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1

Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study

David M. Frost; Ilan H. Meyer

2012-01-01

2

Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study

David M. Frost; Ilan H. Meyer

2011-01-01

3

Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

4

A Population-Based Study of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Sexual-Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine if sexual-minority women were at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) than their heterosexual counterparts. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to examine differences in CVD risk between heterosexual and sexual-minority women by using the Framingham General CVD Risk Score to calculate a ratio of vascular and chronological age. We also examined differences in the prevalence of various CVD risk factors. Results. Sexual-minority women were more likely to be current or former smokers, to report a history of drug use, to report risky drinking, and to report a family history of CVD. On average, sexual-minority women were 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?8.5%, 19.3%) older in vascular terms than their chronological age, which was 5.7% (95% CI?=?1.5%, 9.8%) greater than that of their heterosexual counterparts. Family history of CVD and history of drug use were unrelated to increased CVD risk, and this risk was not fully explained by either risky drinking or smoking. Conclusions. Sexual-minority women are at increased risk for CVD compared with heterosexual women. PMID:23948018

Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Bowen, Deborah J.

2013-01-01

5

Campus Climates for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minorities encounter unique challenges due to their sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression that often prevents them from achieving their full academic potential or participating fully in the campus community. (Contains 3 tables and 2 notes.)

Rankin, Susan R.

2005-01-01

6

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

7

Sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211

Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

2014-09-01

8

Weight Misperception and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors Among Sexual Minorities in the General Adolescent Population  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gay, lesbian and bisexual youth may experience significant body dissatisfaction. We examined sexual orientation differences in self-perceived weight status and prevalence of potentially dangerous weight control behaviors in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods Data were obtained from 12,984 youth between 2003–2009 over four cycles of the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a statewide survey of 9th–12th grade students. Self-perceived weight status and past-month unhealthy weight control behaviors (fasting >24 hours, using diet pills, and vomiting/using laxatives) were compared among gay/lesbian, bisexual, self-identified heterosexual youth with same-sex partners, unsure youth, and exclusively heterosexual youth using logistic regression, adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to exclusively heterosexual males, heterosexual males with prior same-sex partners and bisexual males were more likely to self-perceive as overweight despite being of healthy weight/underweight (respectively, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–4.05; and AOR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.64–4.00). Compared to exclusively heterosexual females, lesbians and bisexual females were more likely to self-perceive as being of healthy weight/underweight despite being overweight/obese (respectively, AOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.15–8.71; and AOR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.20–3.33). Unhealthy weight control behaviors were significantly more prevalent among sexual minority males (32.5%; AOR, 4.38; 95% CI, 3.38–5.67) and females (34.7%; AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.85–2.78) when considered together relative to exclusively heterosexual males (9.7%) and females (18.8%). Conclusions One-third of sexual minority youth engage in hazardous weight control behaviors. Future research should investigate underlying mechanisms and determine whether clinicians should routinely screen for these behaviors. PMID:24182939

Hadland, Scott E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Goodenow, Carol S.; Calzo, Jerel P.

2013-01-01

9

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

10

Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…

Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.

2011-01-01

11

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Based Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n?=?1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P?=?.013) and suicide attempts (P?=?.006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P?>?.05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2014-01-01

12

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and

JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman

2011-01-01

13

Outcomes of Sexual Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe…

Morgan, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

14

Religious Climate and Health Risk Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youths: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether the health risk behaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31?852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR?=?0.77; 95% CI?=?0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health risk behaviors. PMID:22397347

Pachankis, John E.; Wolff, Joshua

2012-01-01

15

Capturing the social demographics of hidden sexual minorities: An internet study of the transgender population in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a larger study, we investigated the feasibility of using Internet research to capture the demographic characteristics\\u000a of a largely closeted sexual minority and to report such characteristics in the first national study of transgender persons\\u000a ever attempted in the United States. To achieve a nonclinical national sample, online convenience sampling was used. Of 1,373\\u000a surveys received, 1,229

B. R. Simon Rosser; J. Michael Oakes; Walter O. Bockting; Michael Miner

2007-01-01

16

Sexual Identity Trajectories Among Sexual-Minority Youths: Gender Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation explored gender differences in sexual identity development—first same-sex attractions, self-labeling, same-sex sexual contact, and disclosure—among 164 sexual-minority young adults. Based on interviews, results indicated the value of assessing gender differences in the context, timing, spacing, and sequencing of sexual identity milestones. Adolescent males had an earlier onset of all milestones except disclosure. The context for sexual identity

Ritch C. Savin-Williams; Lisa M. Diamond

2000-01-01

17

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges

Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger

2009-01-01

18

Health benefits of legal services for criminalized populations: the case of people who use drugs, sex workers and sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

Social exclusion and legal marginalization are important determinants of health outcomes for people who use illicit drugs, sex workers, and persons who face criminal penalties because of homosexuality or transgenderism. Incarceration may add to the health risks associated with police repression and discrimination for these persons. Access to legal services may be essential to positive health outcomes in these populations. Through concrete examples, this paper explores types of legal problems and legal services linked to health outcomes for drug users, sex workers, and sexual minorities and makes recommendations for donors, legal service providers, and civil society organizations. PMID:21105945

Csete, Joanne; Cohen, Jonathan

2010-01-01

19

Attributions to sexual minority women's academic success.  

PubMed

Narratives from 33 sexual minority women were examined to discover what factors contributed to their ability to acquire academic success, and what, if any, attributions are evident in some sexual minority women's experiences that provide the ability to persist and graduate. Coping strategies the participants used to gain the resiliency and persistence necessary to acquire academic success are discussed. Intrinsic themes were work ethic values, altruism, and self-efficacy. Extrinsic themes were mentors, family, and friends. Sexual minority women identified the complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic attributions that were used to successfully complete a four-year undergraduate degree in the United States. PMID:24328892

McCleaf, Kathy J

2014-01-01

20

Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents’ Sexual Safety Strategies  

PubMed Central

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

21

Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.  

PubMed

Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

2013-10-01

22

Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States. PMID:23985187

Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

2014-01-01

23

Bullying in Schools towards Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning and inter-sex (GLBTQI) youth, and those perceived to be GLBTQI, face extensive verbal and physical bullying in schools. Although increasing attention has been made at examining the safety concerns of sexual minority (GLBTQI) youth, there remain important gaps in the literature as well as significant…

Varjas, Kris; Dew, Brian; Marshall, Megan; Graybill, Emily; Singh, Anneliese; Meyers, Joel; Birckbichler, Lamar

2008-01-01

24

Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety seven adolescents (14–19 years old; 70% female; 29% sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points six months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

25

Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

2013-03-01

26

The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual

Ottenritter, Nan

1998-01-01

27

Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

Ream, Geoffrey L.

28

A systematic review of the aetiology of tobacco disparities for sexual minorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk factors/correlates of cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations. Methods Sets of terms relevant to sexual minority populations and cigarette smoking were used in a simultaneous search of 10 databases through EBSCOhost. The search was limited to the peer-reviewed literature up to January 2011, using no geographic or language limits. For inclusion, the paper was required to: (1) have been written in English, (2) have sexual minorities (defined by either attraction, behaviour, or identity) included in the study population and (3) have examined some form of magnitude of association for risk factors/correlates of any definition of cigarette smoking. A total of 386 abstracts were reviewed independently, with 26 papers meeting all inclusion criteria. Abstracts were reviewed and coded independently by authors JB and JGLL using nine codes derived from the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Studies used various measures of sexual orientation and of smoking. Risk factors that could be considered unique to sexual minorities included internalised homophobia and reactions to disclosure of sexual orientation. Some studies also indicated common smoking risk factors experienced at higher rates among sexual minorities, including stress, depression, alcohol use and victimisation. Conclusions This review identified risks that were associated with sexual minority status and common to the general population but experienced at potentially higher rates by sexual minorities. Government and foundation funds should be directed towards research on the origins of this disparity. PMID:22170335

Blosnich, John; Lee, Joseph G L; Horn, Kimberly

2013-01-01

29

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is…

Moradi, Bonnie; Mohr, Jonathan J.; Worthington, Roger L.; Fassinger, Ruth E.

2009-01-01

30

A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K–12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which children should be protected, coupled with

Holly N. Bishop; Chadwick Caraway; David L. Stader

2010-01-01

31

Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority  

PubMed Central

Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

2013-01-01

32

Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

33

Mental Health Needs of Sexual Minorities in Jamaica  

PubMed Central

This study examined the prevalence of Axis I disorders and associated risk factors in a sample of sexual minority men and women in Jamaica, a country that is widely known for its high societal rejection of homosexuality. Poor relationships with family, negative or abusive experiences related to one’s sexual orientation, and greater openness about one’s sexual orientation were independent risk factors for Axis I disorders. Prevention of mental disorders in sexual minorities in Jamaica should focus on rebuilding family support and promoting social acceptance of sexual minorities. PMID:21052478

White, Yohann R. G.; Barnaby, Loraine; Swaby, Antoneal; Sandfort, Theo

2010-01-01

34

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

35

Does punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes?  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Does punishment of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Longitudinal evidence from France of minor sexual offences deter rapes? Longitudinal evidence from France# Nicolas Gérard Vaillant* François. Estimates from random and fixed effects models highlight the deterrent effect of sanctions for rapes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

An exploration of multisystemic factors contributing to sexual risk-taking in minority suburban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were

Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson

2012-01-01

37

The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

2011-01-01

38

Determinants of Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities in a Community Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexual minorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. Method Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18–30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexual minorities. Results Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexual minorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexual minorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm. PMID:21479161

Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

2011-01-01

39

Conceptualization of Sexual Partner Relationship Steadiness Among Ethnic Minority Adolescent Women: Implications for Evidence-Based Behavioral Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14–18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. PMID:22868248

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

40

Conceptualization of sexual partner relationship steadiness among ethnic minority adolescent women: implications for evidence-based behavioral sexual risk reduction interventions.  

PubMed

Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14-18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse. PMID:22868248

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

2013-01-01

41

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

42

Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203

Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.

2014-01-01

43

Sport and Sexuality: Athletic Participation by Sexual Minority and Sexual Majority Adolescents in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are contradictory expectations regarding the relationship between sport and sexuality, one suggesting less sports participation\\u000a for sexual minority males and more for sexual minority females, with the other hypothesizes no participation differences by\\u000a sexuality for either males or females. I used the nationally representative Add Health Survey of middle and high school students\\u000a in the U.S. to assess the

John F. Zipp

2011-01-01

44

Sexual coercion and behavior among a sample of sexual minority women.  

PubMed

Sexual coercion may affect the sexual experiences of sexual minority women differently. Women (n=445) aged 18 to 71 years (Mean=30.38) answered an online survey on sexual orientation, lifetime coercion, and sexual history. Sexual minority women (45.8%, n=204) were more likely to report having been coerced into unwanted sexual behavior (56.5%) than heterosexual women (44.8 %; p=0.010). Coerced sexual minority women reported earlier ages of initiation into performing oral sex (p=0.016), penile-vaginal (p=0.024), and penile-anal (p=0.027) intercourse. In multiple logistic regression models, currently being in a partnered relationship was the sole factor related to lifetime engagement in penile-vaginal intercourse and receiving oral sex from partners. Having at least a graduate degree was the only characteristic related to engagement in lifetime penile-anal intercourse. Sexual coercion was not related to any lifetime sexual behavior outcomes. The nature of sexual initiation and coercion should be explored further among sexual minority women, with the goal of incorporating their experiences into prevention and treatment initiatives. PMID:24400673

Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen

2014-01-01

45

NASN position statement: Sexual orientation and gender identity/expression (sexual minority students): school nurse practice.  

PubMed

It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Sexual minority persons are those who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB) or are unsure of their sexual orientation, or those who have had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or both sexes (Kann et al., 2011). Sexual minority is thought to be a more inclusive and neutral term. For the purposes of this statement, the term sexual minority will be used in lieu of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning). PMID:23600096

Bradley, Beverly; Kelts, Susan; Robarge, Deb; Davis, Catherine; Delger, Suzey; Compton, Linda

2013-03-01

46

The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.  

PubMed

Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113

Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

2014-03-30

47

Religion and religiosity: protective or harmful factors for sexual minority youth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority youth are disproportionately impacted by a number of psychosocial risks including a greater likelihood of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) when compared to heterosexual counterparts. Emerging research seeks to identify the risk and resilience factors that contribute to the mental health of this stigmatised population. Considering that most Americans grow up with at least some religious teachings and that most

Joseph Longo; N. Eugene Walls; Hope Wisneski

2012-01-01

48

Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men  

PubMed Central

The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH) among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample. PMID:21941644

Graham, Louis F.; Aronson, Robert E.; Nichols, Tracy; Stephens, Charles F.; Rhodes, Scott D.

2011-01-01

49

LGBT community, social network characteristics, and smoking behaviors in young sexual minority women.  

PubMed

Smoking rates among young sexual minority women (YSMW) are disproportionately high as compared to heterosexual populations. While this disparity has commonly been attributed to the sexual minority stress process, little empirical work has explored what may protect YSMW from high rates of smoking. Using data (N = 471) from a cross-sectional study designed to investigate YSMW's (age 18-24) smoking behaviors and correlates; we explore the relationship of LGBT community connections, YSMW's social network characteristics, and stress to smoking behaviors (i.e., status, frequency, amount). Through this analysis, we find support for LGBT community connection as well as friendships with other sexual minorities as protective in relation to YSMW's smoking behaviors. We discuss the implications of our results, highlighting the need for future longitudinal research and interventions designed to bolster YSMW's connections to the LGBT community and their social networks. PMID:23783884

Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S; Youatt, Emily J; Soler, Jorge H; McClelland, Sara I; Bauermeister, Jose A

2013-09-01

50

An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

Sulfridge, Rocky M.

2012-01-01

51

Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South African youths.  

PubMed

We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n = 822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B = 3.90; SE = 0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR = 3.11; CI = 1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

2014-07-01

52

Community mental health and ethnic minority populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

National trends in minority utilization of mental health services are reviewed, and recommendations are made for needed research. In relation to their representation in the population, blacks use services more than expected, and Asian American\\/Pacific Islanders use services less; Hispanics and Native American\\/Alaska Islander use varies according to type of service. Hospitalization accounts for part of the increase in minority

Freda K. Cheung; Lonnie R. Snowden

1990-01-01

53

Obesity in minority populations: an epidemiologic assessment.  

PubMed

This article reviews issues relating to the prevalence, health implications, and prevention and treatment perspectives of obesity in U.S racial and ethnic minority groups. The growing interest in obesity in minority populations reflects an awareness of the high prevalence of obesity among black, Hispanic, Asian and Pacific Islander and Native Americans as well as a generally increased interest in minority health. In addition, the fact that some aspects of obesity among minorities differ from those in whites suggests that new insights may be gained from studying obesity in diverse populations. However, there are many methodological problems to be overcome, including some that arise from the way minority groups are defined. Under the assumption that all obesity results from a period of sustained positive energy balance at the individual level, an epidemiologic explanation for the excess of obesity in minorities at the population level seems readily apparent. A surplus of obesity-promoting forces and a deficit of obesity-inhibiting forces, caused by secular changes in food availability and physical activity, accompany the early phases of modernization and economic advancement. The high prevalence of obesity in minority populations can be viewed as a function of the slope and timing of these secular changes. Genetic predisposition, cultural attitudes, and exposure to maternal obesity and diabetes in utero may be potentiating factors. In this context, interventions targeting individuals would seem inevitably to put racial and ethnic minority groups on the path toward the same weight control crisis now observed in the majority white population. This suggests that the underlying causes of the societal energy balance problem must be addressed at the population level in order for effective clinical approaches to be developed for minority populations with a high obesity prevalence. PMID:16353618

Kumanyika, S K

1994-03-01

54

A Preliminary Investigation of Worry Content in Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

This preliminary study examined the nature of worry content of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual individuals and the relationship between worry related to sexual orientation and mental health. A community sample of 54 individuals identifying as sexual minorities was recruited from two cities in the Great Plains to complete a packet of questionnaires, including a modified Worry Domains Questionnaire (WDQ; Tallis, Eyseck, & Mathews, 1992) with additional items constructed to assess worry over discrimination related to sexual orientation, and participate in a worry induction and verbalization task. The content of self-reported worries was consistent with those reported in prior investigations of worry content, and worry related to sexual orientation was not found to be elevated compared to other topics. However, degree of worry related to sexual orientation was significantly associated with increased negative affect, depressive symptoms, and internalized homophobia and decreased quality of life and positive affect. Implications of these findings, limitations, and future research issues are discussed. PMID:21041061

Weiss, Brandon J.; Hope, Debra A.

2011-01-01

55

Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest provides a review of current literature relating to sexual minorities and the ongoing dialogue surrounding multiculturalism and inclusiveness on community college campuses. A 1998 study conducted on the six San Francisco community college campuses indicated that more than 1 in 3 of 484 community college students surveyed had engaged in…

Leider, Steven

56

Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result of the constant harassment. Students in rural areas with

Holly N. Bishop; Heather Casida

2011-01-01

57

Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

2007-01-01

58

Perceptions of Rural School Staff regarding Sexual Minority Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority students often do not feel safe in school, especially in rural communities, and changes are needed within school environments in order to provide a safe and effective learning environment for all students. Prior to implementing school change, an investigation into the perceptions of educators in public schools in three rural New…

O'Connell, Lynn M.; Atlas, Jana G.; Saunders, Anita L.; Philbrick, Rebecca

2010-01-01

59

Shame in Sexual Minorities: Stigma, Internal Cognitions, and Counseling Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…

Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.

2013-01-01

60

Sexual Minority Status and Self-Rated Health: The Importance of Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Objectives I examined how sexual minority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association. Methods I used multinomial logistic regression to analyze aggregated data from the 1991 to 2010 General Social Survey, a population-based data set (n = 13 480). Results Respondents with only different-sex partners or with any same-sex partners reported similar levels of health. With socioeconomic status added to the model, respondents with any same-sex partners reported worse health than those with only different-sex partners, but only if sexual intercourse with same-sex partners occurred in the previous 5 years. Age and sex moderated this relationship: having any same-sex partners was associated with worse health for women but not men and among younger adults only. Conclusions The relationship between sexual minority status and self-rated health varies across sociodemographic groups. Future research should use population-level data to examine other health outcomes and continue to explore how the intersection of sexual minority status and other sociodemographic indicators shapes health. PMID:23488500

Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2013-01-01

61

Gender, Sexual Prejudice and Sport Participation: Implications for Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing the compulsory heterosexuality framework, the purpose of this inquiry was to assess the influence of gender and\\u000a sexual prejudice on decision-making within sport. In Study 1, responses from former and current athletes within the United\\u000a States (N?=?229) indicated that prejudicial attitudes predicted unwillingness to participate when a coach was identified as gay or\\u000a lesbian. A mixed-methods approach was used

Melanie L. Sartore; George B. Cunningham

2009-01-01

62

Research exploring the health, wellness, and safety concerns of sexual minority youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the critical risk factors that negatively impact the health, safety, personal wellness, and educational achievement of sexual minority youth. Contemporary and landmark studies of the key stressors faced by sexual minority are reviewed with an emphasis on Canadian data. Sexual minority youth often encounter multiple risk factors, have fewer protective factors (such as a

Kristopher Wells

2009-01-01

63

Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.  

PubMed

Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage. PMID:16507945

O'Hanlan, Katherine A

2006-03-01

64

Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the current status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students on community college campuses, and gives an idea of offerings and programs available at some campuses and districts. A primary difficulty in researching this subject is the anonymity of much of the LGBT population. The "coming out"…

Leider, Steven

65

Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n?=?29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

2012-01-01

66

Sexual Minority Women's Experiences of Sexual Pressure: A Qualitative Investigation of Recipients' and Initiators' Reports.  

PubMed

Sexual pressure can have detrimental effects to individuals both physically and emotionally; however, research in this area is lacking regarding the experiences by lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQ) women. This online study qualitatively examined sexual pressure experienced and explained by LGBQ women (n = 50) using grounded theory methodology. Participants responded to open-ended questions by providing perspectives from both those who were on the receiving end of the sexual pressure (recipients) and from those who pressured their partners (initiators). Results indicated that there were eight overarching themes, 43 higher order categories, and 241 line-by-line codes. The eight overarching themes included: Reasons to Not Want Sex, Reasons for Pressuring, Reasons for Giving In, Actions of Initiators, Expectations, Communication, Negative Outcomes, and Positive Reactions. Negative Outcomes was the most common theme endorsed. Several higher order categories indicated the unique experiences of sexual minority women, namely trying to be "normal" (e.g., engaging in sexual acts as a result of internalized homophobia), experiencing more pressure from men, and self-consciousness (specifically related to lack of knowledge about sex with women). Implications for the current study include the importance of addressing sexual pressure with sexual minority women and creating interventions, such as assertiveness training and communication skills, that could assist both recipients and initiators with engaging in mutually satisfactory sexual practices. PMID:24872189

Budge, Stephanie L; Keller, Bethany L; Sherry, Alissa R

2015-05-01

67

Sexual victimization and health-related indicators among sexual minority men  

PubMed Central

This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes. PMID:23626503

Hequembourg, Amy L.; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

2013-01-01

68

The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social–psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social–psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. Results The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, ?2(79) = 414.00, p < .05, confirmatory fit index = .93, Tucker–Lewis index = .91, standardized root-mean-square residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social–psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Conclusions Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social–psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. PMID:21341888

Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

2014-01-01

69

The role of sexual images in online and offline sexual behaviour with minors.  

PubMed

Sexual images have long been associated with sexual interest and behaviour with minors. The Internet has impacted access to existing content and the ability to create content which can be uploaded and distributed. These images can be used forensically to determine the legality of the behaviour, but importantly for psychiatry, they offer insight into motivation, sexual interest and deviance, the relationship between image content and offline sexual behaviour, and how they might be used in online solicitation and grooming with children and adolescents. Practitioners will need to consider the function that these images may serve, the motivation for their use and the challenges of assessment. This article provides an overview of the literature on the use of illegal images and the parallels with existing paraphilias, such as exhibitionism and voyeurism. The focus is on recent research on the Internet and sexual images of children, including the role that self-taken images by youth may play in the offending process. PMID:25894354

Quayle, Ethel; Newman, Emily

2015-06-01

70

Changes in Neighborhood Characteristics and Depression Among Sexual Minority Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the relationship between changes in neighborhood characteristics during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and depression among sexual minority young adults. Previous research has found that neighborhood characteristics influence sexual minority mental health and that sexual minorities are more likely to move to more urban and politically liberal locations. No study to date, however, has examined the impact of changes in neighborhood characteristics on sexual minority depression. The results from this study show that decreases in the percent urban was associated with increased risk of depression and decreases in the percent Republican voters in sexual minority’s neighborhood was associated with decreases in risk of depression. The results suggest that clinicians may want to screen sexual minority youth for recent changes in their neighborhoods to assess if these changes may be related to the onset or exacerbation of depressive episodes. PMID:24217448

Everett, Bethany G.

2014-01-01

71

Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Youths' Peer Relationships: Experiences, Expectations, and Implications for Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had smaller overall peer networks than did young male heterosexuals, whereas older male and fe-

Lisa M. Diamond; Sarah Lucas

2004-01-01

72

The maintenance of sexual reproduction in a structured population  

E-print Network

under sexual reproduction. Population subdivision slows the spread of asexual lineages, which allows; asexual reproduction; theory; population genetics; structured populations; genetic drift 1. INTRODUCTIONThe maintenance of sexual reproduction in a structured population Joel R. Peck1* , Jonathan

Alvarez, Nadir

73

A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

2011-01-01

74

School Absenteeism and Mental Health among Sexual Minority Youth and Heterosexual Youth  

PubMed Central

Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. PMID:24495493

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.

2014-01-01

75

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2009-01-01

76

Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

2008-01-01

77

A Different Kind of "Outing": Training Counsellors to Work with Sexual Minority Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research indicates sexual minority training provided to graduate students of counselling psychology is minimal and inadequate (Bahr, Brish, & Croteau, 2000; Morrison & L'Heureux, 2001; Murphy, 1991). Graduates feel unprepared to work competently with sexual-minority individuals, yet Canadian and American Associations require their members to…

Alderson, Kevin G.

2004-01-01

78

Families, resources, and adult health: where do sexual minorities fit?  

PubMed

Extensive research documents the relevance of families and socioeconomic resources to health. This article extends that research to sexual minorities, using 12 years of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 460,459) to examine self-evaluations of health among male and female adults living in same-sex and different-sex relationships. Adjusting for socioeconomic status eliminates differences between same- and different-sex cohabitors so that they have similarly higher odds of poor health relative to married persons. Results by gender reveal that the cohabitation disadvantage for health is more pronounced for different-sex cohabiting women than for men, but little difference exists between same-sex cohabiting men and women. Finally, the presence of children in the home is more protective for women's than men's health, but those protections are specific to married women. In all, the results elucidate the importance of relationship type, gender, and the presence of children when evaluating health. PMID:23315360

Denney, Justin T; Gorman, Bridget K; Barrera, Cristina B

2013-03-01

79

Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n?=?22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR?=?1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

2013-01-01

80

PROCESSES LEADING SELF-IDENTIFIED HETEROSEXUALS TO DEVELOP INTO SEXUAL MINORITY SOCIAL JUSTICE ALLIES: A QUALITATIVE EXPLORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of homonegativity on both sexual minorities and heterosexuals is profoundly debilitating. Due to the implicit power of their privileged status, heterosexually-identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual minority oppression. Because minimal research exists around heterosexual identity issues, broadly, and sexual minority ally development, specifically, it is difficult to promote such ally work without

Julie Marie Duhigg

2007-01-01

81

Explaining the suicide risk of sexual minority individuals by contrasting the minority stress model with suicide models.  

PubMed

Many studies have found elevated levels of suicide ideation and attempts among sexual minority (homosexual and bisexual) individuals as compared to heterosexual individuals. The suicide risk difference has mainly been explained by minority stress models (MSTM), but the application of established suicidological models and testing their interrelations with the MSTM has been lacking so far. Therefore, we have contrasted two established models explaining suicide risk, the Interpersonal Psychological Theory (IPT) (Joiner, 2005) and the Clinical Model (CM) (Mann et al., 1999), with the MSTM (Meyer, 2003) in a Bavarian online-sample of 255 adult sexual minority participants and 183 heterosexual participants. The results suggested that the CM and the IPT model can well explain suicide ideation among sexual minorities according to the factors depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, and failed belongingness. The CM and the IPT were intertwined with the MSTM via internalized homophobia, social support, and early age of coming out. Early coming out was associated with an increased suicide attempt risk, perhaps through violent experiences that enhanced the capability for suicide; however, coming out likely changed to a protective factor for suicide ideation by enhanced social support and reduced internalized homophobia. These results give more insight into the development of suicide risk among sexual minority individuals and may be helpful to tailor minority-specific suicide prevention strategies. PMID:24573399

Plöderl, Martin; Sellmeier, Maximilian; Fartacek, Clemens; Pichler, Eva-Maria; Fartacek, Reinhold; Kralovec, Karl

2014-11-01

82

Health Care Reform and Asthma Care Disparities in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma affects almost 23 million people in the United States and ranks as a leading cause of health disparities among minority and low socioeconomic groups, with the largest impact on minority children. This article will examine how fragmented health care in the United States contributes to asthma care disparities in minority populations and will discuss how health care reform may

Lisa Cambridge

2011-01-01

83

Immigrant sexual minority Latino men in rural North Carolina: an exploration of social context, social behaviors, and sexual outcomes.  

PubMed

Immigrant sexual minority Latino men-who may or may not self-identify as gay-constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled "hidden" and "hard-to-reach," and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a subgroup about whom little is known. Informed by a social ecological framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

Gilbert, Paul A; Rhodes, Scott D

2014-01-01

84

The Association Between Supportive High School Environments and Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Students.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p < .001). Teacher reports of more supportive school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p < .001) than in schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students. PMID:25469988

Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer

2014-12-01

85

Emergence of clones in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In sexual population, recombination reshuffles genetic variation and produces novel combinations of existing alleles, while selection amplifies the fittest genotypes in the population. If recombination is more rapid than selection, populations consist of a diverse mixture of many genotypes, as is observed in many populations. In the opposite regime, which is realized for example in the facultatively sexual populations that outcross in only a fraction of reproductive cycles, selection can amplify individual genotypes into large clones. Such clones emerge when the fitness advantage of some of the genotypes is large enough that they grow to a significant fraction of the population despite being broken down by recombination. The occurrence of this ‘clonal condensation’ depends, in addition to the outcrossing rate, on the heritability of fitness. Clonal condensation leads to a strong genetic heterogeneity of the population which is not adequately described by traditional population genetics measures, such as linkage disequilibrium. Here we point out the similarity between clonal condensation and the freezing transition in the random energy model of spin glasses. Guided by this analogy we explicitly calculate the probability, Y, that two individuals are genetically identical as a function of the key parameters of the model. While Y is the analog of the spin-glass order parameter, it is also closely related to rate of coalescence in population genetics: two individuals that are part of the same clone have a recent common ancestor.

Neher, Richard A.; Vucelja, Marija; Mezard, Mark; Shraiman, Boris I.

2013-01-01

86

The Challenge of Asthma in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burden and disparity of asthma in race\\/ethnic minorities present a significant challenge. In this review, we will evaluate\\u000a data on asthma epidemiology in minorities, examine potential reasons for asthma disparities, and discuss strategies of intervention\\u000a and culturally sensitive care.

Albin B. Leong; Clare D. Ramsey; Juan C. Celedón

87

An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths  

PubMed Central

This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems. PMID:23687399

Gattis, Maurice N.

2012-01-01

88

Sexual discourses and strategies among minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency. PMID:24902033

Cense, Marianne

2014-01-01

89

Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) CHAPS partnerships. Staff who agreed to take part were asked to complete a questionnaire online. The online survey was completed by 1241 ethnic minority MSM, 416 men born in South and Central America or Central and Eastern Europe, and 13,717 white British MSM; 67 ethnic minority MSM took part in the online qualitative interview. In addition 364 people working in sexual health clinics and 124 health promotion workers from around Britain completed an online questionnaire. Discussion The findings from this study will improve our understanding of the sexual health and needs of ethnic minority MSM in Britain. PMID:20630087

2010-01-01

90

The Link Between Alcohol Use and Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities: An Event-Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men's alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report

Dominic J. Parrott; Kathryn E. Gallagher; Wilson Vincent; Roger Bakeman

2010-01-01

91

Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.  

PubMed

Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

2010-10-01

92

Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area.  

PubMed

Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

2014-03-01

93

Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area  

PubMed Central

Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

Bauermeister, José A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

2013-01-01

94

Characterization of Sclerotinia minor populations in Texas  

E-print Network

. Another field, which we defined as W, had no 4 previously reported cases of S. minor but is located in close proximity to fields with a known history of S. minor, was found to have 120 out of 120 acres infested with the pathogen during 2004. Fungicide... applications with a combination of fluazinam and thiophanate-methyl did not halt the spread of the disease in field W. These dramatic increases in S. minor and the lack of response to fungicide applications elicited major concern that the evolution...

Henry, Merribeth Annette

2009-06-02

95

Relationship Trajectories and Psychological Well-Being among Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

2010-01-01

96

The Role of Personality in Predicting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Sexual Minorities.  

PubMed

Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. A sample of 704 sexual minority adults was recruited nationally from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning community organizations and social networking Web sites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of five-factor model personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25347022

Livingston, Nicholas A; Oost, Kathryn M; Heck, Nicholas C; Cochran, Bryan N

2014-10-27

97

Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

2011-01-01

98

The Dormant Commerce Clause and State Regulation of the Internet: Are Laws Protecting Minors From Sexual Predators Constitutionally Different Than Those Protecting Minors From Sexually Explicit Materials?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several states have enacted statutes to protect minors from harmful or obscene materials disseminated over the Internet, as well as from pedophiles seeking to use the Internet to lure them into sexual conduct. State and federal courts have diverged in their analysis of the Dormant Commerce Clause's impact on state regulation in these areas. While state courts have held that

Chin Pann

2005-01-01

99

Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.  

PubMed

Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity. PMID:24175889

Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

2013-01-01

100

Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

2013-01-01

101

Sexual dysfunction in women: population based epidemiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Sexual dysfunction is defined as a disturbance of the processes that characterise the sexual response cycle or as pain associated\\u000a with sexual intercourse. The objective of this epidemiological study, conducted in a representative sample of the population\\u000a of women aged 20 and older in Casablanca, Morocco, is to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women. Criteria\\u000a of sexual

N. Kadri; K. H. Mchichi Alami; S. Mchakra Tahiri

2002-01-01

102

An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities  

PubMed Central

Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups. PMID:24187476

Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

103

An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups. PMID:24187476

Toomey, Russell B; Russell, Stephen T

2013-06-01

104

An Ecological Framework for Sexual Minority Women's Health: Factors Associated With Greater Body Mass.  

PubMed

In recent years, many studies have focused on the body of sexual minority women, particularly emphasizing their larger size. These studies rarely offer theoretically based explanations for the increased weight, nor study the potential consequences (or lack thereof) of being heavier. This article provides a brief overview of the multitude of factors that might cause or contribute to larger size of sexual minority women, using an ecological framework that elucidates upstream social determinants of health as well as individual risk factors. This model is infused with a minority stress model, which hypothesizes excess strain resulting from the stigma associated with oppressed minority identities such as woman, lesbian, bisexual, woman of color, and others. We argue that lack of attention to the upstream social determinants of health may result in individual-level victim blaming and interventions that do not address the root causes of minority stress or increased weight. PMID:25569747

Eliason, Michele J; Fogel, Sarah C

2015-07-01

105

[Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].  

PubMed

To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national program to combat this plight. PMID:19499745

Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

2009-02-01

106

A Rainbow [Dis]connection?: Comparing Perceptions on Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation to Work with Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite research demonstrating the effects of hostile school climates on the academic achievements of minority sexual and gender identity (MSGI) youth, little attention is paid to preparing future teachers to work with this diverse student population. Given the importance of making learning environments safe and welcoming for all students, this…

Kaufman, Reagan J.

2013-01-01

107

How Sexual Reproduction Affects the Population Biology of  

E-print Network

How Sexual Reproduction Affects the Population Biology of Phytophthora infestans Lina Sjöholm Service/Repro, Uppsala 2012 Cover illustration: Alvar Grönberg #12;How Sexual Reproduction Affects and sexual reproduction. In most parts of the world the asexual part of the life cycle is the dominant

108

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma “Get Under the Skin”? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

PubMed Central

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. PMID:19702379

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2009-01-01

109

Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction  

E-print Network

Development of Populations 177 6.6 Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction G. Alsmeyer In Section 5.9, we studied the effect of sexual reproduction on criticality and ex- tinction risk-negative Alsmeyer G (2005). Growth of Populations with Sexual Reproduction. In: Branching Processes: Variation

Alsmeyer, Gerold

110

Religiosity and Alcohol Use in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth and Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations\\u000a in sexual minority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal\\u000a and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to test group differences in associations between

Sharon Scales Rostosky; Fred Danner; Ellen D. B. Riggle

2008-01-01

111

Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Sexual Dysfunction in Adulthood: An Australian Population-Based Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined self-reported adult sexual functioning in individuals reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a representative sample of the Australian population. A sample of 1793 persons, aged 18–59 years, were randomly selected from the electoral roll for Australian states and territories in April 2000. Respondents were interviewed about their health status and sexual experiences, including unwanted

Jake M. Najman; Michael P. Dunne; David M. Purdie; Francis M. Boyle; Peter D. Coxeter

2005-01-01

112

Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

Sexual minority youth report higher rates of depression and suicidality than do heterosexual youth. Little is known, however, about whether these disparities continue as youth transition into young adulthood. The primary goals of this study were to describe and compare trajectories of adolescent depressive symptoms and suicidality among sexual minority and heterosexual youth, examine differences in depressive symptoms and suicidality trajectories across sexual orientation subgroups, and determine whether there are gender differences in these longitudinal disparities. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed using latent curve modeling (N = 12,379; 53% female). Results showed that the rates of depressive symptoms and suicidality in early adolescence were higher among sexual minority youth than among heterosexual youth, and that these disparities persisted over time as participants transitioned into young adulthood. Consistent with previous cross-sectional studies, the observed longitudinal disparities were largest for females and for bisexually-identified youth. Sexual minority youth may benefit from childhood and early adolescent prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23784511

Marshal, Michael P.; Dermody, Sarah S.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad M.; Friedman, Mark S.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda

2013-01-01

113

Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interrelationships among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism, and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of internalized heterosexism than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and internalized heterosexism are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understanding of sexual minority stress and would advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities. PMID:23469820

Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

2013-01-01

114

School outcomes of sexual minority youth in the United States: evidence from a national study.  

PubMed

Using data from the Add Health Study, the first nationally representative study of adolescents in the U.S. to include information on same-sex romantic attraction, we examine school outcomes (school troubles, attitudes, and performance) of same-sex attracted youth within the context of four relational domains: family, teacher, social, and peer. Results indicate that each domain plays a role in the negative attitudes about school held by these sexual minority youth. However, sexual minority youths' feelings about their teachers play an important role in explaining school troubles. PMID:11259074

Russell, S T; Seif, H; Truong, N L

2001-02-01

115

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

116

Rethinking the Vulnerability of Minority Populations in Research  

PubMed Central

The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we examine the question of the representation of minorities in research. Then we argue that the best understanding of minorities, vulnerability, and research will begin with a broad understanding of the risk of individual members of minority groups to poor health outcomes. We offer a typology of vulnerability to help with this task. Finally, we show how researchers should be guided by this broad analysis in the design and execution of their research. PMID:24134375

Lange, Margaret Meek

2013-01-01

117

A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

2009-01-01

118

Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

2014-01-01

119

A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Correlates of Lifetime Sexual Assault among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health…

Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

2014-01-01

120

[Population problems of the Gaoshan minority in Taiwan].  

PubMed

The Gaoshan minority constitutes about 2% of Taiwan's population, and the total Gaoshan minority is estimated to have a population of 400,000. Most of them live on the island's west coast, in the central mountains, and eastern valleys. The birth rate of the Gaoshan minority is slightly higher than that of the average population, but its death rate is about two to three times above average. From 1949 to 1979, the population growth rate for the Gaoshan minority was about 79%. Close to 97% of the population is made up of young people and only 3% are old people. There are more males than females, and the age for marriage is generally young. The timespan of childbearing for the female is comparatively long. The educational and cultural levels of the Gaoshan minority are low. Most of the people earn their living by engaging in agriculture, together with additional activities in fishing and hunting; approximately 75% of the working people belong to this category. Only 14% are people who are working in industry, mining, commerce, and the transportation business. About 11% work in other professions. In recent years, the average income from agriculture and animal husbandry has gradually decreased, and the income from industrial wages and business has shown an obvious increase. PMID:12159334

Chen, G

1984-03-29

121

The effects of childhood sexual abuse on minority adolescent mothers.  

PubMed

In 2 urban areas of Texas, 124 mothers, 13-20 years old, all but 6% of whom were Mexican American or African American, were recruited from 4 public agencies to a study designed to determine the incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse on the lives of these adolescent mothers. The study used the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) to compare the personality characteristics of those mothers who had experienced sexual abuse with their nonabused counterparts. Most adolescent mothers were single (80%), lived with their parents (63%), were pregnant for the first time (56%), currently attended school (84%), and lived in a family whose annual income was less than $12,000. 44% of the mothers had experienced some form of childhood sexual abuse. More than 50% reported oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with their abusers. The abusers tended to be male (97%) and known to the victim (66%). Male strangers accounted for 19% of abusers. The researchers were able to use data from 111 subjects to compare the 2 groups. The abused adolescent mothers always had clinically and statistically significant poorer scores than nonabused mothers. Abused mothers had greater difficulties in self-concept (p 0.0001), self-esteem (p = 0.004), body comfort (p = 0.002), sexual acceptance (p = 0.002), peer security (p = 0.002), and family rapport (p = 0.002). They also had clinically significant lower levels of academic confidence (p = 0.018), social conformity (p = 0.035), scholastic achievement (p 0.0001), and attendance consistency (p = 0.002). When researchers controlled for the effect of the Life Event Scale-Adolescents, abused mothers had differences that were significantly different than those of nonabused mothers (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that nurses within prenatal or well-baby care agencies should guide adolescent mothers who experienced childhood sexual abuse as they learn to communicate with their family or refer them to existing support services. It is important to ask adolescent mothers about a history of sexual abuse. PMID:8708833

Esparza, D V; Esperat, M C

1996-05-01

122

Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

2014-01-01

123

Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

2010-01-01

124

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population  

E-print Network

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population Alexandre Courtiola,b,c,1 selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes

Lummaa, Virpi

125

Protective School Climates and Reduced Risk for Suicide Ideation in Sexual Minority Youths  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether sexual minority students living in states and cities with more protective school climates were at lower risk of suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. Methods. Data on sexual orientation and past-year suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were from the pooled 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Surveys from 8 states and cities. We derived data on school climates that protected sexual minority students (e.g., percentage of schools with safe spaces and Gay–Straight Alliances) from the 2010 School Health Profile Survey, compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual students living in states and cities with more protective school climates reported fewer past-year suicidal thoughts than those living in states and cities with less protective climates (lesbians and gays: odds ratio [OR]?=?0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.47, 0.99; bisexuals: OR?=?0.81; 95% CI?=?0.66, 0.99). Results were robust to adjustment for potential state-level confounders. Sexual orientation disparities in suicidal thoughts were nearly eliminated in states and cities with the most protective school climates. Conclusions. School climates that protect sexual minority students may reduce their risk of suicidal thoughts. PMID:24328634

Birkett, Michelle; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Meyer, Ilan H.

2014-01-01

126

Framing the Issue/Framing the Question: How are Sexual Minority Issues Included in Diversity Initiatives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper situates sexual minority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development missions of individual development, career development, and organization…

Rocco, Tonette S.; Delgado, Antonio; Landorf, Hilary

2008-01-01

127

Advisor:___________________________ 2014-2015 MSU Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Minor Worksheet  

E-print Network

on topic) HSTA 407: Gender in US/Canadian West HSTA 408 Gender in America HSTA 409: Food in America HSTR 408: Women and Gender in Islam HSTR 432: Colonial Latin America HSTR 434: Gender in Latin America HSTRAdvisor:___________________________ 2014-2015 MSU Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies Minor

Lawrence, Rick L.

128

Welcoming Children from Sexual-Minority Families into Our Schools. Fastback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that schools are responsible for providing a safe and supportive setting for all students and that with education the school climate will improve for sexual-minority parents and their children, this booklet provides information on how schools can become more welcoming to all students. Following introductory comments, the book is…

Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lamme, Laurel A.

129

Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

130

Factors Impacting Counselor Competency When Counseling Sexual Minority Intimate Partner Violence Victims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A queer theory perspective and grounded theory techniques were used to examine perceptions of counselor competency with sexual minority intimate partner violence victims. Ten counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews. Results indicate that beneficial aspects of competency development occurred prior to, during, and after their…

Hancock, Ryan

2012-01-01

131

Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

2010-01-01

132

Teacher-Mentors and the Educational Resilience of Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to examine the benefits of informal mentoring on the educational resilience of sexual minority youth. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we show that having a mentor, especially one that is a teacher, is associated with higher levels of post-secondary participation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Teacher-mentors are particularly significant

Billie Gastic; Dominique Johnson

2009-01-01

133

Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

2010-01-01

134

Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

2012-01-01

135

Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

2008-01-01

136

Tobacco use among sexual minorities in the USA, 1987 to May 2007: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This paper examines the prevalence of tobacco use among sexual minorities in the US through a systematic review of literature from 1987 to May 2007. Methods: Seven databases were searched for peer- reviewed research (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library via Wiley InterScience, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), Health Source: Nursing\\/Academic, Institute for Scientific

J G L Lee; G K Griffin; C L Melvin

2010-01-01

137

The health status of minority populations in the United States.  

PubMed Central

There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed. PMID:1877226

Nickens, H. W.

1991-01-01

138

Sexual abuse in childhood and sexual dysfunction in adulthood: an Australian population-based study.  

PubMed

This study examined self-reported adult sexual functioning in individuals reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a representative sample of the Australian population. A sample of 1793 persons, aged 18-59 years, were randomly selected from the electoral roll for Australian states and territories in April 2000. Respondents were interviewed about their health status and sexual experiences, including unwanted sexual experiences before the age of 16 years. More than one-third of women and approximately one-sixth of men reported a history of CSA. Women were more likely than men to report both non-penetrative and penetrative experiences of CSA. For both sexes, there was a significant association between CSA and symptoms of sexual dysfunction. In assessing the specific nature of the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual dysfunction, statistically significant associations were, in general, evident for women only. CSA was not associated with the level of physical or emotional satisfaction respondents experienced with their sexual activity. The total number of lifetime sexual partners was significantly and positively associated with CSA for females, but not for males; however, the number of sexual partners in the last year was not related to CSA. CSA in the Australian population is common and contributes to significant impairment in the sexual functioning of adults, especially women. These consequences appear not to extend to the other areas of sexual activity considered in this study. PMID:16211473

Najman, Jake M; Dunne, Michael P; Purdie, David M; Boyle, Francis M; Coxeter, Peter D

2005-10-01

139

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

Bradley, Beverly

2012-01-01

140

Sexual conflict and antagonistic coevolution across water strider populations.  

PubMed

Microevolutionary studies have demonstrated sexually antagonistic selection on sexual traits, and existing evidence supports a macroevolutionary pattern of sexually antagonistic coevolution. Two current questions are how antagonistic selection within-populations scales to divergence among populations, and to what extent intraspecific divergence matches species-level patterns. To address these questions, we conducted an intraspecific comparative study of sexual armaments and mating behaviors in a water strider (Gerris incognitus) in which male genitals grasp resistant females and female abdominal structures help ward off males. The degree of exaggeration of these armaments coevolves across species. We found a similar strong pattern of antagonistic coevolution among populations, suggesting that sexual conflict drives population differentiation in morphology. Furthermore, relative exaggeration in armaments was closely related to mating outcomes in a common environment. Interestingly, the effect of armaments on mating was mediated by population sexual size dimorphism. When females had a large size advantage, mating activity was low and independent of armaments, but when males had a relative size advantage, mating activity depended on which sex had relatively exaggerated armaments. Thus, a strong signal of sexually antagonistic coevolution is apparent even among populations. These results open opportunities to understand links between sexual arms races, ecological variation, and reproductive isolation. PMID:22276547

Perry, Jennifer C; Rowe, Locke

2012-02-01

141

Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

2006-01-01

142

Minority stress and substance use in sexual minority adolescents: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents report disparate rates of substance use, and often consume more cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy than their heterosexual peers. It is therefore crucial to understand the risk factors for substance use among LGB adolescents, particularly those unique to their minority status. In an effort to organize the current knowledge of minority-related risk factors for substance use among LGB youth, this study presents results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published research literature. Results from 12 unique studies of LGB youth indicated that the strongest risk factors for substance use were victimization, lack of supportive environments, psychological stress, internalizing/externalizing problem behavior, negative disclosure reactions, and housing status. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for targeted intervention programs that address minority stress risk factors for substance use among LGB youth. PMID:23605479

Goldbach, Jeremy T; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Bagwell, Meredith; Dunlap, Shannon

2014-06-01

143

The genetic structure of populations of sexual and asexual Taraxacum (dandelions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic structure, as assessed by isozymes, is described for three populations of outbreeding sexuals, three populations of obligate agamosperms, and six accessions of inbreeding sexual Taraxacum. Fifteen loci in 10 isozyme systems were identified, and isozyme bands were previously shown to be allelic in sexual × sexual and were confirmed as allelic in sexual × agamosperm crosses. Sexual ×

Jane Hughes; A J Richards

1988-01-01

144

Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males. PMID:23316852

Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

2013-01-01

145

Substance Abuse and Sexual Trauma in a Female Veteran Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of researchers have explored connections between substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sexual assault histories in civilian women. Despite literature suggesting the prevalence of substance abuse and sexual assault for female veterans, few studies have investigated these variables in a female veteran population. Thus, this paper was designed to provide preliminary information about this group of

Tania M. Davis; Peggy S. Wood

1999-01-01

146

Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-04-01

147

Targeting interventions for ethnic minority and low-income populations.  

PubMed

Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in childhood obesity prevalence by race and ethnicity and by socioeconomic status. They show how various environmental factors can have larger effects on disadvantaged and minority children than on their advantaged white peers-and thus contribute to disparities in obesity rates. The authors show, for example, that low-income and minority children watch more television than white, non-poor children and are potentially exposed to more commercials advertising high-calorie, low-nutrient food during an average hour of TV programming. They note that neighborhoods where low-income and minority children live typically have more fast-food restaurants and fewer vendors of healthful foods than do wealthier or predominantly white neighborhoods. They cite such obstacles to physical activity as unsafe streets, dilapidated parks, and lack of facilities. In the schools that low-income and minority children attend, however, they see opportunities to lead the way to effective obesity prevention. Finally, the authors examine several aspects of the home environment-breast-feeding, television viewing, and parental behaviors-that may contribute to childhood obesity but be amenable to change through targeted intervention. Kumanyika and Grier point out that policymakers aiming to prevent obesity can use many existing policy levers to reach ethnic minority and low-income children and families: Medicaid, the State Child Health Insurance Program, and federal nutrition "safety net" programs. Ultimately, winning the fight against childhood obesity in minority and low-income communities will depend on the nation's will to change the social and physical environments in which these communities exist. PMID:16532664

Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

2006-01-01

148

Academic and social integration on campus among sexual minority students: the impacts of psychological and experiential campus climate.  

PubMed

A heterosexist campus climate can increase risk for mental health problems for sexual minority students; however, the relationship between campus climate for sexual minorities and academic outcomes remains understudied. Using a sample of sexual minority respondents extracted from a campus climate survey conducted at a large university in the Midwest, we examine relationships between multiple dimensions of psychological and experiential campus climate for sexual minorities with academic integration (academic disengagement, grade-point average [GPA]) and social integration (institutional satisfaction, acceptance on campus). We also investigate the protective role of engagement with informal academic and peer-group systems. Findings suggest campus climate affects sexual minority students' integration. In multivariate analyses, perceptions of whether lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people could be open about their sexual identity was positively associated with acceptance on campus; personal heterosexist harassment was positively associated with academic disengagement and negatively with GPA. Students' informal academic integration (instructor relations) and informal social integration (LGB friends) demonstrated influential main effects but did not moderate any of the climate-outcome relationships. Researchers should further explore the relationships between climate and academic outcomes among sexual minority students, both collectively and among specific sub-groups, and address the role of other protective factors. PMID:25367265

Woodford, Michael R; Kulick, Alex

2015-03-01

149

From Conditionality to Persuasion? Europeanization and the Rights of Sexual Minorities in Post?Accession Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an examination of sexual minorities’ rights in Poland, this paper compares the effectiveness of ‘external incentives’ and ‘social learning’ as Europeanization mechanisms after EU enlargement in post?communist Europe. The politics surrounding the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Poland raise questions about the EU’s capacity to foster norms of tolerance and non?discrimination now that accession

Conor ODwyer

2010-01-01

150

Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

2014-01-01

151

Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?  

PubMed

Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

2014-11-01

152

Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.  

PubMed

Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests. PMID:25749745

Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

2015-04-01

153

How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

2012-01-01

154

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

155

Intervention, Treatment, and Prevention of Sexual Abuse and Assault: A Training Program for Racial Minority Service Providers. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Minnesota Program for Victims of Sexual Assault conducted a 9-month training program for racial minority human service professionals from September 1983 through May 1984. The objectives of the project were to improve the identification, intervention, and treatment of sexual assault victims and their families. The project targeted Blacks,…

Specktor, Peggy; Stafford, Rick, Ed.

156

Comparing Health and Mental Health Needs, Service Use, and Barriers to Services among Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…

Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.

2011-01-01

157

Are Eukaryotic Microorganisms Clonal or Sexual? A Population Genetics Vantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the mode of reproduction of microorganisms in nature can only be decided by population genetic information. The evidence available indicates that many parasitic protozoa and unicellular fungi have clonal rather than sexual population structures, which has major consequences for medical research and practice. Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria, is a special case: the scarce evidence available

Michel Tibayrenc; Finn Kjellberg; Jacques Arnaud; Bruno Oury; S. Frederique Breniere; Marle-Laure Darde; Francisco J. Ayala

1991-01-01

158

Communication between VA providers and sexual and gender minority veterans: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Approximately one million gay and lesbian Americans are veterans, and rates of engagement in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system may be increasing for both sexual and gender minority veterans. Very little research has examined the experience of these veterans when receiving care at VA health care facilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, beliefs, and preferences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) veterans in their communication with VA health care providers. LGBT veterans (n = 58) participated in focus groups or individual interviews and completed self-report measures at two southern VA hospitals. Approximately 2/3 of veterans report that none of their VA providers have specifically asked about their sexual orientation, and 24% of the veterans indicate that they have not disclosed their orientation to any VA provider. Although some veterans want providers to initiate these discussions, veterans also expressed fears about disclosure and its possible negative consequences. Similarly, LGBT veterans report varied opinions about the appropriateness of routine assessment of minority status. Only 28% of these veterans experience VA as welcoming to them as LGBT veterans. Systematic training is needed for all VA providers about the rationale for assessing sexual and gender orientation. Staff education should include specific skills for initiating these assessments, and ways of responding to veteran concerns about discussing this topic in the VA health care system. PMID:24588107

Sherman, Michelle D; Kauth, Michael R; Shipherd, Jillian C; Street, Richard L

2014-05-01

159

Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

1995-06-01

160

Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

2015-01-01

161

Resilience in community: a social ecological development model for young adult sexual minority women.  

PubMed

Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57 % bisexual) between the ages of 18-25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2 %), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6 %), African American (9.6 %) and Asian/Asian American (3.1 %); 10.2 % endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18 to 41 % across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A; Rhew, Isaac C; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra

2015-03-01

162

Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risks in minority populations.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

Ferdinand, Keith C; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A; Caballero, A Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E; Ofili, Elizabeth O

2014-04-01

163

Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

2014-01-01

164

The Trouble With “MSM” and “WSW”: Erasure of the Sexual-Minority Person in Public Health Discourse  

PubMed Central

Men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW) are purportedly neutral terms commonly used in public health discourse. However, they are problematic because they obscure social dimensions of sexuality; undermine the self-labeling of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people; and do not sufficiently describe variations in sexual behavior. MSM and WSW often imply a lack of lesbian or gay identity and an absence of community, networks, and relationships in which same-gender pairings mean more than merely sexual behavior. Overuse of the terms MSM and WSW adds to a history of scientific labeling of sexual minorities that reflects, and inadvertently advances, heterosexist notions. Public health professionals should adopt more nuanced and culturally relevant language in discussing members of sexual-minority groups. PMID:15961753

Young, Rebecca M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

2005-01-01

165

Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.  

PubMed

This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

2015-02-01

166

Population structure at different minor allele frequency levels.  

PubMed

Inferring population genetic structure from large-scale genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms or variants is an important technique for studying the history and distribution of extant human populations, but it is also a very important tool for adjusting tests of association. However, the structures inferred depend on the minor allele frequency of the variants; this is very important when considering the phenotypic association of rare variants. Using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data set for 142 unrelated individuals, which includes genotypes for many rare variants, we study the following hypothesis: the difference in detected structure is the result of a "scale" effect; that is, rare variants are likely to be shared only locally (smaller scale), while common variants can be spread over longer distances. The result is similar to that of using kernel principal component analysis, as the bandwidth of the kernel is changed. We show how different structures become evident as we consider rare or common variants. PMID:25519390

De la Cruz, Omar; Raska, Paola

2014-01-01

167

Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status. PMID:25470333

Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

2015-05-01

168

Is There a Difference? The Impact of Campus Climate on Sexual Minority and Gender Minority Students' Levels of Outness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Key scholars have studied campus climate, and often these climate studies are done through the lens of race and racial issues on campus. A few studies have explored the interaction between campus climate and sexual and gender minority students. However, those studies, like the climate studies through a racial lens, found that lesbian, gay,…

di Bartolo, Adriana N.

2013-01-01

169

Contraceptive and sexuality knowledge among inner-city middle school students from minority groups.  

PubMed

In exchange for a free physical examination, 116 minority group youths from inner-city middle schools in Texas consented to answer open-ended questions about their sexual behavior, contraceptive knowledge, and type and source of knowledge of sexuality. The students ranged in age from 12-15 years (mean age, 13 years); 27% were Hispanic and 73% were black. Sex education was not a part of the curriculum at the 4 schools from which respondents were drawn. When asked what sex meant to them, 37% of female adolescents and 23% of males indicated they did not know or it did not mean anything. Among remaining students, recreation was identified as the central meaning be males (23% of total), while females tended to cite romance (21% of total). Only 47% were able to list at least 1 question they had about sex; most common were questions about the morality of premarital intercourse and the experience of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. 89% of females and 57% of males were able to name at least 1 contraceptive method, generally condoms (44%), abstinence (36%), and the pill (8%). Hispanic females named the highest number of contraceptive methods on average (2.2), followed by black females (1.9), Hispanic males (1.8), and black males (1.3). Among female adolescents, 53% listed their mother as their primary source of knowledge about sexual matters and 6% listed a friend. Among males, fathers (17%) and friends (17%) were the most frequent knowledge sources. The fact that these young adolescents view their parents as credible and approachable sources of information about sexuality suggests that school counselors should encourage such communication. aT the same time, the expressed need for more information on the moral aspects of sexuality indicates that values should be incorporated into any sex education program developed for this age group. PMID:12342896

Smith, P B; Chacko, M R; Bermudez, A

1989-11-01

170

Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

2014-01-01

171

HIV Testing Among Immigrant Sexual and Gender Minority Latinos in a US Region with Little Historical Latino Presence  

PubMed Central

Abstract Immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos constitute a vulnerable subgroup about which little is known. We examined HIV testing among 190 such Latinos recruited via respondent-driven sampling in North Carolina, a state with little historical Latino presence but recent, rapid growth of this population. Sixty-eight percent reported an HIV test in the past year, and nearly half reported multiple HIV tests. Concern for their health was the most frequent reason for seeking an HIV test. Reasons not to get tested included fear of a positive test, previous HIV tests, worry that test results might be reported to the government, and concerns that others might treat the person differently if found to be HIV positive. In a multiple variable model, correlates of HIV testing included age, educational attainment, HIV stigma, comfort with sexual orientation, and previous STD diagnoses. Among participants reporting anal sex, consistent condom use was associated with HIV testing, suggesting that protective behaviors may co-occur. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious interventions to increase HIV testing among this subgroup. PMID:24138487

Rhodes, Scott D.

2013-01-01

172

School Environment and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youths: A Study Among Dutch Young Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether structural elements of the school environment, in particular cultural pluralism and consistency and clarity of school rules and expectations of students, could mitigate the risk for mental health problems among young sexual minority adolescents. Methods. Data were collected in 2008 by means of a computer-based questionnaire completed at school by 513 young Dutch adolescents (12–15 years old) during regular class times. Eleven percent of these students, who were enrolled in 8 different schools, reported having at least some feelings of same-sex attraction. Results. Adolescents with same-sex attractions in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as less consistent and clear reported significantly more mental health problems than their peers with no same-sex attractions in the same schools. Such differences were absent in schools where rules and expectations were experienced as more consistent and clear. There were no such effects of cultural pluralism. Conclusions. Our results suggest that schools with consistent and clear rules and expectations mitigate the risk for mental health problems among students with same-sex attractions and underscore the importance of structural measures for the health of sexual minority youth. PMID:20634453

Bos, Henny M. W.; Collier, Kate L.; Metselaar, Marijke

2010-01-01

173

On the Unit of Selection in Sexual Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution by natural selection is a process of var iation and selection acting on replicating units. These units are often assumed to be individuals, but in a sexual population, the largest reliably-replic ated unit on which selection can act is a small section of chromosome - hence, t he 'selfish gene' model. However, the scale of unit at which variation

Richard A. Watson

2005-01-01

174

Sexual Conf lict and Remarriage in Preindustrial Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict is said to occur when one mating partner has an opportunity to increase its fitness at the cost of the other. We analyzed the effect of remarriage on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in three preindustrial (1700–1900) socially monogamous Sami populations. In all populations, ever-married women’s age-specific mortality rates exceeded those of ever-married men during reproductive years. After the

Pekka Käär; Jukka Jokela; Juha Merilä; Timo Helle; Ilpo Kojola

1998-01-01

175

Minority Stress Theory: An Examination of Factors Surrounding Sexual Risk Behavior among Gay & Bisexual Men Who Use Club Drugs  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined the impact of minority stress theory upon sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men using club drugs. Similar studies have focused on ethnic minorities and women, however gay and bisexual men demonstrate greater likelihood for risk behaviors leading to HIV/AIDS. Objective This study examined sexual risk behavior from the perspective of minority stress theory upon substance using gay and bisexual men and their partners. Methods Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined minority stress associations with participant sexual risk behaviors, drug use and partner type, controlling for demographics. Results 396 gay and 54 bisexual respondents, ages 18-67 reported at least one time drug use while engaging in sexual risk behavior. In the adjusted model, expectations of rejection associated with lower odds of sexual risk behavior, while older age approached significance. Conclusions Theoretical origins for examining risk behavior among gay and bisexual men may underscore risk and protective factors, while ultimately holding implications for prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:24319321

Dentato, Michael P.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Orwat, John

2013-01-01

176

Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.  

PubMed

Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ?16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988

Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

2011-08-01

177

Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students’ alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Methods Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Results Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.00). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48–2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24–1.90). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.01. Conclusion The results provide further evidence for minority stress theory and suggest that clinical alcohol use interventions with sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal mistreatment, especially hostility. Campus climate interventions that address subtle discrimination as well as harassment and violence may help reduce problematic drinking. PMID:24474863

Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

2012-01-01

178

Racial Minorities in the Scientist and Engineer Population. Science Resources Studies Highlights, September 19, 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the data about minority group scientists and engineers obtained as part of a national survey of scientific and engineering personnel in 1972. Information pertaining to minority group college students enrolled in engineering is also discussed briefly. Within the 1972 scientist and engineering populations, racial minority

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

179

Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.  

PubMed

Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements. PMID:18569207

Weber, Scott

2008-06-01

180

Incorporating Queers: Blowback, Backlash, and Other Forms of Resistance to Workplace Diversity Initiatives That Support Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The Academy of Human Resource Development's Standards on Ethics and Integrity states that,“HRD professionals accord appropriate respect to the fundamental rights, dignity, and worth of all people.” This article offers insights into the resistance encountered when organizations acknowledge the worth of sexual minorities. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and self-identified Queer (LGBTQ) individuals occupy complex and

Robert J. Hill

2009-01-01

181

Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2010-01-01

182

Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

Gastic, Billie

2012-01-01

183

School Climate, Individual Support, or Both? Gay-Straight Alliances and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…

Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah

2013-01-01

184

"Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

2011-01-01

185

Urban Students’ Attitudes About Sexual Minorities Across Intersections of Sex and Race\\/Ethnicity: Data From a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students’ attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race\\/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more frequently in their views than did Whites or

Billie Gastic

2012-01-01

186

Latino Sexual and Gender Identity Minorities Promoting Sexual Health Within Their Social Networks: Process Evaluation Findings From a Lay Health Advisor Intervention.  

PubMed

The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:25416309

Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

2014-11-21

187

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey.  

PubMed

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths' developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:22957108

Fisher, Colleen M

2012-01-01

188

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths’ developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:22957108

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

189

The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia  

PubMed Central

This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, “Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements.” The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements. PMID:25405106

Burtseva, Tatiana E.; Uvarova, Tatiana E.; Tomsky, Mikhail I.; Odland, Jon Ø.

2014-01-01

190

Gender differences in relationships among stress, coping, and health risk behaviors in impoverished, minority populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined gender differences among impoverished minority females (n = 205; 87% African-American, 13% Latina) and males (n = 203; 89% African-American, 11% Latino) in associations among latent variables representing stress, self-esteem, avoidant and active coping strategies, and health outcomes of depression, escapist drug use, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both men and women, drug use and

Judith A. Stein; Adeline Nyamathi

1998-01-01

191

Sexually transmitted disease epidemics in a natural insect population.  

PubMed

1. The epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in human and domesticated populations is well documented. However, there has been less study of STDs in natural populations. 2. We investigated STD dynamics in the model system involving a host from the most speciose group of animals: the insects. We investigated temporal variation in the prevalence of the sexually transmitted mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae on its ladybird host, Adalia bipunctata. 3. Field surveys over two seasons showed a repeated pattern of a profound epidemic in the overwintered cohort and a later prevalence decline. 4. In order to understand the key factors in the dynamics of this system we studied the phenology of the host and simulated parasite dynamics in the overwintered cohort using a model with within-sex homogeneity in mating rate and field-measured parameter values. The similarity of natural and simulation prevalence levels allowed us to carry out sensitivity analysis and hence to identify the key determinants of the dynamics. 5. The observed pattern of periodic extreme prevalence combined with system persistence probably results from time lags in host recruitment and widespread promiscuity. 6. Our findings improve our understanding of STDs in natural populations and illustrate the importance of examining seasonality and time delays in population dynamics in order to fully understand the characteristics of natural populations and their parasites. PMID:16903041

Webberley, K Mary; Buszko, Jaros?aw; Isham, Valerie; Hurst, Gregory D D

2006-01-01

192

Sexual assault while too intoxicated to resist: a general population study of Norwegian teenage girls  

PubMed Central

Background Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15–18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Methods Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n?=?2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. Results The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Conclusion Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway – notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females’ sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk approach to prevention, targeting groups with a high level of impulsivity or behavioral problems, may have limited effect on the prevalence of ISA victimization. Thus, from a public health perspective, it may be advisable to give priority to universal preventive measures to curb young girls’ risk of being sexually assaulted in a state of alcohol-induced incapacitation. PMID:24774966

2014-01-01

193

How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.  

PubMed

Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

Bauermeister, José A

2014-08-01

194

Sexual harassment in a live-bearing fish ( Poecilia mexicana ): influence of population-specific male mating behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated male sexual behaviour and the cost of sexual harassment, as measured by the reduction of female feeding time in the presence of a male, in a cave-dwelling population of Poecilia mexicana, in which sexual harassment does not occur naturally. We asked whether the lack of sexual harassment in this population is due to low sexual activity of the

Martin Plath; Anja Brümmer; Ingo Schlupp

2004-01-01

195

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population.  

PubMed

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-05-22

196

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population  

PubMed Central

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760–1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E.; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-01-01

197

Associations between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review of population-based data.  

PubMed

The assumption that early sexual debut leads to adverse outcomes has been used as justification for sexual health interventions and policies aimed at delaying sexual initiation, yet research in the area has been limited. This review identified and synthesized published literature on the association between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual/reproductive outcomes. Literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Current Contents. In all, 65 citations met the selection criteria (industrialized, population-based studies). By far the most common sexual behavior to have been investigated has been sexual partners. Studies consistently reported early first intercourse to be associated with more recent, lifetime, and concurrent sexual partners. Early initiators were also more likely to participate in a wider range of sexual practices and report increased sexual satisfaction (among men). Furthermore, early first intercourse, in some studies, was shown to increase the risk of teen pregnancies, teen births, and having an abortion, while findings on STIs and contraceptive use have been mixed. These findings, however, must be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems and limitations present in the research, including a lack of consensus on what constitutes early sexual intercourse and inconsistencies and problems with analyses. PMID:25425161

Heywood, Wendy; Patrick, Kent; Smith, Anthony M A; Pitts, Marian K

2015-04-01

198

Rate of fixation of beneficial mutations in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the rate of substitution of advantageous mutations in populations of haploid organisms where the rate of recombination can be controlled. We have verified that in all the situations recombination speeds up adaptation through recombination of beneficial mutations from distinct lineages in a single individual, and so reducing the intensity of clonal interference. The advantage of sex for adaptation is even stronger when deleterious mutations occur since now recombination can also restore genetic background free of deleterious mutations. However, our simulation results demonstrate that evidence of clonal interference, as increased mean selective effect of fixed mutations and reduced likelihood of fixation of small-effect mutations, are also present in sexual populations. What we see is that this evidence is delayed when compared to asexual populations.

Gouveia, Joseilme F.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Sátiro, Caio; Campos, Paulo R. A.

2009-06-01

199

Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women  

PubMed Central

High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors. PMID:22470274

Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2011-01-01

200

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

E-print Network

was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent, Fragaria virginiana, microsatellites, population genetic structure. INTRODUCTION Many plant speciesHigh variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria

Ashley, Mary V.

201

Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. FINDINGS: A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase. PMID:11217661

Bui, T. D.; Pham, C. K.; Pham, T. H.; Hoang, L. T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Vu, T. Q.; Detels, R.

2001-01-01

202

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior  

PubMed Central

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon river basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W.; Rack, Jessie M.; Smith, G. Troy

2013-01-01

203

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

204

Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

205

[Sexually transmissible disorders in allochtonous population groups; a pilot study].  

PubMed

In the registration of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) carried out by the nursing staff in the STD clinics the share of the immigrant populations of Turkish, Moroccan, Surinam and Antilles origin was investigated for the period 1986-89. In the total population of STD patients the immigrants appear to be overrepresented. Their share has increased from one-eight to one-fifth of the total number of STD cases. The STD rates (number of cases per 1000) for the Turkish and Moroccan populations are high, even after adjusting for population size and age. High STD rates are most apparent among males, especially among Turkish males. In comparison with the Dutch population more gonorrhoea is found among immigrants, in particular penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG). Turkish males (and prostitutes) contributed much to this relatively high prevalence. Further research is to be initiated in order to obtain better insight into the occurrence of STD among immigrant populations in The Netherlands, especially in connection with a potentially increased risk of infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). PMID:1922482

van de Laar, M J; Sleutjes, M P; Postema, C A; van de Water, H P

1991-08-24

206

Severely reduced sexual reproduction in northern populations of a clonal plant, Decodon verticillatus (Lythraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 In flowering plants the balance between sexual and clonal, asexual reproduction can vary widely. We quantified variation in sexual reproduction in a tristylous, clonal, aquatic plant, Decodon verticillatus , and investigated the role of ecological and genetic factors in causing this variation. 2 We surveyed components of sexual fertility and vegetative growth in 28 populations distributed along a

Marcel E. Dorken; CHRISTOPHER G. ECKERT

2001-01-01

207

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual  

E-print Network

, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens sexual reproduction is favored by natural se- lection over short evolutionary time spans and, if not, why sexual reproduction persists as the prevalent mode of reproduction, given that the selective benefits

Bi, Xin

208

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

209

The effects of homophobia, legislation, and local policies on heterosexual pupil services professionals' likelihood of incorporating gay affirming behaviors in their professional work with sexual minority youths in public schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests that non-judgmental, unbiased counseling (that includes an advocacy component) is effective in addressing the psycho-social needs of sexual minority youths--a population of students considered at-risk (Reynolds & Koski, 1994; Savin-Williams, 1994). The ability to provide such services is impeded if the clinician has not first come to terms with his or her own feelings and attitudes about homosexuality

Lance Santoro Smith

2007-01-01

210

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

211

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

2011-01-01

212

Sexual and reproductive knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in a school going population of Sri Lankan adolescents.  

PubMed

The reproductive and sexual health of adolescents is an important health concern and a focus of global attention. In Sri Lanka, a lack of understanding about adolescent reproductive and sexual health needs is a matter of national concern. A survey was undertaken to examine the sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of school going adolescents in Sri Lanka. A random sample of schools was selected from one district. Data were collected by a self-completion questionnaire and analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 90%. 2020 pupils (26% boys, 74% girls) aged 16-19 years (mean?=?16.9) participated, the majority Sinhalese (97%). Most reported a good parent-child relationship (88%). A minority (34%) discussed sexual issues with parents. Health professionals were the preferred source of sexual information (32%) rather than parents (12.5%) or friends (5.6%). Less than 1% demonstrated satisfactory sexual and reproductive knowledge levels. 1.7% were sexually active (30 boys vs 5 girls), the majority with same age partners. 57% used contraception at first intercourse. There is an imperative to address the lack of sexual and reproductive knowledge. A minority of school going adolescents become sexually active. These individuals are potentially vulnerable and services need to be developed to meet their needs. PMID:25637417

Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Piercy, Hilary; Salway, Sarah; Samarage, Sarath

2015-03-01

213

The Influence of Childhood Physical Abuse on Adult Health Status in Sexual Minority Women: The Mediating Role of Smoking  

PubMed Central

Background Among women in the general population, childhood physical abuse (CPA) is associated with poor adult health status and engagement in health risk behaviors. Sexual minority women (SMW) are at elevated risk of CPA, have higher rates of smoking, and may be at higher risk for poorer general health. In this study, we examined the influences of CPA on health status in a diverse sample of SMW. We hypothesized that SMW with a history of CPA would report poorer health than those without such histories and that early onset of smoking–an important health risk behavior–would mediate the relationship between CPA and current health status. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the influence of CPA on early health risk behavior (i.e., age of smoking onset) and current perceived health status in a community based sample of 368 SMW. Results More than one fifth of the sample (21.5%) reported a history of CPA. One fourth of the sample was current smokers; the average age of smoking onset was 19 to 20 years old. The mean level of self-rated health status was between “fair” and “good.” When relationships were simultaneously estimated, the effect of CPA on health status was mediated by two sequential smoking factors: CPA was associated with earlier age of smoking onset, and age of smoking onset was associated with current smoker status. Being a current smoker had a negative effect on perceived health status. Implications for Practice and/or Policy These results suggest that tobacco use is an important pathway by which CPA influences current health status. Prevention and early intervention initiatives should focus on the reduction of CPA among SMW to eliminate the long-term health consequences of adverse childhood events among SMW. PMID:23415321

Matthews, Alicia K.; Cho, Young Ik; Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Alvy, Lisa

2013-01-01

214

Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual arousal, as measured by penile erection, in response to nondeviant and pedophilic audiotapes was analyzed in a sample of 122 inpatient adult male sexual offenders. Eighty percent of the subjects were able to voluntarily and completely inhibit their sexual arousal. Multivariate analyses suggested that nondeviant and deviant arousal were significantly associated and that sexual arousal as a male voice

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall; William C. Proctor; George M. Nelson

1988-01-01

215

Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.  

PubMed

The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated. PMID:24398599

Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

2015-04-01

216

Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: a mediation analysis.  

PubMed

Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members. PMID:23358856

Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W

2013-07-01

217

Population structure and diversity in sexual and asexual populations of the pathogenic fungus Melampsora lini  

PubMed Central

Many pathogens undergo both sexual and asexual reproduction to varying degrees, yet the ecological, genetic and evolutionary consequences of different reproductive strategies remain poorly understood. Here we investigate the population genetic structure of wild populations of the plant pathogen Melampsora lini on its host Linum marginale, using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, two genes underlying pathogen virulence, and phenotypic variation in virulence. In Australia, M. lini occurs as two genetically and geographically divergent lineages (AA and AB), one of which is completely asexual (AB), and the other able to reproduce both clonally and sexually (AA). To quantify the genetic and evolutionary consequences of these different life histories, we sampled five populations in each of two biogeographical regions. Analysis of AFLP data obtained for 275 isolates revealed largely disjunct geographical distributions for the two different lineages, low genetic diversity within lineages, and strong genetic structure among populations within each region. We also detected significant divergence among populations for both Avr genes and virulence phenotypes, although generally these values were lower than those obtained with AFLP markers. Furthermore, isolates belonging to lineage AA collectively harboured significantly higher genotypic and phenotypic diversity than lineage AB isolates. Together these results illustrate the important roles of reproductive modes and geographical structure in the generation and maintenance of virulence diversity in populations of M. lini. PMID:18573166

BARRETT, LUKE G.; THRALL, PETER H.; BURDON, JEREMY J.; NICOTRA, ADRIENNE B.; LINDE, CELESTE C.

2009-01-01

218

Predictors of Sexual Bother in a Population of Male North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. Aims The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Methods Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. Main Outcome Measures The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Conclusions ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in addressing sexual concerns in this population. PMID:21951580

Smith, James F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

219

Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

2004-01-01

220

A Perspective on Delivering Educational Services to Special Populations--Black and Other Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For educational delivery systems to meet the needs of special rural populations of minority children, teaching and learning strategies must take into account the three factors of human identity, culture, and ruralness itself. Children who are members of special populations often have an even greater need than most children for recognition,…

Chavis, Kanawha Z.

221

A population of sexual Daphnia pulex resists invasion by asexual clones.  

PubMed

Asexual reproduction avoids the costs associated with sex, predicting that invading asexual clones can quickly replace sexual populations. Daphnia pulex populations in the Great Lakes area are predominately asexual, but the elimination of sexual populations by invading clones is poorly understood. Asexual clones were detected at low frequency in one rare sexual population in 1995, with some increase in frequency during 2003 and 2004. However, these clones remained at low frequency during further yearly sampling (2005-2013) with no evidence that the resident sexual population was in danger of elimination. There was evidence for hybridization between rare males produced by asexual clones and sexual females with the potential to produce new asexual genotypes and spread the genetic factors for asexuality. In a short-term laboratory competition experiment, the two most common asexual clones did not increase in frequency relative to a genetically diverse sexual population due in part to a greater investment in diapausing eggs that trades-off current population growth for increased contribution to the egg bank. Our results suggest that a successful invasion can be prolonged, requiring a combination of clonal genotypes with high fitness, persistence of clones in the egg bank and negative factors affecting the sexual population such as inbreeding depression resulting from population bottlenecks. PMID:24943366

Innes, David J; Ginn, Michael

2014-08-01

222

Infection dynamics in coexisting sexual and asexual host populations: support for the Red Queen hypothesis.  

PubMed

The persistence of sexual reproduction is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. The problem stems from the fact that, all else equal, asexual lineages should rapidly replace coexisting sexual individuals due to the cost of producing males in sexual populations. One possible countervailing advantage to sexual reproduction is that, on average, outcrossed offspring are more resistant than common clones to coevolving parasites, as predicted under the Red Queen hypothesis. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by a sterilizing trematode (Microphallus sp.) in a natural population of freshwater snails that was composed of both sexual and asexual individuals (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). More specifically, we compared the frequency of infection in sexual and asexual individuals over a 5-year period at four sites at a natural glacial lake (Lake Alexandrina, South Island, New Zealand). We found that at most sites and over most years, the sexual population was less infected than the coexisting asexual population. Moreover, the frequency of uninfected sexual females was periodically greater than two times the frequency of uninfected asexual females. These results give clear support for a fluctuating parasite-mediated advantage to sexual reproduction in a natural population. PMID:25061675

Vergara, Daniela; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

2014-08-01

223

Social Stressors and Alcohol Use among Immigrant Sexual and Gender Minority Latinos in a Non-Traditional Settlement State  

PubMed Central

We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased, and social support decreased, odds of any drinking in past year. Social support moderated the associations of English use and ethnic discrimination with heavy episodic drinking. PMID:24708429

Gilbert, Paul A.; Perreira, Krista; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

2014-01-01

224

Medfly populations differ in diel and age patterns of sexual signalling  

PubMed Central

Insect populations may differ in several life history traits, including behavioural ones such as sexual signalling. We tested whether male Mediterranean fruit fly (medlfy), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations obtained from geographically isolated areas exhibit differences in quantitative and qualitative aspects of male sexual signalling. Male sexual signalling was studied in four medfly populations (originating from Brazil, Portugal, Kenya, and Greece) under identical laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% r.h., and L14:D10). The four populations had been reared for one generation in the laboratory. Sexual signalling was studied in the F1 progeny that were fed one of two diets (yeast hydrolysate plus sugar or sugar only). On both diets, the four populations differed significantly in the progress of maturity (indicated by the average number of males exhibiting sexual signalling) and in the quantity of signalling after attaining maturity. Yeast availability significantly increased sexual signalling; however, it had a different impact on the quantity of signalling in the different populations. A bimodal pattern of sexual signalling, with one peak at approximately 08:00–09:00 hours and the second at approximately 13:00–14:00 hours, was recorded for all populations and diets. However, quantitative differences among the populations within the ‘sexually active’ period of the day resulted in significant differences in the daily pattern of sexual signalling. The significance of these findings for understanding adaptations of geographically-isolated medfly populations to different ecosystems, as well as its practical importance for the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against C. capitata, is discussed. PMID:19774092

Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Carey, James R.

2009-01-01

225

Medfly populations differ in diel and age patterns of sexual signalling.  

PubMed

Insect populations may differ in several life history traits, including behavioural ones such as sexual signalling. We tested whether male Mediterranean fruit fly (medlfy), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations obtained from geographically isolated areas exhibit differences in quantitative and qualitative aspects of male sexual signalling. Male sexual signalling was studied in four medfly populations (originating from Brazil, Portugal, Kenya, and Greece) under identical laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% r.h., and L14:D10). The four populations had been reared for one generation in the laboratory. Sexual signalling was studied in the F(1) progeny that were fed one of two diets (yeast hydrolysate plus sugar or sugar only). On both diets, the four populations differed significantly in the progress of maturity (indicated by the average number of males exhibiting sexual signalling) and in the quantity of signalling after attaining maturity. Yeast availability significantly increased sexual signalling; however, it had a different impact on the quantity of signalling in the different populations. A bimodal pattern of sexual signalling, with one peak at approximately 08:00-09:00 hours and the second at approximately 13:00-14:00 hours, was recorded for all populations and diets. However, quantitative differences among the populations within the 'sexually active' period of the day resulted in significant differences in the daily pattern of sexual signalling. The significance of these findings for understanding adaptations of geographically-isolated medfly populations to different ecosystems, as well as its practical importance for the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against C. capitata, is discussed. PMID:19774092

Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Carey, James R

2008-09-01

226

High Rates of Sexual Behavior in the General Population: Correlates and Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 2450, 18–60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk\\u000a factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population.\\u000a Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health\\u000a indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of

Niklas Långström; R. Karl Hanson

2006-01-01

227

Effective Recruitment of Minority Populations Through Community-Led Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations who bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. A Community Action Board of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders and advocates used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of different strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led diabetes prevention intervention. Methods The Board created five different recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians, at large public events like farmers markets, organizing special local recruitment events, recruiting at local organizations, and a partner-led approach in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. Results In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned fasting for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; and 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was most successful, recruiting 68% of people enrolled. This was also the most efficient strategy; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%–17% through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated Spanish-speaking women. Conclusions This CBPR approach highlights the value of a partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out and motivate a vulnerable population into research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers, but are nevertheless rigorous and effective. PMID:19896019

Horowitz, Carol R.; Brenner, Barbara L.; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A.; Arniella, Guedy

2009-01-01

228

Attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge of pre-service teachers regarding the educational isolation of sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning youth) must function in a society that condones homophobia. Rendered invisible through the stigma attached to their identification as sexual minorities, they are conveniently forgotten by the institutions charged with facilitating their education. Results from a research study conducted by Sears (1991), indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be more proactive and supportive and committed to the welfare of all of their students. However, the realities of their professional intervention and support were negligible. The purpose of this research study was to examine the personal beliefs of pre-service educators from the Midwest about homosexuality, and how these attitudes and feelings are actualized in the schools. Findings suggest that the results of the current sample had little variation from the sample reported by Sears. While Black pre-service educators as well as early childhood pre-service educators obtained higher mean scores on both attitudinal measures (Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Index of Homophobia), race was the only variable which proved to be statistically significant. Implications for future research are also discussed as a result of this study. PMID:17135128

Mudrey, Renée; Medina-Adams, Aida

2006-01-01

229

Sexual size dimorphism in bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ): effects of population density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dimorphism is an important characteristic of many mammals, but little is known about how environ- mental variables may affect its phenotypic expression. The relationships between population size, body mass, seasonal mass changes, and sexual mass dimorphism were investigated using 22 years of data on individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on Ram Mountain, Alberta. The number of adult ewes

Mylène LeBlanc; Marco Festa-Bianchet; Jon T. Jorgenson

2001-01-01

230

Posttraumatic stress associated with delayed recall of sexual abuse: A general population study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined delayed recall of childhood sexual abuse in a stratified random sample of the general population (N=505). Of participants who reported a history of sexual abuse, 42% described some period of time when they had less memory of the abuse than they did at the time of data collection. No demographic differences were found between subjects with continuous

Diana M. Elliott; John Briere

1995-01-01

231

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

2008-01-01

232

Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

2009-01-01

233

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection  

PubMed Central

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic “linkage block” with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A.; Kessinger, Taylor A.; Shraiman, Boris I.

2013-01-01

234

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection.  

PubMed

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I

2013-09-24

235

Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles  

PubMed Central

Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks. PMID:20031994

Arnqvist, Göran; Tuda, Midori

2010-01-01

236

The cellular generation and a new risk environment: implications for texting-based sexual health promotion interventions among minority young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the "cellular generation," these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18-25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the "etiquette" of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G

2012-01-01

237

The Cellular Generation and a New Risk Environment: Implications for Texting-Based Sexual Health Promotion Interventions among Minority Young Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the “cellular generation,” these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18–25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the “etiquette” of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G.

2012-01-01

238

Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.  

PubMed

This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks. PMID:19042291

Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

2008-01-01

239

Comparing the sensitivity of geographically distinct Lemna minor populations to atrazine.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to compare the sensitivities of field populations and a laboratory culture of a duckweed species (Lemna minor) to the herbicide atrazine using three different endpoints and to determine whether sensitivity to atrazine was affected by past exposure to the herbicide. L. minor cultures were purchased commercially or collected from field sites within an agricultural watershed and exposed to atrazine for 7 days under greenhouse conditions. Populations differed significantly in their sensitivity to atrazine. Biomass was more sensitive than frond number, while chlorophyll fluorescence was not a sensitive endpoint. Overall, the sensitivity of the various populations to atrazine was not strongly related to measures of past exposure to agriculture stressors. Positive correlations between biomass twenty-five percent inhibition concentrations (IC25s), biomass estimated marginal means and in-stream atrazine concentrations were observed, providing evidence that atrazine exposure is linked to a decrease in sensitivity to atrazine. However, IC25s generated for each population were similar, ranging from 19 to 40 and 57 to 92 ?g/L atrazine for biomass and frond data respectively, and likely do not represent biologically significant differences in atrazine sensitivity. Given the small range in sensitivity observed between populations, commercial laboratory cultures appear to provide a good estimate of the sensitivity of field populations of L. minor to atrazine and should continue to be used in regulatory phytotoxicity testing. PMID:23535915

Dalton, Rebecca L; Nussbaumer, Christina; Pick, Frances R; Boutin, Céline

2013-05-01

240

Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola from USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cercospora leaf spot, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most economically damaging foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. Although most C. beticola populations display characteristics reminiscent of sexual recombination, no teleomorph has been described. To ass...

241

Quantifying the gender load: can population crosses reveal interlocus sexual conflict?  

E-print Network

Quantifying the gender load: can population crosses reveal interlocus sexual conflict? Tristan A. F conflict; sperm competition; gender load; intersexual coevolution; speciation; reproductive divergence sequence change for repro- ductive traits in several animal species (Rice & Holland 1997; Rice 1998

Montgomerie, Bob

242

Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities  

PubMed Central

Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

2013-01-01

243

Reproduction and sexual dimorphism in a population of Virginia Striatula Linnaeus (Reptilia, Colubridae  

E-print Network

REPRODUCTION AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN A POPULATION- OF VIRGINIA STRIATULA LINNAEUS (REPTILIA& COLUBRIDAE) A Thesis By DONALD RAY CLARK, JR Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May, 1964 Major Subject: Wildlife Management REPRODUCTION AND SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN A POPULATION OF VIRGINIA STRIATULA LINNAEUS (REPTILIA~ COLUBRIDAE) A Thesis By DONALD RAY CLARK& JR ~ Approved...

Clark, Donald Ray

1964-01-01

244

Measuring Immigration and Sexual Reproduction in Field Populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zhan, J., Mundt, C. C., and McDonald, B. A. 1998. Measuring immigration and sexual reproduction in field populations of Mycosphaerella grami- nicola. Phytopathology 88:1330-1337. A field experiment was conducted to determine the relative contribu- tions of immigration and sexual reproduction to the genetic structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola populations during the course of an epidemic. The genetic structure of M. graminicola

J. Zhan; C. C. Mundt; B. A. McDonald

1998-01-01

245

Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity and Disclosure Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Biomarkers in Ethnic Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Adult posttraumatic stress symptoms and a biomarker index of current health risk in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors were investigated in relation to CSA severity, disclosure, and other peri- and post-trauma factors. Method: A community sample of 94 African American and Latina female CSA survivors was assessed. Results: Severe CSA predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms overall, avoidance\\/numbing symptoms, and greater

Dorie A. Glover; Tamra Burns Loeb; Jennifer Vargas Carmona; Andres Sciolla; Muyu Zhang; Hector F. Myers; Gail E. Wyatt

2010-01-01

246

Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

2009-01-01

247

Sexual Minority Youth Perspectives on the School Environment and Suicide Risk Interventions: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…

Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.

2006-01-01

248

Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2013-01-01

249

Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

2013-01-01

250

Long-term decline in a red-winged blackbird population: ecological causes and sexual  

E-print Network

Long-term decline in a red-winged blackbird population: ecological causes and sexual selection in an Ontario red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) population using 16 years of data collected between into the study population, also declined substantially. Correlation between blackbirds and hay may

Weatherhead, Patrick J.

251

Intimate partner violence and its health impact on disproportionately affected populations, including minorities and impoverished groups.  

PubMed

In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

2015-01-01

252

Genetic differences among populations in sexual dimorphism: evidence for selection on males in a dioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) to that of neutral genetic markers (FST) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The QST/FST ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits. PMID:21401772

YU, Q.; ELLEN, E. D.; WADE, M. J.; DELPH, L. F.

2011-01-01

253

Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites  

SciTech Connect

The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

Nieves, L.A.

1992-01-01

254

Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites  

SciTech Connect

The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

Nieves, L.A.

1992-04-01

255

Physical Activity Disparities in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth Ages 12-22 Years Old: Roles of Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Athletic Self-Esteem  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. Purpose To examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Methods Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999-2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Results Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 hours/week less MVPA (p's<0.01) and were 46%-76% less likely to participate in team sports than same-gender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46%-100% of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Conclusions Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities. PMID:24347406

Calzo, Jerel P.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S. Bryn

2014-01-01

256

Characteristics of victims of sexual abuse by gender and race in a community corrections population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White women, African American men, and African American women) using univariate and logistic regression analyses, which were conducted separately for each group. White women were the most likely to report a history of sexual abuse (26.5%), followed by African American women (16.0%), White men (4.0%), and African American men (1.1%). For all groups, histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were associated with a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with substance abuse problems for women but not the men. Cannabis dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the White women while cocaine dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the African American women. Several other variables were associated with sexual abuse for women but not men, including lower education (White women only), a history of violent offenses (White women only), and living in a shelter (African American women only). African American men tended to have higher levels of education; this was the only variable uniquely associated with either male group. Receiving psychiatric medications was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except African American men and a history of sex for drugs was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except White men. Consistent with national sample, women, particularly White women, were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. The gender-race differences for the sociodemographic factors associated with sexual abuse, particularly the risk of substance abuse for women, suggest the need for tailored interventions for sexual abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:22203627

Clark, C Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Islam, M Aminul; Hanover, Erin E; Cropsey, Karen L

2012-06-01

257

Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Results We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Discussion Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population. PMID:24236121

Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W. N.; de Vlas, Sake J.

2013-01-01

258

Sexual selection on song and cuticular hydrocarbons in two distinct populations of Drosophila montana  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection has the potential to contribute to population divergence and speciation. Most studies of sexual selection in Drosophila have concentrated on a single signaling modality, usually either courtship song or cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), which can act as contact pheromones. We have examined the relationship between both signal types and reproductive success using F1–3 offspring of wild-collected flies, raised in the lab. We used two populations of the Holarctic species Drosophila montana that represent different phylogeographic clades that have been separate for ca. 0.5 million years (MY), and differ to some extent in both traits. Here, we characterize the nature and identify the targets of sexual selection on song, CHCs, and both traits combined within the populations. Three measures of courtship outcome were used as fitness proxies. They were the probability of mating, mating latency, and the production of rejection song by females, and showed patterns of association with different traits that included both linear and quadratic selection. Courtship song predicted courtship outcome better than CHCs and the signal modalities acted in an additive rather than synergistic manner. Selection was generally consistent in direction and strength between the two populations and favored males that sang more vigorously. Sexual selection differed in the extent, strength, and nature on some of the traits between populations. However, the differences in the directionality of selection detected were not a good predictor of population differences. In addition, a character previously shown to be important for species recognition, interpulse interval, was found to be under sexual selection. Our results highlight the complexity of understanding the relationship between within-population sexual selection and population differences. Sexual selection alone cannot predict differences between populations. PMID:22408728

Veltsos, Paris; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Butlin, Roger K; Hoikkala, Anneli; Ritchie, Michael G

2012-01-01

259

Development of Heterosexuals into Sexual-Minority Allies: A Qualitative Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexually identified individuals can serve a crucial role as allies in eliminating sexual prejudice and the resulting\\u000a policies that discriminate against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. However, few studies have systematically\\u000a examined the development of heterosexual allies. Consensual qualitative research methods (Hill et al., The Counseling Psychologist,\\u000a 25, 517–572, 1997) were used to analyze individual interviews conducted with

Julie M. Duhigg; Sharon S. Rostosky; Barry E. Gray; Mary K. Wimsatt

2010-01-01

260

The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

2012-01-01

261

Dating Violence Among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence, sexual, and substance use behaviors. METHODS Logistic regression models for clustered data from 7th grade students attending 10 Texas urban middle schools were used to examine cross-sectional associations between dating violence victimization and risk behaviors. RESULTS The sample (N = 950) was 48.5% African American, 36.0% Hispanic, 55.7% female, mean age 13.1 years (SD 0.64). About 1 in 5 reported physical dating violence victimization, 48.1% reported nonphysical victimization, and 52.6% reported any victimization. Adjusted logistic regression analyses indicated that physical, nonphysical, and any victimization was associated with ever having sex, ever using alcohol, and ever using drugs. CONCLUSIONS Over 50% of sampled middle school students had experienced dating violence, which may be associated with early sexual initiation and substance use. Middle school interventions that prevent dating violence are needed. PMID:23586886

Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

2015-01-01

262

Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.  

PubMed

The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

2014-01-01

263

Recruitment of Minority and Underserved Populations in the United States: The Centers for Population Health & Health Disparities Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The recruitment of minority and underserved individuals to research studies is often problematic. The purpose of this study was to describe the recruitment experiences of projects that actively recruited minority and underserved populations as part of The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative. Methods Principal investigators and research staff from 17 research projects at eight institutions across the United States were surveyed about their recruitment experiences. Investigators reported the study purpose and design, recruitment methods employed, recruitment progress, problems or challenges to recruitment, strategies used to address these problems, and difficulties resulting from Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements. Additionally, information was collected about participant burden and compensation. Burden was classified on a three-level scale. Recruitment results were reported as of March 31, 2007. Results Recruitment attainment ranged from 52% to 184% of the participant recruitment goals. Commonly reported recruitment problems included administrative issues, and difficulties with establishing community partnerships and contacting potential participants. Long study questionnaires, extended follow-up, and narrow eligibility criteria were also problematic. The majority of projects reported difficulties with IRB approvals, though few reported issues related to HIPAA requirements. Attempted solutions to recruitment problems varied across Centers and included using multiple recruitment sites and sources and culturally appropriate invitations to participate. Participant burden and compensation varied widely across the projects, however, accrual appeared to be inversely associated with the amount of participant burden for each project. Conclusion Recruitment of minority and underserved populations to clinical trials is necessary to increase study generalizbility and reduce health disparities. Our results demonstrate the importance of flexible study designs which allow adaptation to recruitment challenges. These experiences also highlight the importance of involving community members and reducing participant burden to achieve success in recruiting individuals from minority and underserved populations. PMID:18721901

Paskett, Electra D.; Reeves, Katherine W.; McLaughlin, John M.; Katz, Mira L.; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Ruffin, Mack T.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Merete, Cristina; Davis, Faith; Gehlert, Sarah

2008-01-01

264

Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

265

Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.  

PubMed

Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143

Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

2012-08-01

266

Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with mixed (clonal/sexual) reproduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poppr is an R package for analysis of population genetic data. It extends the adegenet package and provides several novel tools, particularly with regard to analysis of data from admixed, clonal, and/or sexual populations. Currently, poppr can be used for dominant/codominant and haploid/diploid gene...

267

Prevalence of sexual violence and posttraumatic stress disorder in an urban African-American population.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. In 2008-2009, 1,306 African-Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3 % for women and 5.1 % for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African-Americans. PMID:23686528

Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

2014-12-01

268

Population biology, genetics, and sexual selection in wild ambystomatid salamanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambystomatid salamanders have long served as models in studies investigating the factors influencing sexual selection due, in part, to their diverse mating behaviors and breeding strategies. However, our current knowledge regarding rates of multiple mating, individual reproductive success, and inbreeding depression is very sparse or lacking altogether in most species. Thus, in this dissertation I used molecular genetic analyses to

Rod N Williams

2007-01-01

269

Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.  

PubMed

The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population. PMID:22633739

Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skari?-Juri?, Tatjana; Naran?i?, Nina Smolej; Bareši?, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranovi?, Matea Zajc; Mili?i?, Jasna; Salihovi?, Marijana Peri?i?; Jani?ijevi?, Branka

2013-07-01

270

Highly Recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii Population Develops Clonal Outbreak Clusters through both Sexual Macroevolution and Asexual Microevolution  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV+ patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. PMID:25073643

Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kronstad, James W.

2014-01-01

271

Population genetic structure of sexual and parthenogenetic damselflies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers  

PubMed Central

It has been postulated that obligate asexual lineages may persist in the long term if they escape from negative interactions with either sexual lineages or biological enemies; and thus, parthenogenetic populations will be more likely to occur in places that are difficult for sexuals to colonize, or those in which biological interactions are rare, such as islands or island-like habitats. Ischnura hastata is the only known example of natural parthenogenesis within the insect order Odonata, and it represents also a typical example of geographic parthenogenesis, as sexual populations are widely distributed in North America, whereas parthenogenetic populations of this species have only been found at the Azores archipelago. In order to gain insight in the origin and distribution of parthenogenetic I. hastata lineages, we have used microsatellites, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, to examine the population genetic structure of this species over a wide geographic area. Our results suggest that sexual populations of I. hastata in North America conform to a large subdivided population that has gone through a recent spatial expansion. A recent single long distance dispersal event, followed by a demographic expansion, is the most parsimonious hypothesis explaining the origin of the parthenogenetic population of this species in the Azores islands. PMID:21915148

Lorenzo-Carballa, M O; Hadrys, H; Cordero-Rivera, A; Andrés, J A

2012-01-01

272

Initial Design of Culturally Informed Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Developing an mHealth Intervention for Young Sexual Minority Men With Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression  

PubMed Central

Background To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. Objective This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. Methods We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. Results General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users’ ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. Conclusions This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities. PMID:24311444

Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

2013-01-01

273

Impact of heart disease and quality of care on minority populations in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Heart disease is a leading cause of death across all populations in the United States. In 1985, the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health recognized the existence of widespread health disparities for heart disease and related risk factors among minorities in America. Inequalities in heart health and healthcare continue to exist. This review compares measures of heart disease and healthcare for white, African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, American-Indian/Alaska-Native and Hispanic/Latino populations. Lack of healthcare data for minorities continues to be a barrier to understanding the nature and extent of heart disease and related risk factors for these groups. In combination with programs that address preventive measures to reduce risk factors for heart disease, the integration of quality improvement measures has developed as an important strategy for reducing cardiovascular health disparities. Improved data collection and reporting, enhanced use of information technology, and promotion of cultural competency hold potential for improving the quality of cardiac care and reducing health disease for all Americans. PMID:17052047

Graham, Garth N.; Guendelman, Mayadallia; Leong, Benjamin S.; Hogan, Sara; Dennison, Adrienne

2006-01-01

274

Literature review of type 2 diabetes mellitus among minority Muslim populations in Israel.  

PubMed

This review surveys the literature published on the characteristics and implications of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the Arab and Bedouin populations of Israel. T2DM is a global health problem. The rapid rise in its prevalence in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel is responsible for their lower life expectancy compared to Israeli Jews. The increased prevalence of T2DM corresponds to increased rates of obesity in these populations. A major risk group is adult Arab women aged 55-64 years. In this group obesity reaches 70%. There are several genetic and nutritional explanations for this increase. We found high hospitalization rates for micro and macrovascular complications among diabetic patients of Arab and Bedouin origin. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes and its negative health implications, there is evidence that care and counseling relating to nutrition, physical activity and self-examination of the feet are unsatisfactory. Economic difficulties are frequently cited as the reason for inadequate medical care. Other proposed reasons include faith in traditional therapy and misconceptions about drugs and their side effects. In Israel, the quality indicators program is based on one of the world's leading information systems and deals with the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. The program's baseline data pointed to health inequality between minority populations and the general population in several areas, including monitoring and control of diabetes. Based on these data, a pilot intervention program was planned, aimed at minority populations. This program led to a decrease in inequality and served as the basis for a broader, more comprehensive intervention that has entered the implementation stage. Interventions that were shown to be effective in other Arabic countries may serve as models for diabetes management in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel. PMID:25685290

Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

2015-02-15

275

Literature review of type 2 diabetes mellitus among minority Muslim populations in Israel  

PubMed Central

This review surveys the literature published on the characteristics and implications of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the Arab and Bedouin populations of Israel. T2DM is a global health problem. The rapid rise in its prevalence in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel is responsible for their lower life expectancy compared to Israeli Jews. The increased prevalence of T2DM corresponds to increased rates of obesity in these populations. A major risk group is adult Arab women aged 55-64 years. In this group obesity reaches 70%. There are several genetic and nutritional explanations for this increase. We found high hospitalization rates for micro and macrovascular complications among diabetic patients of Arab and Bedouin origin. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes and its negative health implications, there is evidence that care and counseling relating to nutrition, physical activity and self-examination of the feet are unsatisfactory. Economic difficulties are frequently cited as the reason for inadequate medical care. Other proposed reasons include faith in traditional therapy and misconceptions about drugs and their side effects. In Israel, the quality indicators program is based on one of the world’s leading information systems and deals with the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. The program’s baseline data pointed to health inequality between minority populations and the general population in several areas, including monitoring and control of diabetes. Based on these data, a pilot intervention program was planned, aimed at minority populations. This program led to a decrease in inequality and served as the basis for a broader, more comprehensive intervention that has entered the implementation stage. Interventions that were shown to be effective in other Arabic countries may serve as models for diabetes management in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel. PMID:25685290

Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

2015-01-01

276

Mental Health Pathways From Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban setting. Participants (M age = 44.1 years, 36% non-White) filled out a computer-assisted survey and had health-related data extracted from their electronic medical records. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among the latent factors of adult abuse and partner violence (each comprising indicators of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse) and the measured variables: viral load, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), HIV medication adherence, and emergency room (ER) visits. Mediation was tested for the latent construct mental health problems, comprising depression, anxiety, symptomatology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Results The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, ?2(123) = 157.05, p = .02, CFI = .95, TLI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in viral load (13%), HRQOL (41%), adherence (7%), and ER visits (9%), as well as the latent variable mental health problems (24%). Only 1 direct link emerged: a positive association between adult abuse and ER visits. Conclusions Findings indicate a significant role of IPV and mental health problems in the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. HIV care providers should assess for IPV history and mental health problems in all patients and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments that include a focus on health behaviors. PMID:20515213

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

277

The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

2005-01-01

278

Introduction of a Guide to Enhance Risk Communication Among Low-Income and Minority Populations: A Grassroots Community Engagement Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-income populations, especially those belonging to minority groups, are among the most vulnerable groups before, during, and after a natural disaster. One of the factors that can be attributed to their vulnerability is the ineffectiveness of traditional risk communication systems in reaching this population. Many low-income populations are distrustful of government agencies and those who typically communicate risk messages. Consequently,

Randy Rowel; Payam Sheikhattari; Tanyka M. Barber; Myrtle Evans-Holland

2012-01-01

279

High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.  

PubMed

We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

2006-02-01

280

On the moulding of senescence by natural selection in sexual and partly sexual populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a wide variety of dynamic environmental conditions, natural selection appears to favor reproductive investment in a\\u000a sexually produced offspring, carrying only half of the mother’s genes, over the investment in an asexually produced offspring,\\u000a genetically identical to her. It is maintained that the same environmental conditions must affect the evolutionary cost and\\u000a benefit of an investment in the prolongation

Ilan Eshel; Beverly Sackler

1990-01-01

281

Quantifying the gender load: can population crosses reveal interlocus sexual conflict?  

PubMed Central

Six sister populations of Drosophila melanogaster kept under identical environmental conditions for greater than 600 generations were reciprocally crossed to investigate the incidence of population divergence in allopatry. Population crosses directly influenced fitness, mating frequency, and sperm competition patterns. Changes in both female remating rate and the outcome of male sperm competition (P1,?P2) in response to foreign males were consistent with intersexual coevolution. Moreover, seven of the 30 crosses between foreign mates resulted in significant reductions in female fitness, whereas two resulted in significant increases, compared to local matings. This tendency for foreign males to reduce female fitness may be interpreted as evidence for either sexually antagonistic coevolution or the disruption of mutualistic interactions. However, instances in which female fitness improved via cohabitation with foreign males may better reveal sexual conflict, signalling release from the cost of interacting with locally adapted males. By this metric, female reproduction in D. melanogaster is strongly constrained by local adaptation by males, a situation that would promote antagonistic coevolution between the sexes. We conclude that sexual selection can promote population differentiation in allopatry and that sexual conflict is likely to have played a role in population differentiation in this study system. PMID:16612894

Long, Tristan A.F; Montgomerie, Robert; Chippindale, Adam K

2006-01-01

282

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-05-01

283

The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2003-01-01

284

Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics  

PubMed Central

The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe’s human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite’s host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma’s current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer. PMID:19217909

Grigg, Michael E.; Sundar, Natarajan

2009-01-01

285

YOGA FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN IN A PREDOMINANTLY MINORITY POPULATION: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ?$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain was moderately feasible and may be more effective than usual care for reducing pain and pain medication use. PMID:19943573

Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry

2009-01-01

286

Population genetic structure of diploid sexual and polyploid apomictic hawthorns (Crataegus; Rosaceae) in the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

Polyploidy and gametophytic apomixis are two important and associated processes in plants. Many hawthorn species are polyploids and can reproduce both sexually and apomictically. However, the population genetic structure of these species is poorly understood. Crataegus douglasii is represented exclusively by self-compatible tetraploid pseudogamous apomicts across North America, whereas Crataegus suksdorfii found in the Pacific Northwest is known to include self-incompatible diploid sexuals as well as polyploid apomicts. We compare population structure and genetic variability in these two closely related taxa using microsatellite and chloroplast sequence markers. Using 13 microsatellite loci located on four linkage groups, 251 alleles were detected in 239 individuals sampled from 15 localities. Within-population multilocus genotypic variation and molecular diversity are greatest in diploid sexuals and lowest in triploid apomicts. Apart from the isolation of eastern North American populations of C. douglasii, there is little evidence of isolation by distance in this taxon. Genetic diversity in western populations of C. douglasii suggests that gene flow is frequent, and that colonization and establishment are often successful. In contrast, local populations of C. suksdorfii are more markedly differentiated. Gene flow appears to be limited primarily by distance in diploids and by apomixis and self-compatibility in polyploids. We infer that apomixis and reproductive barriers between cytotypes are factors that reduce the frequency of gene flow among populations, and may ultimately lead to allopatric speciation in C. suksdorfii. Our findings shed light on evolution in woody plants that show heterogeneous ploidy levels and reproductive systems. PMID:19243504

Lo, Eugenia Y Y; Stefanovi?, Sasa; Dickinson, Timothy A

2009-03-01

287

Population dynamics with a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a fluctuating environment  

PubMed Central

Background Carassius gibelio, a cyprinid fish from Eurasia, has the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. This fish is also known as an invasive species which colonized almost all continental Europe, most likely originating from Asia and Eastern Europe. Populations of both sexually and asexually reproducing individuals exist in sympatry. In this study we try to elucidate the advantages of such a mixed type of reproduction. We investigate the dynamics of two sympatric populations with sexual and asexual reproduction in a periodically fluctuating environment. We define an individual-based computational model in which genotypes are represented by L loci, and the environment is composed of L resources for which the two populations compete. Results Our model demonstrates advantageous population dynamics where the optimal percentage of asexual reproduction depends on selection strength, on the number of selected loci and on the timescale of environmental fluctuations. We show that the sexual reproduction is necessary for "generating" fit genotypes, while the asexual reproduction is suitable for "amplifying" them. The simulations show that the optimal percentage of asexual reproduction increases with the length of the environment stability period and decrease with the strength of the selection and the number of loci. Conclusions In this paper we addressed the advantages of a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a changing environment and explored the idea that a species that is able to adapt itself to environmental fluctuation can easily colonize a new habitat. Our results could provide a possible explanation for the rapid and efficient invasion of species with a variable ratio of sexual and asexual reproduction such as Carassius gibelio. PMID:22489797

2012-01-01

288

Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population  

PubMed Central

People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information mavens may serve as an ideal point of intervention in attempts to modify health beliefs with the goal of reducing health disparities among these populations. PMID:21683493

Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

2011-01-01

289

Population genetic structure of diploid sexual and polyploid apomictic hawthorns ( Crataegus ; Rosaceae) in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyploidy and gametophytic apomixis are two important and associated processes in plants. Many hawthorn species are polyploids and can reproduce both sexually and apomictically. However, the population genetic structure of these species is poorly understood. Crataegus douglasii is represented exclusively by self-compatible tetraploid pseudogamous apomicts across North America, whereas Crataegus suksdorfii found in the Pacific Northwest is known to include

EUGENIA Y. Y. LO; SAŠA STEFANOVI?; TIMOTHY A. DICKINSON

2009-01-01

290

Density-dependent sexual reproduction in natural populations of the rotifer asplanchna girodi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monogonont rotifer Asplanchna girodi was continuously present in daily and bi-daily plankton samples of Golf Course Pond during the spring of 1977. Two cycles of sexual reproduction occurred during this period. By isolation and culture of females it was possible to determine the reproductive type of collected individuals. Data thus obtained suggest that environmental cues associated with population density

Charles E. King; Terry W. Snell

1980-01-01

291

The Exclusion of Intimacy in the Sexuality of the Contemporary College-Age Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that heterosexual sexual involvement in the contemporary college population is often sporadic, episodic, without commitment, and accompanied by deliberate effort of both partners to suppress tender, romantic feelings and intimacy. Suggests the sources of this situation lie in changes in the ethos, the ascent of women, advances in…

Cobliner, W. Godfrey

1988-01-01

292

Among-population variation and correlations in sexually dimorphic traits of Silene latifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of sexual dimorphism in a trait may be determined directly by disruptive selection, as well as by correlations with other traits under selection. We grew seeds from nine populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia in a common-garden experiment to determine whether phenotypic variation and correlations existed for floral, leaf and resource allocation traits, and whether this variation

L. F. DELPH; F. N. KNAPCZYK; D. R. TAYLOR

2002-01-01

293

Differential costs of sexual and vegetative reproduction in wild strawberry populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CO2 costs of producing sexual and vegetative reproductive propagules were calculated for two species of wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and F. vesca. Five populations on sites representing a gradient of successional regrowth near Ithaca, New York, USA, were studied for two or three years each. Field studies of phenology, biomass, demography, and environment and laboratory studies of CO2 exchange

Thomas W. Jurik

1985-01-01

294

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men. PMID:22390442

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

2012-01-01

295

Sexual violence and neonatal outcomes: a Norwegian population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to explore the association between sexual violence and neonatal outcomes. Design National cohort study. Setting Women were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) while attending routine ultrasound examinations from 1999 to 2008. Population A total of 76?870 pregnant women. Methods Sexual violence and maternal characteristics were self-reported in postal questionnaires during pregnancy. Neonatal outcomes were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBRN). Risk estimations were performed with linear and logistic regression analysis. Outcome measures: gestational age at birth, birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results Of 76?870 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence. A total of 4.7% delivered prematurely, 2.7% had children with a birth weight <2500?g and 8.1% children were small for their gestational age. Women reporting moderate or severe sexual violence (rape) had a significantly reduced gestational length (2?days) when the birth was provider-initiated in an analysis adjusted for age, parity, education, smoking, body mass index and mental distress. Those exposed to severe sexual violence had a significantly reduced gestational length of 0.51?days with a spontaneous start of birth. Crude estimates showed that severe sexual violence was associated with PTB, LBW and SGA. When controlling for the aforementioned sociodemographic and behavioural factors, the association was no longer significant. Conclusions Sexual violence was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes. Moderate and severe violence had a small but significant effect on gestational age; however, the clinical influence of this finding is most likely limited. Women exposed to sexual violence in this study reported more of the sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with PTB, LBW and SGA compared with non-abused women. PMID:25763796

Henriksen, Lena; Schei, Berit; Vangen, Siri; Lukasse, Mirjam

2014-01-01

296

Highly recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii population develops clonal outbreak clusters through both sexual macroevolution and asexual microevolution.  

PubMed

An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV(+) patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. Importance: Cryptococcus gattii is the causative agent responsible for ongoing infections in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and western Canada. The incidence of these infections increased dramatically in the 1990s and remains elevated. These infections are attributable to three clonal lineages of C. gattii, VGIIa, VGIIb, and VGIIc, with only VGIIa identified once previously in the Pacific Northwest prior to the start of the outbreak, albeit in a less virulent form. This study addresses the origin and emergence of this outbreak, using whole-genome sequencing and comparison of both outbreak and global isolates. We show that VGIIa arose mitotically from a less virulent clonal group, possibly via the action of a mutator phenotype, while VGIIb was likely introduced from Australia, and VGIIc appears to have emerged in the United States or in an undersampled locale via sexual reproduction. This work shows that multiple processes can contribute to the emergence of an outbreak. PMID:25073643

Billmyre, R Blake; Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A; Cuomo, Christina A; Kronstad, James W; Heitman, Joseph

2014-01-01

297

Genetic differences among populations in sexual dimorphism: evidence for selection on males in a dioecious plant.  

PubMed

Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (Q(ST) ) to that of neutral genetic markers (F(ST) ) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The Q(ST) /F(ST) ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits. PMID:21401772

Yu, Q; Ellen, E D; Wade, M J; Delph, L F

2011-05-01

298

Resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in an Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) population in China.  

PubMed

Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) is a common annual grass weed of winter crops distributed across China. We conducted a study on the resistance level and the mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in a P. fugax population from China. Whole-plant dose-response experiments in greenhouse showed that the resistant P. fugax population was 1991, 364, 269, 157, and 8-fold resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl relative to the reference susceptible population, which was susceptible to all the five AOPP herbicides. Much lower R/S values of 3.5, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively, were detected for clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden. Molecular analysis of resistance confirmed that the Ile2041 to Asn mutation in the resistant population conferred resistance to AOPP herbicides, but not to CHD and DEN herbicides. This is the first report of a target site mutation that corresponded to resistance to AOPP herbicides in P. fugax. Proper resistance management practices are necessary to prevent ACCase-inhibiting herbicides from becoming ineffective over wide areas. PMID:24485310

Tang, Wei; Zhou, Fengyan; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Xiaogang

2014-01-01

299

Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population  

PubMed Central

African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

2014-01-01

300

Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited to participate, 65% took part in the survey. Sexual orientation was assessed in persons aged 18 years and older and reported by 98.2% of 9684 participants. The respondents’ characteristics are comparable with those of the Dutch general population. Results. Gay/lesbian participants reported more acute mental health symptoms than heterosexual people and their general mental health also was poorer. Gay/lesbian people more frequently reported acute physical symptoms and chronic conditions than heterosexual people. Differences in smoking, alcohol use, and drug use were less prominent. Conclusions. We found that sexual orientation was associated with mental as well as physical health. The causal processes responsible for these differences by sexual orientation need further exploration. PMID:16670235

Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Bakker, Floor; Schellevis, François G.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine

2006-01-01

301

Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.

He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei

302

Adult Self-Perception Profile (ASPP) Spanish translation and reassessment for a rural, minority population.  

PubMed

Research has identified problems with self-concept in abused women, and past studies have been conducted, primarily within urban populations. Rural and minority women also constitute subgroups of women at risk for abuse. This study was conducted to reassess reliability and validity of the Adult Self-Perception Profile (ASPP), for investigation of relationships between self-concept and woman abuse in rural communities, and to develop and perform initial psychometric evaluation of a Spanish-language version of the ASPP as a tool to enable investigation of self-concept and abuse for rural Mexican American women. ASPP development is projected for database formation of theoretically based interventions and outcome measurement for woman abuse. PMID:7732686

Dimmitt, J

1995-04-01

303

Genetic diversity in sexual diploid and apomictic tetraploid populations of Paspalum notatum situated in sympatry or allopatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paspalum notatum is a subtropical grass widely distributed in the temperate areas of America. Diploids are sexual while polyploids give rise to clonal seeds through aposporous apomixis. RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of three natural populations: i) diploids reproducing sexually (R2X); ii) sympatric apomictic tetraploids collected in the vicinity of the diploids (R4X); iii) allopatric apomictic

L. D. Daurelio; F. Espinoza; C. L. Quarin; S. C. Pessino

2004-01-01

304

Getting the timing right: antler growth phenology and sexual selection in a wild red deer population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been growing interest in the determinants of the annual timing of biological phenomena, or phenology, in wild populations,\\u000a but research on vertebrate taxa has primarily focused on the phenology of reproduction. We present here analyses of the phenology\\u000a of the annual growth of a secondary sexual characteristic, antlers in red deer (Cervus elaphus) males. The long-term individual-based data

Michelle N. Clements; Tim H. Clutton-Brock; Steve D. Albon; Josephine M. Pemberton; Loeske E. B. Kruuk

2010-01-01

305

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Béria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andréia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

306

Sexual Selection by Male Choice in Monogamous and Polygynous Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical possibility of coevolution of a viability-reducing female physical trait and a male mating preference for that trait by Fisherian sexual selection in monogamous and polygynous populations is demonstrated using two-locus haploid models. It is assumed that there is dichotomous variation in male resources, resource-rich males have a wider choice among females than resource-poor males, and a female has

Yasuo Ihara; Kenichi Aoki

1999-01-01

307

Fertility patterns among the minority populations of China: A multilevel analysis  

E-print Network

in the multilevel analyses. First, the contextual characteristics of minority groups have strong correlations with fertility across thirty major minority groups in China. It suggests that community power and subculture have strong influences on women's decisions...

Chang, Chiung-Fang

2004-11-15

308

The Group-Level Consequences of Sexual Conflict in Multigroup Populations  

PubMed Central

In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within-and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced) of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics. PMID:22039491

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Gallup, Andrew C.

2011-01-01

309

The Impact of Aging on Sexual Function and Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Review of Population-Based Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Scientific interest in the impact of aging on women's sexual function and dysfunction has increased in the half century since Kinsey described age-related changes in women's sexual activities. However, a range of methodological issues limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many published studies in this area. Aim. To review community-based studies investigating changes in women's sexual function

Richard Hayes; Lorraine Dennerstein

2005-01-01

310

Evolutionary divergence in sexual signals: Insights from within and among barn swallow populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the North American subspecies, H. r. erythrogaster. Contrary to expectations, males did not have stronger responses to faster trilling (high performance) simulated intruders. Instead, resident males had stronger responses to the high performance stimulus only when the intruder was also darker than the resident. Collectively, my dissertation offers novel insight into the evolutionary dynamics of complex sexual signaling at multiple spatial scales.

Wilkins, Matthew Reed

311

Alleles versus genotypes: Genetic interactions and the dynamics of selection in sexual populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical interactions between amino-acids are essential for protein structure and activity, while protein-protein interactions and regulatory interactions are central to cellular function. As a consequence of these interactions, the combined effect of two mutations can differ from the sum of the individual effects of the mutations. This phenomenon of genetic interaction is known as epistasis. However, the importance of epistasis and its effects on evolutionary dynamics are poorly understood, especially in sexual populations where recombination breaks up existing combinations of alleles to produce new ones. Here, we present a computational model of selection dynamics involving many epistatic loci in a recombining population. We demonstrate that a large number of polymorphic interacting loci can, despite frequent recombination, exhibit cooperative behavior that locks alleles into favorable genotypes leading to a population consisting of a set of competing clones. As the recombination rate exceeds a certain critical value this ``genotype selection'' phase disappears in an abrupt transition giving way to ``allele selection'' - the phase where different loci are only weakly correlated as expected in sexually reproducing populations. Clustering of interacting sets of genes on a chromosome leads to the emergence of an intermediate regime, where localized blocks of cooperating alleles lock into genetic modules. Large populations attain highest fitness at a recombination rate just below critical, suggesting that natural selection might tune recombination rates to balance the beneficial aspect of exploration of genotype space with the breaking up of synergistic allele combinations.

Neher, Richard

2010-03-01

312

Population data for 15 autosomal STR loci in the Miao ethnic minority from Guizhou Province, Southwest China.  

PubMed

Fifteen autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were genotyped using the AmpFISTR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit from 505 unrelated healthy individuals of Miao ethnic minority living in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Also, the genetic distance between Miao and nine related populations was compared. PMID:25466968

Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Yang; Guo, Fei; Liu, Yingxi; Wang, Baojie

2014-11-13

313

Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: An Introduction to the Special Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that because of the importance of spiritual and religious issues in the lives of many racial and ethnic minorities, this issue highlights salient considerations and themes when counseling such populations. Recommends that understanding these spiritual and religious issues may allow counselors to help identify a broader range of available…

Constantine, Madonna G.

1999-01-01

314

THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY WALKING PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE HEALTH, AND PREVENT OBESITY, IN RURAL, HIGH RISK, MINORITY POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of community walking programs to improve health (e.g., reduce blood pressure, improve lipid profile) and prevent obesity (e.g., maintain or reduce BMI and body fat) in rural, high risk, minority populations. Original data will be presented from ...

315

Rapid evolution of a sexually selected trait following population establishment in a novel habitat.  

PubMed

Colonization of novel environments creates new selection pressures. Sexually selected traits are affected by the physical and social environment and should be especially susceptible to change, but this has rarely been studied. In southern California, dark-eyed juncos, (Junco hyemalis) naturally breed in mixed-coniferous temperate forests, typically from 1500 m to 3000 m in elevation. In the early 1980s, a small population became established in a coastal habitat, the University of California, San Diego campus, which has a mild, Mediterranean climate. I show that a sexually and socially selected signaling trait--the amount of white in the tail--has declined by approximately 22% as compared to mountain juncos. I address three main factors that could explain the difference between mountain and coastal juncos: phenotypic plasticity, genetic drift, and selection. Results indicate that the first two can be ruled out as the sole cause of the plumage change, which implies that selection contributed to the genetic differentiation from the mountain population. The estimated rate of evolution is about 0.2 haldanes, comparable with rates of change in systems where individuals have been artificially introduced into new environments (e.g., guppies and Drosophila). This is the first study to demonstrate evolution of a sexually selected trait after only several generations resulting from a natural invasion into a novel environment. PMID:15058729

Yeh, Pamela J

2004-01-01

316

Rethinking sources of representative controls for the conduct of case–control studies in minority populations  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of controls remains a challenge in case–control studies and particularly in studies involving minority populations. Methods We compared characteristics of controls recruited through random digit dialing (RDD) to those of community controls enrolled through churches, health events and other outreach sources among women of African ancestry (AA) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a case–control study of breast cancer. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also computed using unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the impact of including the community controls for selected variables relevant to breast cancer and for which there were significant differences in distribution between the two control groups. Results Compared to community controls (n=347), RDD controls (n=207) had more years of education and higher income, lower body mass index, were more likely to have private insurance, and less likely to be single. While the percentage of nulliparous women in the two groups was similar, community controls tended to have more children, have their first child at a younger age, and were less likely to breastfeed their children. Dietary intake was similar in the two groups. Compared to census data, the combination of RDD and community controls seems to be more representative of the general population than RDD controls alone. Furthermore, the inclusion of the community group had little impact on the magnitude of risk estimates for most variables, while enhancing statistical power. Conclusions Community-based recruitment was found to be an efficient and feasible method to recruit AA controls. PMID:23721229

2013-01-01

317

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

2009-01-01

318

Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. PMID:23002267

Trávní?ek, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana; Kubátová, Barbora; Krej?íková, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lu?anová, Magdalena; Krajníková, Eva; T?šitelová, Tamara; Štípková, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedrén, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; ?urn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

2012-01-01

319

Sexual harassment victimization and perpetration among high school students.  

PubMed

This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. PMID:25288593

Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S

2014-10-01

320

Common features of sexual dimorphism in the cranial airways of different human populations.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism in the human craniofacial system is an important feature of intraspecific variation in recent and fossil humans. Although several studies have reported different morphological patterns of sexual dimorphism in different populations, this study searches for common morphological aspects related to functional anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. 3D geometric morphometrics were used to test the hypothesis that due to higher daily energy expenditure and associated greater respiratory air consumption as well as differences in body composition, males should have absolutely and relatively greater air passages in the bony cranial airways than females. We measured 25 3D landmarks in five populations (N = 212) of adult humans from different geographic regions. Male average cranial airways were larger in centroid sizes than female ones. Males tended to show relatively taller piriform apertures and, more consistently, relatively taller internal nasal cavities and choanae than females. Multivariate regressions and residual analysis further indicated that after standardizing to the same size, males still show relatively larger airway passages than females. Because the dimensions of the choanae are limiting factors for air transmission towards the noncranial part of the respiratory system, the identified sex-specific differences in cranial airways, possibly shared among human populations, may be linked with sex-specific differences in body size, composition, and energetics. These findings may be important to understanding trends in hominin facial evolution. PMID:21994017

Bastir, Markus; Godoy, Paula; Rosas, Antonio

2011-11-01

321

Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population: A Critique of Hall, Proctor, and Nelson  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is argued that methodological problems in Hall, Proctor, and Nelson’s (1988) comparison of phallometric data on child molesters and rapists include confounding of stimulus category and duration, omission of neutral stimuli and a normal control group, failure to employ relative measures of sexual preference, and failure to exclude subjects who did not respond to the sexual stimuli. Quinsey and

Vernon L. Quinsey; D. R. Laws

1990-01-01

322

Introducing Human Sexuality into the Population Education Curriculum. The State-of-the-Art. Population Education Research Utilization Monograph Series 1 Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores one problem area that hampers the introduction and acceptance of sex education in schools. Specifically, the paper reviews problems related to the human sexuality component of population education programs in the Philippines. Research on the experiences of the Population Education Program (PEP) is discussed, as well as research…

Villanueva, Carmelita L.; Arellano-Reyes, Ma. Felicitas

323

Consequences of Acne on Stress, Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Sexual Activity: A Population-based Study.  

PubMed

Acne is a common disease among young people, which could have a serious impact on quality of life. Based on a survey using the quotas method on a large sample of the French population, we studied the impact of acne on feelings of stress, fatigue upon waking, sleep disorders and sexual activity. We did not establish any relationship to sleep disorders, but clearly ascertained that people with acne (n?=?1,375) feel more stressed and have less sexual intercourse. Hence, 18% of people from acne group declared to be stressed every day (13.9% in control group) and 37.5% had no sexual intercourse (20.4% in control group; n?=?891). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that fatigue upon waking is strongly associated with the presence of acne (65.4% versus 58.4%). This study emphasises the fact that acne could have a deep resounding impact on the lives of people suffering from the disease. PMID:25365961

Misery, Laurent; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Amici, Jean-Michel; Maghia, Rémi; Brenaut, Emilie; Cazeau, Christine; Voisard, Jean-Jacques; Taïeb, Charles

2015-04-15

324

Sexual behaviour, STDs and drug use in a crack house population.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the prevalence of ulcerative sexually transmissible diseases (STDs) and hepatitis in crack users. We interviewed 435 crack users on site in crack houses in Houston, Texas and took blood for laboratory analysis. There was evidence of syphilis infection in 13%, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in 61%, HIV in 12%, hepatitis B in 52%, and hepatitis C in 41% of cases. On DSM-III-R criteria, 12% were crack abusers and 84% crack dependent: over half reported previous treatment. Forty per cent reported also injecting. Sexual behaviour indicated a mean of 2.4 partners in the past month for men, 3.7 for women. Sexual behaviour was largely vaginal, although women also reported more than twice the level of oral sex of men. Significant multivariate predictors for HIV and hepatitis B and C were previous reported STD and injecting drug use (including sharing needles), while female gender for syphilis and HSV-2, and additionally condom use for HSV-2, were significant risks. These data confirm high rates of STDs in a crack house population as inferred from previous clinic-based and community studies, and the link between STDs, injecting and HIV. The high rates of STDs found should lead to considering STDs and substance abuse to be dual diagnoses in crack users and the integration of STD diagnosis and treatment into crack outreach and treatment programmes. PMID:12035774

Ross, M W; Hwang, L Y; Leonard, L; Teng, M; Duncan, L

1999-04-01

325

Prevalence and predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships in a predominantly African American population in Jackson, Mississippi.  

PubMed

Concurrent sexual partnerships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, have been associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI). How best to measure concurrency and the personal characteristics and predictors of concurrency are not yet well understood. We compared two frequently used concurrency definitions, including a self-reported measure based on participant response regarding overlapping sex with partners, and the UNAIDS measure based on overlapping dates of last sex and intention to have sex again. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and structural predictors of concurrency among 1,542 patients at an urban STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Nearly half (44 %) reported concurrency based on self-reported sex with other partners, and 26 % reported concurrency according to the UNAIDS concurrency measure. Using the self-reported concurrency measure, the strongest predictors of concurrency were perceived partner concurrency, drug use at last sex, having more than 10 lifetime partners, and being recently incarcerated. Strongest predictors of concurrency using the UNAIDS measure were lifetime number of partners and perceived partner concurrency. Concurrency is highly prevalent in this population in the Deep South and social, structural and behavioral factors were important predictors of concurrency for both measures. Future research should use time anchored data collection methods and biomarkers to assess whether both definitions of concurrency are associated with HIV outcomes. PMID:24803130

Nunn, Amy; MacCarthy, Sarah; Barnett, Nancy; Rose, Jennifer; Chan, Philip; Yolken, Annajane; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Barnes, Arti; Riggins, Reginald; Moore, Elya; Simmons, Dantrell; Parker, Sharon; Mena, Leandro

2014-12-01

326

Female sperm limitation in natural populations of a sexual/asexual mating complex (Poecilia latipinna, Poecilia formosa).  

PubMed

In sperm-dependent sexual/asexual mating systems, male mate choice is critical for understanding the mechanisms behind apparent stability observed in natural populations. The gynogenetic Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa) requires sperm from sexual males (e.g. Poecilia latipinna) to trigger embryogenesis, but inheritance is strictly maternal. Consequently, males should try to avoid or reduce the cost of mating with asexuals. We investigated male mate choice by documenting the presence of sperm in natural populations and found that a higher proportion of sexual females had sperm than asexuals. In addition, among those females that had sperm, sexuals had more sperm than asexuals. Our results hint at a role for male mate choice as a stabilizing factor in such systems. PMID:18319207

Riesch, Rüdiger; Schlupp, Ingo; Plath, Martin

2008-06-23

327

Sexual Reproduction Plays a Major Role in the Genetic Structure of Populations of the Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contributions of sexual and asexual reproduction to the genetic structure of populations can be difficult to determine for fungi that use a mixture of both types of propagation. Nuclear RFLPs and DNA fingerprints were used to make indirect and direct measures of departures from random mating in a population of the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola during the

Ruey-Shyang Chen; Bruce A. McDonald

1996-01-01

328

Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

2009-01-01

329

"Do You Have Any Idea Who You Just Hired?!?" A Study of Open and Closeted Sexual Minority K-12 Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indepth interviews with two female and two male school leaders, one of each gender who were "closeted" in their sexuality and one of each who were "open." Foucault's sovereign and disciplinary power and normalization conceptually framed the study. Interviewee's fear of disclosure resulted in reproducing heteronormative power. At the same time, all…

Fraynd, Donald J.; Capper, Colleen A.

2003-01-01

330

Challenges Faced by Homeless Sexual Minorities: Comparison of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Homeless Adolescents With Their Heterosexual Counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The goal of this study was to identify differences between gay, lesbian, bi- sexual, and transgender (GLBT) homeless youths and their heterosexual counterparts in terms of physical and mental health difficulties. Methods. A sample of 84 GLBT adolescents was matched in regard to age and self- reported gender with 84 heterosexual adolescents. The 2 samples were compared on a

Bryan N. Cochran; Angela J. Stewart; Joshua A. Ginzler; Ana Mari Cauce

2002-01-01

331

California hospitals serving large minority populations were more likely than others to employ ambulance diversion  

PubMed Central

We evaluate whether hospitals serving a higher proportion of minorities experience disproportionate emergency department crowding, as proxied by ambulance diversion. In 202 hospitals across California, the median number of annual diversion hours was 374. After controlling for hospital characteristics, hospitals at the tenth percentile of fraction of minority visitors were on diversion only seventy-five hours per year, compared with hospitals at the ninetieth percentile, with 306 annual diversion hours. Emergency department crowding disproportionately affects minorities, and may contribute to health disparities in these communities. These findings suggest that establishing more uniform criteria regulating diversion may be one step toward decreasing disparities in access to emergency care. PMID:22869655

Hsia, Renee Y.; Asch, Steven M.; Weiss, Robert E.; Zingmond, David; Liang, Li-Jung; Han, Weijuan; McCreath, Heather; Sun, Benjamin C.

2013-01-01

332

Intragenomic conflict in populations infected by Parthenogenesis Inducing Wolbachia ends with irreversible loss of sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background The maternally inherited, bacterial symbiont, parthenogenesis inducing (PI) Wolbachia, causes females in some haplodiploid insects to produce daughters from both fertilized and unfertilized eggs. The symbionts, with their maternal inheritance, benefit from inducing the production of exclusively daughters, however the optimal sex ratio for the nuclear genome is more male-biased. Here we examine through models how an infection with PI-Wolbachia in a previously uninfected population leads to a genomic conflict between PI-Wolbachia and the nuclear genome. In most natural populations infected with PI-Wolbachia the infection has gone to fixation and sexual reproduction is impossible, specifically because the females have lost their ability to fertilize eggs, even when mated with functional males. Results The PI Wolbachia infection by itself does not interfere with the fertilization process in infected eggs, fertilized infected eggs develop into biparental infected females. Because of the increasingly female-biased sex ratio in the population during a spreading PI-Wolbachia infection, sex allocation alleles in the host that cause the production of more sons are rapidly selected. In haplodiploid species a reduced fertilization rate leads to the production of more sons. Selection for the reduced fertilization rate leads to a spread of these alleles through both the infected and uninfected population, eventually resulting in the population becoming fixed for both the PI-Wolbachia infection and the reduced fertilization rate. Fertilization rate alleles that completely interfere with fertilization ("virginity alleles") will be selected over alleles that still allow for some fertilization. This drives the final resolution of the conflict: the irreversible loss of sexual reproduction and the complete dependence of the host on its symbiont. Conclusions This study shows that dependence among organisms can evolve rapidly due to the resolution of the conflicts between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes, and without requiring a mutualism between the partners. PMID:20667099

2010-01-01

333

75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Greenberg, ``Outdoor Advertising of Addictive Products...Neighborhood-Based Tobacco Advertising Targeting Adolescents...adolescents are the primary targets.'') 5. Stoddard...Tailoring Outdoor Tobacco Advertising to Minorities in Los...in African American Markets: Systematic...

2010-05-27

334

Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained. PMID:20485547

McCormick, Mark I; Ryen, Christopher A; Munday, Philip L; Walker, Stefan P W

2010-01-01

335

[Practical guide to the examination and interpretation of genital lesions of minor female victims of sexual assault].  

PubMed

Through a comprehensive review of the literature on sexual assault, the authors propose to clarify the different stages of the exam and help the practitioner to the forensic interpretation of lesions. The authors describe the basic principles that make consensus in how to interview victims in order to increase the reliability of the information collected. The various medical data that must be collected allowing to guide diagnosis (urogenital symptoms, sexual behaviour disorder) or facilitate the interpretation of lesions (age of puberty, use of tampons…) are specified as well as the different positions of examination and their association to other complementary techniques (Foley catheter, colposcopy, toluidine blue). The authors present a simple decision tree that can help the practitioner to interpret the laceration of the hymen. They detail the description and forensic interpretation of all genital lesions that may be encountered as a result of sexual assault, and the pitfalls to avoid. Finally, two main problems in the interpretation of lesions are described, the absence of injury after penetration and the accidental genital lesions. PMID:25458807

Blanc, A; Savall, F; Dedouit, F; Telmon, N

2014-12-01

336

Population Explosion 2010 1 Minority Science Programs School of Biological Sciences University of California, Irvine  

E-print Network

will demonstrate how quickly bacteria can multiply by binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction. Methods of reproduction in bacteria? Sexual (conjugation) and asexual (binary fission) reproduction. #12; to promote growth of good bacteria and prevent reproduction of harmful bacteria. 7. What are 2 types

Rose, Michael R.

337

Mortality Among Very Low-Birthweight Infants in Hospitals Serving Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Objective. We investigated whether the proportion of Black very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants treated by hospitals is associated with neonatal mortality for Black and White VLBW infants. Methods. We analyzed medical records linked to secondary data sources for 74050 Black and White VLBW infants (501 g to 1500 g) treated by 332 hospitals participating in the Vermont Oxford Network from 1995 to 2000. Hospitals where more than 35% of VLBW infants treated were Black were defined as “minority-serving.” Results. Compared with hospitals where less than 15% of the VLBW infants were Black, minority-serving hospitals had significantly higher risk-adjusted neonatal mortality rates (White infants: odds ratio [OR]=1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.56; Black infants: OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.64; Pooled: OR = 1.28, 95% CI=1.10, 1.50). Higher neonatal mortality in minority-serving hospitals was not explained by either hospital or treatment variables. Conclusions. Minority-serving hospitals may provide lower quality of care to VLBW infants compared with other hospitals. Because VLBW Black infants are disproportionately treated by minority-serving hospitals, higher neonatal mortality rates at these hospitals may contribute to racial disparities in infant mortality in the United States. PMID:16304133

Morales, Leo S.; Staiger, Douglas; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Carpenter, Joseph; Kenny, Michael; Geppert, Jeffrey; Rogowski, Jeannette

2005-01-01

338

Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches  

PubMed Central

Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

2013-01-01

339

Historically Black Medical Schools: Addressing the Minority Health Professional Pipeline and the Public Mission of Care For Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need. PMID:19806842

Norris, Keith C.; Baker, Richard S.; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J.; Riley, Wayne J.; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y.; Gibbons, Gary

2013-01-01

340

Species Detection and Identification in Sexual Organisms Using Population Genetic Theory and DNA Sequences  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences of a group of specimens may include clades of two kinds: those produced by stochastic processes (random genetic drift) within a species, and clades that represent different species. The ratio of the mean pairwise sequence difference between a pair of clades (K) to the mean pairwise sequence difference within a clade (?) can be used to determine whether the clades are samples from different species (K/??4) or the same species (K/?<4) with probability ?0.95. Previously I applied this criterion to delimit species of asexual organisms. Here I use data from the literature to show how it can also be applied to delimit sexual species using four groups of sexual organisms as examples: ravens, spotted leopards, sea butterflies, and liverworts. Mitochondrial or chloroplast genes are used because these segregate earlier during speciation than most nuclear genes and hence detect earlier stages of speciation. In several cases the K/? ratio was greater than 4, confirming the original authors' intuition that the clades were sufficiently different to be assigned to different species. But the K/? ratio split each of two liverwort species into two evolutionary species, and showed that support for the distinction between the common and Chihuahuan raven species is weak. I also discuss some possible sources of error in using the K/? ratio; the most significant one would be cases where males migrate between different populations but females do not, making the use of maternally inherited organelle genes problematic. The K/? ratio must be used with some caution, like all other methods for species delimitation. Nevertheless, it is a simple theory-based quantitative method for using DNA sequences to make rigorous decisions about species delimitation in sexual as well as asexual eukaryotes. PMID:23308113

Birky, C. William

2013-01-01

341

NIA outreach to minority and health disparity populations can a toolbox for recruitment and retention be far behind?  

PubMed

The ability to locate the right research tool at the right time for recruitment and retention of minority and health disparity populations is a challenge. This article provides an introduction to a number of recruitment and retention tools in a National Institute on Aging Health Disparities Toolbox and to this special edition on challenges and opportunities in recruitment and retention of minority populations in Alzheimer disease and dementia research. The Health Disparities Toolbox and Health Disparities Resource Persons Network are described along with other more established resource tools including the Alzheimer Disease Center Education Cores, Alzheimer Disease Education and Referral Center, and Resource Centers for Minority Aging Research. Nine featured articles are introduced. The articles address a range of concerns including what we know and do not know, conceptual and theoretical perspectives framing issues of diversity and inclusion, success as a result of sustained investment of time and community partnerships, the significant issue of mistrust, willingness to participate in research as a dynamic personal attribute, Helpline Service and the amount of resources required for success, assistance in working with Limited English Proficiency elders, and sage advice from social marketing and investigations of health literacy as a barrier to recruitment and retention. Finally, an appeal is made for scientists to share tools for the National Institute on Aging Health Disparity Toolbox and to join the Health Disparities Resource Persons Network. PMID:22720317

Harden, J Taylor; Silverberg, Nina

2010-01-01

342

Sexual Orientation and Outcomes in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been well documented that sexual minority individuals are significantly more likely to be college educated than heterosexual individuals [Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. "Demography," 37(2), 139-154;…

Carpenter, Christopher S.

2009-01-01

343

HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?  

PubMed Central

Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

1997-01-01

344

Enriching Ploidy Level Diversity: the Role of Apomictic and Sexual Biotypes of Hieracium subgen. Pilosella (Asteraceae) that Coexist in Polyploid Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to generate variation in ploidy and reproductive mode was compared in facultatively apomictic versus sexual maternal\\u000a plants that coexist in two model populations. The population structure was studied in polyploid hybrid swarms comprised of\\u000a Hieracium pilosella (usually sexual, less commonly apomictic), H. bauhini (apomictic), and their hybrids (sexual, apomictic, or sterile). Relationships among established biotypes were proposed on

Anna Krahulcová; Olga Rotreklová; František Krahulec; Radka Rosenbaumová; Ivana Pla?ková

2009-01-01

345

Promoting Career Opportunities in Nursing to the Minority and Male Population of Galveston.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1991, a project was undertaken to increase the number of minority and male students entering and completing the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Galveston College (GC) in Texas. The goal of the project was achieved in three interrelated phases. The initial phase focused on establishing an outreach program within the community. The…

Garcia, Viola Ruth

346

Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population  

Microsoft Academic Search

People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial\\/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to

Emily Z. Kontos; Karen M. Emmons; Elaine Puleo; K. Viswanath

2011-01-01

347

Sociological Theories Relating to Mental Disabilities in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that mental disorders are one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. The level of mental health need is particularly high for members of racial and ethnic minority groups who, despite similar to higher mental disorder and disability prevalence rates, use fewer mental health services in comparison to whites and tend to receive poorer

Carol J. Peng

2009-01-01

348

The Unique Leadership Needs of Minority Student Populations: Crafting a Leadership Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how college-level minority student leaders make meaning of those leadership experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 students. Major findings noted a strong personal motivation to participate in student leadership positions. Further research on the impact of familial…

Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

2011-01-01

349

Can sexual selection theory inform genetic management of captive populations? A review  

PubMed Central

Captive breeding for conservation purposes presents a serious practical challenge because several conflicting genetic processes (i.e., inbreeding depression, random genetic drift and genetic adaptation to captivity) need to be managed in concert to maximize captive population persistence and reintroduction success probability. Because current genetic management is often only partly successful in achieving these goals, it has been suggested that management insights may be found in sexual selection theory (in particular, female mate choice). We review the theoretical and empirical literature and consider how female mate choice might influence captive breeding in the context of current genetic guidelines for different sexual selection theories (i.e., direct benefits, good genes, compatible genes, sexy sons). We show that while mate choice shows promise as a tool in captive breeding under certain conditions, for most species, there is currently too little theoretical and empirical evidence to provide any clear guidelines that would guarantee positive fitness outcomes and avoid conflicts with other genetic goals. The application of female mate choice to captive breeding is in its infancy and requires a goal-oriented framework based on the needs of captive species management, so researchers can make honest assessments of the costs and benefits of such an approach, using simulations, model species and captive animal data. PMID:25553072

Chargé, Rémi; Teplitsky, Céline; Sorci, Gabriele; Low, Matthew

2014-01-01

350

Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

351

Introduction of a guide to enhance risk communication among low-income and minority populations: a grassroots community engagement approach.  

PubMed

Low-income populations, especially those belonging to minority groups, are among the most vulnerable groups before, during, and after a natural disaster. One of the factors that can be attributed to their vulnerability is the ineffectiveness of traditional risk communication systems in reaching this population. Many low-income populations are distrustful of government agencies and those who typically communicate risk messages. Consequently, traditional systems are not as effective in reaching these communities. Furthermore, traditional systems have been based on the social media that the general population uses and not based on social networks of disadvantaged populations which are more important than formal channels in these communities for dissemination of information. To bridge the gap, an approach is needed that relies on trusted agencies and leaders to educate and warn low-income communities about possible public health threats. A grassroots approach can enhance the capacity of the risk communication systems to more effectively reach vulnerable populations by engaging grassroots organizations in risk communication activities. The Guide to Enhance Grassroots Risk Communication Among Low-Income Populations provides strategies and guidance that can assist agencies in upgrading their systems for risk communication by building partnerships with local community stakeholders. PMID:21737672

Rowel, Randy; Sheikhattari, Payam; Barber, Tanyka M; Evans-Holland, Myrtle

2012-01-01

352

Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand's Official Statistics System  

PubMed Central

Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens. PMID:23840231

Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.

2013-01-01

353

Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation  

PubMed Central

Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch. PMID:23028978

Leung, Elaine S.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.

2012-01-01

354

Recessive Mutations from Natural Populations of NEUROSPORA CRASSA That Are Expressed in the Sexual Diplophase  

PubMed Central

Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were systematically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also detected. Limited complementation tests indicate that most of the 106 recovered mutations are unique.—The recessive diplophase (= sexual phase) mutations were uncovered by crossing each wild-collected isolate to a marked two-chromosome double-reciprocal translocation strain as "balancer." Surviving progeny receive approximately 60% of their genome from the wild parent, but receive the mating-type allele from the "balancer" parent. These progeny were backcrossed to the wild parent and were also crossed with a standard laboratory strain (fl). Reduced fertility in the backcross vs. normal fertility in the cross with the laboratory standard signals the presence of a recessive mutation in the wild-collected isolate.—Most of the mutants (95 of 106) fall into two major classes: those producing barren perithecia with no or few viable ascospores (51) and those with spore maturation defects (44). Most of the recessive barrens result either from an early block in meiosis or ascus development (25) or from a late disturbance in postmeiotic ascus behavior (18).—These recessive mutations are formally equivalent to recessive lethals in higher eukaryotes and may be important in determining the breeding structure of natural Neurospora populations. PMID:2933298

Leslie, John F.; Raju, Namboori B.

1985-01-01

355

Adaptive divergence and speciation among sexual and pseudoviviparous populations of Festuca  

PubMed Central

Pseudovivipary is an environmentally induced flowering abnormality in which vegetative shoots replace seminiferous (sexual) inflorescences. Pseudovivipary is usually retained in transplantation experiments, indicating that the trait is not solely induced by the growing environment. Pseudovivipary is the defining characteristic of Festuca vivipara, and arguably the only feature separating this species from its closest seminiferous relative, Festuca ovina. We performed phylogenetic and population genetic analysis on sympatric F. ovina and F. vivipara samples to establish whether pseudovivipary is an adaptive trait that accurately defines the separation of genetically distinct Festuca species. Chloroplast and nuclear marker-based analyses revealed that variation at a geographical level can exceed that between F. vivipara and F. ovina. We deduced that F. vivipara is a recent species that frequently arises independently within F. ovina populations and has not accumulated significant genetic differentiation from its progenitor. We inferred local gene flow between the species. We identified one amplified fragment length polymorphism marker that may be linked to a pseudovivipary-related region of the genome, and several other markers provide evidence of regional local adaptation in Festuca populations. We conclude that F. vivipara can only be appropriately recognized as a morphologically and ecologically distinct species; it lacks genetic differentiation from its relatives. This is the first report of a ‘failure in normal flowering development' that repeatedly appears to be adaptive, such that the trait responsible for species recognition constantly reappears on a local basis. PMID:20959864

Chiurugwi, T; Beaumont, M A; Wilkinson, M J; Battey, N H

2011-01-01

356

Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: A Comparison Between Latino and Normative Samples of Preschoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a relative dearth of research examining normative sexual behavior in Latino preschool children, despite an increased presence of Latinos as a minority population in the United States. To meet this need, a sample of Latino mothers were asked to complete the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory (CSBI; Friedrich et al., 1992) on their preschool-aged children (3 to 5 years

Maureen C. Kenny; Sandy K. Wurtele

2012-01-01

357

Sexual reproduction, clonal diversity and genetic differentiation in patchily distributed populations of the temperate forest herb Paris quadrifolia (Trilliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal plant species have been shown to adopt different strategies to persist in heterogeneous environments by changing relative investments in sexual reproduction and clonal propagation. As a result, clonal diversity and genetic variation may be different along environmental gradients. We examined the regional and local population structure of the clonal rhizomatous forest herb Paris quadrifolia in a complex of forest

Hans Jacquemyn; Rein Brys; Olivier Honnay; Martin Hermy; Isabel Roldán-Ruiz

2006-01-01

358

Among-population variation in adipose fin size parallels the expression of other secondary sexual characteristics in  

E-print Network

secondary sexual characteristics in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Peter A. H. Westley Æ Stephanie M size of mature male sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, among five popu- lations. Populations differed. Reimchen and Temple (2004) experimentally removed adipose fins from juvenile steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus

Carlson, Stephanie

359

Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were

K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett

1999-01-01

360

Brave New Love: The Threat of High-Tech “Conversion” Therapy and the Bio-Oppression of Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of the neurochemical bases of human love and attachment, as well as of the genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and experiential factors that conspire to shape an individual's sexual orientation, is increasing exponentially. This research raises the vexing possibility that we may one day be equipped to modify such variables directly, allowing for the creation of “high-tech” conversion therapies or other suspect interventions. In this article, we discuss the ethics surrounding such a possibility, and call for the development of legal and procedural safeguards for protecting vulnerable children from the application of such technology. We also consider the more difficult case of voluntary, adult “conversion” and argue that in rare cases, such attempts might be permissible under strict conditions. PMID:24587962

Earp, Brian D.; Sandberg, Anders; Savulescu, Julian

2014-01-01

361

The Sexual Risk Context among the FEM-PrEP Study Population in Bondo, Kenya and Pretoria, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Incidence rates in the FEM-PrEP and VOICE trials demonstrate that women from diverse sub-Saharan African communities continue to be at substantial HIV risk. Objective To describe and compare the sexual risk context of the study population from two FEM-PrEP trial sites–Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa. Methods At baseline we collected information about demographics, sexual behaviors, and partnership beliefs through quantitative questionnaires with all participants (Bondo, n?=?720; Pretoria, n?=?750). To explore the sexual risk context, we also conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with HIV-negative participants randomly selected at several time points (Bondo, n?=?111; Pretoria, n?=?69). Results Demographics, sexual behavior, and partnership beliefs varied significantly between the sites. Bondo participants were generally older, had fewer years of schooling, and were more likely to be employed and married compared to Pretoria participants. Bondo participants were more likely to report multiple partners and not knowing whether their partner had HIV than Pretoria participants. A significantly higher percentage of Bondo participants reported engaging in sex without a condom with their primary and other partners compared to Pretoria participants. We found a borderline association between participants who reported not using condoms in the 4 weeks prior to baseline and lower risk of HIV infection, and no association between having more than one sexual partner at baseline and HIV infection. Discussion Despite significantly different demographics, sexual behaviors, and partnership beliefs, many women in the FEM-PrEP trial were at risk of acquiring HIV as demonstrated by the sites’ high HIV incidence. Though gender dynamics differed between the populations, they appear to play a critical role in women’s sexual practices. The findings highlight different ways women from diverse contexts may be at-risk for HIV and the importance of providing HIV prevention options that are both effective and feasible given personal and social circumstances. PMID:25229403

Headley, Jennifer; Lemons, Ansley; Corneli, Amy; Agot, Kawango; Ahmed, Khatija; Wang, Meng; Odhiambo, Jacob; Skhosana, Joseph; Tharaldson, Jenae; Van Damme, Lut; MacQueen, Kathleen

2014-01-01

362

Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702

Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

2014-06-01

363

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.  

PubMed

Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex. PMID:21768368

Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

2011-07-26

364

Health of a Punjabi ethnic minority in Glasgow: a comparison with the general population  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To compare common health experiences of a South Asian (predominantly Punjabi) population with that of the general population, according to sex, and to related patterns of health in the fourth decade of life to the pattern of hospital admission and mortality documented in the published reports. DESIGN AND SETTING--A cross sectional survey with interviews and physical measures was undertaken in

R Williams; R Bhopal; K Hunt

1993-01-01

365

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1992-12-01

366

Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities  

SciTech Connect

In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

Nieves, L.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Nieves, A.L. (Wheaton Coll., Wheaton, IL (United States) Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1992-01-01

367

Admixture and sexual bias in the population settlement of La Réunion Island (Indian Ocean).  

PubMed

La Réunion, one of the three Mascarene islands located in the Indian Ocean, remained devoid of inhabitants until it was first colonized by the French in the middle of the 17th century. The continuous flow of foreign-born slaves and immigrant workers from Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and China to work on coffee and sugar cane plantations led to the island becoming a melting pot of people of multiple ethnic origins. To establish the impact of the different incoming ethnic groups on the present Reunionese gene pool, we have sequenced both hypervariable regions I and II of the mitochondrial DNA molecule, the 9 bp COII/tRNA(Lys) deletion, and four SNPs located in the coding region in a total of 41 samples of the general population, and a further 18 STRs and 35 SNPs on the Y chromosome in 26 of these samples. Our results show that there was a strong sexual bias (asymmetrical gene flow) in the peopling of La Réunion, where admixture events were mainly between male settlers and females from the incoming slave groups. Most of the Y-chromosome gene pool is of European/Middle Eastern ancestry (85%), whereas the mtDNA gene pool is mainly of Indian and East Asian ancestry (70%). The absence of genetic diversity within these two major components of the mtDNA gene pool suggests these populations may have witnessed strong founder effects during the colonization process. PMID:18186507

Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Plaza, Stéphanie; Bosch, Elena; Calafell, Francesc; Jourdan, Eric; Césari, Maya; Lefranc, Gérard; Comas, David

2008-05-01

368

Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail the transmission of HIV. PMID:20635239

Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

2010-11-01

369

Laboratory mating trials indicate incipient speciation by sexual selection among populations of the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malawi.  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that sexual selection may have played a major role in the rapid evolution of hundreds of species of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. We report the results of a laboratory test of assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes from five closely related geographical populations differing in male courtship colour. Paternity of clutches was tested using microsatellite DNA typing of offspring. Out of 1955 offspring typed, 1296 (66.3%) were sired by the male from the same population as the female, which is more than three times the rate expected if females do not differentiate among males of the different populations (20%). This result indicates that mate preferences of geographical races are strongly differentiated, consistent with the races representing incipient geographical species diverging under sexual selection exerted by female preferences for different male courtship colours. PMID:15209099

Knight, Mairi E.; Turner, George F.

2004-01-01

370

Fall 2014 Women's Studies Courses that Meet Major and Minor Requirements WS Major Requirements WS MINOR REQUIREMENTS 4/22/2014  

E-print Network

MINOR REQUIREMENTS 4/22/2014 Practicum LGBTQ & Sexuality Studies area Gender, Race & Ethnicity in the U, & NATION MINOR LGBTQ & SEXUALITY STUDIES MINOR GENDER & HEALTH MINOR GENDER & HEALTH MINOR SEMINAR GENDER & the Law X X WS/AC 295 Sexuality in Western Culture X X X WS 300 Men's Health X X WS 307 Critical Theory

Edwards, Paul N.

371

Winter 2015 Women's Studies Courses that Meet Major and Minor Requirements WS Major Requirements WS MINOR REQUIREMENTS 11/11/2014  

E-print Network

/ACABS 487 Gender & Society in Ancient Egypt X #12;Practicum LGBTQ & Sexuality Studies area Gender, Race MINOR REQUIREMENTS 11/11/2014 Practicum LGBTQ & Sexuality Studies area Gender, Race & Ethnicity in the U MINOR LGBTQ & SEXUALITY STUDIES MINOR GENDER & HEALTH MINOR GENDER & HEALTH MINOR SEMINAR GENDER

Edwards, Paul N.

372

Men's Sexual Interest in Children: One-Year Incidence and Correlates in a Population-Based Sample of Finnish Male Twins.  

PubMed

In a study of 1,310 Finnish adult male twins we found that sexual interest in children aged 12 or younger was reported by 0.2% of the sample. Sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger was reported by 3.3%. Participants reporting sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger were younger, reported stronger sexual desire, and had experienced more childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse. The present study is the first to give a population-based estimate of the incidence of sexual interest in children among adult men. The 12-month incidence of sexual interest in children below the age of 16 years is roughly comparable to the one-year incidence of major depression or the lifetime prevalence of transvestitic fetishism. PMID:25747416

Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan; Räfså, Anna; Hartwig, Maria; Sariola, Heikki; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Mokros, Andreas

2015-01-01

373

Social factors associated with readiness for sexual activity in adolescents: a population-based cohort study.  

PubMed

Various factors are associated with sexual activity in adolescence and it is important to identify those that promote healthy and adaptive romantic and sexual development. The objectives of this study were to describe rates of early sexual intercourse (before 16 years) and sexual readiness in adolescence and to assess the extent to which these were social patterned. We prospectively studied nearly 5,000 15-year-olds from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Between 2006 and 2008, female and male participants answered a computer assisted interview about romantic and sexual behaviors in the last year. Predictors of sexual intercourse and readiness for sexual intercourse were examined across a range of sociodemographic measures. Overall, 17.7 % (95 % CI 16.7 %, 18.9 %) of participants reported having had sexual intercourse in the last year, with more girls than boys reporting sexual experience (risk ratio 1.30, 95 % CI 1.15, 1.47). Of these, one-third of both male and female were classed as unready because they were unwilling, lacking in autonomy, felt regret or had not used contraception. There was strong evidence of social patterning for sexual activity with higher rates for young people from poorer homes, with lower social class, and with younger, less educated mothers. In contrast, among 860 young people who had had sexual intercourse, there was no clear evidence of associations between social factors and sexual readiness. The lack of social patterning in sexual readiness supports the provision of comprehensive education to develop life skills for adolescents across all social groups. PMID:23982565

Heron, Jon; Low, Nicola; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Ness, Andy; Waylen, Andrea

2015-04-01

374

Multi-level sexual selection: Individual and family-level selection for mating success in a historical human population  

PubMed Central

Precopulatory sexual selection is the association between fitness and traits associated with mate acquisition. While sexual selection is generally recognized to be a powerful evolutionary force, most investigations are limited to characters belonging to individuals. A broader multi-level perspective acknowledges that individual fitness can be affected by aspects of mating success that are characters of groups, such as families. Parental mating success in polygynous or polyandrous human societies may exemplify traits under group-level sexual selection. Using fitness measures that account for age-structure, I measure multi-level selection for mate number over 55 years in a human population with declining rates of polygyny. Sexual selection had three components: individual-level selection for ever-mating (whether or not an individual mated) and individual- and family-level selection for polyandry and polygyny. Family- and individual-level selection for polygyny was equally strong, three times stronger than family-level selection for polyandry and more than an order of magnitude stronger than individual-level selection for polyandry. However, individual-level selection for polyandry and polygyny was more effective at explaining relative fitness variance than family-level selection. Selection for ever-mating was the most important source of sexual selection for fitness; variation for ever-mating explained 23% of relative fitness variance. PMID:23730758

Moorad, Jacob

2013-01-01

375

Detecting genetic isolation in human populations: a study of European language minorities.  

PubMed

The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four "linguistic islands" of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations. PMID:23418562

Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

2013-01-01

376

Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations.  

PubMed

Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens exhibit either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to coexist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in the form of 'false dawn' inundations (where the first hydration is ephemeral and causes loss of early hatching individuals) may provide an advantage to the sexual subpopulation, which shows greater variation in hatching times following inundation. We explore the potential role of environmental stochasticity in this system using life-history data analysis, climate data, and matrix projection models. In the absence of environmental stochasticity, the population growth rate is significantly lower in sexual subpopulations. Climate data reveal that 'false dawn' inundations are common. Using matrix projection modelling with and without environmental stochasticity, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can restore appreciable balance to the system, in terms of population growth rates. This provides support for the role of environmental stochasticity in helping to explain the maintenance of sex and the occurrence of geographical parthenogenesis. PMID:24836646

Park, A W; Vandekerkhove, J; Michalakis, Y

2014-08-01

377

Twenty years after International Conference on Population and Development: where are we with adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights?  

PubMed

The International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in 1994 laid out a bold, clear, and comprehensive definition of reproductive health and called for nations to meet the educational and service needs of adolescents to enable them to deal in a positive and responsible way with their sexuality. In the context of the ongoing review of the International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action and the considerations for a post-2015 development agenda, this article summarizes the findings of the articles presented in this volume and identifies key challenges and critical answers that need to be tackled in addressing adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights. The key recommendations are to link the provision of sexuality education and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; build awareness, acceptance, and support for youth-friendly SRH education and services; address gender inequality in terms of beliefs, attitudes, and norms; and target the early adolescent period (10-14 years). The many knowledge gaps, however, point to the pressing need for further research on how to best design effective adolescent SRH intervention packages and how best to deliver them. PMID:25528975

Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Fogstad, Helga; Say, Lale; Girard, Françoise; Temmerman, Marleen

2015-01-01

378

Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with clonal, partially clonal, and/or sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Many microbial, fungal, or oomcyete populations violate assumptions for population genetic analysis because these populations are clonal, admixed, partially clonal, and/or sexual. Furthermore, few tools exist that are specifically designed for analyzing data from clonal populations, making analysis difficult and haphazard. We developed the R package poppr providing unique tools for analysis of data from admixed, clonal, mixed, and/or sexual populations. Currently, poppr can be used for dominant/codominant and haploid/diploid genetic data. Data can be imported from several formats including GenAlEx formatted text files and can be analyzed on a user-defined hierarchy that includes unlimited levels of subpopulation structure and clone censoring. New functions include calculation of Bruvo’s distance for microsatellites, batch-analysis of the index of association with several indices of genotypic diversity, and graphing including dendrograms with bootstrap support and minimum spanning networks. While functions for genotypic diversity and clone censoring are specific for clonal populations, several functions found in poppr are also valuable to analysis of any populations. A manual with documentation and examples is provided. Poppr is open source and major releases are available on CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/package=poppr. More supporting documentation and tutorials can be found under ‘resources’ at: http://grunwaldlab.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/. PMID:24688859

Tabima, Javier F.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

2014-01-01

379

Minority Student Response to the Anthropology of Asian Black Populations. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1970, the University of Chicago has offered three undergraduate anthropology courses on Philippine Negrito and Malay and Thai aboriginal black populations. Between 1975 and 1981, 72 students, including American blacks, Filipinos, and other Asians, attended the courses. The instructor's observations of students' responses to the courses…

Warren, Charles P.

380

Size-dependent male mating behaviour and sexual harassment in a population of Atlantic mollies ( Poecilia mexicana ) from a sulphur creek  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic molly Poecilia mexicana inhabits a variety of habitats. In previous studies, small males from clear-water populations showed considerably more sexual behaviours than large males. Males from a sulphur creek, the El Azufre, or from a sulphur cave (cave molly) showed comparatively low sexual activity, and typical size-dependent mating behaviour was either absent or large males showed even more

Martin Plath; Anja Brümmer; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2006-01-01

381

Morphometric analysis of pelvic sexual dimorphism in a contemporary Western Australian population.  

PubMed

Requisite to routine casework involving unidentified skeletal remains is the formulation of an accurate biological profile, including sex estimation. Choice of method(s) is invariably related to preservation and by association, available bones. It is vital that the method applied affords statistical quantification of accuracy rates and predictive confidence so that evidentiary requirements for legal submission are satisfied. Achieving the latter necessitates the application of contemporary population-specific standards. This study examines skeletal pelvic dimorphism in contemporary Western Australian individuals to quantify the accuracy of using pelvic measurements to estimate sex and to formulate a series of morphometric standards. The sample comprises pelvic multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) scans from 200 male and 200 female adults. Following 3D rendering, the 3D coordinates of 24 landmarks are acquired using OsiriX® (v.4.1.1) with 12 inter-landmark linear measurements and two angles acquired using MorphDb. Measurements are analysed using basic descriptive statistics and discriminant functions analyses employing jackknife validation of classification results. All except two linear measurements are dimorphic with sex differences explaining up to 65 % of sample variance. Transverse pelvic outlet and subpubic angle contribute most significantly to sex discrimination with accuracy rates between 100 % (complete pelvis-10 variables) and 81.2 % (ischial length). This study represents the initial forensic research into pelvic sexual dimorphism in a Western Australian population. Given these methods, we conclude that this highly dimorphic bone can be used to classify sex with a high degree of expected accuracy. PMID:24789357

Franklin, Daniel; Cardini, Andrea; Flavel, Ambika; Marks, Murray K

2014-09-01

382

Application of Mobile Technology for Improving Expanded Program on Immunization Among Highland Minority and Stateless Populations in Northern Thailand Border  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of undervaccinated children of minority/stateless populations have highlighted significant barriers at individual, community, and state levels. These include geography-related difficulties, poverty, and social norms/beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to assess project outcomes regarding immunization coverage, as well as maternal attitudes and practices toward immunization. Methods The “StatelessVac” project was conducted in Thailand-Myanmar-Laos border areas using cell phone-based mechanisms to increase immunization coverage by incorporating phone-to-phone information sharing for both identification and prevention. With limitation of the study among vulnerable populations in low-resource settings, the pre/post assessments without comparison group were conducted. Immunization coverage was collected from routine monthly reports while behavior-change outcomes were from repeat surveys. Results This study revealed potential benefits of the initiative for case identification; immunization coverage showed an improved trend. Prevention strategies were successfully integrated into the routine health care workflows of immunization activities at point-of-care. A behavior-change-communication package contributes significantly in raising both concern and awareness in relation to child care. Conclusions The mobile technology has proven to be an effective mechanism in improving a children’s immunization program among these hard-to-reach populations. Part of the intervention has now been revised for use at health centers across the country. PMID:25589367

Apidechkul, Tawatchai; Jandee, Kasemsak; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Sawang, Surasak; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Wansatid, Peerawat; Krongrungroj, Sarinya

2015-01-01

383

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659

Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.

2012-01-01

384

Selection on apomictic lineages of Taraxacum at establishment in a mixed sexual-apomictic population  

Microsoft Academic Search

apomixis; asexuality; evolution; polyploidy; selection; Taraxacum. Abstract A species' mode of reproduction, sexual or asexual, will affect its ecology and evolution. In many species, asexuality is related to polyploidy. In Taraxacum, apomicts are triploid, and sexuals are diploid. To disentangle the effects of ploidy level and reproductive mode on life-history traits, we compared established apomictic Taraxacum genotypes with newly synthesized

De Kovel; De Jong

2000-01-01

385

Adjustment among mothers reporting same-gender sexual partners: a study of a representative population sample from Quebec Province (Canada).  

PubMed

We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women (n = 179) based on age, income, geographical area, and children (having at least one 18-year-old or younger biological or adopted child at home). We assessed social milieu variables, risk factors for health disorders, mental health, and quality of mothers' relationship with children. The findings indicated a sexual orientation main effect: Mothers and non-mothers in the SG and BI group, as compared to their OG controls, were significantly less likely to live in a couple relationship, had significantly lower levels of social support, higher prevalence of early negative life events, substance abuse, suicide ideation, and higher levels of psychological distress. There were no Sexual Orientation X Parenthood status effects. The results further indicated that sexual orientation did not account for unique variance in women's psychological distress beyond that afforded by their social milieu, health risk factors, and parenthood status. No significant differences were found for the quality of mothers' relationship with children. SG-BI and OG mothers with low levels of social integration were significantly more likely to report problems with children than parents with high levels of social integration. We need to understand how marginal sexualities and their associated social stigma, as risk indicators for mothers, interact with other factors to impact family life, parenting skills, and children's adjustment. PMID:17665300

Julien, Danielle; Jouvin, Emilie; Jodoin, Emilie; L'archevêque, Alexandre; Chartrand, Elise

2008-12-01

386

Management strategies of iron accumulation in a captive population of black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor).  

PubMed

During routine health screens for black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor) in a captive setting, serum iron and ferritin were analyzed as well as total iron binding capacity and total iron saturation. Trends for ferritin and percent iron saturation showed steady increases since 2003 in four of four animals (three males; one female) with two animals (one male; one female) consistently showing higher elevations over conspecifics. The historical diet had been comprised of a commercial or in-house complete pelleted feed; several species of fresh browse, Bermuda grass, alfalfa and timothy hays, as well as enrichment and training items (apples, carrots, sweet potatoes, and a small amount of leafy greens and vegetables). In 2009, one of the three male rhinoceroses showed a threefold increase in ferritin and concurrently exhibited clinical signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, and disinterest in training. The lone female showed a twofold increase; she also became reproductively acyclic in the prior year. The male was immobilized for examination and phlebotomy. During the same time period, a new version of the complete pelleted feed, with a reduced amount of iron, was introduced. Subsequent to the diet change, the male's ferritin levels have consistently declined, and the female started cycling again. Even with these corrective steps to reduce iron levels, levels of iron saturation remained high, and ferritin levels were still above 1,500 ng/ml. Therapeutic phlebotomy was instituted via a rigorous training program that allowed phlebotomies over a 30-min time frame. This was possible because of a long-term training program for the animals, consistent training personnel, routine collection of samples on a monthly basis, and general comfort level of the animals in the restraint chute. The results of this integrated approach showed some significant improvements and an overall positive impact on the animals. PMID:23156710

Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Corcoran, Michelle E; Fleming, Gregory J; Valdes, Eduardo V

2012-09-01

387

Prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in an impoverished minority population  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and Aims An epidemiological link between an increased body mass index and complaints of typical heartburn symptoms has been identified. It appears that increasing waist circumference, rather than overall weight is most important. Studies to date have not included minority, impoverished communities. Our aim was to determine the impact of obesity on the prevalence of reflux disease in an impoverished community while controlling for known confounders. Methods: Design Cross-sectional survey delivered by in-home interviews, convenience sampling, and targeted mailing. Data queried include demographics, medical history, lifestyle habits, and symptoms of reflux disease. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measured in participating subjects. Participants 503 subjects living in the zip code immediately surrounding Temple University Hospital. Included only adults living in the hospital’s zip code for at least 3 years. Results The highest quartile of waist circumference (?42 in.) demonstrated a strong association with GERD (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.18–3.90). Smoking increased the odds by 1.72 (95% CI 1.13–2.62). There was no relationship between body mass index, waist—hip ratio, or diet and reflux classification. Conclusions Increasing waist circumference, but not overall body mass index or waist—hip ratio, and smoking are risk factors for prevalent GERD. No association between reflux disease and lifestyle choices such as coffee drinking and fast food dining were found. Limitations Potential for recall bias and disease misclassification. Possible methodological errors in self-measurement of waist and hip circumference. PMID:21311721

Friedenberg, Frank K.; Rai, Jitha; Vanar, Vishwas; Bongiorno, Charles; Nelson, Deborah B.; Parepally, Mayur; Poonia, Arashdeep; Sharma, Amol; Gohel, Shaun; Richter, Joel E.

2011-01-01

388

Sexual fantasies and sexual arousal in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of female sexual arousal dysfunction for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors could greatly benefit from more information on mechanisms to the sexual arousal problems specific to this population. In this study, 60 CSA survivors and 120 women with no history of CSA (NCSA) participated in an Internet-based survey on sexual arousal and sexual fantasies. Self-reported sexual arousal was measured

Julia Camuso; Alessandra H. Rellini

2010-01-01

389

New insights into the variability of reproduction modes in European populations of Rubus subgen. Rubus: how sexual are polyploid brambles?  

PubMed

Rubus subgen. Rubus includes common European species with highly complicated taxonomy, ongoing hybridisation and facultative apomixis. Out of approximately 750 species recognised in Europe, only 3 diploid sexual species are known, along with numerous apomictic brambles that are highly connected to polyploidy. One exception of a tetraploid taxon is R. ser. Glandulosi, which is known for prevalent sexuality. This taxon highly hybridises with tetraploid members of R. ser. Discolores and leads to the origin of many hybridogenous populations and individuals. In this study, we verify reproduction modes in different diploid, triploid and tetraploid species of subgen. Rubus, with focus on taxa putatively involved in such hybridisation by applying flow cytometric seed screen analysis. We found 100 % sexuality of diploid species, whereas triploid species had obligate unreduced embryo sac development. In contrast, tetraploid plants had varying degrees of sexuality. Additionally, we discovered that R. bifrons has the ability to undergo a reproduction mode switch as a reaction to environmental conditions. These results provide insight into reproductive modes of European brambles and shed light on their reticulate evolution and speciation. PMID:23114637

Šarhanová, Petra; Vašut, Radim J; Dan?ák, Martin; Bureš, Petr; Trávní?ek, Bohumil

2012-12-01

390

Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems.

Mols, Floortje [CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Mols@uvt.nl; Korfage, Ida J. [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M. [Clinical Psychology Section, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kil, Paul J.M. [Department of Urology, Sint Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands); Coebergh, Jan Willem W. [Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Social Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de [CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-01-01

391

Long-term decline in a red-winged blackbird population: ecological causes and sexual selection consequences.  

PubMed

Habitat loss and large-scale climate phenomena are widely implicated as causing decline in animal populations. I examined how both factors contributed to a precipitous decline in an Ontario red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) population using 16 years of data collected between 1974 and 1995. The decline was manifested as an almost 50% reduction in mean harem size, which reduced the opportunity for sexual selection threefold. Regional hay production, which should affect recruitment into the study population, also declined substantially. Correlation between blackbirds and hay may be coincidental, however, because annual changes in harem size were not associated with annual changes in hay production. This study coincided with an unprecedented positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Changes in harem size were correlated with winter NAO index values, suggesting that winter mortality contributed to the population decline. Positive correlation between harem size change and male return rates also supported the winter mortality hypothesis. Continued declines will cause this blackbird population to change from socially polygynous to socially monogamous. Study of red-winged blackbird winter ecology is needed to identify the proximate causes of mortality, whereas breeding studies can explore the consequences of relaxed sexual selection. PMID:16191645

Weatherhead, Patrick J

2005-11-01

392

Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of Westslope cutthroat trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and their fecundities could not be estimated. Mean fecundities (SD) were 227 eggs (41.1) for 150-174-mm fish, 346 eggs (85.6) for 175-199-mm fish, and 459 eggs (150.8) for 200-mm and larger fish. A linear regression model (two stream samples combined) to predict fecundity (E) from fork length was developed (E = -494.9 + 4.4.FL: r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001) for westslope cutthroat trout in the upper Missouri River drainage. Regression slopes of fecundity against fish length differed significantly (P < 0.01) between these and some of the previously studied populations. Steeper slopes were associated with lacustrine-adfluvial populations. The average sex ratio was 1.3 males per female across all sampled streams. Males began to mature sexually at age 2 and all were mature by age 4. Some females (27%) were sexually mature at age 3 and most of them (93%) were mature by age 5. Length was a better predictor of sexual maturity than age. Males matured at 110-160 mm and females at 150-180 mm FL. The maximum estimated age was 8 years based on otoliths from 475 fish collected from our 19 study streams and 14 additional streams.

Downs, C.C.; White, R.G.; Shepard, B.B.

1997-01-01

393

Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field experiments support the hypothesis that sexual cannibalism is adaptive to females. PMID:18941517

Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Á.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

2008-01-01

394

The association between childhood trauma and lipid levels in an adult low income, minority population  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to investigate the association between childhood trauma and lipid profiles in adults from a highly traumatized population at-risk for cardiovascular disease. Method We recruited 452 participants, primarily African American, low socioeconomic status from general medical clinics in a large urban hospital. We performed direct comparisons, univariate ANOVA and regression analyses together and separated by sex, examining the associations of child abuse, BMI, lipid lowering drug use, blood pressure, age, and substance use to HDL levels and HDL/LDL ratios. Results A history of moderate to severe levels of childhood trauma and abuse was associated with a significant decrease in HDL levels (p?0.01) and HDL/LDL ratios (p?0.001) relative to males with low levels of abuse. This relationship held when the status of lipid-lowering drugs was considered. When controlling for age, substance abuse, tobacco use, and adult trauma, the effects of childhood trauma remained significant. We found a significant child abuse by sex interaction on HDL/LDL ratios (F(1, 369)=13.0, p?0.0005) consistent with a differential effect of trauma on dyslipidemia in male but not female subjects Conclusions Our data suggest that childhood trauma exposure, obtained with self-report measures, may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease by way of stress-mediated alterations of lipid concentration and composition in male, but not female, subjects. PMID:24315076

Spann, Sarah J.; Gillespie, Charles F.; Davis, Jennifer S.; Brown, Angelo; Schwartz, Ann; Wingo, Aliza; Habib, Leah; Ressler, Kerry J.

2013-01-01

395

Sexual orientation and suicide attempt: a longitudinal study of the general Norwegian adolescent population.  

PubMed

Past and future suicide attempt rates among gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) young people were compared with those of heterosexual young people. A sample of Norwegian students (N = 2.924; grades 7-12) was followed in 3 data collection waves. Risk factors included previous suicide attempt,depressed mood, eating problems, conduct problems, early sexual debut, number of sexual partners, pubertal timing, self-concept, alcohol and drug use, atypical gender roles, loneliness, peer relations, social support, parental attachment, parental monitoring, and suicidal behavior among family and friends. When homosexual attraction, homosexual identity, and same-sex sexual behavior were entered to predict suicide attempt, only same-sex sexual behavior was significantly predictive. The increased odds could not be attributed to GLB students' greater exposure to risk factors for suicide attempt. PMID:12653422

Wichstrøm, Lars; Hegna, Kristinn

2003-02-01

396

Multivariate sexual selection on male song structure in wild populations of sagebrush crickets, Cyphoderris strepitans (Orthoptera: Haglidae)  

PubMed Central

While a number of studies have measured multivariate sexual selection acting on sexual signals in wild populations, few have confirmed these findings with experimental manipulation. Sagebrush crickets are ideally suited to such investigations because mating imposes an unambiguous phenotypic marker on males arising from nuptial feeding by females. We quantified sexual selection operating on male song by recording songs of virgin and mated males captured from three wild populations. To determine the extent to which selection on male song is influenced by female preference, we conducted a companion study in which we synthesized male songs and broadcast them to females in choice trials. Multivariate selection analysis revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface, the highest peak of which corresponded to longer train and pulse durations, and longer intertrain intervals. Longer trains and pulses likely promote greater mate attraction, but selection for longer intertrain durations suggests that energetic constraints may necessitate “time outs”. Playback trials confirmed the selection for longer train and pulse durations, and revealed significant stabilizing selection on dominant frequency, suggesting that the female auditory system is tightly tuned to the species-specific call frequency. Collectively, our results revealed a complex pattern of multivariate nonlinear selection characterized primarily by strong stabilizing and disruptive selection on male song traits. PMID:24223293

Ower, Geoffrey D; Judge, Kevin A; Steiger, Sandra; Caron, Kyle J; Smith, Rebecca A; Hunt, John; Sakaluk, Scott K

2013-01-01

397

Assessment of clinical biochemical parameters in Roma minority residing in eastern Slovakia compared with the majority population.  

PubMed

Roma constitute the largest ethnic minority in Europe and the second largest minority in Slovakia. Their health problems originate mainly from their low socioeconomic status, certain cultural aspects and their health-threatening lifestyle as well as the psycho-social burden arising from poverty and frequent migration. Evaluation of glucose, albumin, triacylglycerol (TAG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations did not reveal any clue about the presumed deteriorated health of the Roma population. Higher proportions of subjects with elevated serum total cholesterol were found in Roma women as compared to both control groups of women (p = 0.027, p = 0.006) and in Roma men as compared to the male control group living in standard conditions. Only the low level of HDL-cholesterol gives a glimpse of their deteriorated health. Significantly lower levels of serum HDL-C were reported in Roma men and women compared to the respondents in both control groups with a p value of p < 0.001. Comparing the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C yielded significant differences between the number of physiological values in Roma men and men from the control group 1 (p = 0.022) in favour of the control group. When comparing the number of people with physiological values of cholesterols and with worsening TAG parameters at the same time, the increased risk of Roma men compared with men from the control group 1 became evident, with a level of significance of p = 0.023. Evaluation of urine samples pointed to significantly higher concentrations of urinary protein in Roma women compared with women in the control group 1 (p = 0.012). PMID:24847608

Hubková, Beáta; Maslanková, Jana; Stupák, Marek; Guzy, Juraj; Kovácová, Anna; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Mareková, Mária

2014-03-01

398

No Association of Functional Polymorphisms in Methlylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase and the Risk and Minor Physical Anomalies of Schizophrenia in Korean Population  

PubMed Central

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate metabolism, plays an important role in DNA methylation. It has been suggested that abnormal DNA methylation contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and congenital anomalies. The previous findings regarding the genetic relationship between MTHFR and schizophrenia are controversial. This study investigated the association of the two functional polymorphisms of MTHFR, C677T and A1298C, with the risk for schizophrenia. Furthermore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on the two polymorphisms. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms and minor physical anomaly (MPA), which may represent neurodevelopmental aberrations in 201 schizophrenia patients and 350 normal control subjects. There was no significant association between either of the two polymorphisms and the risk of schizophrenia (chi-square = 0.001, df = 1, P = 0.971 for C677T; chi-square = 1.319, df = 1, P = 0.251 for A1298C). However, in meta-analysis, the C677T polymorphism showed a significant association in the combined and Asian populations (OR = 1.13, P = 0.005; OR = 1.21, P = 0.011, respectively) but not in the Korean and Caucasian populations alone. Neither polymorphism was associated with MPAs measured by the Waldrop scale (chi-square = 2.513, df = 2, P = 0.285). In conclusion, the present findings suggest that in the Korean population, the MTHFR polymorphisms are unlikely to be associated with the risk for schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental abnormalities related to schizophrenia. PMID:22022190

Kim, Su-Gyeong; Song, Joo Yun; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Jeong, Seong Hoon; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Kyu Young; Lee, Nam Young; Ahn, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sik

2011-01-01

399

Computing Ro in a population with heterogeneity in sexual activity and proportionate mixing using a STM-solver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model to determinate the reproductive basic number, detonated Ro, for the case of population with heterogeneity in sexual activity and proportionate mixing is solved using computer algebra and SMT solvers. Specifically Maple and Z3 were used. The code for the solution of the model was written in Z3-Python, but it can also be played by Z3-SMT-Lib. Ro represents an algebraic synthesis of every epidemiological parameter. Numerical simulations were done to prove the effectiveness of the model and the code. The algebraic structure of Ro suggests the possible control measurements that should be implemented to avoid the propagation of the sexual transmitted diseases. The obtained results are important on the computational epidemiology field. As a future investigation, it is suggested to apply the STM solvers to analyze models for other kinds of epidemic diseases.

Gutierrez A., Natalia A.

2014-06-01

400

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

401

Influence of gender, sexual orientation, and need on treatment utilization for substance use and mental disorders: Findings from the California Quality of Life Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prior research has shown a higher prevalence of substance use and mental disorders among sexual minorities, however, the influence of sexual orientation on treatment seeking has not been widely studied. We use a model of help-seeking for vulnerable populations to investigate factors related to treatment for alcohol or drug use disorders and mental health disorders, focusing on the contributions

Christine E Grella; Lisa Greenwell; Vickie M Mays; Susan D Cochran

2009-01-01

402

Spring-Summer 2014 Courses That Meet Women's Studies Major and Minor Requirements WS MINOR REQUIREMENTS 4/7/2014  

E-print Network

& SEXUALITY STUDIES MINOR GENDER & HEALTH MINOR GENDER & HEALTH MINOR, SEMINAR GAH MINOR GLOBAL OR HISTORICAL WS/Nurs 220 Women and Health X X X WS 240 Intro to Women's Studies X WS/AC 295 Sexuality in Western/AAS/Honors/ RCHUMS 354 Race and Identity in Music X X X X SUMMER COURSE #12;

Edwards, Paul N.

403

A Relationship between REM Sleep Measures and the Duration of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in a Young Adult Urban Minority Population  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To determine relationships of polysomnographic (PSG) measures with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a young adult, urban African American population. Design: Cross-sectional, clinical and laboratory evaluation. Setting: Community recruitment, evaluation in the clinical research unit of an urban University hospital. Participants: Participants (n = 145) were Black, 59.3% female, with a mean age of 23.1 y (SD = 4.8). One hundred twenty-one participants (83.4%) met criteria for trauma exposure, the most common being nonsexual violence. Thirty-nine participants (26.9%) met full (n = 19) or subthreshold criteria (n = 20) for current PTSD, 41 (28.3%) had met lifetime PTSD criteria and were recovered, and 65 (45%) were negative for PTSD. Measurements and Results: Evaluations included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and 2 consecutive nights of overnight PSG. Analysis of variance did not reveal differences in measures of sleep duration and maintenance, percentage of sleep stages, and the latency to and duration of uninterrupted segments of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by study group. There were significant relationships between the duration of PTSD and REM sleep percentage (r = 0.53, P = 0.001), REM segment length (r = 0.43, P = 0.006), and REM sleep latency (r = -0.34, P < 0.03) among those with current PTSD that persisted when removing cases with, or controlling for, depression. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with observations in the literature of fragmented and reduced REM sleep with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relatively proximate to trauma exposure and nondisrupted or increased REM sleep with chronic PTSD. Citation: Mellman TA, Kobayashi I, Lavela J, Wilson B, Hall Brown TS. A relationship between REM sleep measures and the duration of posttraumatic stress disorder in a young adult urban minority population. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1321-1326. PMID:25083012

Mellman, Thomas A.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Wilson, Bryonna; Hall Brown, Tyish S.

2014-01-01

404

What are effective approaches to increasing rates of organ donor registration among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify effective interventions to increase organ donor registration and improve knowledge about organ donation among ethnic minorities in North America and the UK. Design Systematic review. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Central searched up to November 2012, together with four trials databases and the grey literature. Review methods A systematic search followed by assessment of eligibility and quality. An interpretive and thematic approach to synthesis was undertaken. This examined the nature and delivery of interventions in relation to a range of outcomes: verified registration, changing knowledge and a measured shift towards greater readiness. Results 18 studies were included in the review, comprising educational and mass media interventions. Mass media interventions alone reported no significant change in the intention or willingness to register. Educational interventions either alone or combined with mass media approaches were more effective in increasing registration rates, with a strong interpersonal component and an immediate opportunity to register identified as important characteristics in successful change. Conclusions Effective interventions need to be matched to the populations’ stage of readiness to register. Measured outcomes should include registration and shifts along the pathway towards this behavioural outcome. PMID:24362010

Deedat, Sarah; Kenten, Charlotte; Morgan, Myfanwy

2013-01-01

405

Multivariate analysis of the sexual dimorphism of the hip bone in a modern human population and in early hominids.  

PubMed

A large sample of hip bones of known sex coming from one modern population is studied morphologically and by multivariate analysis to investigate sexual dimorphism patterns. A principal component analysis of raw data shows that a large amount of the hip bone sexual dimorphism is accounted for by size differences, but that sex-linked shape variation is also very conspicuous and cannot be considered an allometric consequence of differences in body size between the sexes. The PCA of transformed ("shape") variables indicates that the female hip bones are different in those traits associated with a relatively larger pelvic inlet (longer pubic bones, a greater degree of curvature of the iliopectineal line, and more posterior position of the auricular surface), as well as a broader sciatic notch. The analysis of nonmetric traits also shows marked sexual dimorphism in the position of the sacroiliac joint in the iliac bone, in the shape of the sciatic notch, in pubic morphology, and in the presence of the pre-auricular sulcus in females. When the australopithecine AL 288-1 and Sts 14 hip bones are included in the multivariate analysis, they appear as "ultra-females." In particular these early hominids exhibit extraordinarily long pubic bones and iliopectineal lines, which cannot be explained by allometry. PMID:8147439

Arsuaga, J L; Carretero, J M

1994-02-01

406

Testing founder effect speciation: Divergence population genetics of the Spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10-8) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we discuss the potential importance of evolutionarily labile traits with significant fitness consequences, such as migratory behavior and habitat preference, in facilitating divergence of the spoonbills.

Yeung, Carol K.L.; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R. Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

2011-01-01

407

COMBINED SOCIOLOGY Ph.D. / POPULATION HEALTH M.S. OR MINOR OPTIONS OPTION I--M.S. in Population Health with Integrated Sociology Dissertation/Population Health  

E-print Network

Hlth 798 Epidemiologic Methods (3 cr) Spring · Students are strongly recommended to take Pop Hlth 800 to Epidemiology (3 cr.) PHS 794 Biological Basis of Population Health (2 cr) (if needed, as determined by the student's academic advisor) Methods Courses (two from the list below ­ 6 credits) PHS 703 Quality

Sheridan, Jennifer

408

Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Sexual Education in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of sexual education in the United States broadly defines the two most common approaches in sexual education seen in this country today. I cover the status of certain sexual behaviors and risks amongst the teenage population in the U.S. and specifically cover reported sexual activity in high school students and overall data on teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted

Therese B Orbea

2010-01-01

409

Influence of perception of colorectal cancer risk and patient bowel preparation behaviors: a study in minority populations  

PubMed Central

Background Large disparities exist in the utilization rates of screening modalities for colorectal cancer (CRC) in different socioeconomic areas. In this study, we evaluated whether the quality of bowel preparation differed significantly among populations with a high risk of CRC compared with that among the general population after matching for potential confounding factors. Methods Hispanic and African American patients who underwent routine screening or surveillance colonoscopies in an outpatient setting between 2003 and 2013 were included in this retrospective study. Patients who underwent colonoscopies for emergent indications and repeat routine screening colonoscopies because of prior history of inadequate bowel preparation were excluded from this study. The patients were divided into three groups: patients having an average risk of being diagnosed with CRC (group 1); patients having a high risk of being diagnosed with CRC because of a personal history of adenomatous polyps (group 2); and patients having a high risk of being diagnosed with CRC because of a family history of CRC in first-degree relatives (group 3). All the patients were given preprocedural counseling and written instructions for bowel preparation. Data on demographic information, method of bowel preparation, quality of bowel preparation, comorbidities, and prescription medications were collected. Results In all, 834 patients had a “high-risk for CRC” surveillance colonoscopy in view of their personal history of adenomatous polyps and were included in group 2. In total, 250 patients had a “high-risk for CRC” screening colonoscopy in view of their family history of CRC in first-degree relatives and were included in group 3. Further, 1,000 patients were selected to serve as controls (after matching for age, sex and ethnicity) and were included in group 1. Bowel preparation was graded as good, fair, or poor by the endoscopist performing the study. We observed a significantly higher number of good bowel preparations in group 2 and group 3 (P=0.0001) when compared with group 1 (controls) after adjusting for comorbidities and usage of prescription medication that could potentially cause colonic dysmotility. These differences were significant in both Hispanic and African American patients. Conclusion Our study showed that perception of CRC risk significantly influenced the bowel preparation behaviors of patients belonging to minority populations, with a significantly greater number of patients with a high risk of CRC having adequate bowel preparations. PMID:25670910

Gaduputi, Vinaya; Chandrala, Chaitanya; Tariq, Hassan; Sakam, Sailaja; Dev, Anil; Chilimuri, Sridhar

2015-01-01

410

Low mitochondrial diversity and small effective population sizes of the copepods Calanus finmarchicus and Nannocalanus minor: possible impact of climatic variation during recent glaciation.  

PubMed

Molecular population genetic diversity of two planktonic copepods of the North Atlantic, Calanus finmarchicus and Nannocalanus minor (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida), was characterized using the sequence variation in a 350 bp region of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The subarctic species, C. finmarchicus, shows lower population genetic diversity (haplotype diversity, h = 0.368, SD = 0.043; nucleotide diversity, pi = 0.00370, SD = 0.0026) than the temperate/subtropical species, N. minor (h = 0.824, SD = 0.024; pi = 0.00502, SD = 0.0032). Effective population sizes (N(e), estimated from numbers of haplotypes) and effective female population sizes (Nf(e), estimated from nucleotide diversities) for the two species are 10(7) to 10(10) smaller than census female population sizes (Nf) estimated from observed densities and areal distributions. For both C. finmarchicus and N. minor, Nf approximately 10(15), N(e) approximately 10(8), and Nf(e) approximately 10(5). We hypothesize that the cause of both low levels of molecular diversity and small effective population sizes of the two species is the impact of glaciation during the past 20,000 years. C. finmarchicus may have experienced 75% range reduction and latitudinal displacement during the last glacial maximum at 18,000 years BP, giving rise to a genetic bottleneck; this may explain low diversity and an L-shaped distribution of pairwise haplotype differences. In contrast, N. minor may have experienced range reduction of only 30% and less change in latitudinal extent, with less impact of levels of molecular diversity and the shape of the pairwise difference distribution. Although marine zooplankton species are highly abundant, conservation biologists should note that their numbers may vary significantly on climatic to evolutionary time scales, generating low levels of molecular genetic diversity. PMID:9768496

Bucklin, A; Wiebe, P H

1998-01-01

411

Characteristics of child sexual assault within a child advocacy center client population.  

PubMed

This descriptive study summarized data from a child advocacy center to illustrate how such information might be used to profile the scope and character of child sexual abuse (CSA) at the community level. This detailed information is not available from national or state data but is needed to understand the circumstances of the children receiving services and the type of care they may need. Variables included victim demographics, type of sexual abuse and relationship to the perpetrator, and the person to whom the victim was most likely to disclose their sexual assault. A total sample of 841 case reports was reviewed. Chi-square tests were used to determine if there were statistically significant associations between the age groupings, type of abuse, and the perpetrator according to age grouping. Those children most often seen at this child advocacy center were girls (73%); White (67%); and living with their mothers, with both parents, or with parent and stepparent (80%). The incidence of CSA increased for girls across age groups. However, boys aged 6-10 years comprised the greatest percentage of the male sample (56%) who experienced CSA. For all three age groups, over half of the perpetrators were identified as relatives. Most children (85%) experienced high-impact sexual abuse behaviors of fondling, penetration, or some combination thereof. Children most often disclosed CSA to their mothers. Understanding patterns of CSA at the local level provides guidance beyond national and state data to forensic nurses regarding child and family needs within their communities. PMID:25695208

Carlson, Faye M; Grassley, Jane; Reis, Janet; Davis, Kelley

2015-01-01

412

Childhood sexual abuse and abnormal personality: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to be a risk factor for personality disorder (PD). However, no previous studies have examined whether associations exist between sexual abuse and abnormal personality as measured both categorically and dimensionally. Such enquiry would more fully illuminate the impact of CSA on adult personality. Method Using a large nationally representative sample, we set out to examine associations between CSA and categorically defined PD. We also examined associations between CSA and the five dimensions of personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism). A total of 1520 young adults were interviewed to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse occurring before age 16 years. A dimensional measure of personality was completed by 1469 participants, and 1145 had an informant-based PD assessment. Results PD was independently associated with repeated CSA [fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–3.4]. Repeated sexual abuse was also associated with higher neuroticism and lower agreeableness (p values for both <0.001). Adjusting for the effects of potential confounders and mediators, including earlier symptoms of anxiety and depression, had little impact on the strength of associations. Conclusions We conclude that repeated CSA is independently associated with categorically defined PD, and also with higher neuroticism and lower agreeableness. Our findings suggest that if a dimensional classification of PDs is adopted in future classification systems, there might be meaningful continuity with previous aetiological research conducted using the current categorical system. PMID:20868539

Moran, P.; Coffey, C.; Chanen, A.; Mann, A.; Carlin, J. B.; Patton, G. C.

2011-01-01

413

The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

2012-01-01

414

Comparison of parasite communities in native and introduced populations of sexual and asexual mollies of  

E-print Network

male and Poecilia mexicana Steindachner (Atlantic molly) -like female (Avise et al., 1991; Schartl et mollies of the genus Poecilia M. TOBLER*, T. WAHLI§ AND I. SCHLUPP*{ *Universita¨t Zu¨rich, Zoologisches April 2005) The parasite communities of two molly species, the sexual Poecilia latipinna and the clonal

Schlupp, Ingo

415

Factors Associated with Treatment Compliance in a Population of Juvenile Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modeling was utilized to assess predictors of outcomes in a sample of 204 juvenile male sexual offenders participating in community-based treatment programming. Lower levels of client denial at intake predicted successful program compliance. Higher levels of denial were found in nonadjudicated youths. Although program attrition was high (50% in the first year), relatively few youths were expelled for

John A. Hunter; A. J. Figueredo

1999-01-01

416

Supporting the Invisible Minority.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the two places where children should feel safe and supported (home and school), gay and lesbian youth are routinely reviled. Educators have a clear professional mandate to address sexual-minority students' needs. Stratford (Connecticut) Public Schools are addressing five important issues concerning professional development, support staff and…

Anderson, John D.

1997-01-01

417

Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

Quinlan, Jennifer J

2013-08-01

418

Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

Quinlan, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

419

Changes in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Across Generations and Gender Among a Population-Based Probability Sample From an Urbanizing Province in Thailand.  

PubMed

Thailand has undergone rapid modernization with implications for changes in sexual norms. We investigated sexual behavior and attitudes across generations and gender among a probability sample of the general population of Nonthaburi province located near Bangkok in 2012. A tablet-based survey was performed among 2,138 men and women aged 15-59 years identified through a three-stage, stratified, probability proportional to size, clustered sampling. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out accounting for the effects of multistage sampling. Relationship of age and gender to sexual behavior and attitudes was analyzed by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for possible confounding. Patterns of sexual behavior and attitudes varied substantially across generations and gender. We found strong evidence for a decline in the age of sexual initiation, a shift in the type of the first sexual partner, and a greater rate of acceptance of adolescent premarital sex among younger generations. The study highlighted profound changes among young women as evidenced by a higher number of lifetime sexual partners as compared to older women. In contrast to the significant gender gap in older generations, sexual profiles of Thai young women have evolved to resemble those of young men with attitudes gradually converging to similar sexual standards. Our data suggest that higher education, being never-married, and an urban lifestyle may have been associated with these changes. Our study found that Thai sexual norms are changing dramatically. It is vital to continue monitoring such changes, considering the potential impact on the HIV/STIs epidemic and unintended pregnancies. PMID:25403321

Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Musumari, Patou Masika; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; El-Saaidi, Christina; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Feldman, Mitchell D; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

2014-11-18

420

Monitoring sexual behaviour in general populations: a synthesis of lessons of the past decade  

PubMed Central

This supplement contains selected papers from a workshop on the measurement of sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in September 2003. The focus was on low and middle income countries, where the majority of HIV infections occur. The motive for holding such a meeting is easy to discern. As the AIDS pandemic continues to spread and as prevention programmes are scaling up, the need to monitor trends in sexual risk behaviours becomes ever more pressing. Behavioural data are an essential complement to biological evidence of changes in HIV prevalence or incidence. Biological evidence, though indispensable, is by itself insufficient for policy and programme guidance. AIDS control programmes need to be based on monitoring of not only trends in infections but also of trends in those behaviours that underlie epidemic curtailment or further spread. PMID:15572634

Cleland, J; Boerma, J; Carael, M; Weir, S

2004-01-01