preliminary study suggest a high incidence of PTSD related to sexual trauma in a substance-abusing population of female veterans and a high incidence of substance abuse among female veterans who presented requesting help for sexual trauma. Suggestions for future study include examination of comparison samples of female veterans with and without PTSD and substance abuse across a variety of dimensions, including psychiatric symptoms, substance use, treatment utilization, and impact of treatment. Implications for assessment are highlighted. PMID:10023609

Davis, T M; Wood, P S

1999-03-01

226

Substance abuse treatment providers' explicit and implicit attitudes regarding sexual minorities.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed. PMID:18032292

Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari

2007-01-01

227

Child Sexual Abuse Severity and Disclosure Predict PTSD Symptoms and Biomarkers in Ethnic Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Adult posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS) and a biomarker index of current health risk in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors was investigated in relation to CSA severity, disclosure and other peri-and post-trauma factors. Methods A community sample of 94 African American and Latina women CSA survivors was assessed. Results Severe CSA predicted PSS overall, avoidance/numbing symptoms and greater biomarker risk, and was not mediated by post-trauma variables. Moderate CSA severity was mediated by post-trauma disclosure, predicted re-experiencing symptoms but was unrelated to biomarker risk. No overall ethnic differences were found. Conclusions Results suggest targets for interventions to improve the well-being of minority women CSA survivors.

Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra Burns; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas; Sciolla, Andres; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

2010-01-01

228

Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.  

PubMed

Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ?16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988

Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

2011-06-20

229

The influence of general identity disturbance on reports of lifetime substance use disorders and related outcomes among sexual minority adults with a history of substance use.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that sexual minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) individuals report increased problematic substance use involvement, compared with their sexual majority counterparts. We hypothesize that feelings of an unstable sense of self (i.e., identity disturbance) may potentially drive problematic substance use. The purpose of the current study is to examine identity disturbance among sexual minorities as a potential explanatory mechanism of increased sexual minority lifetime rates of substance dependence. Measures of identity disturbance and three indicators of sexual orientation from lifetime female (n = 16,629) and male (n = 13,553) alcohol/illicit drug users in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Findings generally showed that the increased prevalence of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, and combined alcohol/illicit drug dependence as well as a younger age of alcohol use initiation among sexual minority women was associated with elevated levels of identity disturbance. The results were consistent with a mediational role for identity disturbance in explaining the association between sexual minority status and substance dependence and were generally replicated among male sexual minority respondents. The current research suggests that identity disturbance, a predictor of substance use, may contribute to heightened risk for substance dependence among certain subgroups of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21480677

Talley, Amelia E; Tomko, Rachel L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Trull, Timothy J; Sher, Kenneth J

2011-09-01

230

Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

231

Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2010-01-01

232

"Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

2011-01-01

233

Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2010-01-01

234

Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed…

Gastic, Billie

2012-01-01

235

Urban Students’ Attitudes About Sexual Minorities Across Intersections of Sex and Race\\/Ethnicity: Data From a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students’ attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race\\/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more frequently in their views than did Whites or

Billie Gastic

2012-01-01

236

Review: Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Address Mental Health in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems\\u000a of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minority populations are highlighted. Despite the fact that\\u000a minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed\\u000a that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods

Jeanne-Marie R. StacciariniMona; Mona M. Shattell; Maria Coady; Brenda Wiens

237

Hate Crimes and Stigma-Related Experiences Among Sexual Minority Adults in the United States: Prevalence Estimates From a National Probability Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using survey responses from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this paper reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Such experiences are conceptualized in terms of enacted stigma (criminal victimization, harassment, and discrimination based on sexual orientation) and felt stigma (perceptions that sexual minorities

Gregory M. Herek

2008-01-01

238

California hospitals serving large minority populations were more likely than others to employ ambulance diversion.  

PubMed

It is well documented that racial and ethnic minority populations disproportionately use hospital emergency departments for safety-net care. But what is not known is whether emergency department crowding is disproportionately affecting minority populations and potentially aggravating existing health care disparities, including poorer outcomes for minorities. We examined ambulance diversion, a proxy measure for crowding, at 202 California hospitals. We found that hospitals serving large minority populations were more likely to divert ambulances than were hospitals with a lower proportion of minorities, even when controlling for hospital ownership, emergency department capacity, and other hospital demographic and structural factors. These findings suggest that establishing more-uniform criteria to regulate diversion may help reduce disparities in access to emergency care. PMID:22869655

Hsia, Renee Yuen-Jan; Asch, Steven M; Weiss, Robert E; Zingmond, David; Liang, Li-Jung; Han, Weijuan; McCreath, Heather; Sun, Benjamin C

2012-08-01

239

Proceedings of a National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation Among Minority Disadvantaged Populations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Multicultural Seminar on mental retardation among minority disadvantaged populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastatin...

1977-01-01

240

The population history of the Croatian linguistic minority of Molise (southern Italy): a maternal view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of the Croatian-speaking minority of Molise and evaluates its potential genetic relatedness to the neighbouring Italian groups and the Croatian parental population. Intermatch, genetic distance, and admixture analyses highlighted the genetic similarity between the Croatians of Molise and the neighbouring Italian populations and demonstrated that the Croatian-Italian ethnic minority presents features lying

Carla Babalini; Cristina Martínez-Labarga; Helle-Viivi Tolk; Toomas Kivisild; Rita Giampaolo; Tiziana Tarsi; Irene Contini; Lovorka Bara?; Branka Jani?ijevi?; Irena Martinovi? Klari?; Marijana Peri?i?; Anita Sujoldži?; Richard Villems; Gianfranco Biondi; Pavao Rudan; Olga Rickards

2005-01-01

241

The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS): Psychometric Properties within a Dutch Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) and the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS; Derogatis, Rosen, Leiblum, Burnett, & Heiman, 2002) within a Dutch population of approximately 350 women with and without sexual complaints. The main conclusions of this study are that the multidimensional

Moniek M. Ter Kuile; Marieke Brauer; Ellen Laan

2006-01-01

242

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil.

Diego G Bassani; Lilian S Palazzo; Jorge U Béria; Luciana P Gigante; Andréia CL Figueiredo; Denise RGC Aerts; Beatriz CW Raymann

2009-01-01

243

Screening colonoscopy bowel preparation: experience in an urban minority population  

PubMed Central

Methods: Suboptimal bowel preparation, present in over 20% of colonoscopies, can severely compromise the effectiveness of the colonoscopy procedure. We surveyed 93 primarily urban minority men and women who underwent asymptomatic ‘screening’ colonoscopy regarding their precolonoscopy bowel-preparation experience. Results: Print materials alone (39.8%) and in-person verbal instructions alone (35.5%) were reportedly the most common modes of instruction from the gastroenterologists. Liquid-containing laxative (70.6%) was the most common laxative agent; a clear liquid diet (69.6%) the most common dietary restriction. Almost half of the participants mentioned ‘getting the laxative down’ as one of the hardest parts of the preparation; 40.9% mentioned dietary restrictions. The 24.7% who mentioned ‘understanding the instructions’ as one of the hardest parts were more likely to be non-US born and to have lower education and income. There was no relationship between difficulty in understanding instructions and mode of instruction or preparation protocol. One quarter suggested that a smaller volume and/or more palatable liquid would have made the preparation easier. Three quarters agreed that it would have been helpful to have someone to guide them through the preparation process. Conclusions: These findings suggest a variety of opportunities for both physician- and patient-directed educational interventions to promote higher rates of optimal colonoscopy bowel preparation.

Basch, Charles E.; Wolf, Randi L.; Zybert, Patricia; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Shmukler, Celia; Neugut, Alfred I.; Shea, Steven

2013-01-01

244

Coming Out Growth: Conceptualizing and Measuring Stress-Related Growth Associated with Coming Out to Others as a Sexual Minority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coming out has long been depicted as a process that is conducive to personal growth. However, LGBTQ psychology has yet to\\u000a conduct systematic, theoretically informed research to study how individuals experience coming out growth (COG) and the impact\\u000a of such experiences on the lives of sexual minorities. The present investigation seeks to address these gaps in the literature\\u000a through an

Michelle D. VaughanCharles; Charles A. Waehler

2010-01-01

245

County-Level Association of Sexual Minority Density with Breast Cancer Incidence: Results from an Ecological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that breast cancer incidence rates are higher in areas where more lesbian women reside. In this secondary\\u000a analysis, we are linking Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) breast cancer data from 1996 to 2004 with Census\\u000a 2000 data. From the Census 2000 data on female same-sex partnered households, we derive a measure of sexual minority women

Ulrike Boehmer; Al Ozonoff; Alison Timm

2011-01-01

246

Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use Among Minority Urban Girls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly

Anne M. Teitelman; Sarah J. Ratcliffe; Mercedes M. Morales-Aleman; Cris M. Sullivan

2008-01-01

247

Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

2008-01-01

248

Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

2004-01-01

249

Population variation in sexual dimorphism in the human innominate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the adult human innominate, pubis length and sciatic notch width are generally considered to offer the best prospect for\\u000a reliable sex identification. Population variation in the extent of sexual dimorphism in these features was examined in two\\u000a temporally distinct European skeletal collections of documented age and sex. (English and Dutch). A complex relationship was\\u000a found to exist between pubis

S. M. MacLaughlin; M. F. Bruce

1986-01-01

250

Simulation for Competition of Languages with AN Aging Sexual Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, individual-based models originally used for biological purposes revealed interesting insights into processes of the competition of languages. Within this new field of population dynamics a model considering sexual populations with aging is presented. The agents are situated on a lattice and each one speaks one of two languages or both. The stability and quantitative structure of an interface between two regions, initially speaking different languages, is studied. We find that individuals speaking both languages do not prefer any of these regions and have a different age structure than individuals speaking only one language.

Schwämmle, V.

251

The Influence of Childhood Physical Abuse on Adult Health Status in Sexual Minority Women: The Mediating Role of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Among women in the general population, childhood physical abuse (CPA) is associated with poor adult health status and engagement in health risk behaviors. Sexual minority women (SMW) are at elevated risk of CPA, have higher rates of smoking, and may be at higher risk for poorer general health. In this study, we examined the influences of CPA on health status in a diverse sample of SMW. We hypothesized that SMW with a history of CPA would report poorer health than those without such histories and that early onset of smoking–an important health risk behavior–would mediate the relationship between CPA and current health status. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the influence of CPA on early health risk behavior (i.e., age of smoking onset) and current perceived health status in a community based sample of 368 SMW. Results More than one fifth of the sample (21.5%) reported a history of CPA. One fourth of the sample was current smokers; the average age of smoking onset was 19 to 20 years old. The mean level of self-rated health status was between “fair” and “good.” When relationships were simultaneously estimated, the effect of CPA on health status was mediated by two sequential smoking factors: CPA was associated with earlier age of smoking onset, and age of smoking onset was associated with current smoker status. Being a current smoker had a negative effect on perceived health status. Implications for Practice and/or Policy These results suggest that tobacco use is an important pathway by which CPA influences current health status. Prevention and early intervention initiatives should focus on the reduction of CPA among SMW to eliminate the long-term health consequences of adverse childhood events among SMW.

Matthews, Alicia K.; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Alvy, Lisa

2013-01-01

252

Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: a mediation analysis.  

PubMed

Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members. PMID:23358856

Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W

2013-01-29

253

The effect of sexual cannibalism on the evolution of large populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of sexual cannibalism is introduced in a simple model of population growth derived from the Bernardes model (J. Phys. I 5 (1995) 1501). The effect of sexual cannibalism is studied at the level of a population of individuals. Even in presence of cannibalism, a population can survive and stabilize for a birth rate b > 2. Before reaching a stable situation, the evolution of the (sexual cannibalism) population presents an unexpected pattern which is not present in the non-cannibalism case.

Vandewalle, N.

1997-02-01

254

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population.  

PubMed

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-04-30

255

Health Seeking Behavior and the Degree of Self Disclosure in Sexual Minority People  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this project was to examine whether the degree of disclosure of one's sexual orientation could be a predictor of certain health seeking behaviors including illegal drug use, alcohol and tobacco use, sexual practices, medication compliance and health care utilization. We hypothesized a positive correlation between the degree of self disclosure, or \\

Timothy M. Simrell

2006-01-01

256

Examining sexual health discourses in a racial/ethnic context.  

PubMed

Sexual health is a complex, multidimensional construct. In analyzing race and ethnicity in sexual health, this article examines 2 domains of discourse: (1) preventive sexual health, a public health oriented domain of discourse concerned with the prevention of disease, and (2) eudaemonic sexual health, a domain of discourse concerned with attainment of sexual pleasure within a moral context. Research on the sexual health of ethnic minority populations is typically focused on preventive sexual health. There is an underemphasis on eudaemonic discourses when applied to ethnic minority persons, particularly in the examination of ethnic variations in sexual dysfunction. Medicalization of sexual dysfunction, control of minority sexualities, and ethnically oriented cultural scenarios are cited as reasons for this underemphasis. Exploring racial/ethnic aspects of eudaemonic sexual health can deepen understanding of sexual health in multiple domains and strengthen the ability to promote sexual health for all. PMID:15129041

Lewis, Linwood J

2004-06-01

257

Rate of fixation of beneficial mutations in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the rate of substitution of advantageous mutations in populations of haploid organisms where the rate of recombination can be controlled. We have verified that in all the situations recombination speeds up adaptation through recombination of beneficial mutations from distinct lineages in a single individual, and so reducing the intensity of clonal interference. The advantage of sex for adaptation is even stronger when deleterious mutations occur since now recombination can also restore genetic background free of deleterious mutations. However, our simulation results demonstrate that evidence of clonal interference, as increased mean selective effect of fixed mutations and reduced likelihood of fixation of small-effect mutations, are also present in sexual populations. What we see is that this evidence is delayed when compared to asexual populations.

Gouveia, Joseilme F.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Sátiro, Caio; Campos, Paulo R. A.

2009-06-01

258

Academic Computing and BeyondNew Opportunities for Women, Minority Populations, and the New Media Arts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies, statistical reports, and popular press releases report the small numbers of women and minority populations involved with computer-based information technologies. This study examines the epistemological structure of computer science, analyses the historical development of computing with implications for current theory and practice, and explicates field data from a 1994-1996 qualitative survey questionnaire and interview research study searching out

Mary Leigh Morbey

2000-01-01

259

Comparison of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection: results of a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of sexual or physical abuse and sexually transmitted infections represent a vulnerable population at risk for HIV. Community-based interventions for behavior modification and subsequent risk reduction have not been effective among these women. Objectives To evaluate the effects of a theory-based (AIDS Risk Reduction Model) cognitive behavioral intervention model versus enhanced counseling for abused ethnic minority adolescent women on infection with sexually transmitted infection at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Design Controlled randomized trial with longitudinal follow-up Settings Southwestern United States, Metropolitan community-based clinic Participants Mexican-and-African American adolescent women aged 14-18 years with a history of abuse or sexually transmitted infection seeking sexual health care Methods Extensive preliminary study for intervention development was conducted including individual interviews, focus groups, secondary data analysis, pre-testing and feasibility testing for modification of an evidence-based intervention prior to testing in the randomized controlled trial. Following informed consents for participation in the trial, detailed interviews concerning demographics, abuse history, sexual risk behavior, sexual health and physical exams were obtained. Randomization into either control or intervention groups was conducted. Intervention participants received workshop, support group and individual counseling sessions. Control participants received abuse and enhanced clinical counseling. Follow-up including detailed interview and physical exam was conducted at 6 and 12 months following study entry to assess for infection. Intention to treat analysis was conducted to assess intervention effects using chi-square and multiple regression models. Results 409 Mexican-(n=342) and African-(n=67) American adolescent women with abuse and sexually transmitted infection histories were enrolled; 90% intervention group attendance; longitudinal follow-up at 6 (93%) and 12 (94%) months. Intervention (n=199) versus control (n=210) group participants experienced fewer infections at 0-6 (0% vs. 6.6%, p=0.001), 6-12 (3.6% vs. 7.8%, p=0.005, CI 95% lower-upper .001-.386) and 0-12 (4.8% vs. 13.2%, p=0.002, CI 95% lower-upper, .002-.531) month intervals. Conclusions A cognitive behavioral intervention specifically designed for ethnic minority adolescent women with a history of abuse and sexually transmitted infection was effective for prevention of infection. These results provide evidence for development of evidence-based interventions for sexually transmitted infection/HIV. Implications include translation to community-clinic-based settings for prevention of adverse outcomes regarding sexual health of adolescent women.

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

260

HIV, Sexual Violence and Special Populations: Adolescence and Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The risk of male to female transmission of HIV is impacted by baseline inflammation in the female genital tract, semen viral load and seminal plasma’s ability to induce specific patterns of cervical cytokine signalling and influx of immune cell populations. Disruption of the epithelial barrier during non-consensual intercourse may trigger further inflammation and initiation of cell-signalling pathways, thus facilitating transmission of HIV and expansion of local infection. Adolescent and pregnant women are at high risk for sexual violence and may exhibit alterations of genital mucosal immunity that promote immune activation, making them uniquely vulnerable to HIV acquisition.

Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Herold, Betsy C.

2013-01-01

261

Comparing the sensitivity of geographically distinct Lemna minor populations to atrazine.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to compare the sensitivities of field populations and a laboratory culture of a duckweed species (Lemna minor) to the herbicide atrazine using three different endpoints and to determine whether sensitivity to atrazine was affected by past exposure to the herbicide. L. minor cultures were purchased commercially or collected from field sites within an agricultural watershed and exposed to atrazine for 7 days under greenhouse conditions. Populations differed significantly in their sensitivity to atrazine. Biomass was more sensitive than frond number, while chlorophyll fluorescence was not a sensitive endpoint. Overall, the sensitivity of the various populations to atrazine was not strongly related to measures of past exposure to agriculture stressors. Positive correlations between biomass twenty-five percent inhibition concentrations (IC25s), biomass estimated marginal means and in-stream atrazine concentrations were observed, providing evidence that atrazine exposure is linked to a decrease in sensitivity to atrazine. However, IC25s generated for each population were similar, ranging from 19 to 40 and 57 to 92 ?g/L atrazine for biomass and frond data respectively, and likely do not represent biologically significant differences in atrazine sensitivity. Given the small range in sensitivity observed between populations, commercial laboratory cultures appear to provide a good estimate of the sensitivity of field populations of L. minor to atrazine and should continue to be used in regulatory phytotoxicity testing. PMID:23535915

Dalton, Rebecca L; Nussbaumer, Christina; Pick, Frances R; Boutin, Céline

2013-03-28

262

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2012-11-08

263

Configurations of identity among sexual minority youth: context, desire, and narrative.  

PubMed

Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive, holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth, we examine the integration of same-sex desire, behavior, and identity in the general life story and the selective appropriation of elements of "master narratives" of sexual identity development. Narratives were characterized by challenges to integrate desire, behavior, and identity into a configuration that conformed to the received sexual taxonomy. Implications for theory and further research on sexual identity development are discussed. PMID:19636732

Hammack, Phillip L; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

2008-09-23

264

Depression and Sexual Functioning in Minority Women: Current Status and Future Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increasing number of non-Caucasians in the United States, the overwhelming majority of research into both depression and sexuality has been conducted with European-American (Caucasian) samples. Sexual dysfunction and depression often co-occur, impacting relationship satisfaction, quality of life, and treatment adherence. These issues may be particularly salient for African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American women, yet this area of research has

Roseanne DeFronzo Dobkin; Sandra R. Leiblum; Raymond C. Rosen; Matthew Menza; Humberto Marin

2006-01-01

265

Molecular population divergence and sexual selection on morphology in the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of sexual selection in population divergence is of much interest, mainly because it is thought to cause reproductive isolation and hence could lead to speciation. Sexually selected traits have been hypothesized to diverge faster between populations than other traits, presumably because of differences in the strength, mechanism or dynamics of selection. We investigated this by quantifying population divergence

E I Svensson; L Kristoffersen; K Oskarsson; S Bensch

2004-01-01

266

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

267

Sexual Body Image and Its Correlates: A Population-Based Study of Finnish Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function

Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2011-01-01

268

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

269

Evaluation of the Female Sexual Function Index in a Population Based Sample from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor structure and reliability of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was evaluated in a Finnish population based\\u000a sample of 2,081 women, age 33–43 years. In addition, associations between female sexual function and age, psychological distress,\\u000a alcohol use, hormone based contraceptives, child sexual abuse (CSA), and adult sexual abuse were examined. The results supported\\u000a a six factor solution for the

Katarina Witting; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Markus Varjonen; Ingrid Wager; Maria Höglund; Ada Johansson; Nina Vikström; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2008-01-01

270

Gender Power Inequality and Continued Sexual Risk Behavior among Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescent and Young Adult Women Living with HIV  

PubMed Central

Adolescent and young adult minority women account for approximately 20% of new cases of HIV in this age group each year in the United States. It is vital to understand factors that influence sexual risk behavior in this population in order to prevent secondary transmission of HIV. As part of a larger qualitative study of youths living with HIV, in- depth interviews were conducted with 26 Black and Latina young women aged 16 to 24 years, infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission. The study explored factors related to continued unprotected sex with male partners. Since learning of their HIV infection, 23% reported multiple episodes of unprotected vaginal and/or anal sex, 27% reported condom use for some but not all of the time, 42% reported condom use all of the time and 7% were not sexually active. Among the highest risk participants partner refusal to use a condom, having the same HIV sero-status as partner, negative attitudes toward condoms, beliefs about HIV transmission, and fear of disclosure to new partners were associated with risky sex. The data suggests that more research is needed to develop more intensive interventions that address the role of gender power inequity for this sub-set of young women living with HIV.

Van Devanter, Nancy; Duncan, Alexandra; Birnbaum, Jeffrey; Burrell-Piggott, Tiphani; Siegel, Karolynn

2012-01-01

271

Population density and the intensity of sexual selection on body length in spatially or temporally restricted natural populations of a seed bug  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Population density affects the dynamics of mate acquisition and the opportunity for sexual selection in natural populations of the seed bug, Neacoryphus bicrucis Say (Hemiptera : Lygaeidae). The opportunity for sexual selection and the intensity of directional sexual selection on body length increased as the population density declined within a season for a population in a small, disjunct patch

Denson Kelly McLain

1992-01-01

272

Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?  

PubMed

Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line. PMID:19364716

Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

2009-04-01

273

Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

2009-01-01

274

Sexual Minority Youth Perspectives on the School Environment and Suicide Risk Interventions: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…

Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

275

Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.  

PubMed

Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143

Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

2012-06-16

276

The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

2012-01-01

277

Viral population analysis and minority-variant detection using short read next-generation sequencing  

PubMed Central

RNA viruses within infected individuals exist as a population of evolutionary-related variants. Owing to evolutionary change affecting the constitution of this population, the frequency and/or occurrence of individual viral variants can show marked or subtle fluctuations. Since the development of massively parallel sequencing platforms, such viral populations can now be investigated to unprecedented resolution. A critical problem with such analyses is the presence of sequencing-related errors that obscure the identification of true biological variants present at low frequency. Here, we report the development and assessment of the Quality Assessment of Short Read (QUASR) Pipeline (http://sourceforge.net/projects/quasr) specific for virus genome short read analysis that minimizes sequencing errors from multiple deep-sequencing platforms, and enables post-mapping analysis of the minority variants within the viral population. QUASR significantly reduces the error-related noise in deep-sequencing datasets, resulting in increased mapping accuracy and reduction of erroneous mutations. Using QUASR, we have determined influenza virus genome dynamics in sequential samples from an in vitro evolution of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (A/H1N1/09) influenza from samples sequenced on both the Roche 454 GSFLX and Illumina GAIIx platforms. Importantly, concordance between the 454 and Illumina sequencing allowed unambiguous minority-variant detection and accurate determination of virus population turnover in vitro.

Watson, Simon J.; Welkers, Matthijs R. A.; Depledge, Daniel P.; Coulter, Eve; Breuer, Judith M.; de Jong, Menno D.; Kellam, Paul

2013-01-01

278

Configurations of Identity Among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide\\u000a meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies\\u000a centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive,\\u000a holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth,

Phillip L. Hammack; Elisabeth Morgan Thompson; Andrew Pilecki

2009-01-01

279

Where Risks and Protective Factors Operate Differently: Homeless Sexual Minority Youth and Suicide Attempts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 628 homeless youth and young adults from eight US cities, this study examines whether the relationship between\\u000a having been in custody of social services and suicide attempts, and the relationship between engaging in survival sex and\\u000a suicide attempts differ based on sexual orientation. Findings suggest that being in custody of social services is associated\\u000a with a

N. Eugene Walls; Cathryn Potter; James Van Leeuwen

2009-01-01

280

Health Care Seeking Among Urban Minority Adolescent Girls: The Crisis at Sexual Debut  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE We wanted to explore the context of help seeking for reproductive and nonreproductive health concerns by urban adolescent girls. METHODS We undertook a qualitative study using in-depth interviews of African American and Latina girls (n = 22) aged 13 to 19 years attending public high schools in the Bronx, NY. RESULTS Before the onset of sexual activity, most girls meet health needs within the context of the family, relying heavily on mothers for health care and advice. Many new needs and concerns emerge at sexual debut. Key factors modulating girls’ ability to address their health needs and concerns include (1) the strategy of selective disclosure of information perceived to be harmful to close family relationships or threaten privacy; (2) the desire for personalized care, modeled on the emotional and physical care received from mother; and (3) relationships with physicians that vary in quality, ranging from distant relationships focused on providing information to close continuity relationships. Core values shaping these processes include privacy, a close relationship with the mother, and a perception of sexual activity as dangerous. No girl was able to meet her specific reproductive health needs within the mother-daughter relationship. Some find nonmaternal sources of personalized health care and advice for reproductive health needs, but many do not. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent girls attempt to meet reproductive health needs within a context shaped by values of privacy and close mother-daughter relationships. Difficulty balancing these values often results in inadequate support and care.

McKee, M. Diane; Karasz, Alison; Weber, Catherine M.

2004-01-01

281

Sexual recombination in the Botrytis cinerea populations in Hungarian vineyards.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of Botryotinia fuckeliana) causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants including grapes. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of a grape pathogenic population of B. cinerea in the area of Eger, Hungary. A total of 109 isolates from 12 areas were sampled. Based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin (tub1) locus, they all belong to group II, a phylogenetic species within B. cinerea. Seventy-four isolates were classified as transposa, with both the Flipper and Boty transposons, and 10 were classified as vacuma, lacking both transposons. The remaining isolates contained either only Flipper (13) or Boty (12). Multilocus analysis of sequences from tub1 and two other loci (elongation factor 1-alpha, tef1, and a minisatellite from the intron of an ATPase, MSB1) led to poor phylogenetic resolution of strains in individual clades. Analysis of five microsatellites (Bc2, Bc3, Bc5, Bc6, and Bc10) resulted in 55 microsatellite haplotypes within the 109 strains. No correlation was detected among individual haplotypes and the presence/absence of Flipper and/or Boty, the geographic origin, or the year of isolation. Application of the index of association, the chi-square test, and the phi test consistently indicated that the population of Hungarian isolates of B. cinerea undergoes sexual reproduction. However, the index of association test suggested the presence of some clonality, and the fixation index showed a low or occasionally moderate level of fixation in the Flipper populations. We conclude that the B. cinerea populations in Hungary consist of a strongly recombining group II phylogenetic species. PMID:19000006

Váczy, Kálmán Z; Sándor, Erzsébet; Karaffa, Levente; Fekete, Erzsébet; Fekete, Eva; Arnyasi, Mariann; Czeglédi, Levente; Kövics, György J; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P

2008-12-01

282

No, it is not just a phase: An adolescent's right to sexual minority identity under the United Nations Convention on the rights of the child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity (identities indeed) constitutes the inner core of a person which Article 8 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child rightfully acknowledges. Given the illustrative and not exhaustive nature of Article 8, the right of a child, which includes an adolescent under the age of 18, to identity covers respect for his or her sexual minority

Phil C. W. Chan

2006-01-01

283

Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

284

High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Students of a Minority-Serving University in a Community with a High HIV/AIDS Prevalence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…

Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.

2008-01-01

285

Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A…

Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

2009-01-01

286

High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Students of a Minority-Serving University in a Community with a High HIV/AIDS Prevalence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…

Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.

2008-01-01

287

Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

288

Introduction of a Guide to Enhance Risk Communication Among Low-Income and Minority Populations: A Grassroots Community Engagement Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-income populations, especially those belonging to minority groups, are among the most vulnerable groups before, during, and after a natural disaster. One of the factors that can be attributed to their vulnerability is the ineffectiveness of traditional risk communication systems in reaching this population. Many low-income populations are distrustful of government agencies and those who typically communicate risk messages. Consequently,

Randy Rowel; Payam Sheikhattari; Tanyka M. Barber; Myrtle Evans-Holland

2012-01-01

289

YOGA FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN IN A PREDOMINANTLY MINORITY POPULATION: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ?$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain was moderately feasible and may be more effective than usual care for reducing pain and pain medication use.

Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry

2009-01-01

290

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection  

PubMed Central

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic “linkage block” with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

Neher, Richard A.; Kessinger, Taylor A.; Shraiman, Boris I.

2013-01-01

291

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection.  

PubMed

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I

2013-09-09

292

Disparity in Depression Treatment among Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective: Prior work on racial/ethnic disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples that include an array of diagnostic and quality indicators and substantial non-English speaking minorities. Using nationally representative data (n=8762), we evaluate differences in access to and quality of depression treatments between ethnic/racial minority patients and non-Latino whites. Method: Access to mental health care was assessed by whether or not any mental health treatment was received in the past year. Quality treatment for acute depression was defined as four or more specialty/general health provider visits in the past year plus antidepressant use for 30 days or more; or eight or more specialty mental health provider visits of at least 30 minutes in length, with no antidepressant use. Results: For those with last year depressive disorder, 63.7% of Latinos, 68.7% of Asians and 58.8% of African Americans, vs. 40.2% of non-Latino whites, did not access any last year mental health treatment (significantly different at p<0.001). We also found that the disparities in the likelihood of both having access and receiving quality care for depression are significantly different for all minority groups as contrasted to non-Latino whites, except Latinos (marginally significant). Conclusion: Simply relying on present healthcare systems without considering the unique barriers to quality care that apply for ethnic and racial minorities is unlikely to affect the pattern of disparities observed. Populations reluctant to come to the clinic for depression care may have correctly anticipated the limited quality available in usual care.

Alegria, Margarita; Chatterji, Pinka; Wells, Kenneth; Cao, Zhun; Chen, Chih-nan; Takeuchi, David; Jackson, James; Meng, Xiao-Li

2009-01-01

293

Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population  

PubMed Central

People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information mavens may serve as an ideal point of intervention in attempts to modify health beliefs with the goal of reducing health disparities among these populations.

Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

2011-01-01

294

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

2008-01-01

295

Sexual Child Abuse in a Defined Swedish Area 1993–97: A Population-Based Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempting to avoid some of the most common methodological problems involved in research on sexual child abuse, we collected data on crimes, perpetrators, and sanctions in all convicted cases of sexual child abuse in a defined population during a 5-year period. This approach provided amply documented and ascertained cases with precise definitions and descriptions of the crimes involved, no clinical

Anita Carlstedt; Anders Forsman; Henrik Soderstrom

2001-01-01

296

Patterns of sexual behaviour in a rural population in north-western Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa has been characterised by the predominance of heterosexual transmission. Patterns of sexual behaviour have been implicated in the spread of the epidemic, but few quantitative data are available on sexual behaviour in rural populations in Africa. This paper reports data from a survey of 1117 adults aged 15–54 years selected randomly from twelve rural

Katua Munguti; Heiner Grosskurth; James Newell; Kesheni Senkoro; Frank Mosha; James Todd; Philippe Mayaud; Awena Gavyole; Maria Quigley; Richard Hayes

1997-01-01

297

The strength of postcopulatory sexual selection within natural populations of field crickets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm competition and cryptic female choice are likely to exert strong postcopulatory sexual selection and may amplify or ameliorate selection acting via male mating success. However, relatively few studies have estimated the potential strength of postcopulatory sexual selection acting within natural populations. Field crickets in the genus Teleogryllus have been used extensively as laboratory models to study the evolution of

Leigh W. Simmons; Maxine Beveridge

2010-01-01

298

Population data of 15 STR loci of Chinese Yi ethnic minority group.  

PubMed

Allele frequency data and statistical parameters for D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA loci were determined in a sample of 120 healthy unrelated individuals of Chinese Yi ethnic minority group living in Yunnan province, China. We observed 132 alleles with allelic frequencies ranging from 0.0042 to 0.5333. The forensic statistical parameters from the data of all the loci showed high values. All loci were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). The obtained frequency distributions were compared with previously published other population data, and significant differences were found between Yi population and Korean, Chinese Tibetan, Uigur, Ewenki, Han, Hui population at some STR loci. Our results of present study were valuable for forensic application and Chinese population genetic studies. These population data enriched Chinese genetic informational resources. PMID:18249578

Zhu, Bo-Feng; Shen, Chun-Mei; Wu, Qing-Ju; Deng, Ya-Jun

2008-02-04

299

A Population-Based Study of Sexual Orientation Identity and Gender Differences in Adult Health  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67 359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Conclusions. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed.

Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Landers, Stewart J.

2010-01-01

300

Perspectives on provider behaviors: a qualitative study of sexual and gender minorities regarding quality of care.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identified patients report receiving substandard care from healthcare providers. They face the fear and disturbing reality of discrimination when accessing health care. Without culturally sensitive treatment, nursing and other health professions do not properly care for this population. Following the recent trend towards awareness and need for inclusion of LGBTQ populations in healthcare, this paper provides a summary of the current literature on the treatment and needs of LGBTQ people and describes focus groups conducted to explore perceptions regarding provider behaviors. It concludes with a list of behaviors that enhance or impede quality care that can serve as a guide for healthcare professionals. PMID:23721392

Rounds, Kelsey E; McGrath, Barbara Burns; Walsh, Elaine

2013-04-01

301

Sexual and Gender Minority Health: What We Know and What Needs to Be Done  

PubMed Central

We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Makadon, Harvey J.; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

2008-01-01

302

Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles  

PubMed Central

Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

Arnqvist, Goran; Tuda, Midori

2010-01-01

303

Mental Health Pathways From Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban setting. Participants (M age = 44.1 years, 36% non-White) filled out a computer-assisted survey and had health-related data extracted from their electronic medical records. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among the latent factors of adult abuse and partner violence (each comprising indicators of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse) and the measured variables: viral load, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), HIV medication adherence, and emergency room (ER) visits. Mediation was tested for the latent construct mental health problems, comprising depression, anxiety, symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Results The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, ?2(123) = 157.05, p = .02, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in viral load (13%), HRQOL (41%), adherence (7%), and ER visits (9%), as well as the latent variable mental health problems (24%). Only 1 direct link emerged: a positive association between adult abuse and ER visits. Conclusions Findings indicate a significant role of IPV and mental health problems in the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV care providers should assess for IPV history and mental health problems in all patients and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments that include a focus on health behaviors.

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

304

Sexual dimorphism is associated with population fitness in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.  

PubMed

The population consequences of sexual selection remain empirically unexplored. Comparative studies, involving extinction risk, have yielded different results as to the effect of sexual selection on population densities make contrasting predictions. Here, we investigate the relationship between sexual dimorphism (SD) and population productivity in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, using 13 populations that have evolved in isolation. Geometric morphometric methods and image analysis are employed to form integrative measures of sexual dimorphism, composed of variation in weight, size, body shape, and pigmentation. We found a positive relationship between SD and adult fitness (net adult offspring production) across our study populations, but failed to find any association between SD and juvenile fitness (egg-to-adult survival). Several mechanisms may have contributed to the pattern found, and variance in sexual selection regimes across populations, either in female choice for "good genes" or in the magnitude of direct benefits provided by their mates, would tend to produce the pattern seen. However, our results suggest that evolutionary constraints in the form of intralocus sexual conflict may have been the major generator of the relationship seen between SD and population fitness. PMID:18182072

Rankin, Daniel J; Arnqvist, Göran

2007-12-25

305

Genetic differences among populations in sexual dimorphism: evidence for selection on males in a dioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) to that of neutral genetic markers (FST) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The QST/FST ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits.

YU, Q.; ELLEN, E. D.; WADE, M. J.; DELPH, L. F.

2011-01-01

306

Sexually transmitted infections in tribal populations of central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 17 tribal villages of the Kundam block of the Jabalpur district\\u000a of India. Individuals with sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes were enumerated and the specimens were collected for\\u000a the laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea, bacterial vaginosis and syphilis\\u000a sero-reactivity were diagnosed by standard microbiological techniques. Chlamydia infection was

V. G. Rao; A. Anvikar; D. Savargaonkar; J. Bhat

2009-01-01

307

Characteristics of victims of sexual abuse by gender and race in a community corrections population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White women, African American men, and African American women) using univariate and logistic regression analyses, which were conducted separately for each group. White women were the most likely to report a history of sexual abuse (26.5%), followed by African American women (16.0%), White men (4.0%), and African American men (1.1%). For all groups, histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were associated with a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with substance abuse problems for women but not the men. Cannabis dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the White women while cocaine dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the African American women. Several other variables were associated with sexual abuse for women but not men, including lower education (White women only), a history of violent offenses (White women only), and living in a shelter (African American women only). African American men tended to have higher levels of education; this was the only variable uniquely associated with either male group. Receiving psychiatric medications was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except African American men and a history of sex for drugs was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except White men. Consistent with national sample, women, particularly White women, were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. The gender-race differences for the sociodemographic factors associated with sexual abuse, particularly the risk of substance abuse for women, suggest the need for tailored interventions for sexual abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:22203627

Clark, C Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Islam, M Aminul; Hanover, Erin E; Cropsey, Karen L

2011-12-26

308

Cancer Control in Minority and Underserved Populations, Racial/Ethnic Patterns of Cancer in U.S., 1988-1992  

Cancer.gov

SEER Program 128 CANCER CONTROL IN MINORITY AND UNDERSERVED POPULATIONS C ancer affects various population subgroups in the United States in distinct ways. The statistics in this monograph show that black men have the highest incidence rate of cancer, due to excesses of prostate and lung andbronchus cancers, while American Indian men in NewMexico have the lowest rate.

309

Health Coaching to Improve Hypertension Treatment in a Low-Income, Minority Population  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Poor blood pressure control is common in the United States. We conducted a study to determine whether health coaching with home titration of antihypertensive medications can improve blood pressure control compared with health coaching alone in a low-income, predominantly minority population. METHODS We randomized 237 patients with poorly controlled hypertension at a primary care clinic to receive either home blood pressure monitoring, weekly health coaching, and home titration of blood pressure medications if blood pressures were elevated (n = 129) vs home blood pressure monitoring and health coaching but no home titration (n = 108). The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months. RESULTS Both the home-titration arm and the no–home-titration arm had a reduction in systolic blood pressure, with no significant difference between them. When both arms were combined and analyzed as a before-after study, there was a mean decrease in systolic blood pressure of 21.8 mm Hg (P <.001) as well as a decrease in the number of primary care visits from 3.5 in the 6 months before the study to 2.6 during the 6-month study period (P <.001) and 2.4 in the 6 months after the study (P <.001). The more coaching encounters patients had, the greater their reduction in blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Blood pressure control in a low-income, minority population can be improved by teaching patients to monitor their blood pressure at home and having nonprofessional health coaches assist patients, in particular, by counseling them on medication adherence. The improved blood pressure control can be achieved while reducing the time spent by physicians.

Margolius, David; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Bennett, Heather; Wong, Jennifer; Ngo, Victoria; Padilla, Guillermo; Thom, David H.

2012-01-01

310

The Role of Life Stress and Social Support in the Adjustment of Sexually Victimized Pregnant and Parenting Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations among sexual victimization and the psychosocial functioning of African American and Latina pregnant and parenting adolescents were examined. Forty-seven (17.7%) of the 265 participants reported histories of sexual victimization, most of which was unwanted sexual intercourse. The victimized adolescents reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and life stress and, although the two groups reported no differences in their levels

Lori N. Osborne; Jean E. Rhodes

2001-01-01

311

Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.  

PubMed Central

One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small population size are expressed at the end of the species' life history.

Ahtiainen, Jari J; Alatalo, Rauno V; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

2004-01-01

312

Adiabatic theory for the population distribution in the evolutionary minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolutionary minority game (EMG) using a statistical mechanics approach. We derive a theory for the steady-state population distribution of the agents. The theory is based on an “adiabatic approximation” in which short time fluctuations in the population distribution are integrated out to obtain an effective equation governing the steady-state distribution. We discover the mechanism for the transition from segregation (into opposing groups) to clustering (towards cautious behaviors). The transition is determined by two generic factors: the market impact (of the agents’ own actions) and the short time market inefficiency (arbitrage opportunities) due to fluctuations in the numbers of agents using opposite strategies. A large market impact favors “extreme” players who choose fixed opposite strategies, while large market inefficiency favors cautious players. The transition depends on the number of agents (N) and the effective rate of strategy switching. When N is small, the market impact is relatively large; this favors the extreme behaviors. Frequent strategy switching, on the other hand, leads to a clustering of the cautious agents.

Chen, Kan; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yuan, Baosheng

2004-02-01

313

Screening for Chlamydial Cervicitis in a Sexually Active University Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays to detect chlamydial cervicitis were performed on samples from 1,320 sexually active university women. Seventy-five had positive tests. Demographic, history, symptom, and physical examination variables were insufficient to predict infection accurately. Concludes that screening during routine visits with this…

Malotte, C. Kevin; And Others

1990-01-01

314

Clonality and sexual reproductive failure in remnant populations of Santalum lanceolatum (Santalaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat fragmentation can have important conservation consequences for clonal plant species that possess self-incompatibility mechanisms, as lack of genetic variability within remnant populations may result in sexual reproductive failure. Allozymes and RAPDs were used in this study to determine the extent of clonality in remnant Victorian populations of the northern sandalwood, Santalum lanceolatum (Santalaceae), a species that has been heavily

Cindy L Warburton; Elizabeth A James; Yvonne J Fripp; Stephen J Trueman; Helen M Wallace

2000-01-01

315

Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited

T. G. M. Sandfort; F. Bakker; F. G. Schellevis; I. Vanwesenbeeck

2006-01-01

316

Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited

THEO G. M. SANDFORT; FLOOR BAKKER; FRANÇOIS G. SCHELLEVIS; INE VANWESENBEECK

317

Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

2012-01-01

318

Sexual dysfunction after a first trimester induced abortion in a Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the short-term effect of a first trimester induced abortion on sexuality in a Chinese population. Studydesign: Thisisacross-sectionalstudy.Onehundredand fourwomen attendingthepost-abortionclinic 3-4monthsafterafirsttrimester induced abortion were recruited. They completed a self-administered questionnaire anonymously. The associations of various factors with sexual behavior after abortion were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Results: More than 30% of thewomen reported a reduction in both

Wing Yee Fok; Shing-Shun Nelson Siu; Tze Kin Lau

319

A measure of sexual dimorphism in populations which are univariate normal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measures of sexual dimorphism have been used extensively to predict the social organization and ecology of animal and human\\u000a populations. There is, however, no universally accepted measure of phenotypic differences between the sexes. Most indices\\u000a of sexual dimorphism fail to incorporate all of the information contained in a random data set. In an attempt to have a better\\u000a alternative, an

S. L. Ipiña; A. I. Durand

2000-01-01

320

Variation in sexual selection on male body size within and between populations of the soapberry bug  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of its evolutionary importance, little is known about intraspecific variation in sexual selection. In the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma, absolute adult sex ratio varies within and between populations because of differences in mortality rates, creating natural opportunities for variation in the intensity of sexual selection. Sex ratios in Oklahoma, U.S.A., are variably male biased, but approach 1:1 in

Scott P. Carroll; Michael H. Salamon

1995-01-01

321

'Migrants from over there' or 'racial minority here'? Sexual networks and prevention practices among sub-Saharan African migrants in France.  

PubMed

Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection in Europe, with an increasing proportion of them acquiring HIV after migration. This transformation in the epidemic pattern has raised concerns about the sexual mixing and preventive behaviours of migrants. This paper aims at exploring how racial boundaries shape sexual networks and structure prevention practices among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses are based on a French survey carried out among 1874 individuals born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged 18-49 and living in Paris and its surroundings. Our results provide evidence of the existence of African sexual networks, over and beyond those of national origin. The intra-African segregation of these sexual networks leads to sexual contacts between migrants from low- and high-HIV prevalence countries, which probably contribute to the development of the epidemic amongst these migrants. Moreover, racially-based perceptions of HIV-related risk seem to produce a specific attitude toward prevention practices as shown by higher rates of condom use among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa with a partner born outside sub-Saharan Africa. As a consequence, community-based approaches to HIV prevention should take into account the identification of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa as a racial minority and not only focus on national borders. PMID:23659520

Marsicano, Elise; Lydié, Nathalie; Bajos, Nathalie

2013-05-10

322

Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.  

PubMed

Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior. PMID:8372937

Collier, S

1993-08-01

323

Phenotype Frequencies of Autosomal Minor Histocompatibility Antigens Display Significant Differences among Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor histocompatibility (H) antigens are allogeneic target molecules having significant roles in alloimmune responses after human leukocyte antigen–matched solid organ and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Minor H antigens are instrumental in the processes of transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease, and in the curative graft-versus-tumor effect of SCT. The latter characteristic enabled the current application of selected minor H antigens in clinical

Eric Spierings; Matthijs Hendriks; Léna Absi; Angelica Canossi; Sonal Chhaya; John Crowley; Harry Dolstra; Jean-François Eliaou; Tom Ellis; Jürgen Enczmann; Maria E Fasano; Thibaut Gervais; Clara Gorodezky; Brigitte Kircher; David Laurin; Mary S Leffell; Pascale Loiseau; Mari Malkki; Miroslaw Markiewicz; Miryam Martinetti; Etsuko Maruya; Narinder Mehra; Fatma Oguz; Machteld Oudshoorn; Noemi Pereira; Rajni Rani; Ruhena Sergeant; Jackie Thomson; Thuong Hien Tran; Hannu Turpeinen; Kuo-Liang Yang; Renata Zunec; Mary Carrington; Peter de Knijff; Els Goulmy

2007-01-01

324

THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY WALKING PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE HEALTH, AND PREVENT OBESITY, IN RURAL, HIGH RISK, MINORITY POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of community walking programs to improve health (e.g., reduce blood pressure, improve lipid profile) and prevent obesity (e.g., maintain or reduce BMI and body fat) in rural, high risk, minority populations. Original data will be presented from ...

325

Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on…

Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

2013-01-01

326

Attitudes Towards Health Technologies for Telecare and Their Relationship To Successful Aging in a Community-Based Older Minority Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Examined attitudes and practices related to readiness and use of health technologies for telecare among an older minority population residing in affordable housing. Design and Methods: A model of successful aging based on Rowe and Kahn is used as a conceptual framework. Eighty-five respondents with an average age of 73 completed a self-administered survey that assessed receptivity to health

Elizabeth M. Bertera; Binh Q. Tran; Ellen M. Wuertz; Aisha A. Bonner

327

Where have all the cavies gone? Causes and consequences of predation by the minor grison on a wild cavy population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether predation by the minor grison (Galictis cuja , a small mustelid) played a key role in limiting a wild cavy population (Cavia magna ), ultimately leading to its local extinction. Radio-telemetry and capture-mark-recapture techniques were used to estimate grison predation rates (kill rates), time-specific probabilities of apparent mortality (population loss rate), overall mortality and grison predation for

Cornelia Kraus; Heiko G. Rödel

2004-01-01

328

Importance of ethnic foods as predictors of and contributors to nutrient intake levels in a minority population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To evaluate the role of ethnic foods as predictors of intake levels of selected nutrients that are important during pregnancy among the Bedouin Arab minority population in southern Israel, and to compare the main food predictors for Bedouin intakes of the selected nutrients with those for the region's Jewish majority population.Subjects\\/Methods:Ethnic foods\\/recipes (n=122) reported in the Bedouin Nutrition Study (BNS)

K Abu-Saad; D R Shahar; H Vardi; D Fraser

2010-01-01

329

High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.  

PubMed

We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

2006-02-01

330

The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

2005-01-01

331

Increasing Culturally Competent Neuropsychological Services for Ethnic Minority Populations: A Call to Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical\\/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural

Monica Rivera Mindt; Desiree Byrd; Pedro Saez; Jennifer Manly

2010-01-01

332

The evolution of harm--effect of sexual conflicts and population size.  

PubMed

Conflicts of interest between mates can promote the evolution of male traits that reduce female fitness and that drive coevolution between the sexes. The rate of adaptation depends on the intensity of selection and its efficiency, which depends on drift and genetic variability. This leads to the largely untested prediction that coevolutionary adaptations such as those driven by sexual conflict should evolve faster in large populations. We tested this using the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, a species where harm inflicted by males is well documented. Although most experimental evolution studies remove sexual conflict, we reintroduced it in populations in which it had been experimentally removed. Both population size and standing genetic variability were manipulated in a factorial experimental design. After 90 generations of relaxed conflict (monogamy), the reintroduction of sexual conflicts for 30 generations favored males that harmed females and females that were more resistant to the genital damage inflicted by males. Males evolved to become more harmful when population size was large rather than when initial genetic variation was enriched. Our study shows that sexual selection can create conditions in which males can benefit from harming females and that selection may tend to be more intense and effective in larger populations. PMID:21050188

Gay, Laurène; Hosken, David J; Eady, Paul; Vasudev, Ram; Tregenza, Tom

2010-11-10

333

Populations with elevated mutation load do not benefit from the operation of sexual selection  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures—flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism.

Hollis, Brian; Houle, David

2011-01-01

334

Population structure influences sexual conflict in wild populations of water striders  

PubMed Central

Summary In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we found that males from the perennial stream were significantly more aggressive than those from the ephemeral stream. We also found that dispersers were significantly more aggressive than non-dispersers within each stream. These field results illustrate the relevance of the MLS framework in our understanding of the evolution of sexual conflict.

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J.; Holt, Galen P.; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, JohnW.

2013-01-01

335

Genetic diversity in populations of asexual and sexual bag worm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two strictly sexual (Dahlica charlottae and Siederia rupicolella) and one strictly asexual (D. fennicella). These species compete for the same resources and share the same parasitoids. Results Allelic richness was comparable between the sexual species but it was higher than in the asexual species. All species showed high heterozygote deficiency and a large variation was observed among FIS values across loci and populations. Large genetic differentiation was observed between populations confirming the poor dispersal ability of these species. The asexual species showed lower genotype diversity than the sexual species. Nevertheless, genotype diversity was high in all asexual populations. Conclusion The three different species show a similar population structure characterised by high genetic differentiation among populations and low dispersal. Most of the populations showed high heterozygote deficiency likely due to the presence of null alleles at most of the loci and/or to the Wahlund effect. Although the parthenogenetic D. fennicella shows reduced genetic diversity compared to the sexual species, it still shows surprisingly high genotype diversity. While we can not totally rule out the presence of cryptic sex, would explain this high genotype diversity, we never observed sex in the parthenogenetic D. fennicella, nor was there any other evidence of this. Alternatively, a non-clonal parthenogenetic reproduction, such as automictic thelytoky, could explain the high genotypic diversity observed in D. fennicella.

Grapputo, Alessandro; Kumpulainen, Tomi; Mappes, Johanna; Parri, Silja

2005-01-01

336

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-17

337

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach  

PubMed Central

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.

Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-01

338

Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture.

Travnicek, Pavel; Jersakova, Jana; Kubatova, Barbora; Krejcikova, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lucanova, Magdalena; Krajnikova, Eva; Tesitelova, Tamara; Stipkova, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedren, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Curn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

2012-01-01

339

Associations Between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

PubMed Central

Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess: (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the association between caregiver support and bullying in both groups, and (c) whether sexual orientation moderates the interactive effect of caregiver support and bullying on depressive symptoms. Data come from a survey of students in 22 Boston public high schools; 99 of the 832 girls in the analytic sample were SM. We used chi-square statistics to examine group differences, and multiple regression to estimate the association between the caregiver support, sexual orientation, being bullied, and depressive symptomatology. SM girls reported similar levels of caregiver support as heterosexual girls, but reported higher levels of depressive symptomatology. They were also more likely to report nonphysical bullying. Tests for interactions were not statistically significant, suggesting that bullying, caregiver support, and sexual orientation are independently associated with depressive symptomatology.

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

340

The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2003-01-01

341

The role of sexual and asexual reproduction in structuring high latitude populations of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genotypic composition of populations of the asexually viviparous coral Pocillopora damicornis varies in a manner that challenges classical models of the roles of sexual and asexual reproduction. On the geographically isolated Hawaiian reefs and high latitude reefs in Western Australia, P. damicornis populations are highly clonal although it has been argued that sexual reproduction via broadcast spawning generates widely

K J Miller; D J Ayre

2004-01-01

342

The Relationship between Sexual Minority Verbal Harassment And Utilization of Health Services: Results from Countywide Risk Assessment Survey (CRAS) 2004.  

PubMed

We examined the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation-based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County-funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, orbisexual. Those who reported being verbally harassed received significantly more services overall than those who were not verbally harassed, and service utilization varied by sexual orientation. These findings inform future efforts to identify and assess social discrimination in health and social service settings. PMID:23044662

Hoyt D'Anna, Laura; Nguyen, Hannah-Hanh D; Reynolds, Grace L; Fisher, Dennis G; Janson, Michael; Chen, Cristy; Malotte, C Kevin

2012-05-15

343

Lifetime sexual assault prevalence rates and reporting practices in an emergency department population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Studies suggest significant rates of female sexual assault (SA); the majority of SAs remain unreported, and few victims receive medical care. The purpose of this study was to determine lifetime prevalence rates of SA in an emergency department population and to assess reporting patterns to police, physicians, and social service agencies. Methods: A verbally administered survey was given

Kim M. Feldhaus; Debra Houry; Robin Kaminsky

2000-01-01

344

Postcopulatory Sexual Selection Reduces Genetic Diversity in Experimental Populations of Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postcopulatory sexual selection affects the evolution of numerous features ranging from mating behavior to seminal fluid toxicity to thesize of gametes. Inan earlier study of theeffect of sperm competitionrisk on spermsize evolution, experimental populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were maintained either by outcrossing (sperm competition present) or by selfing (no sperm competition), and after 60 generations, significantly larger sperm

CRAIG W. LAMUNYON; O USSAMA BOUBAN; ASHER D. CUTTER

2007-01-01

345

Natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation among micro-allopatric populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local adaptation to divergent environmental conditions can promote popu- lation genetic differentiation even in the absence of geographic barriers and hence lead to speciation. But what mechanisms contribute to reproductive isolation among diverging populations? We tested for natural and sexual selection against immigrants in a fish species inhabiting (and adapting to) nonsulphidic surface habitats, sulphidic surface habitats and a sulphidic

M. TOBLER; R. RIESCH; C. M. TOBLER; T. SCHULZ-MIRBACH

2009-01-01

346

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed...

L. A. Nieves A. L. Nieves

1992-01-01

347

Diverse Voices: The Inclusion of Language-Minority Populations in National Studies: Challenge and Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Individuals in the United States who do not speak English well (referred to as language-minority individuals) represent a major challenge for health and social service agencies, educators, policy planners, and researchers. Although only about 3 percent of...

R. M. Li P. McCardle R. L. Clark K. Kinsella D. Berch

2001-01-01

348

Smoking cessation interventions in U.S. racial\\/ethnic minority populations: an assessment of the literature ? ? This research was initiated and funded by The National Cancer Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSmoking prevalence rates in some ethnic minority groups are elevated relative to the majority population. Thus, identifying cessation interventions that are effective for these groups is important. This article reviews published studies that examine effects of smoking cessation interventions relevant to racial ethnic minority populations.

Deirdre Lawrence; Jessica E Graber; Sherry L Mills; Helen I Meissner; Richard Warnecke

2003-01-01

349

Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

Walker, Gabriela

2008-01-01

350

Methodological considerations on the study of sexual dimorphism in past human populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of sexual dimorphism in human populations is influenced by stress, social role and by labour division. However,\\u000a studies on ethnographic populations provided contradictory results. Unfortunately, most of these studies were based on stature\\u000a only, which, as we could observe in a survey on pre-protohistoric circum-Medirerranean samples, is a poor indicator of functionally\\u000a related dimorphism.\\u000a \\u000a A number of skeletal

S. M. Borgognini Tarli; E. Repetto

1986-01-01

351

A Population-Based Study on Alcohol and High-Risk Sexual Behaviors in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn Botswana, an estimated 24% of adults ages 15–49 years are infected with HIV. While alcohol use is strongly associated with HIV infection in Africa, few population-based studies have characterized the association of alcohol use with specific high-risk sexual behaviors.Methods and FindingsWe conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study of 1,268 adults from five districts in Botswana using a stratified two-stage probability

Sheri D. Weiser; Karen Leiter; Michele Heisler; Willi McFarland; Fiona Percy-de Korte; Sonya M. DeMonner; Sheila Tlou; Nthabiseng Phaladze; Vincent Iacopino; David R. Bangsberg

2006-01-01

352

The Relationship Between Sexual Minority Verbal Harassment and Utilization of Health Services: Results from Countywide Risk Assessment Survey (CRAS) 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation–based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County–funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, or

Laura Hoyt DAnna; Hannah-Hanh D. Nguyen; Grace L. Reynolds; Dennis G. Fisher; Michael Janson; Cristy Chen; C. Kevin Malotte

2012-01-01

353

Can risk factor modification reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in minority populations?  

PubMed

It appears that landmark epidemiological studies have shown that certain conditions and/or environmental factors to increased risk for developing certain diseases, in this instance cardiovascular diseases. These conditions have been labeled risk factors, so it appears that many of the variables, i.e., risk factors, which lead to diseases have been identified. Since many of them are alterable, they could be altered in a favorable direction. Thus, the future should consist of education and dissemination of information/knowledge which could result in a reduction in the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases as well as a decrease in its incidence and prevalence in minority populations. Special techniques should be used so that the information is available to citizens of all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Education may be the best way to approach this complex issue, e.g., obesity as a risk factor for diabetes and hypertension. Obesity is an alterable risk factor and perhaps not an independent one. It is probably interrelated with socioeconomic and cultural factors, which would make it a product of multiple factors which have led it to being considered an independent risk factor. It is, therefore, necessary to develop special techniques to investigate methods to identify the contribution of various components to the development of a risk factor. This could enable us to develop a solution for either improving or removing the factors that lead to the development of a risk factor. One example of this would be to become knowledgeable about the correct types of food to eat, the proper preparation and consumption of these foods, and the level of exercise or activity needed to burn appropriate calories in order to prevent obesity. It is not the obesity per se that is the etiology for a specific condition or disease, it is a combination of the influence of the environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors in conjunction with the resultant end product, obesity, that is the etiology for the conditions or diseases associated with it. Senators and other government agents should strongly encourage people to employ techniques to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, i.e., insurance companies should pay for training, educational sessions, and participation in activities/programs which are aimed at informing or instructing the public on how to reduce risk factors. This would be a preventive approach for medical conditions and would be much better than waiting until conditions requiring pharmacological or surgical intervention develop. The health care reform bill should have a built-in component to promote techniques and methodologies to reduce the probability of developing medical conditions. PMID:8778768

Randall, O S; Retta, T M; Ordor, O E; Courtney, B L

354

Evolutionary rescue of sexual and asexual populations in a deteriorating environment.  

PubMed

The environmental change experienced by many contemporary populations of organisms poses a serious risk to their survival. From the theory of evolutionary rescue, we predict that the combination of sex and genetic diversity should increase the probability of survival by increasing variation and thereby the probability of generating a type that can tolerate the stressful environment. We tested this prediction by comparing experimental populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that differ in sexuality and in the initial amount of genetic diversity. The lines were serially propagated in an environment where the level of stress caused by salt increased over time from fresh water to the limits of marine conditions. In the long term, the combination of high diversity and obligate sexuality was most effective in supporting evolutionary rescue. Most of the adaptation to high-salt environments in the obligate sexual-high diversity lines had occurred by midway through the experiment, indicating that positive genetic correlations of adaptation to lethal stress with adaptation to sublethal stress greatly increased the probability of evolutionary rescue. The evolutionary rescue events observed in this study provide evidence that major shifts in ways of life can arise within short time frames through the action of natural selection in sexual populations. PMID:23106714

Lachapelle, Josianne; Bell, Graham

2012-06-11

355

Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited to participate, 65% took part in the survey. Sexual orientation was assessed in persons aged 18 years and older and reported by 98.2% of 9684 participants. The respondents’ characteristics are comparable with those of the Dutch general population. Results. Gay/lesbian participants reported more acute mental health symptoms than heterosexual people and their general mental health also was poorer. Gay/lesbian people more frequently reported acute physical symptoms and chronic conditions than heterosexual people. Differences in smoking, alcohol use, and drug use were less prominent. Conclusions. We found that sexual orientation was associated with mental as well as physical health. The causal processes responsible for these differences by sexual orientation need further exploration.

Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Bakker, Floor; Schellevis, Francois G.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

2006-01-01

356

Mortality Among Very Low-Birthweight Infants in Hospitals Serving Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Objective. We investigated whether the proportion of Black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated with neonatal mortality for Black and White VLBW infants. Methods. We analyzed medical records linked to secondary data sources for 74050 Black and White VLBW infants (501 g to 1500 g) treated by 332 hospitals participating in the Vermont Oxford Network from 1995 to 2000. Hospitals where more than 35% of VLBW infants treated were Black were defined as “minority-serving.” Results. Compared with hospitals where less than 15% of the VLBW infants were Black, minority-serving hospitals had significantly higher risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates (White infants: odds ratio [OR]=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.56; Black infants: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.64; Pooled: OR = 1.28, 95% CI=1.10, 1.50). Higher neonatal mortality in minority-serving hospitals was not explained by either hospital or treatment variables. Conclusions. Minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. Because VLBW Black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals, higher neonatal mortality rates at these hospitals may contribute to racial disparities in infant mortality in the United States.

Morales, Leo S.; Staiger, Douglas; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Carpenter, Joseph; Kenny, Michael; Geppert, Jeffrey; Rogowski, Jeannette

2005-01-01

357

Special populations: Treatment concerns for gay male sexual addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the most basic tenets of addiction assessment and treatment are minimally affected by gender and cultural concerns, an empathic understanding of the social and psychological values and experiences of specific populations helps the addiction specialist provide effective appropriate care. Homosexual men, having experienced developmental and social challenges related to both the cultural repression and vilification of homosexuality and the

Robert Weiss

1997-01-01

358

Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of

Alexandra A. Brewis

359

Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.

He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei

360

Promoting Career Opportunities in Nursing to the Minority and Male Population of Galveston.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1991, a project was undertaken to increase the number of minority and male students entering and completing the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Galveston College (GC) in Texas. The goal of the project was achieved in three interrelated phases. The initial phase focused on establishing an outreach program within the community. The…

Garcia, Viola Ruth

361

A systematic review of religion and dementia care pathways in black and minority ethnic populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate how religion influences care pathways for black and minority ethnic individuals with dementia. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to explore how religion affects later presentation to care services, absence of care-seeking and dissatisfaction with care. Exclusion and Inclusion criteria were applied to the research literature. Qualitative and quantitative papers were included. Included studies were

Jemma L. Regan; Sarmishtha Bhattacharyya; Peter Kevern; Tanvir Rana

2012-01-01

362

The Research Apprenticeship Program: Promoting Careers in Biomedical Sciences and the Health Professions for Minority Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the career decisions of 54 high school students who participated in the Research Apprenticeship Program (RAP) at Ohio State University during 1990-92. RAP is a precollege program which aims to provide meaningful experiences in various aspects of health-related research for minority high school students and teachers. RAP…

Davis, Denise D.

363

A Research and Training Model for Pre-Retirement Education Programs for Minority Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report covers the first phase of a study on the development, administration and evaluation of a Pre-Retirement Education Research and Training Program for Minority Program Leadership Aides. Thirty-eight Aides, all Black, were trained in an intensive 66-hour program to act as PREP Aides in assisting with the development of PREP Life Planning…

Boyack, Virginia L.

364

Sociological Theories Relating to Mental Disabilities in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that mental disorders are one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. The level of mental health need is particularly high for members of racial and ethnic minority groups who, despite similar to higher mental disorder and disability prevalence rates, use fewer mental health services in comparison to whites and tend to receive poorer

Carol J. Peng

2009-01-01

365

Using RARE for Insights into Minority Populations Living with HIV\\/AIDS in Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined the utility of Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation (RARE) as a tool for gaining insights into the social dynamics underlying HIV\\/AIDS in predominantly minority communities at high risk of HIV infection. Further, it identified factors influencing access to treatment and services in communities at risk of HIV infection. Methods: A structured synthesis design was applied to

Graham Watts; William Livingood; Carolyn Woodhouse; Christopher H. Bates; Dawn Goodridge Carney; Deidre Kelley

366

Historically Black Medical Schools: Addressing the Minority Health Professional Pipeline and the Public Mission of Care For Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need.

Norris, Keith C.; Baker, Richard S.; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J.; Riley, Wayne J.; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y.; Gibbons, Gary

2013-01-01

367

Early Sexual Initiation and Subsequent Sex-Related Risks Among Urban Minority Youth: The Reach for Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: At baseline, 31% of males and 8% of females reported sexual initiation; by the 10th grade, these figures were 66% and 52%, respectively. Recent intercourse among males increased from 20% at baseline to 39% in eighth grade; 54% reported recent sex and 6% had made a part- ner pregnant by 10th grade. Among females, recent intercourse tripled from baseline

Lydia O'Donnell; Carl R. O'Donnell; Ann Stueve

368

NIA outreach to minority and health disparity populations can a toolbox for recruitment and retention be far behind?  

PubMed

The ability to locate the right research tool at the right time for recruitment and retention of minority and health disparity populations is a challenge. This article provides an introduction to a number of recruitment and retention tools in a National Institute on Aging Health Disparities Toolbox and to this special edition on challenges and opportunities in recruitment and retention of minority populations in Alzheimer disease and dementia research. The Health Disparities Toolbox and Health Disparities Resource Persons Network are described along with other more established resource tools including the Alzheimer Disease Center Education Cores, Alzheimer Disease Education and Referral Center, and Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research. Nine featured articles are introduced. The articles address a range of concerns including what we know and do not know, conceptual and theoretical perspectives framing issues of diversity and inclusion, success as a result of sustained investment of time and community partnerships, the significant issue of mistrust, willingness to participate in research as a dynamic personal attribute, Helpline Service and the amount of resources required for success, assistance in working with Limited English Proficiency elders, and sage advice from social marketing and investigations of health literacy as a barrier to recruitment and retention. Finally, an appeal is made for scientists to share tools for the National Institute on Aging Health Disparity Toolbox and to join the Health Disparities Resource Persons Network. PMID:22720317

Harden, J Taylor; Silverberg, Nina

369

Sexual dimorphism in human skulls. A comparison of sexual dimorphism in different populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application and comparison of sex discriminant functions in different populations led to the conclusion that a certain combination\\u000a and weighting of a few sex dimorphism variables (in this study we only used craniometric variables) can give a good discrimination\\u000a between male and female individuals, independent of the racial group to which this function is applied.\\u000a \\u000a In our study, the sex-discriminatory

H. T. Uytterschaut

1986-01-01

370

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

371

Prevalence of sexually transmitted disease syndromes in tribal population of central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:A syndromic approach has been advocated for identification and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in countries where diagnostic laboratory tests are not consistently available. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to discover the prevalence of STD syndromes in tribal population of central India.Methods:All married men and women in the age group of 15–49 years from selected villages were enumerated

V G Rao; A Anvikar; D Savargaonkar; J Bhat; R Yadav; B K Tiwary; A Abbad

2009-01-01

372

The Group-Level Consequences of Sexual Conflict in Multigroup Populations  

PubMed Central

In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within-and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced) of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics.

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Gallup, Andrew C.

2011-01-01

373

Substance abuse and mental health disparities: Comparisons across sexual identity groups in a national sample of young Australian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research amply documents health disparities related to substance abuse among sexual minority women. However, relatively little research has examined risk factors or predictors of substance use in this population and even less has explored differences among sexual minority subgroups. Using data from 8850 women aged 25–30 years in the 2003 survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study

Tonda Hughes; Laura A. Szalacha; Ruth McNair

2010-01-01

374

Sexually dimorphic spatial learning varies seasonally in two populations of deer mice.  

PubMed

Spatial learning in photoperiodically induced breeding (reproductive) and non-breeding (non-reproductive) adult male and female deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was examined in a Morris water-maze task. Sexually mature, adult male and female deer mice that were derived from either a mainland population (P. m. artemisiae) or an island population (P. m. angustus) were required to learn the spatial position of a hidden, submerged platform in a water maze. Deer mice were tested either during the breeding season (summer; long day photoperiod) or during the non-breeding season (winter; short day photoperiod) with a total of six blocks of four trials conducted in a single day. Retention was tested with two probe trials which occurred one and three days after acquisition. During the breeding season male spatial task acquisition was superior to female spatial task acquisition for both populations. In contrast, during the non-breeding season there were no significant sex differences in spatial acquisition for either population. This change in sexually dimorphic spatial learning was due to female spatial-performance decreasing from non-breeding season to the breeding season and male spatial-performance increasing over the same period. Both populations displayed similar seasonal variations in sexually dimorphic water-maze task performance. There were, however, overall population differences in water-maze task performance that were related to the ecology of the mice, with the insular mice displaying shorter latencies to reach the hidden platform than did the mainland deer mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8173954

Galea, L A; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P; Innes, D; Hargreaves, E L

1994-01-28

375

The Impact of Aging on Sexual Function and Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Review of Population-Based Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function

Richard Hayes; Lorraine Dennerstein

2005-01-01

376

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01

377

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-12-01

378

Alleles versus genotypes: Genetic interactions and the dynamics of selection in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical interactions between amino-acids are essential for protein structure and activity, while protein-protein interactions and regulatory interactions are central to cellular function. As a consequence of these interactions, the combined effect of two mutations can differ from the sum of the individual effects of the mutations. This phenomenon of genetic interaction is known as epistasis. However, the importance of epistasis and its effects on evolutionary dynamics are poorly understood, especially in sexual populations where recombination breaks up existing combinations of alleles to produce new ones. Here, we present a computational model of selection dynamics involving many epistatic loci in a recombining population. We demonstrate that a large number of polymorphic interacting loci can, despite frequent recombination, exhibit cooperative behavior that locks alleles into favorable genotypes leading to a population consisting of a set of competing clones. As the recombination rate exceeds a certain critical value this ``genotype selection'' phase disappears in an abrupt transition giving way to ``allele selection'' - the phase where different loci are only weakly correlated as expected in sexually reproducing populations. Clustering of interacting sets of genes on a chromosome leads to the emergence of an intermediate regime, where localized blocks of cooperating alleles lock into genetic modules. Large populations attain highest fitness at a recombination rate just below critical, suggesting that natural selection might tune recombination rates to balance the beneficial aspect of exploration of genotype space with the breaking up of synergistic allele combinations.

Neher, Richard

2010-03-01

379

Attributes of researchers and their strategies to recruit minority populations: results of a national survey.  

PubMed

Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship. PMID:22771575

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S; Garza, Mary A; Kim, Kevin H; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B

2012-07-05

380

International differences in alcohol use according to sexual orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high volume and

Kim Bloomfield; Matthias Wicki; Sharon Wilsnack; Tonda Hughes; Gerhard Gmel

2011-01-01

381

HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?  

PubMed Central

Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations.

De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

1997-01-01

382

Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

383

Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in global indigenous populations: data availability and gaps.  

PubMed

Socioeconomic and health disadvantage is widespread within and across indigenous communities in the world, leading to differentials in morbidity and mortality between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, among indigenous populations are an emerging public health concern. The focus of this paper is on examining the STI epidemiology in indigenous communities in various parts of the world utilizing a range of data sources. Most of the STI research on global indigenous communities has concentrated on developed countries, neglecting more than half the world's indigenous people in the developing countries. This has resulted in major gaps in data at global level for STIs and HIV/AIDS among indigenous populations. Available data show that the prevalence of STIs is increasing among the indigenous communities and in several instances, the rates of these infections are higher than among non-indigenous populations. However, HIV still remains low when compared with the rates of other STIs. The paper argues that there is an urgent need to collect more comprehensive and reliable data at the global level across various indigenous communities. There is also an opportunity to reverse current trends in STIs through innovative, evidence-based and culturally appropriate targeted sexual health programmes. PMID:24052012

Minichiello, Victor; Rahman, Saifur; Hussain, Rafat

2013-08-29

384

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites.

Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

2009-01-01

385

Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities  

PubMed Central

The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations.

Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alu, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

2013-01-01

386

The Role of Sexual Selection and Conflict in Mediating Among-Population Variation in Mating Strategies and Sexually Dimorphic Traits in Sepsis punctum  

PubMed Central

The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive traits is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it has the potential to limit gene flow among populations, contributing to speciation. Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. Flies from five distinct populations were reared at high or low food, generating high and low quality males. The expression of body size, forelimb morphology and courtship rate were each greater at high food, but high food males experienced higher mating success or reduced latency to first copulation in only one of the populations. Among populations, overall mating success increased with the degree of male-bias in overall body size and forelimb modification, suggesting that these traits have evolved as a means of increasing male mating rate. The increased mating success observed in large-male populations raises the question of why variation in magnitude of dimorphism persists among populations. One reason may be that costs of producing a large size constrain the evolution of ever-larger males. We found no evidence that juvenile mortality under food stress was greater for large-male populations, but development time was considerably longer and may represent an important constraint in an ephemeral and competitive growth environment.

Dmitriew, Caitlin; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

2012-01-01

387

The Impact of Rising Tuition on the Low Income and Minority Populations of Arizona.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to determine whether college tuition increases in Arizona were placing a disproportionate burden on individuals at lower income levels. Statistical data from the 10-year census reports were analyzed to calculate tuition as a percentage of per capital income for the following groups: total population, White non-Hispanics,…

Rubi, David C.

388

Hospital Implementation of Patient-Centered Communication with Aging Minority Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The composition and needs of culturally diverse older populations should encourage hospitals to address the conflicting demands for access and delivery of ethnically sensitive services. Health communication that is patient-centered and provides culturally and linguistically appropriate care has the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health…

Langer, Menachem; Langer, Nieli

2009-01-01

389

Self-fertilization is the main sexual reproduction mechanism in native wine yeast populations.  

PubMed

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model eukaryotic organism for classical genetics and genomics, and yet its ecology is still largely unknown. In this work, a population genetic analysis was performed on five yeast populations isolated from wine-making areas with different enological practices using simple sequence repeats and restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA as molecular markers on 292 strains. In accordance with other studies, genome size estimation suggests that native S. cerevisiae strains are mainly homothallic and diploids. Analysis of mtDNA data showed that yeast populations from nonindustrial areas have 40% higher genetic diversity than populations isolated from industrial areas, demonstrating that industrial enological practices are likely to affect native yeast populations negatively by reducing its biodiversity. On the other hand, genetic differentiation analysis based on their microsatellite showed no correlation between genetic and geographic distance and a nonsignificant value when a Mantel test was applied. Finally, in the five populations studied, positive inbreeding (F(is)) values from 0.4 to 0.75, a low but significant level of linkage disequilibrium and a high number of multilocus genotypes were detected. These results strongly advocate that sexual reproduction is frequent enough to erase clonal signature in natural populations and that self-fertilization is the main mating system. PMID:19016866

Cubillos, Francisco A; Vásquez, Claudia; Faugeron, Sylvain; Ganga, Angélica; Martínez, Claudio

2008-11-07

390

Female sperm limitation in natural populations of a sexual/asexual mating complex (Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia formosa).  

PubMed

In sperm-dependent sexual/asexual mating systems, male mate choice is critical for understanding the mechanisms behind apparent stability observed in natural populations. The gynogenetic Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) requires sperm from sexual males (e.g. Poecilia latipinna) to trigger embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. Consequently, males should try to avoid or reduce the cost of mating with asexuals. We investigated male mate choice by documenting the presence of sperm in natural populations and found that a higher proportion of sexual females had sperm than asexuals. In addition, among those females that had sperm, sexuals had more sperm than asexuals. Our results hint at a role for male mate choice as a stabilizing factor in such systems. PMID:18319207

Riesch, Rüdiger; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

2008-06-23

391

Factors associated with early sexual debut in Slovenia: results of a general population survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate time trends in age at first heterosexual intercourse (FHI) and associated factors. Methods Data were collected from a national probability sample of the general population aged 18–49?years. Results Median age at FHI was 17?years for men and 18?years for women, but declined from 18?years to 17?years in men born after the early 1960s and in women born after the early 1970s. Early FHI (before age 16) was reported by 15.2% of men and 7.4% of women, but in recent cohorts (born 1975–82), proportions were similar in both sexes (16.9% and 14.4%, respectively). In women, higher educational level and acquiring most knowledge about sex from parents or in school were associated with later age at FHI. Half the women with early FHI judged the event to have occurred too soon. 4.2% of women with early FHI reported coercion at FHI, compared to 0.9% overall. The main factor associated with early FHI in men was not living with both parents up to the age of 15. Individuals with early FHI were more likely to report higher risk sexual behaviour as well as teenage motherhood and, for men, not having used a condom at FHI and bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Three in four individuals with early FHI thought they had inadequate sexual knowledge at FHI. Many would have liked to have learned more from parents and in school. Conclusions Improved sexual education among young Slovenians should aim to delay FHI until a more mature age and to be better prepared for safer sex.

Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

2006-01-01

392

Changes and correlates in multiple sexual partnerships among Chinese adult women--population-based surveys in 2000 and 2006.  

PubMed

The sexual transmission of HIV and STI is becoming a major public health concern in China. However, studies on sexuality in China remain scant, particularly those that analyze female sexuality. This study is to investigate the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among adult women, and to examine trends and correlates for having more than one lifetime sexual partner. MSP, coded as having one or none vs. two or more lifetime sexual partners, was the key binary outcome measure. The data were from two national probability surveys on sexual behaviors in China carried out in 2000 and 2006. The sample size of adult women was 1899 in 2000 (total sample n=3812), and 2626 in 2006 (n=5404). Overall prevalence of MSP increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 29.6% in 2006 (chi-square test, significance = 0.000). The most rapid changes took place among women with less education, those who worked in blue-collar jobs and lower social-status positions, and those living in rural areas or small towns. Women who were better educated, lived in big cities, and held management-level occupations exhibited less change but had a higher baselines prevalence of MSP, suggesting that changes in MSP behavior may occur initially among women of higher socioeconomic status. Based on the 2006 data-set, significant positive correlates of MSP included more years of education, being in a long-term relationship, being middle aged, having a lower-status job, going out dancing at entertainments venues, and being a state of overall health in the past 12 months. The significant recent increase in MSP among women reinforces the need to examine China's sexual revolution in the context of a rapidly transitioning society. Findings regarding female sexuality also raise new questions to be explored in further sexuality studies, in order to better understand population sexual behaviors and to inform future HIV-prevention efforts. PMID:21660755

Yingying, Huang; Smith, Kumi; Suiming, Pan

2011-06-01

393

E2 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is predictive for obesity status in Roma minority population of Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority, founder population characterized by unique genetic background modeled by culturally determined endogamy. The present study explores whether the widely found cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk effects of ACE I/D, APOE (?2, ?3, ?4), eNOS-VNTR and LEP G2548A polymorphisms can be replicated in this specific population. Methods and Results The community-based study was carried on 208 adult Bayash Roma living in rural settlements of eastern and northern Croatia. Risk effect of four CVD candidate polymorphisms are related to the most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes: obesity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference), hypertension and hyperlipidemia (triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol). For all of them the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The extent to which the phenotypic status is related to genotype was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The strongest associations were found for ?2 allele of the APOE as a predictor of waist circumference (OR 3.301; 95%CI 1.254-8.688; p = 0.016) as well as for BMI (OR 3.547; 95%CI 1.471-8.557; p = 0.005). It is notable that ?3 allele of APOE gene turned out to be a protective genetic factor determining low lipid levels. Conclusion The strength of the relation and the similarity of the results obtained for both tested indicators of obesity provide firm evidence that APOE plays an important role in obesity development in the Roma population.

2011-01-01

394

Long-loop G-quadruplexes are misfolded population minorities with fast transition kinetics in human telomeric sequences.  

PubMed

Single-stranded guanine (G)-rich sequences at the 3' end of human telomeres provide ample opportunities for physiologically relevant structures, such as G-quadruplexes, to form and interconvert. Population equilibrium in this long sequence is expected to be intricate and beyond the resolution of ensemble-average techniques, such as circular dichroism, NMR, or X-ray crystallography. By combining a force-jump method at the single-molecular level and a statistical population deconvolution at the sub-nanometer resolution, we reveal a complex population network with unprecedented transition dynamics in human telomeric sequences that contain four to eight TTAGGG repeats. Our kinetic data firmly establish that G-triplexes are intermediates to G-quadruplexes while long-loop G-quadruplexes are misfolded population minorities whose formation and disassembly are faster than G-triplexes or regular G-quadruplexes. The existence of misfolded DNA supports the emerging view that structural and kinetic complexities of DNA can rival those of RNA or proteins. While G-quadruplexes are the most prevalent species in all the sequences studied, the abundance of a misfolded G-quadruplex in a particular telomeric sequence decreases with an increase in the loop length or the number of long-loops in the structure. These population patterns support the prediction that in the full-length 3' overhang of human telomeres, G-quadruplexes with shortest TTA loops would be the most dominant species, which justifies the modeling role of regular G-quadruplexes in the investigation of telomeric structures. PMID:23327686

Koirala, Deepak; Ghimire, Chiran; Bohrer, Christopher; Sannohe, Yuta; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Mao, Hanbin

2013-01-31

395

Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola from USA.  

PubMed

Cercospora leaf spot, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most economically damaging foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. Although most C. beticola populations display characteristics reminiscent of sexual recombination, no teleomorph has been described. To assess whether populations in northern United States have characteristics consistent with sexual reproduction, 1024 isolates collected over a 3-y period were analyzed for frequency and distribution of mating type genes. After clone correction, an approximately equal distribution of mating types was found for each sampling year. Mating type frequency was also assessed in individual lesions. Lesions always consisted of isolates with a single mating type and microsatellite haplotype, but both mating types and up to five microsatellite haplotypes could be found on an individual leaf. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes were sequenced from 28 MAT1-1 and 28 MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Three MAT1-1-1 nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded a single amino acid sequence. For MAT1-2-1, five nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded four protein variants. MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 gene expression analyses were conducted on plants inoculated with either or both mating types. MAT1-1-1 expression remained low, but MAT1-2-1 spiked during late stages of colonization. A segment of the MAT1-2-1 coding sequence was also found in MAT1-1 isolates. Taken together, these results suggest that C. beticola has the potential for sexual reproduction. PMID:22483049

Bolton, Melvin D; Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana; Weiland, John J; Rudolph, Kurt; Birla, Keshav; Rengifo, Judith; Campbell, Larry G

2012-02-14

396

Urologic characteristics and sexual behaviors associated with prostate cancer in an african-Caribbean population in barbados, west indies.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PC) is the principal malignancy affecting African descent men in the Caribbean and the USA. Disparities in incidence, prevalence, and mortality in these populations are poorly understood. We evaluated the urologic characteristics and sexual behaviors of men with histologically confirmed PC (cases) and age-matched controls in the nationwide Prostate Cancer in a Black Population (PCBP) study conducted in Barbados. Cases were around 1.5 to 3 times more likely to report symptoms of prostatic enlargement, hematuria/hematospermia, and previous prostatitis. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were similar among cases (24.5%) and controls (26.7%). First sexual intercourse before the age of 16 was associated with an increased likelihood of both low- (Gleason score < 7; OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03-1.66) and high-grade PC (Gleason score ? 7; OR 1.82; 1.11-2.99). PC risk decreased with later age of sexual debut (P-trend = 0.004). More lifetime sexual partners was associated with increased odds of high grade PC (P-trend = 0.02). The contribution of sexual behaviors to the development and the outcomes of PC is likely due to multiple mechanisms, and further study will be necessary to elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in this and similar populations. PMID:23533778

Hennis, Anselm J M; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Nemesure, Barbara; Leske, M Cristina

2013-02-25

397

Urologic Characteristics and Sexual Behaviors Associated with Prostate Cancer in an African-Caribbean Population in Barbados, West Indies  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PC) is the principal malignancy affecting African descent men in the Caribbean and the USA. Disparities in incidence, prevalence, and mortality in these populations are poorly understood. We evaluated the urologic characteristics and sexual behaviors of men with histologically confirmed PC (cases) and age-matched controls in the nationwide Prostate Cancer in a Black Population (PCBP) study conducted in Barbados. Cases were around 1.5 to 3 times more likely to report symptoms of prostatic enlargement, hematuria/hematospermia, and previous prostatitis. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were similar among cases (24.5%) and controls (26.7%). First sexual intercourse before the age of 16 was associated with an increased likelihood of both low- (Gleason score < 7; OR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.03–1.66) and high-grade PC (Gleason score ? 7; OR 1.82; 1.11–2.99). PC risk decreased with later age of sexual debut (P-trend = 0.004). More lifetime sexual partners was associated with increased odds of high grade PC (P-trend = 0.02). The contribution of sexual behaviors to the development and the outcomes of PC is likely due to multiple mechanisms, and further study will be necessary to elucidate the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms in this and similar populations.

Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Nemesure, Barbara; Leske, M. Cristina

2013-01-01

398

Clonal B cell populations in a minority of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a risk factor for thyroid lymphoma, and clonal B cell populations in HT support this link. The literature on B cell clonality in HT is controversial. Aims: To identify clonal B cell populations in HT and to assess their usefulness in differentiating HT from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and predicting future development of lymphoma. Methods: DNA from formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded blocks of thyroid specimens from 10 patients with HT and two thyroid MALT lymphomas was analysed for B cell clonality by seminested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using FRIII/LJH and FRIII/VLJH primers to amplify the IgH gene VDJ region. In one case, PCR products were sequenced. Immunohistochemistry was performed by labelled streptavidin–biotin technique using antibodies to: CD45, CD45RO, CD3, CD20, and cytokeratin. Results: The histopathological and clinical findings were characteristic of HT. Clonal bands were seen in three and a polyclonal smear pattern was seen in seven cases. The clonal bands in HT were associated with a background smear, and could not be reproduced from other blocks from the same case or from deeper sections of the same block. The clonal bands in thyroid lymphomas were not associated with a background smear and were reproducible. None of the patients with clonal B cells has developed malignant lymphoma during a follow up of 10–13 years. Conclusions: B cell clonal bands in HT have different features from those in lymphoma (non-pure and non-reproducible) and do not predict future development of lymphoma.

Saxena, A; Alport, E C; Moshynska, O; Kanthan, R; Boctor, M A

2004-01-01

399

Up in Smoke: Vanishing Evidence of Tobacco Disparities in the Institute of Medicine's Report on Sexual and Gender Minority Health  

PubMed Central

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a groundbreaking report on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health in 2011, finding limited evidence of tobacco disparities. We examined IOM search terms and used 2 systematic reviews to identify 71 articles on LGBT tobacco use. The IOM omitted standard tobacco-related search terms. The report also omitted references to studies on LGBT tobacco use (n = 56), some with rigorous designs. The IOM report may underestimate LGBT tobacco use compared with general population use.

Lee, Joseph G. L.; Blosnich, John R.; Melvin, Cathy L.

2013-01-01

400

Mating-Type Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Cercospora sojina Populations on Soybean from Arkansas: Evidence for Potential Sexual Reproduction.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Cercospora sojina causes frogeye leaf spot of soybean, which can cause serious economic losses in the United States. In this study, 132 C. sojina isolates were collected from six fields (from two counties, Cross and Crawford) in Arkansas. To determine mating type, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay was developed with primers specific for C. sojina. Of the 132 isolates, 68 isolates had the MAT1-1-1 idiomorph and 64 isolates had the MAT1-2 idiomorph; no isolates possessed both idiomorphs. Both mating types were present in a variety of spatial scales, including separate lesions on individual leaves. Clone-corrected data from eight microsatellites indicated that mating-type loci were present in approximately equal proportions in all populations analyzed, which suggests that Arkansas populations of C. sojina are undergoing cryptic sexual reproduction. All six populations evaluated had high genotypic diversity of 26 to 79%. In addition, among strains isolated from a single leaf, multiple and distinct haplotypes were associated with both mating types, supporting the hypothesis that sexual reproduction occurs within the populations. Most populations showed significant gametic disequilibrium but levels of disequilibrium were relatively low, particularly in populations from Crawford County. A low differentiation index (GST) was observed for all simple-sequence repeat markers across all populations. Furthermore, the value of G statistics between populations suggests that significant genetic exchange exists among the populations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C. sojina populations from Arkansas are genetically diverse and most likely undergoing sexual reproduction. PMID:23721180

Kim, Hun; Newell, Annakay D; Cota-Sieckmeyer, Robyn G; Rupe, John C; Fakhoury, Ahmad M; Bluhm, Burton H

2013-10-01

401

The Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence among LGBTQ College Youth: The Role of Minority Stress.  

PubMed

Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49 % identified as men; 72 % Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160

Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

2012-12-12

402

Genetic and Environmental Effects on Same-sex Sexual Behavior: A Population Study of Twins in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason\\u000a is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly\\u000a population-based 2005–2006 survey of all adult twins (20–47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex\\u000a sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed

Niklas Långström; Qazi Rahman; Eva Carlström; Paul Lichtenstein

2010-01-01

403

Sexual determination of the femur using discriminant functions. Analysis of a Spanish population of known sex and age.  

PubMed

Until present, functions for sexual discrimination of a Spanish population from series of known sex and age were not available. In this work, we present a sample of 132 femora (72 females and 60 males) belonging to a Spanish population of adult individuals of known filiation deposited in the Complutense University of Madrid. The ten mathematical functions which yield a higher sexual discrimination in each part of the femur, were selected. The resulting percentages of correspondence varied between 84 and 97% when each variable was considered independently, and a 99% is obtained with two variables of the epiphyses combined. PMID:9068175

Trancho, G J; Robledo, B; López-Bueis, I; Sánchez, J A

1997-03-01

404

Species detection and identification in sexual organisms using population genetic theory and DNA sequences.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences of a group of specimens may include clades of two kinds: those produced by stochastic processes (random genetic drift) within a species, and clades that represent different species. The ratio of the mean pairwise sequence difference between a pair of clades (K) to the mean pairwise sequence difference within a clade (?) can be used to determine whether the clades are samples from different species (K/? ? 4) or the same species (K/?<4) with probability ? 0.95. Previously I applied this criterion to delimit species of asexual organisms. Here I use data from the literature to show how it can also be applied to delimit sexual species using four groups of sexual organisms as examples: ravens, spotted leopards, sea butterflies, and liverworts. Mitochondrial or chloroplast genes are used because these segregate earlier during speciation than most nuclear genes and hence detect earlier stages of speciation. In several cases the K/? ratio was greater than 4, confirming the original authors' intuition that the clades were sufficiently different to be assigned to different species. But the K/? ratio split each of two liverwort species into two evolutionary species, and showed that support for the distinction between the common and Chihuahuan raven species is weak. I also discuss some possible sources of error in using the K/? ratio; the most significant one would be cases where males migrate between different populations but females do not, making the use of maternally inherited organelle genes problematic. The K/? ratio must be used with some caution, like all other methods for species delimitation. Nevertheless, it is a simple theory-based quantitative method for using DNA sequences to make rigorous decisions about species delimitation in sexual as well as asexual eukaryotes. PMID:23308113

Birky, C William

2013-01-04

405

Estimating the sexual mixing patterns in the general population from those in people acquiring gonorrhoea infection: theoretical foundation and empirical findings.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES--To describe mathematically the relationship between patterns of sexual mixing in the general population and those of people with gonorrhoea infection, and hence to estimate the sexual mixing matrix for the general population. DESIGN--Integration of data describing sexual behaviour in the general population, with data describing sexual behaviour and mixing among individuals infected with gonorrhoea. Use of these data in a simple mathematical model of the transmission dynamics of gonorrhoea infection. SETTING--The general population of London and a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic in west London. PARTICIPANT--These comprised 1520 men and women living in London who were randomly selected for the national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles and 2414 heterosexual men and women who presented to the GUM clinic with gonorrhoea. MAIN RESULTS--The relationship between sexual mixing among people with gonorrhoea and sexual mixing in the general population is derived mathematically. An empirical estimate of the sexual mixing matrix for the general population is presented. The results provide tentative evidence that individuals with high rates of acquisition of sexual partners preferentially select other individuals with high rates as partners (assortative mixing). CONCLUSIONS--Reliable estimates of sexual mixing have been shown to be important for understanding the evolution of the epidemics of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. The possibility of estimating patterns of sexual mixing in the general population from information routinely collected in gonorrhoea contact tracing programmes is demonstrated. Furthermore, the approach we describe could, in principle, be used to estimate the same patterns of mixing, using contact tracing data for other sexually transmitted diseases, thus providing a way of validating our results.

Renton, A; Whitaker, L; Ison, C; Wadsworth, J; Harris, J R

1995-01-01

406

Silent night: adaptive disappearance of a sexual signal in a parasitized population of field crickets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sexual signals are often critical for mate attraction and reproduction, although their conspicuousness exposes them to parasites and predators. We document the near-disappearance of song, the sexual signal of crickets, and its replacement with a novel silent morph, in a population subject to strong natural selection by a deadly acoustically orienting parasitoid fly. On the Hawaiian Island of Kauai, more than 90% of male field crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) shifted in less than 20 generations from a normal-wing morphology to a mutated wing that renders males unable to call (flatwing). Flatwing morphology protects male crickets from the parasitoid, which uses song to find hosts, but poses obstacles for mate attraction, since females also use the males' song to locate mates. Field experiments support the hypothesis that flatwings overcome the difficulty of attracting females without song by acting as ‘satellites’ to the few remaining callers, showing enhanced phonotaxis to the calling song that increases female encounter rate. Thus, variation in behaviour facilitated establishment of an otherwise maladaptive morphological mutation.

Zuk, Marlene; Rotenberry, John T; Tinghitella, Robin M

2006-01-01

407

Sexual and postmating reproductive isolation between allopatric Drosophila montana populations suggest speciation potential  

PubMed Central

Background Widely distributed species with populations adapted to different environmental conditions can provide valuable opportunities for tracing the onset of reproductive incompatibilities and their role in the speciation process. Drosophila montana, a D. virilis group species found in high latitude boreal forests in Nearctic and Palearctic regions around the globe, could be an excellent model system for studying the early stages of speciation, as a wealth of information concerning this species' ecology, mating system, life history, genetics and phylogeography is available. However, reproductive barriers between populations have hereto not been investigated. Results We report both pre- and postmating barriers to reproduction between flies from European (Finnish) and North American (Canadian) populations of Drosophila montana. Using a series of mate-choice designs, we show that flies from these two populations mate assortatively (i.e., exhibit significant sexual isolation) while emphasizing the importance of experimental design in these kinds of studies. We also assessed potential postmating isolation by quantifying egg and progeny production in intra- and interpopulation crosses and show a significant one-way reduction in progeny production, affecting both male and female offspring equally. Conclusion We provide evidence that allopatric D. montana populations exhibit reproductive isolation and we discuss the potential mechanisms involved. Our data emphasize the importance of experimental design in studies on premating isolation between recently diverged taxa and suggest that postmating barriers may be due to postcopulatory-prezygotic mechanisms. D. montana populations seem to be evolving multiple barriers to gene flow in allopatry and our study lays the groundwork for future investigations of the genetic and phenotypic mechanisms underlying these barriers.

2011-01-01

408

Modeling mid-aged women's sexual functioning: a prospective, population-based study.  

PubMed

This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical technique of auto-correlation, we determined that the most important predictor of female sexual functioning is prior level of sexual functioning. Partner-related factors (change in partner status and feelings for partner) also had significant effects. PMID:15205073

Dennerstein, Lorraine; Lehert, Philippe

409

Recessive Mutations from Natural Populations of NEUROSPORA CRASSA That Are Expressed in the Sexual Diplophase  

PubMed Central

Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were systematically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also detected. Limited complementation tests indicate that most of the 106 recovered mutations are unique.—The recessive diplophase (= sexual phase) mutations were uncovered by crossing each wild-collected isolate to a marked two-chromosome double-reciprocal translocation strain as "balancer." Surviving progeny receive approximately 60% of their genome from the wild parent, but receive the mating-type allele from the "balancer" parent. These progeny were backcrossed to the wild parent and were also crossed with a standard laboratory strain (fl). Reduced fertility in the backcross vs. normal fertility in the cross with the laboratory standard signals the presence of a recessive mutation in the wild-collected isolate.—Most of the mutants (95 of 106) fall into two major classes: those producing barren perithecia with no or few viable ascospores (51) and those with spore maturation defects (44). Most of the recessive barrens result either from an early block in meiosis or ascus development (25) or from a late disturbance in postmeiotic ascus behavior (18).—These recessive mutations are formally equivalent to recessive lethals in higher eukaryotes and may be important in determining the breeding structure of natural Neurospora populations.

Leslie, John F.; Raju, Namboori B.

1985-01-01

410

Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation  

PubMed Central

Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch.

Leung, Elaine S.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.

2012-01-01

411

Linkage disequilibrium and spatial aggregation of genotypes in sexually reproducing populations of Erysiphe necator.  

PubMed

Random mating and recombination in heterothallic ascomycetes should result in high genotypic diversity, 1:1 mating-type ratios, and random associations of alleles, or linkage equilibrium, at different loci. To test for random mating in populations of the grape powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator, we sampled isolates from vineyards of Vitis vinifera in Burdett, NY (NY09) and Winchester, VA (VA09) at the end of the epidemic in fall 2009. We also sampled isolates from the same Winchester, VA vineyard in spring 2010 at the onset of the next epidemic. Isolates were genotyped for mating type and 11 microsatellite markers. In the spring sample, which originated from ascospore infections, nearly every isolate had a unique genotype. In contrast, fall populations were less diverse. In all, 9 of 45 total genotypes in VA09 were represented by two or more isolates; 3 of 40 total genotypes in NY09 were represented by two or more isolates, with 1 genotype represented by 20 isolates. After clone correction, mating-type ratios in the three populations did not deviate from 1:1. However, even with clone correction, we detected significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) in all populations. Mantel tests detected positive correlations between genetic and physical distances within vineyards. Spatial autocorrelation showed aggregations up to 42 and 3 m in VA09 and NY09, respectively. Spatial autocorrelation most likely results from short dispersal distances. Overall, these results suggest that spatial genetic aggregation and clonal genotypes that arise during the asexual phase of the epidemic contribute to persistent LD even though populations undergo sexual reproduction annually. PMID:22755546

Brewer, Marin Talbot; Frenkel, Omer; Milgroom, Michael G

2012-10-01

412

Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand's Official Statistics System  

PubMed Central

Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens.

Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.

2013-01-01

413

Sexual reproduction, clonal diversity and genetic differentiation in patchily distributed populations of the temperate forest herb Paris quadrifolia (Trilliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal plant species have been shown to adopt different strategies to persist in heterogeneous environments by changing relative investments in sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. As a result, clonal diversity and genetic variation may be different along environmental gradients. We examined the regional and local population structure of the clonal rhizomatous forest herb Paris quadrifolia in a complex of forest

Hans Jacquemyn; Rein Brys; Olivier Honnay; Martin Hermy; Isabel Roldán-Ruiz

2006-01-01

414

Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the relationship of sexual orientation and gender to four sets of factors: (a) family history, (b) incarceration, (c) substance use, and (d) depression and suicide, in a population of homeless adolescents.Methods: A sample of homeless adolescents was recruited in Portland, Oregon and assessed using semi-structured interviews at baseline, three months and six months. A total of 532

John W Noell; Linda M Ochs

2001-01-01

415

A LATE PLEISTOCENE HUMAN SKELETON FROM LIUJIANG, CHINA SUGGESTS REGIONAL POPULATION VARIATION IN SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN THE HUMAN PELVIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a description and analysis of a late Pleistocene human from Liujiang, China. Although most scholars have interpreted the cranium as male, sexing of the pelvis has been more problematic. I argue that this ambiguity reflects variation in the pattern of sexual dimorphism in the pelvis between human populations in different regions. Although the direction of the differences

KAREN ROSENBERG

2002-01-01

416

Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were

K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett

1999-01-01

417

Modeling Mid-Aged Women's Sexual Functioning: A Prospective, Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses a prospectively, annually collected sexuality questionnaire from an 8-year study of 340 mid-aged Melbourne women. We modeled the interactions of sexuality domains, the effect of prior level of sexual functioning, and the effects of change in partner-related factors. We found that we were unable to separate items denoting sexual interest from those denoting responsiveness. Using the statistical

LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; PHILIPPE LEHERT

2004-01-01

418

Assessing Competency to Consent to Sexual Activity in the Cognitively Impaired Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexuality is an integral factor when considering quality of life. Psychologists and mental health providers have a responsibility to promote patients' rights to sexual expression, but also to protect patients when impairments interfere with the ability to make informed decisions. Rehabilitation facilities struggle with this issue, especially the question of ability to consent. The Sexual Consent and Education Assessment (SCEA),

Carrie Hill Kennedy

1999-01-01

419

Assessment of Sexual Assault in Clinical Practice: Available Screening Tools for Use with Different Adult Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians agree that knowledge of clients' sexual victimization histories are invaluable in conceptualizing cases and choosing treatment interventions; however, the routine assessment of sexual assault in clinical practice is not standard (e.g., Hurst, MacDonald, Say, & Reed, 2003; Pruitt & Kappius, 1992). This article reviews recent research related to prevalence rates, short- and long-term consequences of sexual assault, available screening

Danielle R. Probst; Jessica A. Turchik; Eric H. Zimak; Jamie L. Huckins

2011-01-01

420

Testing founder effect speciation: divergence population genetics of the spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves).  

PubMed

Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10(-8)) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we discuss the potential importance of evolutionarily labile traits with significant fitness consequences, such as migratory behavior and habitat preference, in facilitating divergence of the spoonbills. PMID:20705906

Yeung, Carol K L; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

2010-08-12

421

The Impacts of Exclusionary Zoning Practices and Gentrification on Low-Income and Minority Populations in America's Inner Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis will examine the effects of residential segregation, exclusionary zoning, and gentrification on low-income minorities in inner cities. The research will show the relationship between housing inequalities and institutional classism and racism. In addition, the research will examine the use of public policies and regulations that maintain the existing isolation and concentration of minorities and low-income families through disinvestment.

Tanjanesia Jackson

2004-01-01

422

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.  

PubMed

Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex. PMID:21768368

Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

2011-07-18

423

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant  

PubMed Central

Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5–1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R.; Bacci, Mauricio; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D.; Mueller, Ulrich G.

2011-01-01

424

Knowledge of sexually transmissible infections: a comparison of prisoners and the general population.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified a failure to provide education for vulnerable populations such as prisoners as a contributing factor to the epidemic of sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Despite this recognition, little is known about prisoners' level of knowledge of STIs compared with the general population. Using computer-assisted telephone interviews, we compared a representative sample of 2289 Australian prisoners, aged 18-59 years from New South Wales and Queensland prisons with a representative community sample of 3536 participants from these two states. Prisoners had significantly better knowledge than the general community of chlamydia-related questions, while knowledge of herpes (genital and oral) was slightly better in the community sample. Prisoners who were aged over 25 years, not married, female, self-identified as either homosexual or bisexual and reported a history of STIs tended to have better STI knowledge levels. Despite their more disadvantaged backgrounds, prisoners demonstrated relatively good health literacy in relation to STIs. Ongoing education about the transmission risks of STIs for prisoners and the general community is needed. PMID:21729956

Malacova, E; Butler, T; Richters, J; Yap, L; Grant, L; Richards, A; Smith, A M A; Donovan, B

2011-07-01

425

Admixture and sexual bias in the population settlement of La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean).  

PubMed

La Réunion, one of the three Mascarene islands located in the Indian Ocean, remained devoid of inhabitants until it was first colonized by the French in the middle of the 17th century. The continuous flow of foreign-born slaves and immigrant workers from Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and China to work on coffee and sugar cane plantations led to the island becoming a melting pot of people of multiple ethnic origins. To establish the impact of the different incoming ethnic groups on the present Reunionese gene pool, we have sequenced both hypervariable regions I and II of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, the 9 bp COII/tRNA(Lys) deletion, and four SNPs located in the coding region in a total of 41 samples of the general population, and a further 18 STRs and 35 SNPs on the Y chromosome in 26 of these samples. Our results show that there was a strong sexual bias (asymmetrical gene flow) in the peopling of La Réunion, where admixture events were mainly between male settlers and females from the incoming slave groups. Most of the Y-chromosome gene pool is of European/Middle Eastern ancestry (85%), whereas the mtDNA gene pool is mainly of Indian and East Asian ancestry (70%). The absence of genetic diversity within these two major components of the mtDNA gene pool suggests these populations may have witnessed strong founder effects during the colonization process. PMID:18186507

Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Plaza, Stéphanie; Bosch, Elena; Calafell, Francesc; Jourdan, Eric; Césari, Maya; Lefranc, Gérard; Comas, David

2008-05-01

426

Adjustment among Mothers Reporting Same-Gender Sexual Partners: A Study of a Representative Population Sample from Quebec Province (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender\\u000a sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older\\u000a from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women\\u000a (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women

Danielle Julien; Emilie Jouvin; Emilie Jodoin; Alexandre l’Archevêque; Elise Chartrand

2008-01-01

427

Laboratory mating trials indicate incipient speciation by sexual selection among populations of the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malawi.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that sexual selection may have played a major role in the rapid evolution of hundreds of species of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. We report the results of a laboratory test of assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes from five closely related geographical populations differing in male courtship colour. Paternity of clutches was tested using microsatellite DNA typing of offspring. Out of 1955 offspring typed, 1296 (66.3%) were sired by the male from the same population as the female, which is more than three times the rate expected if females do not differentiate among males of the different populations (20%). This result indicates that mate preferences of geographical races are strongly differentiated, consistent with the races representing incipient geographical species diverging under sexual selection exerted by female preferences for different male courtship colours.

Knight, Mairi E; Turner, George F

2004-01-01

428

Getting the timing right: antler growth phenology and sexual selection in a wild red deer population.  

PubMed

There has been growing interest in the determinants of the annual timing of biological phenomena, or phenology, in wild populations, but research on vertebrate taxa has primarily focused on the phenology of reproduction. We present here analyses of the phenology of the annual growth of a secondary sexual characteristic, antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) males. The long-term individual-based data from a wild population of red deer on the Isle of Rum, Scotland allow us to consider ecological factors influencing variation in the phenology of growth of antlers, and the implications of variation in antler growth phenology with respect to the phenotype of antler grown (antler mass) and annual breeding success. The phenology of antler growth was influenced by local environmental conditions: higher population density delayed both the start date (during spring) and the relative end date (in late summer) of antler growth, and warmer temperatures in the September and April prior to growth advanced start and end dates, respectively. Furthermore, there was variation between individuals in this phenotypic plasticity of start date, although not in that of end date of growth. The phenology of antler growth impacted on the morphology of antlers grown, with individuals who started and ended growth earliest having the heaviest antlers. The timing of antler growth phenology was associated with breeding success in the following mating season, independently of the mass of antlers grown: an earlier start of antler growth was associated with siring a higher number of the calves born the following spring. Our results suggest that the phenology of traits that are not directly correlated with offspring survival may also regularly show correlations with fitness. PMID:20480184

Clements, Michelle N; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Albon, Steve D; Pemberton, Josephine M; Kruuk, Loeske E B

2010-05-18

429

Women, Alcohol, and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also

Linda J. Beckman; Kimberly T. Ackerman

430

Sexual and topological differences in palmprint and ridge density in the Caucasian Spanish population.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that variation in ridge breadth is of biological, medical, and genetic interest, it has not received as much attention as other dermatoglyphic characteristics. Recently, sex differences in mean epidermal ridge breadth have been proposed in the field of forensic identification in order to infer gender from fingerprints found at the scene of a crime left by an unknown donor. The aim of this research was to analyze sexual, bimanual, and topological variations in epidermal ridge breadth on palmprints taken from a Spanish population sample for subsequent application in inferring gender from the palm marks. The material used in the present study was obtained from the palmprints of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) from the Caucasian Spanish. Since ridge breadth varies according to age, subjects of similar ages were recruited to ensure that growth had finished. Therefore, in order to assess topological variation in ridge density or number of ridges in a given space, the count was carried out for the five palmar areas: hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second interdigital, third interdigital, and fourth interdigital. This allowed the segmentation of 2000 ridge count areas for analysis. For this, two methods were used, one described by Cummins et al. (the ridge count was carried out along a 1cm line) and the other by Acree (the number of ridges per 25 mm(2) of surface area). The results obtained by the second method can be compared with those obtained for the ten fingers from this same sample and evaluated in a previous study. The results have demonstrated the existence of topological differences in ridge thickness on the epidermal palm surface; also females present a significantly higher ridge density than men and, therefore, have narrower ridges over the entire palmar surface. Those sexual differences found in the sample population can be used for inferring the gender from palm marks left by an unknown donor. The hypotheses that could explain the variability in ridge breadth are evaluated according to the obtained results. PMID:23601151

Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción

2013-04-17

431

Female sexual dysfunction in a population-based study in Iran: prevalence and associated risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore the prevalence and risk factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Iran. A total of 2626 women aged 20–60 years old were interviewed by 41 female general practitioners and answered a self-administered questionnaire on several aspects of FSD including desire, arousal, pain and orgasmic disorders (OD). Criteria of sexual dysfunction followed classification by DSM-IV. The sexual function was

M R Safarinejad; Safarinejad

2006-01-01

432

Degree of pelvic sexual dimorphism in human populations. A greene t-test application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of sexual dimorphisms is important in many aspects of paleodemography and paleobiology. One major problem lies\\u000a in a correct sexual diagnosis. However, due to the different methodologies employed to estimate the degree of sexual dimorphism,\\u000a the comparison of the results remains difficult. The Greene t-test (1989) is accurate for a comparative analysis of raw data.\\u000a On the basis

J. Bruzek

1996-01-01

433

Complex Multivariate Sexual Selection on Male Acoustic Signaling in a Wild Population of Teleogryllus commodus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mate choice may impose both linear (i.e., directional) and nonlinear (i.e., quadratic and correlational) sexual selection on advertisement traits. Traditionally, mate recognition and sensory tun- ing have been thought to impose stabilizing (i.e., negative quadratic) sexual selection, whereas adaptive mate choice effects directional se- lection. It has been suggested that adaptive choice may exert positive quadratic and\\/or correlational sexual selection.

John Hunt; Robert Brooks

2006-01-01

434

Using Intervention Mapping to Adapt an Effective HIV, Sexually Transmitted Disease, and Pregnancy Prevention Program for High-Risk Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many programs have been developed to reduce adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (including HIV), with some showing promise in reducing sexual risk-taking behavior, little guidance has been given as to how to adapt existing interventions to new communities. When adapting a program, effective elements deemed necessary to change behaviors need to be preserved, while cultural competence and

Susan R. Tortolero; Christine M. Markham; Guy S. Parcel; Ronald J. Peters; S. Liliana Escobar-Chaves; Karen Basen-Engquist; Holly L. Lewis

2005-01-01

435

Relation between Psychiatric Syndromes and Behaviorally Defined Sexual Orientation in a Sample of the US Population  

PubMed Central

Most surveys of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among lesbians and gay men find no increased risk in comparison with heterosexuals. However, the majority of this work has relied on convenience samples drawn from the visible lesbian and gay community. The authors examined differences in 1-year prevalence of six psychiatric syndromes among sexually active individuals in the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse who reported either exclusive heterosexuality (n = 9,714) or having any same-gender sex partners (n = 194) in the prior year. Although nearly three quarters of homosexually active individuals did not meet criteria for any of the six syndromes assessed, in multivariate logistic regression analyses, homosexually active men were more likely than other men to evidence major depression and panic attack syndromes. In contrast, homosexually active women were more likely than other women to be classified with alcohol or drug dependency syndromes. Both men and women reporting any same-gender sex partners were more likely than others to have used mental health services in the year prior to interview. These findings suggest a small increased risk among homosexually active populations in 1-year psychiatric morbidity and use of mental health care services.

Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

2013-01-01

436

Sexual selection and non-random mating for shell colour in a natural population of the marine snailLittorina mariae (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate the three independent components of mating behaviour, sexual selection in females, sexual selection in males and mating pattern, we studied the distribution of shell colour morphs among mating pairs and between copulating and non-copulating snails in four subsamples of a natural population ofL. mariae. The colour of the shell, the sex and a qualitative estimate of

Emilio Rolán-Alvarez; Anette Ekendahl

1996-01-01

437

Sexual satisfaction in the elderly female population: A special focus on women with gynecologic pathology.  

PubMed

SEXUAL FUNCTION IN AGING WOMEN: Sexuality is an integral part of human expressions. Mental health plays a major role in sexuality. Several psychological interventions are proposed to increase the sexual quality of life in older women with diverse gynecologic pathology. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing brief strategies can be easily implemented in clinics to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. THE IMPACT OF FEMALE PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERS ON SEXUAL FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN: Female pelvic floor disorders include urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and fecal incontinence. These disorders increase dramatically with increasing age. Urinary incontinence has been demonstrated to have a negative impact on a woman's sexual function. Among sexually active older women with urinary incontinence, 22% report being moderately or extremely worried that sexual activity would cause urine loss. An increased prevalence of sexual distress [9% (6/76) vs. 1.3% (2/216), p=0.005] has been reported in sexually active women over 40 years old with urinary incontinence. Treatment of urinary incontinence can improve sexual function in older women. Among sexually active women (N=53) who underwent midurethral slings procedures for the correction of urinary incontinence, increased coital frequency, decrease fear of incontinence with coitus, decreased embarrassment due to incontinence was reported six months after surgery. Pelvic organ prolapse, a hernia of the vagina resulting in a visible vaginal bulge, has also been associated with a negative impact on sexual function. Women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP-Q stage III or IV) have been demonstrated to have decreased body image reporting that they are more self-conscious about their appearance [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9, 51], feel less feminine (AOR 4.0; 95% CI 1.2, 15) and less sexually attractive (AOR 4.6; 95% CI 1.4, 17) compared with women who have normal pelvic support. Both vaginal and abdominal approaches to surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been demonstrated to improve sexual function. MENTAL HEALTH: Mental health plays a major role in older woman's sexuality. Sexual interest and satisfaction is tied to emotional expressivity, women's self-worth, feelings of depression and loneliness as well as cognitive function. Research has shown that both general practitioners and specialists lack training in sexual assessments. Behavioral health specialists, such as a psychologist, can play an integral role in helping to facilitate communication between the patient and the provider. A main focus of communication training is to facilitate open and genuine conversation between the provider and the patient. Providers are encouraged to ask open ended questions while patients are encouraged to discuss symptoms while coping with an internal state of anxiety. Despite the known prevalence of sexual dysfunction among older women, few studied empirically based interventions have been published with these women. This speaks to the general assumption among medical professionals that having the "sex talk" in older women with gynecological pathology is not important or relevant. A biopsychosocial approach utilizing some of the aforementioned brief strategies can be easily implemented in comprehensive gynecology clinics in order to help women of all ages increase their sexual quality of life. PMID:21943557

Ratner, Elena S; Erekson, Elisabeth A; Minkin, Mary Jane; Foran-Tuller, Kelly A

2011-09-22

438

Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Related Sequelae in a Lesbian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This paper reports on the prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse from a national community-based sample of 1633 adult lesbians. Design: The descriptive analysis includes a comparison of mental and physical health variables commonly reported in adult survivors of childhood abuse in two subsamples, one who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse and one who did

Susan J. Roberts; Lena Sorensen

1999-01-01

439

Female mate choice copying affects sexual selection in wild populations of the ocellated wrasse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explaining the factors that determine the distribution of mating success among males is essential to our understanding of sexual selection. Classic theory has focused on how competition among males and female choice for traits of the male or his territory drive sexual selection. Recent theory has also shown that female mate choice copying can alter the strength and direction of

Suzanne H. Alonzo

2008-01-01

440

Predictors of Clinically Significant Sexual Concerns in a Child Welfare Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study employed a risk and resilience paradigm to examine the correlates of youth with and without clinically significant sexual concerns (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) in a child welfare sample. Participants were 158 youth in substitute care with sexual behavior problems, as well as their caregivers. A multivariate classification tree analysis yielded an overall classification rate of 88%. Youth

Amy M. Lyons; Scott C. Leon; Christopher Zaddach; Erica J. Luboyeski; Maryse Richards

2009-01-01

441

Criminal Behavior as a Function of Clinical and Actuarial Variables in a Sexual Offender Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of clinical and actuarial variables to predict criminal behavior was investigated in a sample of 342 sexual offenders that was previously used in a study by Hall and Proctor (1987). Discriminant analyses suggested that a linear combination of actuarial variables was significantly predictive of sexual reoffenses against adults and of nonsexual violent and nonviolent reoffending. However, clinical judgment

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall

1988-01-01

442

Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)|

Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

1993-01-01