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Sample records for sexual minority populations

  1. Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial/ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of Connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race/ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race/ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminate validity both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21512945

  2. Discrimination, Mental Health, and Substance Use Disorders Among Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) populations have a higher prevalence of mental health and substance use disorders compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Such disparities have been attributed, in part, to minority stressors, including distal stressors such as discrimination. However, few studies have examined associations between discrimination, mental health, and substance use disorders by gender among sexual minority populations. Methods: We analyzed data from 577 adult men and women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual and participated in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Six questions assessed discrimination due to sexual orientation. Weighted multivariable logistic regression examined associations between experiences of sexual orientation discrimination and both mental health and substance use disorders. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual minority men and women, adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Results: Sexual minority men who ever experienced discrimination (57.4%) reported higher odds of any lifetime drug use disorder and cannabis use disorder compared to sexual minority men who never experienced discrimination. Sexual minority women who ever experienced discrimination (42.9%) reported higher odds of any lifetime mood disorder and any lifetime anxiety disorder compared to sexual minority women who never experienced discrimination. Conclusion: The findings suggest that discrimination is differentially associated with internalizing (mental health) and externalizing (substance use) disorders for sexual minority men and women. These findings indicate a need to consider how homophobia and heteronormative discrimination may contribute to distinct health outcomes for lesbian and bisexual women compared with gay and bisexual men. PMID:27383512

  3. Importance of Health and Social Care Research into Gender and Sexual Minority Populations in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pramod R; van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    Despite progressive legislative developments and increased visibility of sexual and gender minority populations in the general population, mass media often report that this population face a wide range of discrimination and inequalities. LGBT (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, and transgender) populations have not been considered as priority research populations in Nepal. Research in other geographical settings has shown an increased risk of poor mental health, violence, and suicide and higher rates of smoking, as well as alcohol and drugs use among LGBT populations. They are also risk for lifestyle-related illness such as cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. Currently, in Nepal, there is a lack of understanding of health and well-being, social exclusion, stigma, and discrimination as experienced by these populations. Good-quality public health research can help design and implement targeted interventions to the sexual and gender minority populations of Nepal. PMID:26543163

  4. Structural stigma and all-cause mortality in sexual minority populations.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian K; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma-operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice-increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012

  5. Structural Stigma and All-Cause Mortality in Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Bellatorre, Anna; Lee, Yeonjin; Finch, Brian; Muennig, Peter; Fiscella, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Stigma operates at multiple levels, including intrapersonal appraisals (e.g., self-stigma), interpersonal events (e.g., hate crimes), and structural conditions (e.g., community norms, institutional policies). Although prior research has indicated that intrapersonal and interpersonal forms of stigma negatively affect the health of the stigmatized, few studies have addressed the health consequences of exposure to structural forms of stigma. To address this gap, we investigated whether structural stigma—operationalized as living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice—increases risk of premature mortality for sexual minorities. We constructed a measure capturing the average level of anti-gay prejudice at the community level, using data from the General Social Survey, which was then prospectively linked to all-cause mortality data via the National Death Index. Sexual minorities living in communities with high levels of anti-gay prejudice experienced a higher hazard of mortality than those living in low-prejudice communities (Hazard Ratio [HR] =3.03, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.50, 6.13), controlling for individual and community-level covariates. This result translates into a shorter life expectancy of approximately 12 years (95% C.I.: 4-20 years) for sexual minorities living in high-prejudice communities. Analysis of specific causes of death revealed that suicide, homicide/violence, and cardiovascular diseases were substantially elevated among sexual minorities in high-prejudice communities. Strikingly, there was an 18-year difference in average age of completed suicide between sexual minorities in the high-prejudice (age 37.5) and low-prejudice (age 55.7) communities. These results highlight the importance of examining structural forms of stigma and prejudice as social determinants of health and longevity among minority populations. PMID:23830012

  6. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Blume, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  7. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures. PMID:27159811

  8. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  9. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  10. Sexual minority youth.

    PubMed

    Steever, John; Francis, Jenny; Gordon, Lonna P; Lee, Janet

    2014-09-01

    This article provides an overview of the medical and mental health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth population. Information is reviewed regarding both primary medical care and the special health risks that these youth face. Providers are introduced to the concept that societal and internalized homophobia lead directly to certain health disparities, including substance use, school and family rejection, depression, and increased sexually transmitted infection acquisition. This article familiarizes the primary care practitioner with the health care needs of the LGBT population and the research behind the various recommendations for caring for these youth. PMID:25124211

  11. Weight Misperception and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors Among Sexual Minorities in the General Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Goodenow, Carol S.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Gay, lesbian and bisexual youth may experience significant body dissatisfaction. We examined sexual orientation differences in self-perceived weight status and prevalence of potentially dangerous weight control behaviors in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods Data were obtained from 12,984 youth between 2003–2009 over four cycles of the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a statewide survey of 9th–12th grade students. Self-perceived weight status and past-month unhealthy weight control behaviors (fasting >24 hours, using diet pills, and vomiting/using laxatives) were compared among gay/lesbian, bisexual, self-identified heterosexual youth with same-sex partners, unsure youth, and exclusively heterosexual youth using logistic regression, adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Results Compared to exclusively heterosexual males, heterosexual males with prior same-sex partners and bisexual males were more likely to self-perceive as overweight despite being of healthy weight/underweight (respectively, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68–4.05; and AOR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.64–4.00). Compared to exclusively heterosexual females, lesbians and bisexual females were more likely to self-perceive as being of healthy weight/underweight despite being overweight/obese (respectively, AOR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.15–8.71; and AOR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.20–3.33). Unhealthy weight control behaviors were significantly more prevalent among sexual minority males (32.5%; AOR, 4.38; 95% CI, 3.38–5.67) and females (34.7%; AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.85–2.78) when considered together relative to exclusively heterosexual males (9.7%) and females (18.8%). Conclusions One-third of sexual minority youth engage in hazardous weight control behaviors. Future research should investigate underlying mechanisms and determine whether clinicians should routinely screen for these behaviors. PMID:24182939

  12. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    PubMed

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  13. Extending Sexual Objectification Theory and Research to Minority Populations, Couples, and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimerdinger-Edwards, Sarah R.; Vogel, David L.; Hammer, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    This reaction highlights several strengths of this major contribution and discusses some future directions in this line of research. The authors offer research ideas in the areas of cultural and cross-cultural issues, couples and relationships, as well as direct and indirect effects of sexual objectification on men. In terms of providing…

  14. Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth. PMID:24995655

  15. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Hate Crimes and Suicidality Among a Population-Based Sample of Sexual-Minority Adolescents in Boston

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether past-year suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents was more common in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. Methods. Participants’ data came from a racially/ethnically diverse population-based sample of 9th- through 12th-grade public school students in Boston, Massachusetts (n = 1292). Of these, 108 (8.36%) reported a minority sexual orientation. We obtained data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults with battery between 2005 and 2008 from the Boston Police Department and linked the data to the adolescent’s residential address. Results. Sexual-minority youths residing in neighborhoods with higher rates of LGBT assault hate crimes were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation (P = .013) and suicide attempts (P = .006), than were those residing in neighborhoods with lower LGBT assault hate crime rates. We observed no relationships between overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes and suicidality among sexual-minority adolescents (P > .05), providing evidence for specificity of the results to LGBT assault hate crimes. Conclusions. Neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual-orientation disparities in adolescent suicidality, highlighting potential targets for community-level suicide-prevention programs. PMID:24328619

  16. Religious Climate and Health Risk Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youths: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Wolff, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether the health risk behaviors of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are determined in part by the religious composition of the communities in which they live. Methods. Data were collected from 31 852 high school students, including 1413 LGB students, who participated in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006 through 2008. Supportive religious climate was operationalized according to the proportion of individuals (of the total number of religious adherents) who adhere to a religion supporting homosexuality. Comprehensive data on religious climate were derived from 85 denominational groups in 34 Oregon counties. Results. Among LGB youths, living in a county with a religious climate that was supportive of homosexuality was associated with significantly fewer alcohol abuse symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40, 0.85) and fewer sexual partners (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.60, 0.99). The effect of religious climate on health behaviors was stronger among LGB than heterosexual youths. Results remained robust after adjustment for multiple confounding factors. Conclusions. The religious climate surrounding LGB youths may serve as a determinant of their health risk behaviors. PMID:22397347

  17. Health Disparities Among Young Adult Sexual Minorities in the US

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy H.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that young adult sexual minorities (identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual or engaging in same-sex attractions or behaviors) experience poorer health than their majority counterparts, but many measures of health inequity remain unexamined in population-based research. Purpose To describe a wide range of health status and healthcare access characteristics of sexual minorities in comparison with those of the majority population in a national sample of U.S. young adults. Methods Binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses of Wave IV data (2008) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 24–32 years, n=13,088) were conducted. Health measures were self-rated health; diagnosis of any of several physical or mental illnesses or sexually transmitted infections; measured body mass index; depression classified from self-reported symptoms; use of antidepressant and anxiolytic medication; uninsured; forgone care; and receipt of physical, dental, and psychological services. Analyses were conducted in 2012–2013. Results Sexual minority women had elevated odds of most adverse health conditions and lower odds of receiving a physical or dental examination. Sexual minority men had elevated odds of fewer adverse health conditions. Conclusions Young adult sexual minorities are at higher risk of poor physical and mental health. The results highlight the multidimensionality of sexual minority status and respond to calls for greater understanding of the health of this population. PMID:25241194

  18. Measures of sexual minority status and suicide risk among young adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Almazan, Elbert P; Roettger, Michael E; Acosta, Pauline S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple measures of sexual minority status are necessary to accurately describe the diversity of attractions, identities, and behaviors in sexual minority populations. We investigated whether four measures of sexual minority status (sexual minority attraction, sexual minority identity, sexual minority lifetime behavior, and sexual minority recent 12-month behavior) were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among young adults ages 24 to 34 in the United States. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We employed logistic regression models in the analysis. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicidal thoughts among women and men. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicide attempts among women, but not among men. Diverse sexual minority populations are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. Multiple measures of sexual minority status should be utilized in future studies of sexual minority status and suicide risk. Suicide prevention programs should ensure intervention is available across diverse sexual minority populations. PMID:24611686

  19. Health benefits of legal services for criminalized populations: the case of people who use drugs, sex workers and sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne; Cohen, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Social exclusion and legal marginalization are important determinants of health outcomes for people who use illicit drugs, sex workers, and persons who face criminal penalties because of homosexuality or transgenderism. Incarceration may add to the health risks associated with police repression and discrimination for these persons. Access to legal services may be essential to positive health outcomes in these populations. Through concrete examples, this paper explores types of legal problems and legal services linked to health outcomes for drug users, sex workers, and sexual minorities and makes recommendations for donors, legal service providers, and civil society organizations. PMID:21105945

  20. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  1. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  2. Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents’ Sexual Safety Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  3. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  4. Protective Factors, Campus Climate, and Health Outcomes among Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michael R.; Kulick, Alex; Atteberry, Brittanie

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexism on campus can create a chilly climate for sexual minority students. Research has documented the negative impacts of campus climate on sexual minority students' health; however, little research has examined the role of potential protective factors among this population. Drawing on data collected from self-identified sexual minority…

  5. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Kinsky, Suzanne M.; Herrick, Amy L.; Stall, Ron D.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. Methods: A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Results: Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, P<.05), and this model fit the data well (chi-square=33.558, P=.059; CFI=0.914; RMSEA=0.029). The reverse causal model showed syndemics is not an independent variable of sexual-orientation discrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Conclusions: Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population. PMID:26788674

  6. Mentoring Sexual Minority Youth. Technical Assistance Packet #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucovy, Linda

    It is estimated that up to 10% of the U.S. population is lesbian or gay. Being a member of a sexual minority group places youth at risk. Along with the challenges all adolescents deal with, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth must cope with prejudice, discrimination, and violence in schools or in their families. While mentoring programs…

  7. Scrutinizing Immutability: Research on Sexual Orientation and U.S. Legal Advocacy for Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M; Rosky, Clifford J

    2016-01-01

    We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) rights, we make three claims: First, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unscientific, given what we now know from longitudinal, population-based studies of naturally occurring changes in the same-sex attractions of some individuals over time. Second, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unnecessary, in light of U.S. legal decisions in which courts have used grounds other than immutability to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Third, arguments about the immutability of sexual orientation are unjust, because they imply that same-sex attractions are inferior to other-sex attractions, and because they privilege sexual minorities who experience their sexuality as fixed over those who experience their sexuality as fluid. We conclude that the legal rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships should not be framed as if they depend on a certain pattern of scientific findings regarding sexual orientation. PMID:26986464

  8. Sexual Minority Students. Technical Assistance Sampler On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet discusses issues facing sexual minority students. An introduction presents the National Association of School Psychologists' (NASP's) position statement on gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Section 1 highlights: "Violence, Homophobia, and Prejudice" (e.g., anti-gay harassment in schools documented, violence prevention, and a guide for…

  9. The Educational Isolation of Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrey-Camino, Renee

    Sexual minority youth (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning) function in a society that condones homophobia. Results of a research study conducted by J. Sears (1991) indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be more proactive, supportive, and committed to the welfare of all their students, but the realities of…

  10. Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.

  11. Group Counseling for Sexual Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Lynne E.; Hartman, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    The issues facing sexual minority youth are reviewed. A group-counseling model tested at a public high school is presented. Counseling issues include homophobia, loneliness, isolation, identity issues, alienation from family, suicide, and drug and alcohol abuse. The structure and process for support-group operation is presented; sensitive issues…

  12. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. PMID:26763500

  13. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth. PMID:23292751

  14. Body Dissatisfaction Among Sexual Minority Men: Psychological and Sexual Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Blashill, Aaron J; Tomassilli, Julia; Biello, Katie; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Safren, Steven A; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-07-01

    Body dissatisfaction is common among sexual minority (i.e., gay and bisexual) men; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychosexual health variables among this population. The data that do exist are exclusively cross-sectional, casting uncertainty regarding temporal associations. Thus, the aims of the current study were to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and psychological and sexual health outcomes. Participants were 131 gay and bisexual men who completed a battery of self-report measures across two time points (baseline and 3-month follow-up), including assessment of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and sexual health variables (sexual self-efficacy and sexual anxiety). Generalized linear modeling was employed to assess the prospective relationship between body dissatisfaction and outcomes variables, accounting for non-normal distributions. Body dissatisfaction significantly predicted elevated depressive symptoms (B = .21, p = .01), lower sexual self-efficacy (B = -.22, p = .04), and elevated sexual anxiety (B = .05, p = .03). Elevated body dissatisfaction is prospectively associated with negative psychological and sexual health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of body image concerns in sexual minority men, depression and/or HIV/STI prevention programs may benefit from routinely assessing for body dissatisfaction among this population, and addressing those who report concerns. PMID:26857379

  15. Intrinsic Religion and Internalized Homophobia in Sexual-Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ream, Geoffrey L.

    This research investigates the development of conflict between sexual minority identity and religious identity in sexual minority youth, examining religion as both a risk factor and a protective factor. Intrinsic religion was expected to predict self reported conflict between religious and sexual minority identity. Retrospectively reported…

  16. A systematic review of the aetiology of tobacco disparities for sexual minorities

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John; Lee, Joseph G L; Horn, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk factors/correlates of cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations. Methods Sets of terms relevant to sexual minority populations and cigarette smoking were used in a simultaneous search of 10 databases through EBSCOhost. The search was limited to the peer-reviewed literature up to January 2011, using no geographic or language limits. For inclusion, the paper was required to: (1) have been written in English, (2) have sexual minorities (defined by either attraction, behaviour, or identity) included in the study population and (3) have examined some form of magnitude of association for risk factors/correlates of any definition of cigarette smoking. A total of 386 abstracts were reviewed independently, with 26 papers meeting all inclusion criteria. Abstracts were reviewed and coded independently by authors JB and JGLL using nine codes derived from the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Studies used various measures of sexual orientation and of smoking. Risk factors that could be considered unique to sexual minorities included internalised homophobia and reactions to disclosure of sexual orientation. Some studies also indicated common smoking risk factors experienced at higher rates among sexual minorities, including stress, depression, alcohol use and victimisation. Conclusions This review identified risks that were associated with sexual minority status and common to the general population but experienced at potentially higher rates by sexual minorities. Government and foundation funds should be directed towards research on the origins of this disparity. PMID:22170335

  17. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

  18. A Case for Legal Protection for Sexual Minority Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Holly N.; Caraway, Chadwick; Stader, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Discrimination based on sexual orientation in K-12 education is not prohibited in many school districts across the United States. Teachers who are of the sexual minority (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) must remain closeted or risk losing their jobs. A history of past court decisions and laws deeming sexual minorities to be degenerates from which…

  19. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  20. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2013-01-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0–100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of “don't smoke/quit smoking” to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  1. Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Jack E; Hay, Jennifer L; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2011-06-01

    Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0-100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of "don't smoke/quit smoking" to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

  2. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  3. Perceived health concerns among sexual minority women in Mumbai, India: an exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Rodriguez, Israel; Mengele, Shruta Rawat; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Sanders, Stephanie; Dange, Alpana; Anand, Vivek

    2016-07-01

    The experiences of sexual minority women (i.e., women who do not identify as 'heterosexual') in India have largely been absent in scientific literature. In partnership with India's oldest and largest sexual and gender minority-advocacy organisation, the Humsafar Trust, our study used community-based participatory research principles to explore the lived experiences and health concerns of sexual minority women in Mumbai. Study methodologies included interviews with key informants, a focus group comprised of six women, and an additional 12 in-person interviews with sexual minority women to identify important physical, mental, social and other health priorities from these women's perspectives. Thematic data are organised within the framework offered by the social ecological model, including individual, interpersonal, micro and macro levels. Findings from this study are important in providing the groundwork for future research and intervention involving sexual minority women in India, a dramatically underserved population. PMID:26873141

  4. Sexual Identity, Attractions, and Behavior among Young Sexual-Minority Women over a 2-Year Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined sexual identities, attractions, and behaviors of sexual-minority women in 2-year follow-up of women first interviewed at 16-23 years. Found half the participants had changed sexual-minority orientations more than once; one- third changed identities since the first interview. Found changes in sexual attractions were larger among bisexuals…

  5. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  6. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  7. Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…

  8. The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

  9. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  10. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  11. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  12. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, J.T.; Gibbs, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14–19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions. PMID:26634221

  13. Sexual Orientation Prototypicality and Well-Being Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Meuwly, Nathalie; Davila, Joanne; Eaton, Nicholas R; Yoneda, Athena

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between sexual orientation prototypicality--or the extent to which an individual's attractions or sexual behaviors are similar to others in the same sexual orientation category--and several indicators of well-being (depressive symptoms, loneliness, and self-esteem). Data were analyzed from a sample of 586 self-identified heterosexual and sexual minority (lesbian/gay and bisexual) men and women who completed an online survey. We used k-means cluster analysis to assign individuals to sexual orientation clusters (resulting in heterosexual and sexual minority clusters) based on dimensions of same-sex and other-sex attractions (emotional, romantic, and sexual) and sexual behavior. Sexual orientation prototypicality was operationalized as the Euclidean distance between an individual's position in the cluster and their cluster centroid. Lower sexual orientation prototypicality (i.e., greater Euclidean distance from one's cluster centroid) was significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms, higher loneliness, and lower self-esteem for men and women; results did not significantly differ for self-identified heterosexuals versus sexual minorities. Although self-identified sexual orientation and sexual orientation prototypicality were both associated with well-being for women, only sexual orientation prototypicality was associated with well-being for men. Findings suggest that sexual orientation prototypicality may be a better indicator of well-being than sexual orientation for men. Further, sexual orientation prototypicality appears to play a significant role in well-being for women. PMID:25257258

  14. New paradigms for research on heterosexual and sexual-minority development.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2003-12-01

    As psychological research on sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) adolescents has increased over the past 20 years, it has become increasingly segregated from research on mainstream heterosexual youths, as if the knowledge gleaned from each population had nothing to offer our understanding of the other. To the contrary, understanding of both populations would be greatly improved by integrating investigations of sexual-minority issues into mainstream psychological research on adolescents. I outline 4 weaknesses in contemporary research on sexual-minority youth that stem from--and perpetuate--its historical isolation from mainstream developmental research: misspecification of the populations under study, lack of attention to within-group diversity, failure to test alternative explanations for--and moderators of--"sexual-minority effects," and insufficient attention to the underlying processes and mechanisms through which sexual-minority effects operate. Correcting these weaknesses has important implications for future research on how same-sex and other-sex sexuality shape adolescent psychosocial development and clinical child and adolescent problems. PMID:14710457

  15. Neighborhood-level LGBT hate crimes and current illicit drug use among sexual minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Johnson, Renee M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether past-30 day illicit drug use among sexual minority youth was more common in neighborhoods with a greater prevalence of hate crimes targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT, or sexual minority) individuals. Methods We used a population-based survey of public school youth in Boston, Massachusetts, consisting of 1292 9th–12th grade students from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (sexual minority n = 108). Data on LGBT hate crimes involving assaults or assaults and battery between 2005 and 2008 were obtained from the Boston Police Department and linked to youths’ residential address. Youth reported past-30 day use of marijuana and other illicit drugs. Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney tests and corresponding p-values were computed to assess differences in substance use by neighborhood-level LGBT assault hate crime rate among sexual minority youth (n = 103). Results The LGBT assault hate crime rate in the neighborhoods of sexual minority youth who reported current marijuana use was 23.7 per 100,000, compared to 12.9 per 100,000 for sexual minority youth who reported no marijuana use (p = 0.04). No associations between LGBT assault hate crimes and marijuana use among heterosexual youth (p > 0.05) or between sexual minority marijuana use and overall neighborhood-level violent and property crimes (p > 0.05) were detected, providing evidence for result specificity. Conclusions We found a significantly greater prevalence of marijuana use among sexual minority youth in neighborhoods with a higher prevalence of LGBT assault hate crimes. These results suggest that neighborhood context (i.e., LGBT hate crimes) may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in marijuana use. PMID:24326203

  16. Disparities in Healthcare for Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joshua C.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter situates healthcare as a concern for the field of adult education through a critique of disparities in access to healthcare, quality of care received, and caregiver services for racial, ethnic, and sexual minorities.

  17. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  18. Elevated Risk of Posttraumatic Stress in Sexual Minority Youths: Mediation by Childhood Abuse and Gender Nonconformity

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034

  19. The Whole Family Serves: Supporting Sexual Minority Youth in Military Families.

    PubMed

    Gyura, Ashley N; McCauley, Sabrina Opiola

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth in military families have a unique set of stressors that affect their mental, emotional, and physical health. There is a pronounced gap in data addressing the specific stressors of this population and how they interact to impact the health of the adolescent. The culture of the United States military has historically been heterosexist and homophobic, propelled primarily by policies that restricted the recruitment and service of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals, leading to a continued secrecy around sexual orientation that may affect how sexual minority youth within the community view themselves. Homophobia, social stigma, and victimization lead to significant health disparities among sexual minority youth, and youth connected to the military have additional stressors as a result of frequent moves, parental deployment, and general military culture. Primary care providers must be aware of these stressors to provide a safe environment, thorough screening, and competent care for these adolescents. PMID:26597449

  20. Multiple sclerosis in US minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mitzi J.; Amezcua, Lilyana; Javed, Adil; Larsen, Kristin E.; Smrtka, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The heterogeneity of multiple sclerosis (MS) characteristics among various ethnic minority populations is a topic of recent interest. However, these populations are consistently underrepresented in clinical trials, leading to limited data on the effectiveness of treatments in these groups of patients and lack of an evidence-based approach to treatment. In order to achieve optimal disease management in the ethnic minority MS populations, a better understanding of the regional, socioeconomic, and cultural influences that result in underrepresentation of these groups in clinical trials is needed. Furthermore, it would be beneficial to identify the genetic factors that influence disease disparity in these minority populations. Suggestions for the identification and implementation of best practices for fostering the trust of ethnic minority patients with MS and enhancing their participation in clinical trials are offered. PMID:26137421

  1. Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Epprecht, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897

  2. Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

  3. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  4. The ecology of sexual health of sexual minorities in Guatemala City.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Downs, Mario; Andrade, Mario; Wilks, Cindy; Simán, Florence M; Martinez, Omar; Abraham, Claire; Villatoro, Guillermo R; Bachmann, Laura H

    2015-12-01

    Guatemalan gay and bisexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons carry disproportionate burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections compared with other Guatemalan subgroups. However, little is known about the determinants of sexual health to inform health promotion and disease prevention interventions among these sexual minorities. We sought to explore sexual health and HIV risk among Guatemalan sexual minorities, using a community-based participatory research approach. We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 87 participants total) and 10 individual in-depth interviews with gay and bisexual men, MSM, and transgender persons. Using constant comparison, an approach to grounded theory, we analyzed verbatim transcripts and identified 24 themes that we organized into five ecological factors influencing sexual health: intrapersonal (e.g. misconceptions about HIV transmission, low perceived susceptibility and lack of condoms use skills); interpersonal (e.g. family rejection and condom use as a barrier to intimacy); community (e.g. discrimination and stigma); institutional (e.g. limited access to health promotion resources); and public policy (e.g. perceived lack of provider confidentiality and anti-gay rhetoric). There is profound need for multiple-level interventions to ensure that Guatemalan sexual minorities have the knowledge and skills needed to reduce sexual risk. Interventions are warranted to increase social support among sexual minorities, reduce negative perspectives about sexual minorities, develop institutional resources to meet the needs of sexual minorities and reduce harmful anti-gay rhetoric. Understanding and intervening on the identified factors is especially important given that the health of Guatemalan sexual minorities has been to-date neglected. PMID:24688113

  5. Physical Dating Violence Victimization Among Sexual Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Feijun; Stone, Deborah M.; Tharp, Andra T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs. PMID:25121813

  6. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  7. Sexual orientation microaggressions and the experience of sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lisa F; Lenzen, Alexandra L

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to confirm and expand on previous research on sexual orientation microaggressions--subtle discrimination in the form of verbal, behavioral, and environmental slights and indignities as defined by Sue (2010). The study had two primary research questions: Does the data from the sample validate Sue's (2010) typology of sexual orientation microaggressions? Beyond Sue's (2010) typology, are other themes/types of sexual orientation microaggressions present in the data? Using a focus group methodology, data was collected from a sample of self-identified non-heterosexual college students (N=12). Data analysis confirmed five previously identified themes from Sue's (2010) typology (Endorsement of Heteronormative Culture, Sinfulness, Homophobia, Heterosexist Language/Terminology, and Oversexualization) and demonstrated two new themes (Undersexualization and Microaggressions as Humor). The implications of sexual orientation microaggressions, along with limitations and future research directions, are discussed. PMID:23808348

  8. Interventions to reduce sexual minority stigma in sororities.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Heather D; Bisconti, Toni L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects that two different types of interventions have on reducing sexual minority stigma in sororities. Affect, behaviors, and cognitions toward gay men and lesbians were measured using the Affective Reactions to Homosexuality Scale, Homophobic Behavior of Students Scale, and Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gays Scale. A total of 82 participants from two sororities participated in two different types of interventions, that is, panel discussion and video and discussion. Repeated measures analyses revealed significant reductions in the measures of sexual minority stigma and that neither intervention was more effective than the other. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20391011

  9. Analyzing Clinical Presentation, Service Utilization, and Clinical Outcome of Female Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Heather C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers examining clinically-relevant trends for sexual minority women have found evidence of psychological distress and greater utilization of mental health services compared to heterosexually-identified women. However, the results of many research studies with this population have methodological limitations surrounding recruitment of…

  10. [Judicial proceedings involving sexual abuse of minors in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how courts in Cameroon treat cases involving sexual abuse on minors by comparing the incidence of hospital examinations and legal proceedings for sexual abuse. This retrospective study is based on a review of public records at the Yaoundé Court of Justice covering the period from October 1, 1994 to January 6, 1999. Of the 2345 criminal cases recorded during the study period, 224 involved sexual abuse on minors under the age of 16 years (9.5 p. 100 of cases). The victims were all female ranging from 3 to 15 years of age (mean, 9 years) with a peak incidence between 10 and 15 years (70 p. 100). All offenders were adults between 21 and 50 years of age (mean, 30 years) at the time of the crime. This study showed that the incidence of court proceedings for sexual abuse is higher than that of hospital examinations for sexual abuse. Most offenders convicted of sexual abuse on minors received long prison sentences, i.e. 15 years or more. No reconciliatory action or mediation was initiated by the court or third parties. PMID:11100448

  11. LGBT community, social network characteristics, and smoking behaviors in young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S; Youatt, Emily J; Soler, Jorge H; McClelland, Sara I; Bauermeister, Jose A

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates among young sexual minority women (YSMW) are disproportionately high as compared to heterosexual populations. While this disparity has commonly been attributed to the sexual minority stress process, little empirical work has explored what may protect YSMW from high rates of smoking. Using data (N = 471) from a cross-sectional study designed to investigate YSMW's (age 18-24) smoking behaviors and correlates; we explore the relationship of LGBT community connections, YSMW's social network characteristics, and stress to smoking behaviors (i.e., status, frequency, amount). Through this analysis, we find support for LGBT community connection as well as friendships with other sexual minorities as protective in relation to YSMW's smoking behaviors. We discuss the implications of our results, highlighting the need for future longitudinal research and interventions designed to bolster YSMW's connections to the LGBT community and their social networks. PMID:23783884

  12. Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

  13. Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L.; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

  14. An Ethnographic Analysis of Adolescent Sexual Minority Website Usage: Exploring Notions of Information Seeking and Sexual Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulfridge, Rocky M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…

  15. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  16. Preventing Bullying and Harassment of Sexual Minority Students in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Holly N.; Casida, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority students (most often gay, lesbian, or bisexual, but including anyone who does not or is perceived to not fit the common heterosexual stereotype) often face ongoing bullying and harassment in schools that goes unstopped by faculty or administration. These students suffer academically, emotionally, and physically as a direct result…

  17. Shame in Sexual Minorities: Stigma, Internal Cognitions, and Counseling Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Veronica R. F.; Yarhouse, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Theorists, clinicians, and researchers have suggested that shame is a central concern in the lives of sexual minority individuals. Cognitive theorists believe that shame occurs when a person fails to achieve his or her standards, which are often based on social, cultural, and spiritual values. Although it is asserted that stigma causes shame among…

  18. Mental Health and Substance Use of Sexual Minority College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Davoren, Ann Kearns

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assess the mental health and substance use of sexual minority collegiate student-athletes in the United States, as compared with heterosexual college students and heterosexual student-athletes. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 196,872) who completed the American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment…

  19. Ethical and Methodological Complexities in Research Involving Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Thomas V.

    2010-01-01

    While there is growing attention to sexual minorities in adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) literature, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people have received very little attention in AE or in HRD research. This article captures methodological issues and concerns from LBGTQ-related research from…

  20. Sexual Minority Issues and Human Rights Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuji, Keiko

    2007-01-01

    The "Dowa" (Human Rights) education program has become an effective method of changing concept and situations of "Burakumin," a group of people that has been discriminated against in Japan. One educational strategy was to speak out their personal stories, which has become a trigger to some sexual minority teachers to come out, as well as others to…

  1. Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leider, Steven

    This digest provides a review of current literature relating to sexual minorities and the ongoing dialogue surrounding multiculturalism and inclusiveness on community college campuses. A 1998 study conducted on the six San Francisco community college campuses indicated that more than 1 in 3 of 484 community college students surveyed had engaged in…

  2. Exploring Attitudes of Future Educators about Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, Kristen B.; Rodger, Susan; Cummings, Anne L.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-two secondary teacher candidates from a Canadian university completed questionnaires assessing levels of homoprejudice, knowledge of homosexuality, and perceptions of professional issues related to sexual minority youth. The level of homoprejudice in this sample was lower than in earlier studies with teachers, and lower homoprejudice was…

  3. Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

  4. Lay Conceptions of Sexual Minority Groups.

    PubMed

    Burke, Sara E; LaFrance, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Bisexual people are often implored to "pick a side," implying that bisexuality is both more controllable and less desirable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. Bisexual people's status as a social group perceived to fall between a traditionally advantaged group and a traditionally disadvantaged group may have the potential to clarify lay conceptions of sexual orientation. We examined participants' views of groups varying in sexual orientation by randomly assigning participants (including heterosexual men and women as well as gay men and lesbian women) from four samples to evaluate heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual targets (N = 1379). Results provided strong evidence for the previously untested theoretical argument that bisexuality is perceived as less stable than heterosexuality or homosexuality. In addition, participants low in Personal Need for Structure rated female (but not male) bisexuality as relatively stable, suggesting that a preference for simple, binary thinking can partially explain a negative conception of an ostensibly "intermediate" identity. Bisexual targets were perceived as falling between heterosexual and homosexual targets in terms of gender nonconformity, and less decisive, less monogamous, and lacking in positive traits that were associated with homosexual targets. In sum, views of bisexual people were both more negative than and qualitatively different from views of gay men and lesbian women. We discuss the results as an illustration of the complex ways that perceivers' attitudes can differ depending on which target groups they are considering, suggesting that intergroup bias cannot be fully understood without attending to social categories viewed as intermediate. PMID:26597649

  5. A Persistent Disparity: Smoking in Rural Sexual and Gender Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Keisa; McElroy, Jane A.; Johnson, Andrew O.; Munk, Niki; Everett, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) smoke cigarettes at higher rates than the general population. Historically, research in SGM health issues was conducted in urban populations and recent population-based studies seldom have sufficient SGM participants to distinguish urban from rural. Given that rural populations also tend to have a smoking disparity, and that many SGM live in rural areas, it is vitally important to understand the intersection of rural residence, SGM identity, and smoking. This study analyzes the patterns of smoking in urban and rural SGM in a large sample. Methods We conducted an analysis of 4280 adult participants in the Out, Proud, and Healthy project with complete data on SGM status, smoking status, and zip code. Surveys were conducted at 6 Missouri Pride Festivals and online in 2012. Analysis involved descriptive and bivariate methods, and multivariable logistic regression. We used GIS mapping to demonstrate the dispersion of rural SGM participants. Results SGM had higher smoking proportion than the non-SGM recruited from these settings. In the multivariable model, SGM identity conferred 1.35 times the odds of being a current smoker when controlled for covariates. Rural residence was not independently significant, demonstrating the persistence of the smoking disparity in rural SGM. Mapping revealed widespread distribution of SGM in rural areas. Conclusion The SGM smoking disparity persists among rural SGM. These communities would benefit from continued research into interventions targeting both SGM and rural tobacco control measures. Recruitment at Pride Festivals may provide a venue for reaching rural SGM for intervention. PMID:26000317

  6. The Integrated Attachment and Sexual Minority Stress Model: Understanding the Role of Adult Attachment in the Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Cook, Stephanie H; Calebs, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Gay and bisexual boys and men experience social stigma associated with their sexual minority status that can negatively influence health. In addition, experiencing sexual orientation stigma may be linked to a decreased capacity to effectively form and maintain secure attachment relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners across the life-course. We proposed that utilizing a framework that integrates the process by which sexual minority men develop attachment relationships in the context of sexual minority stress can lead to a better understanding of health and well-being among sexual minority boys and men. In addition, we highlight where future research can expand upon the presented model in order to better understand the developmental processes through which attachment and sexual minority stress influences health and health behaviors among sexual minority boys and men. PMID:27337620

  7. Disparities in smoking and acute respiratory illnesses among sexual minority young adults.

    PubMed

    Blosnich, John; Jarrett, Traci; Horn, Kimberly

    2010-10-01

    Morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking remain major public health issues. Particularly, smoking has been associated with increased risk of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Literature indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) persons smoke more than the general population. Additionally, young adulthood is the second-most prevalent period of smoking uptake. Given this constellation of risk correlates, the authors examined whether sexual minority young adults experience increased odds of ARIs (i.e., strep throat, bronchitis, sinus infection, and asthma). Using cross-sectional data from the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment, prevalence estimates of smoking were generated among young adult (age range, 18-24 years) lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, and heterosexual college students (n = 75,164). Nested logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether smoking status mediated the risk of ARIs among sexual orientation groups. Compared with heterosexual smokers, gay/lesbian smokers were more likely to have had strep throat, and bisexual smokers were more likely to have had sinus infection, asthma, and bronchitis. Whereas smoking mediated the risk of ARI, sexual minorities still showed higher odds of ARIs after adjustment for smoking. Sexual minority young adults may experience respiratory health disparities that may be linked to their higher smoking rates, and their higher rates of smoking lend urgency to the need for cessation interventions. Future studies are needed to explore whether chronic respiratory disease caused by smoking (i.e., lung cancer, COPD, emphysema) disproportionately affect sexual minority populations. PMID:20496074

  8. Sexual Minorities on Community College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leider, Steven

    This article provides an overview of the current status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) students on community college campuses, and gives an idea of offerings and programs available at some campuses and districts. A primary difficulty in researching this subject is the anonymity of much of the LGBT population. The "coming out"…

  9. Health policy considerations for our sexual minority patients.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlan, Katherine A

    2006-03-01

    Homosexuality and transsexuality are still widely viewed by lay individuals as morally negative and deserving of legal proscription. Peer-reviewed data confirm that experiences of legal discrimination are associated with stress-related health problems, reduced utilization of health care, and financial and legal challenges for individuals and families, especially those with children. In the last 3 years, the American Psychiatric Association, American Psychological Association, and American Psychoanalytic Association have each reviewed the research on sexual orientation and identity, and each has confirmed that sexual orientation and gender identity do not correlate with mental illness or immorality. They have each endorsed laws that confer equality to sexual minorities, including nondiscrimination in employment, medical insurance coverage, adoption, and access to civil marriage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), by virtue of its history of advocacy for women's health, is in a position to promote policy and make similar recommendations, recognizing that sexual minority women's health and their family issues are an integral component of taking care of all women. The College should review the policies of America's premier mental health associations and consider including sexual orientation and gender identity in its own nondiscrimination policy, and ACOG should issue a policy statement in support of laws to provide safety from violence and discrimination, equal employment opportunities, equal health insurance coverage, and equal access to civil marriage. PMID:16507945

  10. Understanding Social and Sexual Networks of Sexual Minority Men and Transgender Women in Guatemala City to Improve HIV Prevention Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236

  11. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Moderating Factors Among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Talley, Amelia E; Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Johnson, Timothy P

    2016-10-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examined a facet of minority stress prevalent among women-sexual identity mobility-as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6 % of the sample reported a sexual identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.9 % reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner. PMID:27255306

  12. Comparing Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Young Women's Friends and Parents as Sources of Support for Sexual Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Carly K.; Morgan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a comparative analysis of sexual-minority and heterosexual emerging adult women's experiences seeking support for sexual issues from parents and friends. Participants included 229 college women (88 sexual-minority women; 141 heterosexual women), ranging from 18 to 25 years of age, who provided written responses to an…

  13. Culturally competent care for members of sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Gonser, P A

    2000-01-01

    Culture has historically been interpreted as the beliefs, mores, and lifeways of groups of people primarily related to race and ethnicity. However, individuals who self identify as being lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgendered experience ethnocentrism when seeking care from medical and health professionals. Using the principles and concepts of Lenninger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality, members of sexual minorities can assist their health care providers to provide culturally sensitive and ethical care. PMID:11854957

  14. Mental Health Disorders in Young Urban Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Ryan, Daniel T; Garofalo, Robert; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Very few studies have examined mental disorders among male sexual minority youth. We describe demographic correlates, comorbidity, and history of mental disorders and suicidality in a large sample of male sexual minority youth. Methods Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with 449 racially diverse, urban sexual minority males, ages 16-20, who were recruited using a social-network driven sampling methodology. Results Lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) affected 33.2% of the youth. Lifetime conduct disorder (23.6%), alcohol abuse/dependence (19.6%), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; 16.0%), and nicotine dependence (10.7%) were also common. Black participants were less likely than White participants to be diagnosed with lifetime MDE, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence, suicidal ideation, and anorexia, as well as past 12-month alcohol abuse/dependence (OR's range from .08-.46). Relative to participants identifying as gay, bisexual identified youth were at higher risk for lifetime PTSD (OR=2.04), and participants who did not identify as gay or bisexual were at higher risk for both lifetime and past 12-month nicotine dependence (OR's = 4.36 and 3.46, respectively). Most participants with mental disorders never received treatment, and comorbidity was common. Conclusions MDE, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, PTSD, and nicotine dependence are common and infrequently treated in young sexual minority men. Some within-group disparities emerged, suggesting factors related to racial background and self-identification may help to understand resilience to the unique stressors experienced by these young men. PMID:25294230

  15. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Personal Mastery Among Sexual Minority African American Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Buttram, Mance E.; Surratt, Hilary L.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Research among sexual minorities has traditionally examined problems such as substance use, HIV risk, mental health problems, and victimization. Among sexual minority street-based female sex workers, these vulnerabilities can be magnified. Grounded in theories of resilience, this study examines risk and protective factors associated with a high level of personal mastery among a vulnerable population of women. Data are drawn from baseline interviews from street-based African American female sex workers enrolled in a randomized intervention trial in Miami, Florida. We compare sexual minority (N=197) and heterosexual (N=365) women on measures of risk and protective factors; among sexual minority women we present logistic regression analyses which reveal that severe mental distress and HIV transmission risk are associated with low levels of personal mastery, while protective factors of transportation access and social support are associated with high levels of personal mastery. These findings suggest that these protective factors may potentially facilitate the development of personal mastery and represent beneficial avenues for intervention efforts. PMID:25530691

  16. Human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities in Kathmandu, Nepal: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal has experienced sporadic reports of human rights violations among sexual and gender minorities. Our objective was to identify a range of human rights that are enshrined in international law and/or are commonly reported by sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu, to be nonprotected or violated. Methods In September 2009 three focus group discussions were conducted by trained interviewers among a convenience sample of sexual and gender minority participants in Kathmandu Nepal. The modified Delphi technique was utilized to elicit and rank participant-generated definitions of human rights and their subsequent violations. Data was analyzed independently and cross checked by another investigator. Results Participants (n = 29) reported experiencing a range of human rights violations at home, work, educational, health care settings and in public places. Lack of adequate legal protection, physical and mental abuse and torture were commonly reported. Access to adequate legal protection and improvements in the family and healthcare environment were ranked as the most important priority areas. Conclusions Sexual and gender minorities in Nepal experienced a range of human rights violations. Future efforts should enroll a larger and more systematic sample of participants to determine frequency, timing, and/or intensity of exposure to rights violations, and estimate the population-based impact of these rights violations on specific health outcomes PMID:22591775

  17. Future directions in research on sexual minority adolescent mental, behavioral, and sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge on sexual, mental, and behavioral health of sexual minority (SM) youth and identifies gaps that would benefit from future research. A translational sciences framework is used to conceptualize the article, discussing findings and gaps along the spectrum from basic research on prevalence and mechanisms, to intervention development and testing, to implementation. Relative to adults, there has been much less research on adolescents and very few studies that had longitudinal follow-up beyond one year. Due to historical changes in the social acceptance of the SM community, new cohorts are needed to represent contemporary life experiences and associated health consequences. Important theoretical developments have occurred in conceptualizing mechanisms that drive SM health disparities and mechanistic research is underway, including studies that identify individual and structural risk/protective factors. Research opportunities exist in the utilization of sibling-comparison designs, inclusion of parents, and studying romantic relationships. Methodological innovation is needed in sampling SM populations. There has been less intervention research and approaches should consider natural resiliencies, life-course frameworks, prevention science, multiple levels of influence, and the importance of implementation. Regulatory obstacles are created when ethics boards elect to require parental permission and ethics research is needed. There has been inconsistent inclusion of SM populations in the definition of “health disparity population,” which impacts funding and training opportunities. There are incredible opportunities for scholars to make substantial and foundational contributions to help address the health of SM youth, and new funding opportunities to do so. PMID:25575125

  18. Sexual minority women's experiences of sexual pressure: a qualitative investigation of recipients' and initiators' reports.

    PubMed

    Budge, Stephanie L; Keller, Bethany L; Sherry, Alissa R

    2015-05-01

    Sexual pressure can have detrimental effects to individuals both physically and emotionally; however, research in this area is lacking regarding the experiences by lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning (LGBQ) women. This online study qualitatively examined sexual pressure experienced and explained by LGBQ women (n = 50) using grounded theory methodology. Participants responded to open-ended questions by providing perspectives from both those who were on the receiving end of the sexual pressure (recipients) and from those who pressured their partners (initiators). Results indicated that there were eight overarching themes, 43 higher order categories, and 241 line-by-line codes. The eight overarching themes included: Reasons to Not Want Sex, Reasons for Pressuring, Reasons for Giving In, Actions of Initiators, Expectations, Communication, Negative Outcomes, and Positive Reactions. Negative Outcomes was the most common theme endorsed. Several higher order categories indicated the unique experiences of sexual minority women, namely trying to be "normal" (e.g., engaging in sexual acts as a result of internalized homophobia), experiencing more pressure from men, and self-consciousness (specifically related to lack of knowledge about sex with women). Implications for the current study include the importance of addressing sexual pressure with sexual minority women and creating interventions, such as assertiveness training and communication skills, that could assist both recipients and initiators with engaging in mutually satisfactory sexual practices. PMID:24872189

  19. Sexual victimization and health-related indicators among sexual minority men

    PubMed Central

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes. PMID:23626503

  20. Differences in Sexual Orientation Diversity and Sexual Fluidity in Attractions Among Gender Minority Adults in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L

    2016-01-01

    This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113

  1. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E.; Brennan, David J.; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-01-01

    Background. Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. Objectives. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community–based samples. Search methods. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. Selection criteria. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Data collection and analysis. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ2. Main results. We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21 201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI

  2. The Role of Sexual Images in Online and Offline Sexual Behaviour With Minors.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Ethel; Newman, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Sexual images have long been associated with sexual interest and behaviour with minors. The Internet has impacted access to existing content and the ability to create content which can be uploaded and distributed. These images can be used forensically to determine the legality of the behaviour, but importantly for psychiatry, they offer insight into motivation, sexual interest and deviance, the relationship between image content and offline sexual behaviour, and how they might be used in online solicitation and grooming with children and adolescents. Practitioners will need to consider the function that these images may serve, the motivation for their use and the challenges of assessment. This article provides an overview of the literature on the use of illegal images and the parallels with existing paraphilias, such as exhibitionism and voyeurism. The focus is on recent research on the Internet and sexual images of children, including the role that self-taken images by youth may play in the offending process. PMID:25894354

  3. Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.

    PubMed

    Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

  4. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people. PMID:26793243

  5. "Honk against homophobia": rethinking relations between media and sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Venzo, Paul; Hess, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexual minorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexual minorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas. PMID:24147586

  6. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. Method This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. Results During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. PMID:27225216

  7. Sexual Orientation Minorities in College Counseling: Prevalence, Distress, and Symptom Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleavey, Andrew A.; Castonguay, Louis G.; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual minority group members are at a higher risk for mental health difficulties than are heterosexual individuals. The results of this study showed that college student sexual minorities were common in counseling centers and that they were more likely than heterosexual students to seek counseling. The results also showed that sexual orientation…

  8. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

  9. Promoting the Successful Development of Sexual and Gender Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

  10. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted. PMID:26566991

  11. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities. PMID:25621903

  12. Changes in Neighborhood Characteristics and Depression Among Sexual Minority Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the relationship between changes in neighborhood characteristics during the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and depression among sexual minority young adults. Previous research has found that neighborhood characteristics influence sexual minority mental health and that sexual minorities are more likely to move to more urban and politically liberal locations. No study to date, however, has examined the impact of changes in neighborhood characteristics on sexual minority depression. The results from this study show that decreases in the percent urban was associated with increased risk of depression and decreases in the percent Republican voters in sexual minority’s neighborhood was associated with decreases in risk of depression. The results suggest that clinicians may want to screen sexual minority youth for recent changes in their neighborhoods to assess if these changes may be related to the onset or exacerbation of depressive episodes. PMID:24217448

  13. Neighborhood-Level LGBT Hate Crimes and Bullying Among Sexual Minority Youths: A Geospatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Duncan, Dustin; Johnson, Renee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel measure of environmental risk factors for bullying among sexual minority youths. Data on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) assault hate crimes were obtained from police records, geocoded, and then linked to individual-level data on bullying and sexual orientation from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey Geospatial Dataset (N = 1,292; 108 sexual minorities). Results indicated that sexual minority youths who reported relational and electronic bullying were more likely to reside in neighborhoods with higher LGBT assault hate crime rates. There was no asso- ciation between LGBT assault hate crimes and bullying among heterosexual youths, pro- viding evidence for specificity to sexual minority youth. Moreover, no relationships were observed between sexual minority bullying and neighborhood-level violent and property crimes, indicating that the results were specific to LGBT assault hate crimes. PMID:26160063

  14. Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities in Hong Kong: Implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Diana K; Wu, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Intolerant attitudes and sexual prejudice against sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning/queer-LGBQ) has been a long-standing global concern. In this article, Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities are examined with reference to the cultural context in Hong Kong, a place where the East has intermingled with the West for over a century. Chinese sexuality manifested in Hong Kong is a mix of Confucian ideology and Christian thought. Traditional Confucian values of xiao (filial piety) and conventional religious thoughts of Christianity together influence Chinese attitudes towards sexual minorities. Though many governmental policies have been put in place and numerous laws have been enacted to protect the human rights of underprivileged and disadvantaged groups over the past few decades, sexual minorities are frequently being excluded from most of these protections. In Hong Kong, sexual prejudice exists not only among the general public, but also among educators and mental health professionals. Thus, Chinese sexual minorities experience sexual prejudice and minority stress in Hong Kong under unique cultural circumstances. This calls for inclusive policies and an embracing attitude towards sexual minorities so their mental health will not suffer. PMID:26569635

  15. Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Plöderl, Martin; Tremblay, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, reviews, and meta-analyses have reported elevated mental health problems for sexual minority (SM) individuals. This systematic review provides an update by including numerous recent studies, and explores whether SM individuals are at increased risk across selected mental health problems as per dimensions of sexual orientation (SO), genders, life-stages, geographic regions, and in higher quality studies. A systematic search in PubMed produced 199 studies appropriate for review. A clear majority of studies reported elevated risks for depression, anxiety, suicide attempts or suicides, and substance-related problems for SM men and women, as adolescents or adults from many geographic regions, and with varied SO dimensions (behaviour, attraction, identity), especially in more recent and higher quality studies. One notable exception is alcohol-related problems, where many studies reported zero or reversed effects, especially for SM men. All SM subgroups were at increased risk, but bisexual individuals were at highest risk in the majority of studies. Other subgroup and gender differences are more complex and are discussed. The review supports the long-standing mental health risk proposition for SM individuals, overall and as subgroups. PMID:26552495

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Disparities in Childhood Sexual Abuse, Parental Physical Abuse, and Peer Victimization Among Sexual Minority and Sexual Nonminority Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Marshal, Michael P.; Guadamuz, Thomas E.; Wei, Chongyi; Wong, Carolyn F.; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Stall, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the likelihood of childhood sexual abuse (under age 18), parental physical abuse, and peer victimization based on sexual orientation. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of adolescent school-based studies that compared the likelihood of childhood abuse among sexual minorities vs sexual nonminorities. Results. Sexual minority individuals were on average 3.8, 1.2, 1.7, and 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual abuse, parental physical abuse, or assault at school or to miss school through fear, respectively. Moderation analysis showed that disparities between sexual minority and sexual nonminority individuals were larger for (1) males than females for sexual abuse, (2) females than males for assault at school, and (3) bisexual than gay and lesbian for both parental physical abuse and missing school through fear. Disparities did not change between the 1990s and the 2000s. Conclusions. The higher rates of abuse experienced by sexual minority youths may be one of the driving mechanisms underlying higher rates of mental health problems, substance use, risky sexual behavior, and HIV reported by sexual minority adults. PMID:21680921

  17. Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed. PMID:20099942

  18. Understanding Suicide among Sexual Minority Youth in America: An Ecological Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed…

  19. Using the Multiple Lenses of Identity: Working with Ethnic and Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Diane; Rutter, Phil

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the complexities of working with clients with dual minority status (i.e., sexual orientation and ethnicity). The authors explore the multiple contexts that influence ethnic and sexual minority clients' self-concept. A case illustration of a Puerto Rican lesbian college student is presented, and suggestions for implementing…

  20. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  1. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the "National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health" (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation…

  2. Longitudinal Disparities of Hazardous Drinking between Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Individuals from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14 to 18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53% female) and 27 to 31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13% self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16% were Hispanic, and 36% were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60%) and Asian Americans (18%). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  3. Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

    2008-01-01

    The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

  4. Understanding Sexual Minority Male Students' Meaning-Making about Their Multiple Identities: An Exploratory Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillapaugh, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory comparative study examines the meaning-making experiences of six sexual minority males attending college or university in Canada or the United States. All of the participants identified as sexual minority males who were cisgender, out to family and/or friends, and between 20 and 24 years of age. In particular, the participants…

  5. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

  6. Longitudinal disparities of hazardous drinking between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dermody, Sarah S; Marshal, Michael P; Cheong, Jeewon; Burton, Chad; Hughes, Tonda; Aranda, Frances; Friedman, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority (lesbian and gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) individuals are at an increased risk for hazardous drinking than heterosexual individuals, but little is known about the nature of the disparities as adolescents reach adulthood. We used four waves of a nationally representative data set, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), to examine disparities of hazardous drinking outcomes between sexual minority and heterosexual men and women from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 14-18 years old at the first assessment (N = 12,379; 53 % female) and 27-31 years old at the fourth assessment. At the fourth assessment, 13 % self-identified as sexual minority individuals, 16 % were Hispanic, and 36 % were of minority race, including primarily African Americans (60 %) and Asian Americans (18 %). There were clear hazardous drinking disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexual individuals over time. During adolescence, sexual minority individuals, particularly females, reported higher levels of hazardous drinking. As study participants reached adulthood, the magnitude of the hazardous drinking disparities increased among sexual minorities, sexual minority men in particular. Additional research is needed to better understand the developmental mechanisms that underlie the emerging sexual orientation related disparities of hazardous drinking in young adulthood. PMID:23325141

  7. School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.

    PubMed

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. PMID:24495493

  8. Risk of Substance Abuse and Dependence Among Young Adult Sexual Minority Groups Using a Multidimensional Measure of Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined associations between two definitions of sexual minority status (SMS) and substance abuse and/or dependence among young adults in a national population. Methods A total of 14,152 respondents (7,529 women and 6,623 men) interviewed during wave four of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were included in the study (age range: 24–32 years). We used two definitions of SMS based on self-reported attraction, behavior, and identity: 1-indicator SMS (endorsing any dimension) and 3-indicator SMS (endorsing all dimensions). Outcomes included nicotine dependence as well as ≥3 signs of substance dependence, any sign of substance abuse, and lifetime diagnosis of abuse or dependence for alcohol, marijuana, and a composite measure of other drugs. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of each outcome for each of the sexual minority groups (compared with the heterosexual majority), controlling for sociodemographic covariates. Results SMS women were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to experience substance abuse and dependence, regardless of substance or SMS definition. In adjusted models for women, 3-indicator SMS was most strongly associated with abuse/dependence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range: 2.74–5.17) except for ≥3 signs of cannabis dependence, where 1-indicator SMS had the strongest association (AOR=3.35). For men, the 1-indicator SMS group had higher odds of nicotine dependence (AOR=1.35) and the 3-indicator SMS group had higher odds of ≥3 signs of alcohol dependence (AOR=1.64). Conclusions Young adult female sexual minority groups, regardless of how defined, are at a higher risk than their heterosexual peers of developing alcohol, drug, or tobacco abuse and dependence. PMID:23633729

  9. Peer harassment and risky behavior among sexual minority girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. PMID:24826828

  10. The application of minority stress theory to marijuana use among sexual minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Schrager, Sheree M; Dunlap, Shannon L; Holloway, Ian W

    2015-02-01

    Previous research indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents are at increased risk for substance use, including heightened rates of marijuana use. Minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations create a state of chronic stress that leads to poor health outcomes for LGB adults; however, the applicability of this model has not been well explored in relation to substance use among LGB adolescents. The current study is a secondary analysis of the OutProud survey, conducted in 2000. The original study used purposive sampling to collect data from 1,911 LGB adolescents (age 12-17) across the United States, and represents the largest known study to explore experiences specific to identifying as LGB, such as homophobia and gay-related victimization. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the feasibility of applying a minority stress framework to understand marijuana use in this population. The final structural model for marijuana use in the LGB adolescent sample displayed excellent fit and modest explanatory power for marijuana use. Two of the five factors, community connectedness and internalized homophobia, were significantly (p < .05) associated with marijuana use. Findings suggest that minority stress theory may be appropriately applied to marijuana use in this population; however, better measurement of minority stress concepts for LGB adolescents is needed. PMID:25493644

  11. Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

  12. Minority stress and sexual problems among African-American gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Brian D; Crawford, Isiaah

    2007-08-01

    Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men. PMID:17109233

  13. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. N.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed sexual arousal, in response to nondeviant and pedophilic audiotapes, among inpatient adult male sexual offenders. Audiotapes describing consenting sexual intercourse created significantly greater arousal than did descriptions of physically forcible sexual/nonsexual activity with female minors. Correspondence of physiological measures with…

  14. Trans-diagnostic Psychopathology Factors and Sexual Minority Mental Health: Evidence of Disparities and Associations with Minority Stressors

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on mental health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals has traditionally taken a disorder-by-disorder approach. Recently developed trans-diagnostic approaches provide a new method to frame such investigations; however, trans-diagnostic factors have yet to be applied to sexual minority mental health disparities research. The current study applied this methodology to investigate mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual individuals in a large national probability sample (N = 34,653). Twelve-month diagnoses of 13 common mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders were modeled, and multi-group analysis indicated a sexual orientation-invariant trans-diagnostic latent structure. Significant disparities at the latent trans-diagnostic factor level were observed; these factor-level disparities are manifested as observed mental disorder disparities. Gender differences typically seen in trans-diagnostic research were not present between sexual minority women and men. Trans-diagnostic internalizing and externalizing factors were then used as outcomes in a minority stress framework and were positively predicted by lifetime history of sexual orientation-related minority stressors (i.e., discrimination and victimization). Implications for using trans-diagnostic approaches to frame intervention efforts, supplement disorder-by-disorder disparities methodologies, and synthesize piecemeal disparities literatures are discussed. PMID:25530981

  15. Migration, Multiple Sexual Partnerships, and Sexual Concurrency in the Garífuna Population of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Anisha D; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with (1) multiple sexual partnerships and (2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration. PMID:26242612

  16. Migration, multiple sexual partnerships, and sexual concurrency in the Garífuna population of Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Anisha D.; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W.; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with 1) multiple sexual partnerships and 2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration. PMID:26242612

  17. Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population. PMID:23372755

  18. Depression and Sexual Orientation During Young Adulthood: Diversity Among Sexual Minority Subgroups and the Role of Gender Nonconformity.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities. PMID:25868403

  19. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  20. Coping and Survival Skills: The Role School Personnel Play Regarding Support for Bullied Sexual Minority-Oriented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Alexandra; Yarber, William L.; Sherwood-Laughlin, Catherine M.; Gray, Mary L.; Estell, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that bullying has serious health consequences, and sexual minority-oriented youth are disproportionately affected. Sexual minority-oriented youth include lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning (LGBTQ) individuals. This study examined the bullying experiences of sexual minority-oriented youth in a…

  1. Trajectories of dating violence: Differences by sexual minority status and gender.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. PMID:26994347

  2. Sources of Discrimination and Their Associations With Health in Sexual Minority Adults.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Wilson S; Zoccola, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Health disparities exist between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. These health disparities may be due to stressful social situations and environments that are created by discrimination. The current study recruited 277 sexual minorities to complete an online survey to examine the effects of discrimination on health. Discrimination from family and friends, compared to non-family and friends, was found to be more strongly associated with poorer health. This effect was partially statistically mediated by perceived stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of distinguishing between different sources of discrimination when examining the effect of discrimination on health in sexual minority adults. PMID:26513583

  3. "There's so much at stake": sexual minority youth discuss dating violence.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L; DiFulvio, Gloria

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of dating violence among a sample of sexual minority youth. Focus groups were conducted as part of a larger study that surveyed 109 sexual minority youth between the ages of 18 and 24 years. Participants identified four main themes contributing to dating violence among same-sex couples: homophobia (societal and internalized); negotiating socially prescribed gender roles; assumed female connection; and other relationship issues. Such information is essential for determining the need for and content of dating violence services, including education, safety planning, and referrals for mental and physical health services for sexual minority youth. PMID:22831848

  4. Immigrant sexual minority Latino men in rural North Carolina: an exploration of social context, social behaviors, and sexual outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul A; Rhodes, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant sexual minority Latino men-who may or may not self-identify as gay-constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled "hidden" and "hard-to-reach," and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a subgroup about whom little is known. Informed by a social ecological framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

  5. Immigrant Sexual Minority Latino Men in Rural North Carolina: An Exploration of Social Context, Social Behaviors, and Sexual Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant Sexual minority Latino men—who may or may not self-identify as gay—constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled “hidden” and “hard-to-reach,” and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a sub-group about whom little is known. Informed by a Social Ecological Framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

  6. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Talley, Amelia E; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P

    2015-06-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women's (SMW's) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  7. The Association Between Supportive High School Environments and Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Students.

    PubMed

    Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p < .001). Teacher reports of more supportive school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p < .001) than in schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students. PMID:25469988

  8. [Rapid population growth is unfavorable to prosperity of minority areas].

    PubMed

    Zhang, T

    1991-04-01

    According to China's 1990 census, the ethnic minority population increased by 35.5% from the 1982 census, 23 percentage points higher than the Han nationality. Among 55 ethnic minorities, 16 had growth rates of over 50% between 1982 and 1990. The Korean ethnic minority had the lowest growth rate, which was only 8.73%. The high growth rate of the ethnic minority population was due to the high level of natural increase and policy factors. With the changing policies toward ethnic minorities, preferential treatment has been give to the them in education, employment, career promotion, and childbearing quota. These policies stimulated switching from the Han nationality to the minority status. 50-60% of growth in the minority population between the 2 censuses has been attributed to the status switching. The per capita GNP in the minority administrative areas was 54.9% lower than in Han areas in 1980. It became 69% lower in 1988. Excessive growth of the ethnic minority population hindered education attainment and economic and resources development. Some ethnic minorities have an illiteracy rate of over 90% and an infant mortality rate of 171/1000. The ecological environment in certain minority areas is deteriorating due to extensive tree-felling and primitive farming methods. In contrast, the Korean minority developed its education program earlier on. Its total fertility rate has been around 1.4 since 1974 and it is gradually changing into a stationary population. Currently, no Korean National counties or townships are below the poverty line. The prevalence of disability is 3.5% in the Korean population, the lowest of all the ethnic groups. It is important to focus population programs among the ethnic minorities to increase their health and educational status. Promoting family planning programs, strictly enforcing the criteria for switching to minority status or setting deadlines to preference treatment eligibility for those who switched status could be possible policies

  9. A Minority Stress – Emotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  10. Korean version of the notification policy on sexual offenders: did it enhance public awareness of sexual crimes against minors?

    PubMed

    Shin, Junseob; Lee, Young-Boon

    2005-08-01

    This study reviewed the public notification policy of sexual offenders against minors in South Korea as compared to community notification programs in the United States. The study then examined the policy's impact on increasing the general public's awareness of such sexual crimes. This is based on the assumption that heightening public awareness can be a starting point in combating such crimes. Results of the data, drawn from a sample of 1,409 Koreans across the nation, showed that the notification policy enhanced public awareness. Factors related to this increase in awareness were people's concern about or familiarity with the policy and people's experience in identifying the existence of known sexual offenders in their communities. Based on the results of this study, strategies for enhancing public awareness of sexual crimes on minors were formulated. The need to develop treatment programs for sexual offenders was likewise highlighted. PMID:15983053

  11. Raising Sexual Minority Youths’ Health Levels by Incorporating Resiliencies Into Health Promotion Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Coulter, Robert W. S.; Friedman, M. Reuel; Stall, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Myriad health inequities that sexual minority youths (SMYs) experience have been documented over the past several decades. Evidence demonstrates that these are not a result of intrinsic characteristics; rather, they result from high levels of adversity that SMYs experience. Despite the pervasive marginalization that SMYs face, there is also evidence of great resilience within this population. It seems likely that if a culture of marginalization produces health inequities in SMYs, a culture of acceptance and integration can work to produce resiliencies. We have described how promoting forms of acceptance and integration could work to promote resilient SMYs despite an overarching culture of marginalization. Building on SMYs’ resiliencies may potentiate the effectiveness of health promotion interventions to reduce health disparities within this population. PMID:24328652

  12. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth. PMID:27354846

  13. I Want Your Sex: The Role of Sexual Exploration in Fostering Positive Sexual Self-Concepts for Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Mike C.; Talley, Amelia E.; Schwartz, Esther N.; Hancock, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Openness and self-exploration have been associated with myriad benefits. Within the realm of sexuality, sexual exploration may be 1 facet of openness and self-exploration that yields benefits. Prior literature suggests that such exploration may have benefits for sexual orientation minority persons, though limited research has investigated the benefits of sexual exploration for heterosexuals. The present study used data from 346 adult women (185 exclusively heterosexual, 161 not exclusively heterosexual) to investigate the role of sexual exploration as a mediator between sexual orientation status and positivity toward sex. Results of a structural equation modeling analysis supported mediation of the relationship between sexual orientation and sexual positivity via sexual exploration. Implications for future research and clinical interventions are presented. PMID:26380352

  14. [Mental health implications of workplace discrimination against sexual and gender minorities: A literature review].

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Marie; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    Despite legislative advances in terms of workplace equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGM), available data ascertains the persistence of workplace discrimination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and especially of transgender/transsexual employees. This article, based on an extensive literature review, explores the relationship between different types of workplace discrimination experiences and their impacts on the mental health of SGM and of different sub-populations: men who have sex with men, non-heterosexual women, lesbian and gay parents, and trans people. Furthermore, the article explores certain individual and systemic protection and risk factors that have an impact on this relationship, such as coming-out at work and organisational support. Finally, the existing literature on workplace discrimination and mental health of sexual and gender minorities highlights the importance, in the current legal and social context, of intersectional approaches and of research on homo- and trans-negative microaggressions. The article ends with a discussion on the implications for practice, research, and workplace settings, as well as with several recommendations for these settings. PMID:26966853

  15. Sexual discourses and strategies among minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Cense, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency. PMID:24902033

  16. Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence

  17. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental

  18. Perceived interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: Is religious affiliation a protective factor?

    PubMed Central

    Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage, as well as those among peers who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group’s stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth’s resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  19. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 (SD= 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ2 (83) = 402.9, p <.001, CFI=.94, TLI=.92, SRMR= .07, and RMSEA=.06, accounting for 73% of variance in psychological distress. Greater use of maladaptive coping and less use of sexual minority-specific coping were associated with higher psychological distress. Although maladaptive coping mediated the relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship. PMID:25530980

  20. Using the Information-Motivation Behavioral Model to Predict Sexual Behavior among Underserved Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth.…

  1. Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Pepler, Debra; Craig, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the link between sexual orientation and adjustment in a community sample of 97 sexual minority (gay male, lesbian, bisexual, and questioning) high school students, taking into account their experiences of peer victimization and social support within peer and family contexts. Adolescents were identified in a large-scale…

  2. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs by College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…

  3. Relationship Trajectories and Psychological Well-Being among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an…

  4. School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

  5. The Role of Personality in Predicting Drug and Alcohol Use Among Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Nicholas A.; Oost, Kathryn M.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. Methods A sample of 704 sexual minority adults were recruited nationally from LGBTQQ community organizations and social networking websites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Results Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of Five-Factor personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Conclusion Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. PMID:25347022

  6. The role of personality in predicting drug and alcohol use among sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Oost, Kathryn M; Heck, Nicholas C; Cochran, Bryan N

    2015-06-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that sexual minority status is associated with increased risk of problematic substance use. Existing literature in this area has focused on group-specific minority stress factors (e.g., victimization and internalized heterosexism). However, no known research has tested the incremental validity of personality traits as predictors of substance use beyond identified group-specific risk factors. A sample of 704 sexual minority adults was recruited nationally from lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning community organizations and social networking Web sites and asked to complete an online survey containing measures of personality, sexual minority stress, and substance use. Hierarchical regression models were constructed to test the incremental predictive validity of five-factor model personality traits over and above known sexual minority risk factors. Consistent with hypotheses, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with drug and alcohol use after accounting for minority stress factors, and all factors except agreeableness were associated with substance use at the bivariate level of analysis. Future research should seek to better understand the role of normal personality structures and processes conferring risk for substance use among sexual minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25347022

  7. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; Vanhemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2014-03-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18-29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

  8. Sexuality-related work discrimination and its association with the health of sexual minority emerging and young adult men in the Detroit Metro Area

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Meanley, Steven; Hickok, Andrew; Pingel, Emily; VanHemert, William; Loveluck, Jimena

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes among minority populations. The increasing evidence regarding health disparities among sexual minorities has underscored the importance of addressing sexuality discrimination as a public health issue. We conducted a web-based survey between May and September of 2012 in order to obtain a diverse sample of young men who have sex with men (ages 18–29; N = 397; 83% gay; 49% Black, 27% White, 15% Latino) living in the Detroit Metro Area (Michigan, USA). Using multivariate regression models, we examined the association between overall health (self-rated health, days in prior month when their physical or mental health was not good, limited functionality) and experiences of sexuality-based work discrimination. Fifteen percent reported at least one experience of sexuality-based work discrimination in the prior year. Recent workplace discrimination was associated with poorer self-rated health, a greater number of days when health was not good, and more functional limitation. We discuss the importance of addressing sexuality-related discrimination as a public health problem and propose multilevel intervention strategies to address these discriminatory practices. PMID:24659928

  9. Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

    2011-01-01

    Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

  10. Sexually coercive behavior in male youth: population survey of general and specific risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Långström, Niklas

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about risk/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general and specific risk/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth, 101 (5.2%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked or forced somebody into genital, oral, or anal sex) (SEX), 132 (6.8%) were classified as CP, and the remaining 1,700 (87.9%) as NC. Of 29 tested variables, 25 were more common in both SEX and CP compared to NC youth, including minority ethnicity, separated parents, vocational study program, risk-taking, aggressiveness, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, sexual victimization, extensive sexual experiences, and sexual preoccupation. When compared to CP youth only, SEX youth more often followed academic study programs, used less drugs and were less risk-taking. Further, SEX more frequently than CP youth reported gender stereotypic and pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, prostitution, and friends using violent porn. Finally, in a multivariate logistic regression, academic study program, pro-rape attitudes, sexual preoccupation, and less risk-taking independently remained more strongly associated with SEX compared to CP offending. In conclusion, several sociodemographic, family, and individual risk/protective factors were common to non-sexual and sexually coercive antisocial behavior in late adolescence. However, pro-rape cognitions, and sexual preoccupation, were sexuality-related, specific risk factors. The findings could inform preventive efforts and the assessment and treatment of sexually coercive male youth. PMID:19888644

  11. Structural Stigma and Cigarette Smoking in a Prospective Cohort Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual minority youth are more likely to smoke cigarettes than heterosexuals but research into the determinants of these disparities is lacking. Purpose To examine whether exposure to structural stigma predicts cigarette smoking in sexual minority youth. Methods Prospective data from adolescents participating in the Growing Up Today Study (2000–2005). Results Among sexual minority youth, living in low structural stigma states (e.g., states with non-discrimination policies inclusive of sexual orientation) was associated with a lower risk of cigarette smoking after adjustment for individual-level risk factors (Relative Risk[RR]=0.97, 95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 0.96, 0.99, p=0.02). This association remained marginally significant after additional controls for potential state-level confounders (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00, p=0.06). In contrast, among heterosexual youth, structural stigma was not associated with past-year smoking rates, documenting specificity of these effects to sexual minority youth. Conclusions Structural stigma represents a potential risk factor for cigarette smoking among sexual minority adolescents. PMID:24136092

  12. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity. PMID:24175889

  13. Rethinking the Vulnerability of Minority Populations in Research

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Margaret Meek

    2013-01-01

    The Belmont Report, produced in 1979 by a United States government commission, includes minority populations among its list of vulnerable research participants. In this article, we consider some previous attempts to understand the vulnerability of minorities in research, and then provide our own account. First we examine the question of the representation of minorities in research. Then we argue that the best understanding of minorities, vulnerability, and research will begin with a broad understanding of the risk of individual members of minority groups to poor health outcomes. We offer a typology of vulnerability to help with this task. Finally, we show how researchers should be guided by this broad analysis in the design and execution of their research. PMID:24134375

  14. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups. PMID:24187476

  15. Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially-Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students

    PubMed Central

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods Random or census samples from post-secondary educational institutions that administered the National College Health Assessment during the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 semesters. Results Sexual minorities reported more socially-based stressors than heterosexuals. Bisexuals exhibited greatest prevalence of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors. In adjusted models, intimate partner violence was most consistently associated with self-injurious behaviros. Conclusions Sexual minorities' elevated risks of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors may stem from higher exposure to socially-based stressors. Within-group differences among sexual minorities offer insight to specific risk factors that may contribute to elevated self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in sexual minority populations. PMID:22316411

  16. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among sexual minority and heterosexual women veterans.

    PubMed

    Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the impact of various traumas across the life span on screening positive for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women veterans. Women veterans were recruited over the Internet (N = 706, 37% lesbian or bisexual) to participate in an anonymous, online survey. We assessed childhood trauma; adult sexual assault and adult physical victimization before, during, and after the military; combat exposure; perceived sexist discrimination during military service; sexual minority military stressors; past-year sexist events; and whether participants screened positive for PTSD or depression. Binary logistic regressions were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTSD and depression, stratified by sexual orientation and controlling for demographic characteristics. Lesbian and bisexual women reported higher rates of trauma across the life span, although in some instances (e.g., sexual assault during and after military service, combat exposure), they did not differ from their heterosexual counterparts. Childhood trauma and traumas that occurred during military service added the most variance to both PTSD and depression models. Sexual assault during military service appeared to be especially harmful with respect to screening positive for PTSD for both sexual orientation groups. Results revealed a number of other predictors of mental health status for women veterans, some of which differed by sexual orientation. Findings indicate a significant burden of interpersonal trauma for both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual women veterans and provide information on the distinct association of various traumas with current PTSD and depression by sexual orientation. PMID:25019543

  17. [Commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls. A multifocal, exploratory and prospective study in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Mbassa Menick, D; Dassa, K S; Kenmogne, J B; Abanda Ngon, G

    2009-02-01

    To obtain reliable information on commercial sexual exploitation of minor girls under the age of 21, a multifocal, exploratry and prospective using a questionnaire was undertaken in Cameroon. This investigation was initiated and funded by the Cercle International pour la Promotion de la Création (CIPCRE) and carried out by the Cameroon Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (CASPCAN). The survey was performed during the last quarter of year 2004 in four major cities of Cameroon, i.e. Yaoundé, Douala, Bamenca and Bafoussam. Of the 800 questionnaires that were distributed, 722 were considered as suitable for analysis (90.3%). A total of 291 minor girls were victims of commercial sexual exploitation, i.e., 40% of the population studied. The mean age of the victims was 16.6 years (range, 9-20 years). The main reason given for entering prostitution was poverty. The victims were fairly well educated but the level of instruction was not sufficient to find a job paying an income comparable to prostitution. Many were from large families (mean, 7.1 children). The victims' family was monogamous in 40.2% of cases, polygamous in 24.4%, and monoparental in 35.4%. Eighty percent of the victims already had run away from home at least once due to problems in their families ranging from severe corporal punishment (25.8%) and mistreatment linked to parental alcohol and drug abuse to forced early marriage (27.5%) and intrafamilial sexual abuse. A large proportion of the victims (36.4%) were mothers who could not attend school and could not find work. Many victims were completely neglected by their own parents with 43.4% of parents being aware of the activities of their daughters but only 10.6% being opposed to it. Most (78.5%) had good knowledge of the risk of HIV and used condoms regular. These results confirms the general hypothesis of the authors that commercial exploitation of minor girls is widespread in Cameroon. The authors recommend development of a national

  18. The health status of minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Nickens, H. W.

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing national recognition that while our nation's health care system is the most expensive in the world, the health care status of Americans overall ranks poorly compared with other Western, industrialized nations. In the United States we tend to look at minority-majority variations of health status, as well as the variations of many other indicators by race or ethnicity, because race and ethnicity are particularly important components of our society. In general, health status indicators of minority Americans are worse than those of whites. In some locales, death rates of minority Americans are comparable to those of Third World nations. At the same time, minority Americans make up a rapidly increasing proportion of the nation's population and work force. Our baseline national data on some minority groups, however, currently are inadequate to detect shifts in health status. Finally, the rapidly expanding problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among some minority populations provides both an imperative and an opportunity to learn how model prevention programs should be designed and executed. PMID:1877226

  19. How Does Sexual Minority Stigma “Get Under the Skin”? A Psychological Mediation Framework

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders. PMID:19702379

  20. HIV risk, health, and social characteristics of sexual minority female injection drug users in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    German, Danielle; Latkin, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Female injection drug users {IDU} who report sex with women are at increased risk for HIV and social instability, but it is important to assess whether these disparities also exist according to sexual minority identity rather than behaviorally defined categories. Within a sample of current IDU in Baltimore, about 17% of female study participants (n=307) identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual. In controlled models, sexual minorities were three times as likely to report sex exchange behavior and four times as likely to report a recent STI. Injection risk did not differ significantly, but sexual minority women reported higher prevalence of socio-economic instability, negative health indicators, and fewer network financial, material, and health support resources. There is a need to identify and address socio-economic marginalization, social support, and health issues among female IDUs who identify as lesbian or bisexual. PMID:25504312

  1. Addressing the needs of an ethnic minority diabetic population.

    PubMed

    Davies, Karen

    Even if ethnic minority populations in our health community are small in numbers, it is important to identify factors that may affect the quality of the healthcare encounter, such as linguistic needs and health beliefs. Despite increased prevalence and morbidity of diabetes in certain ethnic minority groups, inequalities in health may exist and can be multifactorial in nature. This article looks at the importance of cultural sensitivity, so health professionals can articulate difference, show respect and understand health-related beliefs and values. Individual assessment means that health information can be given that values diversity and is specific to an individual. This article uses social and psychological theory to offer explanations as to how prejudice occurs, and looks at the start of a journey for a diabetes team that cares for a small ethnic minority population. PMID:16723927

  2. Disclosure experiences of sexual minority college student victims of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Sylaska, Kateryna M; Edwards, Katie M

    2015-06-01

    Although research on disclosure following intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is burgeoning, sexual minority young adults' (lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning, etc.; LGBQ+) experiences have not received equal attention. The current study employed the minority stress framework to examine disclosure experiences of LGBQ+ college students across the United States reporting physical IPV victimization within their current relationship (n = 77). Participants completed measures assessing minority stress and IPV disclosure, and answered open-ended questions regarding the most and least helpful persons/responses to disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure. Results indicated that approximately one-third (35 %) of victims disclosed to at least one person, with friends being the most common recipients. Thematic analyses indicated that talking or listening to the victim was considered the most helpful response and not understanding the situation least helpful. Reasons for non-disclosure centered on themes of the victims' perception that the IPV was not a big deal. Quantitative findings regarding physical IPV disclosure indicated that non-disclosers experienced greater minority stress than disclosers. The current study suggests the presence of differences between sexual minority (i.e., LGBQ +persons) and non-sexual minority persons, as well as between LGBQ+ young adults/college students and older adults and presents a theoretical structure (i.e., minority stress framework) through which these differences may be understood. PMID:25845665

  3. Health Communication Practices among Parents and Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S. Melinda; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive perceptions of parent-child communication can influence behavioral outcomes such as sexual behavior and substance use among young people. Parent-child communication has been effective in modifying adverse health outcomes among heterosexual youth; however, limited research has examined the perceptions of parent-child communication among…

  4. A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Adkins, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender…

  5. Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

  6. Sexual Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections between drinking, relational contexts, stress and coping

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Megan; Kitaji, Kai; Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Few studies explore sexual minority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions. PMID:22228984

  7. Exploring shame, guilt, and risky substance use among sexual minority men and women

    PubMed Central

    Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships among shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, internalized heterosexism, and problematic substance use among 389 gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women. Problematic alcohol and drug use were positively related to shame-proneness and negatively related to guilt-proneness. Bisexuals reported riskier substance use behaviors, lower levels of guilt-proneness, and higher levels of internalized heterosexism than gay men and lesbians. Furthermore, study findings indicated that shame and internalized heterosexism are related. Additional investigations of these associations would supplement current understanding of sexual minority stress and would advance the development of substance-related intervention and prevention efforts targeting sexual minorities. PMID:23469820

  8. Adherence to Mammography Screening Guidelines Among Transgender Persons and Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Whorms, Debra S; King, Dana S; Potter, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    We used retrospective (2012-2013) chart review to examine breast cancer screening among transgender persons and sexual minority women (n = 1263) attending an urban community health center in Massachusetts. Transgender were less likely than cisgender patients and bisexuals were less likely than heterosexuals and lesbians to adhere to mammography screening guidelines (respectively, adjusted odds ratios = 0.53 and 0.56; 95% confidence intervals = 0.31, 0.91 and 0.34, 0.92) after adjustment for sociodemographics. Enhanced cancer prevention outreach is needed among gender and sexual minorities. PMID:26378843

  9. A Rainbow [Dis]connection?: Comparing Perceptions on Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation to Work with Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Reagan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite research demonstrating the effects of hostile school climates on the academic achievements of minority sexual and gender identity (MSGI) youth, little attention is paid to preparing future teachers to work with this diverse student population. Given the importance of making learning environments safe and welcoming for all students, this…

  10. Does Parental Monitoring Moderate the Relation between Parent-Child Communication and Pre-Coital Sexual Behaviours among Urban, Minority Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Swank, Paul; Baumler, Elizabeth; McCurdy, Sheryl; Tortolero, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental monitoring (PM) as a potential moderator of the relation between parent-child communication (PCC) and pre-coital sexual behaviours (PCSB) in an urban, minority, early adolescent population. Seventh-grade students (n = 1609) reported PCC, PM and PCSB. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess for…

  11. Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially Based Risk Factors of Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and…

  12. Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed. PMID:19594249

  13. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on minority adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Esparza, D V; Esperat, M C

    1996-05-01

    In 2 urban areas of Texas, 124 mothers, 13-20 years old, all but 6% of whom were Mexican American or African American, were recruited from 4 public agencies to a study designed to determine the incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse on the lives of these adolescent mothers. The study used the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) to compare the personality characteristics of those mothers who had experienced sexual abuse with their nonabused counterparts. Most adolescent mothers were single (80%), lived with their parents (63%), were pregnant for the first time (56%), currently attended school (84%), and lived in a family whose annual income was less than $12,000. 44% of the mothers had experienced some form of childhood sexual abuse. More than 50% reported oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with their abusers. The abusers tended to be male (97%) and known to the victim (66%). Male strangers accounted for 19% of abusers. The researchers were able to use data from 111 subjects to compare the 2 groups. The abused adolescent mothers always had clinically and statistically significant poorer scores than nonabused mothers. Abused mothers had greater difficulties in self-concept (p 0.0001), self-esteem (p = 0.004), body comfort (p = 0.002), sexual acceptance (p = 0.002), peer security (p = 0.002), and family rapport (p = 0.002). They also had clinically significant lower levels of academic confidence (p = 0.018), social conformity (p = 0.035), scholastic achievement (p 0.0001), and attendance consistency (p = 0.002). When researchers controlled for the effect of the Life Event Scale-Adolescents, abused mothers had differences that were significantly different than those of nonabused mothers (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that nurses within prenatal or well-baby care agencies should guide adolescent mothers who experienced childhood sexual abuse as they learn to communicate with their family or refer them to existing support services. It is

  14. Longitudinal Associations among Discordant Sexual Orientation Dimensions and Hazardous Drinking in a Cohort of Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L.; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined differences between sexual minority women’s (SMW’s) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224

  15. [Credibility of allegations of under age minors regarding sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Hayez, J Y; Vervier, J F; Charlier, D

    1994-01-01

    When a child under age states he/she has been sexually abused, there seldom exists an objective certainty to support the allegation. Whereas clinicians know that a child who speaks spontaneously probably speaks the truth, it is nonetheless difficult to exclude the possibility of fabulating, lying or mistaking. The error probability is sharply increased when abuse is referred by a parent, specially in a context of parental separation. This article thus presents a review of criteria which help to better assess the truth or error of allegations. Criteria include analysis of the child's talk, application of projective techniques, observation of his/her behavior, etc. The author also describes some differential diagnoses based on the behaviors and sexual allegations of children under age. PMID:7878137

  16. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  17. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  18. [Sexual minorities: Concepts, attitudes and structure for an appropriate psychotherapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J; Montoro, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To propose a theoretical model and clinical approach to sexual minority patients who consult mental health professionalsMethods Clinicians at the McGill University Sexual Identity Center (MUSIC) who have been treating patients from various sexual minorities for more than 15 years present useful theoretical constructs of gender and sexuality as well as guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of patients consulting for discomfort or confusion surrounding their sexual orientation, their gender identity or both, based on both the current literature and their clinical experience.Results The notions of non-binary construction of gender, of social determinism of gender roles and expression, and of gender creativity are presented. Sexual orientation is divided into four most commonly used dimensions (emotional attraction, physical attraction, behaviour and identity); the fluidity of these and their potential non-concordance are described. The fact that attraction to one gender is independent of attraction to another gender is highlighted. An attitude of openness to all forms of gender expression and sexual orientation constellations is encouraged to allow the patient free exploration of the several facets of their sexuality.Various domains to explore in evaluating sexual orientation and gender as well as therapeutic avenues are proposed. Areas to enquire about include: mental, physical and social experiences of gender, eroticism and sexual fantasies towards all genders, emotional attraction towards them, sexual and romantic experiences, comfort and certainty about one's identity and about disclosing it.Psychoeducation can be used to teach about sexual diversity and to assess the risks and benefits of coming out to self, family, friends, co-workers or strangers. Cognitive strategies can be undertaken to debunk homophobic and transphobic myths which may fuel poor self-esteem. Psychodynamic approaches can be used to heal the narcissistic wounds of homophobia

  19. A Social Ecological Approach to Understanding Correlates of Lifetime Sexual Assault among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health…

  20. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L. |

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  1. The Impact of Perceived Discrimination and Social Support on the School Performance of Multiethnic Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Shelley L.; Smith, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are known to face increased risk of poor school performance; however, little research has focused on the educational experiences of multiethnic sexual minority youth (MSMY) in particular. Using venue-based sampling approaches, this study surveyed 255 MSMY at 15 urban high schools. The majority of participants identified as…

  2. Associations between Bullying and Engaging in Aggressive and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority Youth: The Moderating Role of Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research on the extent to which cyberbullying affects sexual minority youth is limited. This study examined associations between experiencing cyber and school bullying and engaging in aggressive and suicidal behaviors among sexual minority youth. We also explored whether feeling connected to an adult at school moderated these…

  3. Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

  4. Co-occurring Psychiatric and Drug Use Disorders among Sexual Minority Men with Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Bryant, Kendall; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence indicates multiple health risks associated with harmful alcohol use among sexual minority men in the United States. In particular, sexual minority men with alcohol use disorders (AUD) might have greater co-occurring health problems compared with heterosexual men. We used nationally representative data to compare the prevalence of diagnostic co-occurring psychiatric disorders and drug use disorders (DUD) among sexual minority men with AUD compared with heterosexual males with a lifetime AUD diagnosis. Methods We analyzed data from 6,899 adult males with AUD participating in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Using multiple logistic regressions, we compared the odds of lifetime diagnosis of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and drug use disorders in sexual minority and heterosexual adult males with AUD. Results Of participants included in this analysis, 176 (2.6%) self-identified as a sexual minority. In adjusted analyses, sexual minority men with AUD were more likely than heterosexual men with AUD to have any mood disorder (including major depressive episode), any anxiety disorder (including panic disorder without agoraphobia, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder), and lifetime DUD. Conclusions The elevated co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders and DUD among sexual minority men with AUD suggests that future research is warranted. A better understanding of the etiology of diagnostic co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders among sexual minority men in order to develop effective integrated prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25913886

  5. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth across High School Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (M[subscript age] = 15 years,…

  6. Emotion Regulation and Internalizing Symptoms in a Longitudinal Study of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sexual minority adolescents appear to be at increased risk for internalizing disorders relative to their heterosexual peers, but there is a paucity of research explaining this elevated risk. Emotion regulation deficits are increasingly understood as important predictors of internalizing psychopathology among general samples of…

  7. Gay-Straight Alliances and School Experiences of Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Kane, Sarah B.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings on the impact of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the school experiences of sexual minority youth have demonstrated that numerous positive outcomes are associated with attending schools that have such student organizations. Some research attributes the positive impact to shifts in campus climate resulting from recognition and…

  8. Sexual Minority Youth in the Schools: Issues and Desirable Counselor Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    This paper addresses the issues and desirable professional school counselor responses when working with sexual minority youth in the schools, including gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex, queer, and questioning youth. The issues that are addressed include: developing a context in which to discuss these issues; coming out or the…

  9. Chronic Physical Health Problems in Sexual Minority Women: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Michele J

    2014-12-01

    Although there is substantial literature about sexual minority women's mental health and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD), only recently has attention been focused on chronic physical health disorders thought to stem from stress and exposure to ATOD use. The most extensively studied aspect of physical health has been weight, with the majority of studies reporting higher prevalence of overweight and obesity. In addition, many studies report higher levels of stressful experiences in both childhood and adulthood for sexual minority women. In this paper, the hypothesized relationship between stress, unhealthy behaviors, and five common chronic physical health disorders is explored via review of the literature. Only asthma appeared to be consistently more common in sexual minority women, and few or no differences in diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and most cancers were found. The limitations of these studies are reviewed, and the need for studies that directly address the relationships among stress, health-damaging practices, and chronic disorder is emphasized. However, if these findings hold up, and sexual minority women are not more prone to these disorders, the field may need better theoretical frameworks from which to explore potential differences in the manifestation of mental versus chronic physical health disparities. PMID:26789854

  10. Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

  11. Critical Influences on Sexual Minority College Males' Meaning-Making of Their Multiple Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillapaugh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the critical influences on college sexual minority males' meaning-making of their multiple identities. Twenty-six cisgender males attending colleges and universities within the United States and Canada were interviewed and provided journal responses to specific prompts. Four themes emerged, including:…

  12. Factors Impacting Counselor Competency When Counseling Sexual Minority Intimate Partner Violence Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    A queer theory perspective and grounded theory techniques were used to examine perceptions of counselor competency with sexual minority intimate partner violence victims. Ten counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews. Results indicate that beneficial aspects of competency development occurred prior to, during, and after their…

  13. Welcoming Children from Sexual-Minority Families into Our Schools. Fastback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lamme, Laurel A.

    Based on the view that schools are responsible for providing a safe and supportive setting for all students and that with education the school climate will improve for sexual-minority parents and their children, this booklet provides information on how schools can become more welcoming to all students. Following introductory comments, the book is…

  14. Framing the Issue/Framing the Question: How are Sexual Minority Issues Included in Diversity Initiatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Tonette S.; Delgado, Antonio; Landorf, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This paper situates sexual minority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development missions of individual development, career development, and organization…

  15. Perceived Discrimination and Social Relationship Functioning among Sexual Minorities: Structural Stigma as a Moderating Factor

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Work on structural stigma shows how public policy affects health outcomes for members of devalued groups, including sexual minorities. In the current research, structural stigma is proposed as a moderating variable that strengthens deleterious associations between perceived discrimination and social relationship functioning. Hypotheses were tested in two cross-sectional studies, including both online (N = 214; Study 1) and community (N = 94; Study 2) samples of sexual minority men and women residing throughout the United States. Structural stigma was coded from policy related to sexual minority rights within each state. Confirming hypotheses, support for the moderating role of structural stigma was found via multilevel models across studies. Specifically, associations between perceived discrimination and friendship strain, loneliness (Study 1) and familial strain (Study 2) were increased for those who resided in states with greater levels of structural stigma and attenuated for those who resided in states with lesser levels. In Study 1, these results were robust to state-level covariates (conservatism and religiosity), but conservatism emerged as a significant moderator in lieu of structural stigma in Study 2. Results are discussed in the context of the shifting landscape of public policy related to sexual minority rights within the United States. PMID:26807046

  16. Future Directions in Studies of Trauma among Ethnoracial and Sexual Minority Samples: Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triffleman, Elisa G.; Pole, Nnamdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Studies examining psychological trauma or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in ethnoracial or sexual minority groups are relatively few. The "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" recently published 4 articles (Balsam, Lehavot, Beadnall, & Circo, 2010; Harrington, Crowther, & Shipherd, 2010; Lester, Resick, Young-Xu, & Artz,…

  17. Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

    2010-01-01

    Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

  18. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  19. STEM Education and Sexual Minority Youth: Examining Math and Science Coursetaking Patterns among High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Estrada, Fernando; Sublett, Cameron

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority students such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, as well as those identifying with emerging self-labels (e.g., queer) face a host of risk factors in high school that can potentially compromise educational excellence, particularly in rigorous academic disciplines. The current study advances the area of diversity…

  20. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  1. Psychosocial Concerns of Sexual Minority Youth: Complexity and Caution in Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction…

  2. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A.; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually non-existent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a non-probability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self-identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women’s health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  3. Racial/ethnic differences in identity and mental health outcomes among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Molina, Yamile; Blayney, Jessica A; Dillworth, Tiara; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual minorities are at greater risk for trauma exposure, mental health problems, and substance use. To date, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences among sexual minorities in relation to health-related behaviors and outcomes. Furthermore, studies of racial/ethnic differences among young adult sexual minority women (SMW) are virtually nonexistent. The current study adds to the previous literature by exploring differences in trauma exposure, sexual identity, mental health, and substance use in a nonprobability national sample of young adult SMW. A total of 967 self- identified lesbian and bisexual women were recruited via the Internet using social networking sites to participate in a larger longitudinal study on young women's health behaviors. The present study included 730 (76%) White, 108 (10%) African American, 91 (9%) Latina, and 38 (4%) Asian women ages 18 to 25 years. Results revealed differences in socioeconomic variables, degree of outness to family, childhood sexual assault, and forcible rape, but not overall lifetime trauma exposure. Among mental health and health-related behavior variables, few differences between groups emerged. Our findings indicate that both researchers and clinicians should turn their attention to processes of resilience among young SMW, particularly young SMW of color. PMID:25642782

  4. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed. PMID:24972149

  5. Out of the mainstream: sexual minorities and the mass media.

    PubMed

    Gross, L

    1991-01-01

    In a society dominated by centralized sources of information and imagery, in which economic imperatives and pervasive sources of values promote the search for large, common-denominator audiences, it is useful to look at the fate of those who, for one reason or another, find themselves outside of the mainstream. This paper addresses the general questions of minority perspectives in the context of the study of mass media content and effects. More specific attention is paid to the situation of lesbian women and gay men as members of the mass media audience. PMID:1856468

  6. Sexual risk behavior and STI health literacy among ethnic minority adolescent women

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14–18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women. PMID:23867137

  7. Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression (Sexual Minority Students): School Nurse Practice. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…

  8. From patients to providers: changing the culture in medicine toward sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Mansh, Matthew; Garcia, Gabriel; Lunn, Mitchell R

    2015-05-01

    Equality for sexual and gender minorities (SGMs)-including members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities-has become an integral part of the national conversation in the United States. Although SGM civil rights have expanded in recent years, these populations continue to experience unique health and health care disparities, including poor access to health care, stigmatization, and discrimination. SGM trainees and physicians also face challenges, including derogatory comments, humiliation, harassment, fear of being ostracized, and residency/job placement discrimination. These inequities are not mutually exclusive to either patients or providers; instead, they are intertwined parts of a persistent, negative culture in medicine toward SGM individuals.In this Perspective, the authors argue that SGM physicians must lead this charge for equality by fostering diversity and inclusion in medicine. They posit that academic medicine can accomplish this goal by (1) modernizing research on the physician workforce, (2) implementing new policies and programs to promote safe and supportive training and practice environments, and (3) developing recruitment practices to ensure a diverse, competent physician workforce that includes SGM individuals.These efforts will have an immediate impact by identifying and empowering new leaders to address SGM health care reform, creating diverse training environments that promote cultural competency, and aligning medicine with other professional fields (e.g., business, law) that already are working toward these goals. By tackling the inequities that SGM providers face, academic medicine can normalize sexual and gender identity disclosure and promote a welcoming, supportive environment for everyone in medicine, including patients. PMID:25650825

  9. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. PMID:26653044

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Correlates of Persistent Smoking Among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Barth B.; Everett, Bethany; Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Johnson, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We conducted a longitudinal evaluation of factors associated with persistent smoking behaviors among sexual minority women (SMW; lesbians and bisexual women). Methods: Structured interview data were collected as part of a larger longitudinal study of SMW’s health: the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study. We conducted multivariate analyses to evaluate the influence of 4 groups of predictor variables on smoking: (a) demographic, (b) childhood victimization, (c) other substance use, and (d) health variables. Results: At Wave 1, 30.9% (n = 138) of participants reported current smoking, with substance-use and demographic factors having the strongest relationships to smoking status. The majority (84.9%) of Wave 1 smokers were also smoking at Wave 2. Among demographic variables, level of education was inversely associated with continued smoking. With respect to substance use, hazardous drinking and cocaine/heroin use were significantly associated with continued smoking. None of the victimization or health variables predicted smoking status. Conclusions: Consistent with previous studies, smoking rates in this sample of SMW were elevated. Despite intensive efforts to reduce smoking in the general population, 84% of SMW smokers continued smoking from Wave 1 to Wave 2. Findings suggest that the majority of SMW will continue to smoke over time. Additional research is needed to increase motivation and access to smoking cessation resources. PMID:24727370

  11. Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

  12. A Religious Experience? Personal, Parental, and Peer Religiosity and the Academic Success of Sexual-Minority Youth Using Nationally Representative Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Polikoff, Morgan S.

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally representative transcript data, this study is the first to include a discussion of religiosity in the context of sexual-minority students' academic achievement. This study examines the issue in three capacities: first, by comparing school success of sexual-minority youth to a non-sexual-minority reference group; second, by…

  13. Sexual compulsivity scale: adaptation and validation in the spanish population.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gómez-Martínez, Sandra; Llario, M Dolores-Gil; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Sexual compulsivity has been studied in relation to high-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this study was the adaptation and validation of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale to a sample of Spanish young people. This scale was applied to 1,196 (891 female, 305 male) Spanish college students. The results of principal components factor analysis using a varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution. The reliability of the Sexual Compulsivity Scale was found to be high. Moreover, the scale showed good temporal stability. External correlates were examined through Pearson correlations between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale and other constructs related with HIV prevention. The authors' results suggest that the Sexual Compulsivity Scale is an appropriate measure for assessing sexual compulsivity, showing adequate psychometric properties in the Spanish population. PMID:23631692

  14. Phase Transitions in Sexual Populations Subject to Stabilizing Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A.

    2003-04-01

    We show that a simple model of an evolving sexual population, which dates back to some of the earliest work in theoretical population genetics, exhibits an unexpected and previously unobserved phase transition between ordered and disordered states. This behavior is not present in populations evolving asexually without recombination and is thus important in any comparison of sexual and asexual populations. In order to calculate the details of the phase transition, we use techniques from statistical physics. We introduce the correlation of the population as the order parameter of the system and use maximum entropy inference to find the state of the population at any time.

  15. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  16. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83–5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15–1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62–3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination. PMID:27437996

  17. Perceived Discrimination Is an Independent Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation among Sexual and Gender Minorities in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohlbrenner, Verena; Deuba, Keshab; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Marrone, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities experience an elevated burden of suicidality compared with the general population. Still, little is known about that burden and the factors generating it in the context of low- and middle-income countries. The present study assessed the prevalence of suicidal ideation, planned suicide, and attempted suicide among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender people (TG) in Nepal, and examined the association of perceived discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation with suicidal ideation and with attempted suicide. Data were obtained from a surveillance survey among MSM and TG in Nepal in 2012. A sample of 400 MSM and TG, recruited using respondent-driven sampling, completed a structured face-to-face interview. Throughout their lifetime, 26.8% of the participants had experienced suicidal ideation, 12.0% had made a suicide plan, and 9.0% had attempted suicide. In particular, more TG than MSM had experienced suicidal ideation (39.8% vs. 21.3%), had made a suicide plan (19.5% vs. 8.9%), and had attempted suicide (15.3% vs. 6.4%). Overall, the odds of having experienced suicidal ideation was significantly higher among the 38.3% of participants who had perceived discrimination based on their sexual orientation (AOR: 3.17; 95% CI: 1.83-5.48). Moreover, the odds of suicidal ideation was significantly higher as the extent of perceived discrimination increased (AOR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60). However, the odds of attempted suicide was not significantly associated with perceived discrimination (AOR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.62-3.15). The findings highlight perceived discrimination as an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation. Future suicide prevention programs should target sexual and gender minorities and include elements focusing on discrimination. PMID:27437996

  18. Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

  19. [On problems of population in minority nationalities (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Shi, C L; Liang, S Q; Wang, J

    1981-01-01

    China's large population is made up mostly of Han people, but there are more than 50 other ethnic groups. Population policies must be made taking into consideration the different historical and economic characteristics of each group. An example of the ill effects of high population growth is the Lin Xia autonomous state, inhabitated by the Hui ethnic group. In 1956 living conditions and food supply were still good for a population of 839,000. By 1978 the population had increased to 1,370,000, per capita income had dropped from 80 yuans to 40 yuans, and gross agricultural product could not meet the needed food supply. Although the number of schools had increased, by 1978 32% of elementary school children, 10% of elementary school graduates, and 60% of junior high school graduates were unable to enter school for lack of facilities. The standard of education decreased, and unemployment increased. In 1973 the birth control program was initiated in the province. Natural increase went from 28.7% in 1973 to 14.7%, and the total birth rate was 58,232 births less than expected; result was an increased school budget and better food and clothing for all. The opposite problem is presented by the Akesa autonomous state of Hasake ethnicity. In 1949 the population of this ethnicity was 1700 people and the standard of living was high; however, natural population increase was only 1.5/1000, not enough to provide needed labor to cope with economical development. In this area population increase should be encouraged through various means of health care. As for other minorities living in areas mainly inhabited by other ethnic groups, they should keep their customs and beliefs but follow the population policies of the majority of the people. Birth control is a communist idea; it serves to improve the health and welfare of the whole nation, and it will not interfere with the stable unity of the various ethnicities. PMID:12263423

  20. Exploring the Social Integration of Sexual Minority Youth Across High School Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Cheadle, Jacob E.; Skalamera, Julie; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and other youth have been theorized to result in part from the effects of the stigmatization on social integration. Stochastic actor-based modeling was applied to complete network data from two high schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (mean age =15 years, n=2,533). Same-sex attracted youth were socially marginalized in a smaller predominantly White school but not in a larger, more racially diverse school. For both schools, homophily was a critical network feature, and could represent social support for and social segregation of such youth. These findings emphasize school context in studying the social lives of sexual minority youth and suggest that youth may be better off socially in larger and more diverse schools. PMID:25689110

  1. Academic and social integration on campus among sexual minority students: the impacts of psychological and experiential campus climate.

    PubMed

    Woodford, Michael R; Kulick, Alex

    2015-03-01

    A heterosexist campus climate can increase risk for mental health problems for sexual minority students; however, the relationship between campus climate for sexual minorities and academic outcomes remains understudied. Using a sample of sexual minority respondents extracted from a campus climate survey conducted at a large university in the Midwest, we examine relationships between multiple dimensions of psychological and experiential campus climate for sexual minorities with academic integration (academic disengagement, grade-point average [GPA]) and social integration (institutional satisfaction, acceptance on campus). We also investigate the protective role of engagement with informal academic and peer-group systems. Findings suggest campus climate affects sexual minority students' integration. In multivariate analyses, perceptions of whether lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people could be open about their sexual identity was positively associated with acceptance on campus; personal heterosexist harassment was positively associated with academic disengagement and negatively with GPA. Students' informal academic integration (instructor relations) and informal social integration (LGB friends) demonstrated influential main effects but did not moderate any of the climate-outcome relationships. Researchers should further explore the relationships between climate and academic outcomes among sexual minority students, both collectively and among specific sub-groups, and address the role of other protective factors. PMID:25367265

  2. Sexual intercourse among adolescent daughters of mothers with depressive symptoms from minority families.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse in a non-clinical sample of mothers and their adolescent daughters from minority families. The current study explores ways in which maternal depression, family factors, and adolescent sex interact. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 176 mother-daughter dyads, including a subset of mothers with HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that among mothers who were not current marijuana users, more maternal depressive symptoms was associated with daughters' engagement in sexual intercourse. Neither parent-child conflict nor parental involvement significantly mediated the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent sex. This study provides the first empirical evidence that non-clinical depressive symptoms in mothers are associated with adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse. PMID:27326541

  3. Love versus abuse: crossgenerational sexual relations of minors: a gay rights issue?

    PubMed

    Graupner, H

    1999-01-01

    The question discussed is how far crossgenerational sexual relations with or by minors could be considered to be a gay rights issue. The author discusses the issue from the perspective of general principles found in the case-law of the European Court on Human Rights. These principles suggest that the basic right to privacy should be interpreted as providing comprehensive protection of the right of children and adolescents to sexual self-determination, namely both the right to effective protection from (unwanted) sex and abuse on the one hand and the right to (wanted) sex on the other. The analysis is based upon the findings of natural and social science as well as an extensive international survey of national legal provisions and it leads to the conclusion that consensual sexual relations of and with adolescents over 14 (out of relations of authority) should be qualified a gay rights issue; likewise (as the exception to the rule) the possibility of filtering out cases from prosecution where a contact/relation is proven (beyond reasonable doubt) as consensual and harmless even though the minor involved is under 14. The legalization of (objectively consensual) sexual relations with persons under 14 as such, however, should not be considered to be a gay rights issue. PMID:10482330

  4. Psychosocial concerns of sexual minority youth: complexity and caution in group differences.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Aragon, Steven R; Espelage, Dorothy L; Koenig, Brian W

    2009-02-01

    This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction between sexual orientation and gender was identified on victimization. Boys reported higher victimization than did girls among heterosexual and questioning/less certain students. Furthermore, significant 3-way interactions between sexual orientation, race, and gender were identified for substance use and depressed/suicidal thoughts. Questioning/less certain youth generally reported the highest levels of victimization, substance abuse, and suicidal thoughts. However, results suggest that, on the basis of small effect sizes for most comparisons, significant differences should be interpreted with caution. Results indicate the need to consider the diversity of subgroups within the sexual minority youth community and that intervention efforts might be more effective if tailored to the unique needs of specific subgroups. PMID:19170465

  5. Paraphilic Sexual Interests and Sexually Coercive Behavior: A Population-Based Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Baur, Elena; Forsman, Mats; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2016-07-01

    Prior research with selected clinical and forensic samples suggests associations between paraphilic sexual interests (e.g., exhibitionism and sexual sadism) and sexually coercive behavior. However, no study to date used a large, representative and genetically informative population sample to address the potential causal nature of this association. We used self-report data on paraphilic and sexually coercive behavior from 5990 18- to 32-year-old male and female twins from a contemporary Finnish population cohort. Logistic regression and co-twin control models were employed to examine if paraphilic behaviors were causally related to coercive behavior or if suggested links were confounded by familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors. Results indicated that associations between four out of five tested paraphilic behaviors (exhibitionism, masochism, sadism, and voyeurism, respectively) and sexually coercive behavior were moderate to strong. Transvestic fetishism was not independently associated with sexual coercion. Comparisons of twins reporting paraphilic behavior with their paraphilic behavior-discordant twin further suggested that associations were largely independent of shared genetic and environmental confounds, consistent with a causal association. In conclusion, similar to previously reported predictive effects of paraphilias on sexual crime recidivism, paraphilic behavior among young adults in the general population increases sexual offending risk. Further, early identification of paraphilic interest and preventive interventions with at-risk individuals might also reduce perpetration of first-time sexual violence. PMID:26754158

  6. Garnering an in-depth understanding of men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative analysis of sexual minority status and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and have an HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health. PMID:25358949

  7. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians. PMID:21216626

  8. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.…

  9. Parents of minors who have sexually abused: legal liability and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Oz, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are legally liable when their minor children commit offenses. Since parents are essential to the successful rehabilitation of minors who have sexually offended, the impact of legal liability on parental engagement in therapy must be examined. This article will explore the conflicting issues of age, legal responsibility, parental responsibility, and therapeutic effectiveness in the Israeli context and propose a means for resolution. PMID:23350541

  10. Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  11. Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lema, V M

    1997-11-01

    Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

  12. Self-Consent for HIV Prevention Research Involving Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: Reducing Barriers Through Evidence-Based Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Arbeit, Miriam R; Dumont, Melissa S; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    This project examined the attitudes of sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) toward guardian permission for a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence trial and their preparedness to provide informed, rational, and voluntary self-consent. Sixty sexually active SGMY (ages 14-17) participated in online survey and asynchronous focus group questions after watching a video describing a PrEP adherence study. Youth responses highlighted guardian permission as a significant barrier to research participation, especially for those not "out" to families. Youth demonstrated understanding of research benefits, medical side effects, confidentiality risks, and random assignment and felt comfortable asking questions and declining participation. Reasoning about participation indicated consideration of health risks and benefits, personal sexual behavior, ability to take pills every day, logistics, and post-trial access to PrEP. Results demonstrate youth's ability to self-consent to age- and population-appropriate procedures, and underscore the value of empirical studies for informing institutional review board (IRB) protections of SGMY research participants. PMID:26956988

  13. Multiple early victimization experiences as a pathway to explain physical health disparities among sexual minority and heterosexual individuals.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Judith P; Zou, Christopher; Blosnich, John

    2015-05-01

    Prior research shows that health disparities exist between sexual minority and heterosexual individuals. We extend the literature by testing if the higher prevalence of childhood victimization experienced by sexual minority individuals accounts for lifetime health disparities. Heterosexual (n = 422) and sexual minority (n = 681) participants were recruited on-line in North America. Respondents completed surveys about their childhood victimization experiences (i.e., maltreatment by adults and peer victimization) and lifetime physician-diagnosed physical health conditions. Results showed that sexual minority individuals experienced higher prevalence of childhood victimization and lifetime physical health problems than heterosexuals. Mediation analyses indicated that maltreatment by adults and peer bullying explained the health disparities between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals. This study is the first to show that multiple childhood victimization experiences may be one pathway to explain lifetime physical health disparities. Intervention programs reducing the perpetration of violence against sexual minority individuals are critical to reduce health care needs related to victimization experiences. PMID:25864147

  14. How Are Self-Efficacy and Family Involvement Associated with Less Sexual Risk Taking among Ethnic Minority Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Kali S.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the protective influences of family involvement (i.e., parental monitoring, communication, closeness, and family proximity) and sexual self-efficacy on the risky sexual behavior of ethnic minority (predominantly Mexican-origin) adolescents in the southwestern United States (N = 122). Results indicate that whereas…

  15. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

  16. Comparing Health and Mental Health Needs, Service Use, and Barriers to Services among Sexual Minority Youths and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kelly A.; Chapman, Mimi V.

    2011-01-01

    Using a representative national sample (N = 20,745), this article explores health and mental health needs, service use, and barriers to services among sexual minority youths (SMYs) and heterosexual peers. SMYs were defined by ever having a same-sex romantic attraction or having a recent same-sex romantic relationship or sexual partner. SMYs…

  17. Sexual Network Profiles and Risk Factors for STIs Among African-American Sexual Minorities in Mississippi: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A.; Rose, Jennifer; Simmons, Dantrell; Riggins, Reginald; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Chamberlain, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study assessed sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behaviors, and sexual network profiles among African American sexual minorities in Jackson, Mississippi. Bivariate chi-square tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models explored individual and partner-related factors. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, male African American sexual minorities reported fewer sex partners (odds ratios [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.16–0.65) and lower concurrency levels (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.24–0.72). African American sexual minority women reported greater substance abuse, more sex partners (OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.47–4.38), higher concurrency levels (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.24–2.64), and more transactional sex (OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.25–5.11). These results highlight the need for nuanced STI interventions tailored to African American sexual minorities in Mississippi. PMID:26788677

  18. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests. PMID:25749745

  19. Communication between VA providers and sexual and gender minority veterans: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michelle D; Kauth, Michael R; Shipherd, Jillian C; Street, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    Approximately one million gay and lesbian Americans are veterans, and rates of engagement in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system may be increasing for both sexual and gender minority veterans. Very little research has examined the experience of these veterans when receiving care at VA health care facilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, beliefs, and preferences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) veterans in their communication with VA health care providers. LGBT veterans (n = 58) participated in focus groups or individual interviews and completed self-report measures at two southern VA hospitals. Approximately 2/3 of veterans report that none of their VA providers have specifically asked about their sexual orientation, and 24% of the veterans indicate that they have not disclosed their orientation to any VA provider. Although some veterans want providers to initiate these discussions, veterans also expressed fears about disclosure and its possible negative consequences. Similarly, LGBT veterans report varied opinions about the appropriateness of routine assessment of minority status. Only 28% of these veterans experience VA as welcoming to them as LGBT veterans. Systematic training is needed for all VA providers about the rationale for assessing sexual and gender orientation. Staff education should include specific skills for initiating these assessments, and ways of responding to veteran concerns about discussing this topic in the VA health care system. PMID:24588107

  20. Correlates of bullying in Quebec high school students: the vulnerability of sexual-minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bullying has become a significant public health issue, particularly among youth. This study documents cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere and their correlates among both heterosexual and sexual-minority high school students in Quebec (Canada). Method A representative sample of 8,194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. We assessed cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere in the past 12 months and their association with current self-esteem and psychological distress as well as suicidal ideations. Results Bullying at school or elsewhere was the most common form of bullying (26.1%), followed by cyberbullying (22.9%) and homophobic bullying (3.6%). Overall, girls and sexual-minority youth were more likely to experienced cyberbullying and other form of bullying as well as psychological distress, low self-esteem and suicidal ideations. The three forms of bullying were significantly and independently associated with all mental health outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of taking into account gender and sexual orientation variations in efforts to prevent bullying experience and its consequences. PMID:26047959

  1. Resilience in Community: A Social Ecological Development Model for Young Adult Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Lindsey; Darnell, Doyanne A.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Lee, Christine M.; Kaysen, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Family support and rejection are associated with health outcomes among sexual minority women (SMW). We examined a social ecological development model among young adult SMW, testing whether identity risk factors or outness to family interacted with family rejection to predict community connectedness and collective self-esteem. Lesbian and bisexual women (N = 843; 57% bisexual) between the ages of 18–25 (M = 21.4; SD = 2.1) completed baseline and 12-month online surveys. The sample identified as White (54.2%), multiple racial backgrounds (16.6%), African American (9.6%) and Asian/Asian American (3.1%); 10.2% endorsed a Hispanic/Latina ethnicity. Rejection ranged from 18–41% across family relationships. Longitudinal regression indicated that when outness to family increased, SMW in highly rejecting families demonstrated resilience by finding connections and esteem in sexual minority communities to a greater extent than did non-rejected peers. But, when stigma concerns, concealment motivation, and other identity risk factors increased over the year, high family rejection did not impact community connectedness and SMW reported lower collective self-esteem. Racial minority SMW reported lower community connectedness, but not lower collective self-esteem. Families likely buffer or exacerbate societal risks for ill health. Findings highlight the protective role of LGBTQ communities and normative resilience among SMW and their families. PMID:25572956

  2. Sexually-transmitted disease risk in a Micronesian atoll population.

    PubMed

    Brewis, A A

    1992-10-01

    The potential health threat of AIDS to the native island-based populations in the Pacific is now widely appreciated by those working in the public-health sector throughout the region. Although several countries in the region are yet to identify any cases of AIDS or HIV seropositivity, there is reason to suspect that heterosexual contact may emerge as a predominant mode of spread of HIV infection into native Pacific island populations. Sexual networks and their relationship to potentially 'risky behaviours' are described for a single native Micronesian atoll community on the basis of ethnographic observation and interviewing. This description is combined with the investigation of historic-demographic dimensions of the epidemiology of sexually-transmitted diseases in the same population to draw some conclusions about the opportunities for HIV transmission and acquisition among the sexually-active portions of this community. Although sexually-transmitted diseases have not had an appreciable epidemiological or demographic impact on the population in the past, the sexual networks within the community and beyond provide ample opportunity for the introduction and spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV and its sequel AIDS. PMID:10148657

  3. Factors influencing health care access perceptions and care-seeking behaviors of immigrant Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals: Baseline findings from the HOLA intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, AE; Reboussin, BA; Mann, L; Ma, A; Song, E; Alonzo, J; Rhodes, SD

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about immigrant Latino sexual minorities' health seeking behaviors. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of access and actual care behaviors among this population in North Carolina. Methods A community-based participatory research partnership recruited 180 Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals within preexisting social networks to participate in a sexual health intervention. Mixed-effects logistic regression models examined factors influencing health care access perceptions and use of services (HIV testing and routine check-ups). Results Results indicate that perceptions of access and actual care behaviors are low and affected by individual and structural factors, including: years living in NC, reported poor general health, perceptions of discrimination, micro-, meso-, and macro-level barriers, and residence in a Medically Underserved Area. Discussion To improve Latino sexual minority health, focus must be placed on multiple levels, individual characteristics (e.g., demographics), clinic factors (e.g., provider competence and clinic environment), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). PMID:25418235

  4. Probing minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei

    2016-06-15

    The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies. PMID:26852201

  5. Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

    2008-07-01

    Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

  6. Condom use among immigrant Latino sexual minorities: multilevel analysis after respondent-driven sampling.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P

    2015-02-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  7. Condom Use among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities: Multilevel Analysis after Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored correlates of condom use within a respondent-driven sample of 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant Latino sexual minorities, including gay and bisexual men, other men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender person, in North Carolina. Five analytic approaches for modeling data collected using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) were compared. Across most approaches, knowledge of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and increased condom use self-efficacy predicted consistent condom use and increased homophobia predicted decreased consistent condom use. The same correlates were not significant in all analyses but were consistent in most. Clustering due to recruitment chains was low, while clustering due to recruiter was substantial. This highlights the importance accounting for clustering when analyzing RDS data. PMID:25646728

  8. Is There a Difference? The Impact of Campus Climate on Sexual Minority and Gender Minority Students' Levels of Outness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Bartolo, Adriana N.

    2013-01-01

    Key scholars have studied campus climate, and often these climate studies are done through the lens of race and racial issues on campus. A few studies have explored the interaction between campus climate and sexual and gender minority students. However, those studies, like the climate studies through a racial lens, found that lesbian, gay,…

  9. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Suicide: Understanding Subgroup Differences to Inform Interventions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D

    2016-08-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes. PMID:27348621

  10. Lack of Sexual Minorities' Rights as a Barrier to HIV Prevention Among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Asia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve

    2015-03-01

    This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking. PMID:26790014

  11. Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.

    PubMed

    Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

    2014-01-01

    Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

  12. Factors affecting academic achievement among sexual minority and gender-variant youth.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Scheer, Jillian R; Mereish, Ethan H

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of victimization among sexual minority youth (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; LGBT) and gender-variant youth remain pronounced in many schools. Although much work has shown the connection between homophobic bullying and mental and physical health, there has been limited attention to how victimization impedes learning, academic achievement, and other school-related outcomes for these youth. In this chapter, we propose several pathways through which victimization leads to academic disparities among sexual minority and gender-variant youth, with attention to its effects on individual learning processes (e.g., motivation, concentration, self efficacy, and other cognitive stressors) as well as broader psychological and social processes (e.g., mental health, school avoidance, harmful coping strategies, exclusionary discipline). We also consider protective factors (e.g., social support, Gay-Straight Alliances, extracurricular involvement, nondiscrimination policies, inclusive curriculum) that could promote resilience and suggest potential mechanisms by which they may operate. In doing so, we aim to stimulate ideas for an advancement of research in this area. PMID:25344999

  13. From the margins to the center: ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Chung, Heewoon; Tillman, Shaquita; Belcourt, Annie

    2009-10-01

    The trauma of sexual assault is heightened for many women by the interlocking experience of societal traumas such as racism, sexism, and poverty. The mental health effects of sexual assault are mediated by race and ethnicity. The investigators explore the experiences of African American, Asian American, Latina, and Native American female survivors of sexual assault. The sociohistorical context of intergenerational trauma in the lives of ethnic minorities is a part of the context for the contemporary experience of sexualized violence. Racial and ethnic dynamics related to sexual assault prevalence, mental health effects, and disclosure are examined. Literature related to cultural beliefs, community attitudes, and perceived social support in relation to sexualized violence are also reviewed. Finally, practice, research, and policy implications are discussed. PMID:19578029

  14. HIV Testing Among Immigrant Sexual and Gender Minority Latinos in a US Region with Little Historical Latino Presence

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos constitute a vulnerable subgroup about which little is known. We examined HIV testing among 190 such Latinos recruited via respondent-driven sampling in North Carolina, a state with little historical Latino presence but recent, rapid growth of this population. Sixty-eight percent reported an HIV test in the past year, and nearly half reported multiple HIV tests. Concern for their health was the most frequent reason for seeking an HIV test. Reasons not to get tested included fear of a positive test, previous HIV tests, worry that test results might be reported to the government, and concerns that others might treat the person differently if found to be HIV positive. In a multiple variable model, correlates of HIV testing included age, educational attainment, HIV stigma, comfort with sexual orientation, and previous STD diagnoses. Among participants reporting anal sex, consistent condom use was associated with HIV testing, suggesting that protective behaviors may co-occur. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious interventions to increase HIV testing among this subgroup. PMID:24138487

  15. The language of "sexual minorities" and the politics of identity: a position paper.

    PubMed

    Petchesky, Rosalind P

    2009-05-01

    In any highly contested political domain, language can be a potent force for change or an obstacle to understanding and coalition building across difference. This is surely the case in the global debates over sexuality and gender, where even those terms themselves have aroused heated conflicts. In this spirit, we want to challenge the uncritical use of the term "sexual minorities", based on a number of historical and conceptual problems with which that term - like the larger thicket of identities and identity politics it signifies - is encumbered. These include: ignoring history, legitimating dubious normativity, fixing biological categories, and recreating exclusions. With this struggle, we seem caught in a modernist dilemma between two desires: to name and honour difference by signifying identities and to avoid exclusivity and hierarchy by reclaiming universals. The insistence of diverse groups on naming themselves and achieving recognition of their distinctness and variety will go on as long as aspirations for democracy exist, because that is the nature and necessity of emancipatory politics. At the same time, our language needs to reflect the fluidity and complexity of sexuality and gender expressions in everyday life and their intricate interweaving with other conditions such as class, race, ethnicity, time and place. PMID:19523587

  16. I Want Your Sext: Sexting and Sexual Risk in Emerging Adult Minority Men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-04-01

    Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners. PMID:27459165

  17. Non-Parental Adults in the Social and Risk Behavior Networks of Sexual Minority Male Youth

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of non-parental adults (NPAs), or adults outside of caregivers (e.g., extended family, natural mentors), in the lives of adolescents and emerging adults has received a rapidly expanding amount of empirical attention in the last decade. Sexual minority male youth (SMMY) face disproportionate risks of abuse and victimization in relationships with parents and peers. Yet, despite the fact that this group, therefore, may be both potentially vulnerable to negative interpersonal influences but also poised to benefit from additional relationships, NPA involvement in the lives of SMMY is currently not well understood in the extant literature. This study sought to examine and characterize the involvement of NPAs in the social and risk networks of SMMY (n = 175; 54% African American, 21% Hispanic/Latino, 14% Caucasian; ages 17–23). Most SMMY identified at least one NPA, such as friends and grandparents, in their networks. Three categories of relationships were identified, Strictly Social, which only involved social interactions; Complex, which were both social and involved substance use and/or sexual activity; and Risky, which purely consisted of substance use or sexual activity. Relationships were rated as emotionally “closer” among ethnic minority SMMY, although, racial/ethnic similarity between SMMY and NPAs was not associated with relationship closeness. In addition, relationships involving female and heterosexual NPAs were also rated as stronger. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of considering multiple types of relationships between SMMY and NPAs when designing intervention and prevention efforts. Moreover, African American and Latino SMMY, who represent the most vulnerable sub-groups of SMMY in terms of HIV-risk, may be particularly poised to benefit from positive NPA relationships. PMID:26074655

  18. Spreading of sexually transmitted diseases in heterosexual populations

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Latora, Vito; Moreno, Yamir; Profumo, Elio

    2008-01-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted diseases (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV, etc.) across populations is a major concern for scientists and health agencies. In this context, both the data collection on sexual contact networks and the modeling of disease spreading are intensive contributions to the search for effective immunization policies. Here, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual contact networks, is considered. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the system size in finite populations. We show that the epidemic outbreak in bipartite populations, with number of sexual partners distributed as in empirical observations from national sex surveys, takes place for larger spreading rates than for the case in which the bipartite nature of the network is not taken into account. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the theoretical results. Our findings indicate that the restriction to crossed infections between the two classes of individuals (males and females) has to be taken into account in the design of efficient immunization strategies for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:18212127

  19. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  20. Sexual (Minority) Trajectories, Mental Health, and Alcohol Use: A Longitudinal Study of Youth as They Transition to Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jessica N; Pasley, Kay

    2015-08-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer/questioning youth health disparities are well documented; however, study limitations restrict our understanding of how the temporal interplay among domains of sexuality (attraction, behavior, and identity) situate individuals to be more or less at risk for poor mental health and alcohol use across the transition to adulthood. Four waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 12,679; 51.29 % female) were used with repeated measures latent class analysis to estimate sexual trajectory groups designated by prospective reports of romantic attraction, sexual/romantic behavior, and sexual identity from adolescence to adulthood. Five unique trajectories emerged: two heterosexual groups (heterosexual early daters [58.37 %] and heterosexual later daters [29.83 %]) and three sexual minority groups (heteroflexible [6.44 %], later bisexually identified [3.32 %], and LG[B] identified [2.03 %]). These sexual trajectories differentiate risk for depressive symptomology, suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and alcohol use during adolescence and early adulthood. Groups where individuals first reported same-sex attraction and sexual minority identities in adulthood (heteroflexible and later bisexually identified) had similar levels of depression, suicidality, and greater substance use than those who largely reported same-sex attraction and behavior during adolescence (the LG[B] identified group). These later recognition groups showed greater risk for poor outcomes in waves where they also first reported these changes in attraction, behaviors, and identities. The emergence of three sexual minority groups reveal within-group differences in sexuality and sexual trajectories and how these experiences relate to risk and timing of risk across the transition to adulthood. PMID:25956289

  1. The influence of structural stigma and rejection sensitivity on young sexual minority men's daily tobacco and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Starks, Tyrel J

    2014-02-01

    Stigma occurs at both individual and structural levels, but existing research tends to examine the effect of individual and structural forms of stigma in isolation, rather than considering potential synergistic effects. To address this gap, our study examined whether stigma at the individual level, namely gay-related rejection sensitivity, interacts with structural stigma to predict substance use among young sexual minority men. Sexual minority (n = 119) participants completed online measures of our constructs (e.g., rejection sensitivity). Participants currently resided across a broad array of geographic areas (i.e., 24 U.S. states), and had attended high school in 28 states, allowing us to capture sufficient variance in current and past forms of structural stigma, defined as (1) a lack of state-level policies providing equal opportunities for heterosexual and sexual minority individuals and (2) negative state-aggregated attitudes toward sexual minorities. To measure daily substance use, we utilized a daily diary approach, whereby all participants were asked to indicate whether they used tobacco or alcohol on nine consecutive days. Results indicated that structural stigma interacted with rejection sensitivity to predict tobacco and alcohol use, and that this relationship depended on the developmental timing of exposure to structural stigma. In contrast, rejection sensitivity did not mediate the relationship between structural stigma and substance use. These results suggest that psychological predispositions, such as rejection sensitivity, interact with features of the social environment, such as structural stigma, to predict important health behaviors among young sexual minority men. These results add to a growing body of research documenting the multiple levels through which stigma interacts to produce negative health outcomes among sexual minority individuals. PMID:24507912

  2. Effects of Victimization and Violence on Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Heath, Ryan D.; Elsaesser, Caitlin E.; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Sexual minority youth (SMY) are at higher risk for victimization and suicide than are heterosexual youth (HY). Relatively little research has examined which types of victimization are most closely linked to suicide, which is necessary to develop targeted prevention interventions. The present study was conducted to address this deficit. Methods: The data come from the 2011 Chicago Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 1,907). Structural equation modeling (SEM) in Mplus evaluated the direct, indirect, and total effects of sexual orientation on a latent indicator of suicidal ideation and behaviors via seven types of victimization. Four indicators of victimization were school-specific (e.g., harassment due to sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GID), bullying, threatened or injured with a weapon, and skipping school due to safety concerns), and three indicators assessed other types of victimization (e.g., electronic bullying, intimate partner violence, and sexual abuse). Results: Thirteen percent of youth were classified as SMY. Significantly more SMY than HY reported suicidal ideation (27.95% vs. 13.64%), a suicide plan (22.78% vs. 12.36%), and at least one suicide attempt (29.92% vs. 12.43%) in the past year (all P < .001). A greater percentage of SMY reported SO/GID-related harassment, skipping school, electronic bullying, and sexual abuse. Sexual orientation was not directly related to suicidal ideation and behaviors in SEM. Rather, SMY's elevated risk of suicidality functioned indirectly through two forms of school-based victimization: being threatened or injured with a weapon (B = .19, SE = .09, P ≤ .05) and experiencing SO/GID-specific harassment (B = .40, SE = .15, P ≤ .01). There also was a trend for SMY to skip school as a strategy to reduce suicide risk. Conclusion: Although SMY experience higher rates of victimization than do HY, school-based victimization that involves weapons or is due to one's SO

  3. The Predictive Syndemic Effect of Multiple Psychosocial Problems on Health Care Costs and Utilization among Sexual Minority Women.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Sarah E; Elsesser, Steven; Grasso, Chris; Safren, Steven A; Bradford, Judith B; Mereish, Ethan; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies documenting sexual minority women's disproportionate risk for a range of medical, mental health, and substance use disorders have not provided a predictive framework for understanding their interrelations and outcomes. The present study aimed to address this gap by testing the syndemic effect of co-occurring psychosocial problems on 7-year health care costs and utilization among sexual minority women. The sample was comprised of sexual minority women (N = 341) who were seen at an urban LGBT-affirmative community health center. Medical and mental health care utilization and cost data were extracted from electronic medical records. Demographically adjusted regression models revealed that co-occurring psychosocial problems (i.e., childhood sexual abuse, partner violence, substance use, and mental health distress [history of suicide attempt]) were all strongly interrelated. The presence of these indicators had a syndemic (additive) effect on medical costs and utilization and mental health utilization over 7-year follow-up, but no effect on 7-year mental health costs. These results suggest that the presence and additive effect of these syndemic conditions may, in part, explain increased medical costs and utilization (and higher medical morbidity) among sexual minority women. PMID:26438415

  4. Eliminating Behavioral Health Disparities and Improving Outcomes for Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Katherine; Ybarra, Rick; Chapa, Teresa; Martinez, Octavio N

    2016-01-01

    Integrated care holds promise for reducing mental health disparities for racial and ethnic minority groups, but studies are lacking. The authors consider critical components of effective integrated models for minority populations, including cultural and linguistic competence and a diverse workforce, and describe emerging best practices. To successfully implement integrated models into practice with minority populations will require guidance from communities, consumers and family members, and national experts. PMID:26325461

  5. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  6. Microaggressions, Feelings of Difference, and Resilience Among Adopted Children with Sexual Minority Parents.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Crain, Emily E; Oakley, M K; Cashen, Krystal K; Garber, Karin J

    2016-01-01

    Limited research exists about the unique experiences and possible marginalization of children with sexual minority parents. From a larger longitudinal project of diverse adoptive families, we examined cross-sectional data using mixed methods from interviews with 49 adopted children (M age = 8 years; 47% female) in 27 two-father and 22 two-mother families. Using thematic analysis, we coded themes of awareness of difference, microaggressions, and resilience (i.e., coping and positive family conceptualizations). Children experienced "feeling different" and microaggressions from peers, but generally at a low to medium intensity and with neutral (not negative) emotion. More instances of resilience and positive family conceptualizations were reported than microaggressions or feelings of difference, suggesting that children develop positive perceptions of their family and navigate experiences of difference with resilience. Filling important gaps in the literature, we discuss implications of our results for practice and policy. PMID:26374241

  7. Social Stigma and Sexual Minorities' Romantic Relationship Functioning: A Meta-Analytic Review.

    PubMed

    Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    To bolster knowledge of determinants of relationship functioning among sexual minorities, the current meta-analysis aimed to quantitatively review evidence for the association between social stigma and relationship functioning as well as examine potential moderators. Thirty-five studies were identified, including 130 effect sizes (39 independent; N = 10,745). Across studies, evidence was found for a small but significant inverse association between social stigma and relationship functioning. Furthermore, this association was moderated by stigma type (with more deleterious associations for internalized relative to perceived stigma) and dimension of relationship functioning (with more deleterious associations for affective relative to cognitive and negative relative to positive). Evidence for demographic moderators (region, sex, race, age) was generally mixed although important limitations related to unique characteristics of study samples are discussed. We conclude by highlighting the importance of social stigma for relationship functioning and point toward directions for future research and policy action. PMID:26199218

  8. Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

    2011-08-01

    Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988

  9. The HIV Risk Profiles of Latino Sexual Minorities and Transgender Persons Who Use Websites or Apps Designed for Social and Sexual Networking.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not. Data from 167 participants who completed the baseline survey of a community-level HIV prevention intervention, which harnesses the social networks of Latino sexual minorities and transgender persons, were analyzed. One quarter of participants (28.74%, n = 48) reported using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking, and 119 (71.26%) reported not using websites or apps designed for social and sexual networking. Those who used websites or apps were younger and reported more male sex partners, a sexually transmitted disease diagnosis, and illicit drug use other than marijuana. HIV prevention interventions for those who use websites or apps should consider addressing these risks for HIV. PMID:26272786

  10. Understanding Health-Care Needs of Sexual and Gender Minority Veterans: How Targeted Research and Policy Can Improve Health.

    PubMed

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Kauth, Michael R; Sandfort, Theo; Matza, Alexis R; Sullivan, J Cherry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2014-03-01

    Given the size of the patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), it is likely the largest single provider of health care for sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals in the United States, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons. However, current VHA demographic data-collection strategies limit the understanding of how many SGM veterans there are, thereby making a population-based understanding of the health needs of SGM veterans receiving care in VHA difficult. In this article, we summarize the emergent research findings about SGM veterans and the first initiatives that have been implemented by VHA to promote quality care. Though the research on SGM veterans is in its infancy, it suggests that SGM veterans share some of the health risks noted in veterans generally and also risks associated with SGM status. Some promising resiliency factors have also been identified. These findings have implications for both VHA and non-VHA systems in the treatment of SGM veterans. However, more research on the unique needs of SGM veterans is needed to fully understand their health risks and resiliencies in addition to health-care utilization patterns. PMID:26789509

  11. Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus

    PubMed Central

    Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students’ alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Methods Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Results Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.00). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48–2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24–1.90). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.01. Conclusion The results provide further evidence for minority stress theory and suggest that clinical alcohol use interventions with sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal

  12. Using Freirean Pedagogy of Just IRE to Inform Critical Social Learning in Arts-Informed Community Education for Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.; Wells, Kristopher

    2007-01-01

    The authors work in the intersection of theorizing, experience, and research in this article as they explore a critical social model that they created to guide an informal, arts-informed, community education project for sexual-minority youth and young adults. As they consider the influence of arts-informed education and Freirean pedagogy of…

  13. "Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

    2011-01-01

    Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

  14. "I Just Want to Be Myself": Adolescents with Disabilities Who Identify as a Sexual or Gender Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Laurie Gutmann; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities who identify as a sexual or gender minority are at high risk for negative school experiences and poor outcomes, including peer rejection, bullying, and dropping out. Using an intersectionality framework, this study examined how multiple marginalized identities influence sense of self and school experience for this…

  15. Early Life Psychosocial Stressors and Housing Instability among Young Sexual Minority Men: the P18 Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kristen D; Kapadia, Farzana; Ompad, Danielle C; D'Avanzo, Paul A; Duncan, Dustin T; Halkitis, Perry N

    2016-06-01

    Homelessness and housing instability is a significant public health problem among young sexual minority men. While there is a growing body of literature on correlates of homelessness among sexual minority men, there is a lack of literature parsing the different facets of housing instability. The present study examines factors associated with both living and sleeping in unstable housing among n = 600 sexual minority men (ages 18-19). Multivariate models were constructed to examine the extent to which sociodemographic, interpersonal, and behavioral factors as well as adverse childhood experiences explain housing instability. Overall, 13 % of participants reported sleeping in unstable housing and 18 % had lived in unstable housing at some point in the 6 months preceding the assessment. The odds of currently sleeping in unstable housing were greater among those who experienced more frequent lack of basic needs (food, proper hygiene, clothing) during their childhoods. More frequent experiences of childhood physical abuse and a history of arrest were associated with currently living in unstable housing. Current enrollment in school was a protective factor with both living and sleeping in unstable housing. These findings indicate that being unstably housed can be rooted in early life experiences and suggest a point of intervention that may prevent unstable housing among sexual minority men. PMID:27169631

  16. Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

  17. Negotiating the Confluence: Middle-Eastern, Immigrant, Sexual-Minority Men and Concerns for Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichler, Matthew A.; Mizzi, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual-minority male immigrants re-locating from the Middle East to the United States and Canada have particular experiences upon entry and integration into their new societies. The needs of learning and identity are highlighted through a multiple case approach involving three men. Interviews were conducted with the three participants, which were…

  18. Urban Students' Attitudes about Sexual Minorities across Intersections of Sex and Race/Ethnicity: Data from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastic, Billie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students' attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more…

  19. School Climate, Individual Support, or Both? Gay-Straight Alliances and the Mental Health of Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, N. Eugene; Wisneski, Hope; Kane, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 284 sexual minority youth and young adults, this paper examines the relationships between mental health variables, the absence or presence of a gay-straight alliance, and membership status in a gay-straight alliance. The results suggest that the presence of a gay-straight alliance in a school or college, rather than actual…

  20. Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual…

  1. Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

    Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

  2. Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths’ developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed. PMID:22957108

  3. Evidence and knowledge gaps on the disease burden in sexual and gender minorities: a review of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Blondeel, Karel; Say, Lale; Chou, Doris; Toskin, Igor; Khosla, Rajat; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) include individuals with a wide range of sexual orientations, physical characteristics, and gender identities and expressions. Data suggest that people in this group face a significant and poorly understood set of additional health risks and bear a higher burden of some diseases compared to the general population. A large amount of data is available on HIV/AIDS, but far less on other health problems. In this review we aimed to synthesize the knowledge on the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions and violence experienced by SGM, based on available systematic reviews. We conducted a global review of systematic reviews, including searching the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaboration libraries, as well as PubMed, using a range of search terms describing the populations of interest, without time or language restrictions. Google Scholar was also scanned for unpublished literature, and references of all selected reviews were checked to identify further relevant articles. We found 30 systematic reviews, all originally written in English. Nine reviews provided data on HIV, 12 on other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 4 on cancer, 4 on violence and 3 on mental health and substance use. A quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. The findings are presented in a narrative format. Our review primarily showed that there is a high burden of disease for certain subpopulations of SGM in HIV, STIs, STI-related cancers and mental health conditions, and that they also face high rates of violence. Secondly, our review revealed many knowledge gaps. Those gaps partly stem from a lack of original research, but there is an equally urgent need to conduct systematic and literature reviews to assess what we already know on the disease burden in SGM. Additional reviews are needed on the non-biological factors that could contribute to the higher disease burden. In addition, to provide universal access to

  4. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention.

    PubMed

    Sun, Christina J; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D

    2015-05-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her eight social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:25416309

  5. Latino sexual and gender identity minorities promoting sexual health within their social networks: Process evaluation findings from a lay health advisor intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Christina J.; García, Manuel; Mann, Lilli; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    The HOLA intervention was a lay health advisor intervention designed to reduce the disproportionate HIV burden borne by Latino sexual and gender identity minorities (gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men, and transgender persons) living in the United States. Process evaluation data were collected for over a year of intervention implementation from 11 trained Latino male and transgender lay health advisors (Navegantes) to document the activities each Navegante conducted to promote condom use and HIV testing among his or her 8 social network members enrolled in the study. Over 13 months, the Navegantes reported conducting 1,820 activities. The most common activity was condom distribution. Navegantes had extensive reach beyond their enrolled social network members, and they engaged in health promotion activities beyond social network members enrolled in the study. There were significant differences between the types of activities conducted by Navegantes depending on who was present. Results suggest that lay health advisor interventions reach large number of at-risk community members and may benefit populations disproportionately impacted by HIV. PMID:25416309

  6. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sclerotinia minor from peanut research plots in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia minor is the causal agent of Sclerotinia blight, a disease that significantly reduces peanut (Arachis hypogea) productivity. This study analyzed the diversity and population structure of 164 S. minor isolates from Oklahoma. Isolates were obtained from infected stems of peanut plants fr...

  7. Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

    2014-02-01

    Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

  8. Asian Americans: America's Fastest Growing Minority Group. Population Trends and Public Policy. Number 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, William P.; Felt, Judy C.

    Newly available statistical data from the March 1990 Supplement of the Current Population Survey (CPS) indicates that Asians and Pacific Islanders were the fastest growing minority group in the United States during the 1980s. While the size of the Asian American population trails behind the Hispanic American and Black populations, changes in…

  9. Reactions to First Postpubertal Male Same-Sex Sexual Experience in the Kinsey Sample: A Comparison of Minors With Peers, Minors With Adults, and Adults With Adults.

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce; Welter, Max

    2016-10-01

    Rind and Welter (2014) examined first postpubertal coitus using the Kinsey sample, finding that reactions were just as positive, and no more negative, among minors with adults compared to minors with peers and adults with adults. In the present study, we examined first postpubertal male same-sex sexual experiences in the Kinsey same-sex sample (i.e., participants mostly with extensive postpubertal same-sex behavior), comparing reactions across the same age categories. These data were collected between 1938 and 1961 (M year: 1946). Minors under age 18 years with adults (M ages: 14.0 and 30.5, respectively) reacted positively (i.e., enjoyed the experience "much") often (70 %) and emotionally negatively (e.g., fear, disgust, shame, regret) infrequently (16 %). These rates were the same as adults with adults (M ages: 21.2 and 25.9, respectively): 68 and 16 %, respectively. Minors with peers (M ages: 13.3 and 13.8, respectively) reacted positively significantly more often (82 %) and negatively nominally less often (9 %). Minors with adults reacted positively to intercourse (oral, anal) just as often (69 %) as to outercourse (body contact, masturbation, femoral) (72 %) and reacted emotionally negatively significantly less often (9 vs. 25 %, respectively). For younger minors (≤14) with adults aged 5-19 years older, reactions were just as positive (83 %) as for minors with peers within 1 year of age (84 %) and no more emotionally negative (11 vs. 7 %, respectively). Results are discussed in relation to findings regarding first coitus in the Kinsey sample and to the cultural context particular to Kinsey's time. PMID:27178172

  10. Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population with Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Information and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Latino and Latina sexual attitudes and behaviors must be understood if educators and counselors hope to reach this population with effective sexuality and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) information and education. The general U.S. Latino population is mostly sexually conservative; direct talk in public…

  11. Sexual Minority Specific and Related Traumatic Experiences are Associated with Increased Risk for Smoking Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    O’Cleirigh, Conall; Dale, Sannisha K.; Elsesser, Steven; Pantalone, David W.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our study examined the hypothesis that sexual minority specific stress and trauma histories may explain some of the risk for smoking among gay/bisexual men. Methods Patients at a Boston community health center were invited to complete a 25-item questionnaire assessing demographics, general health, trauma history, and substance use. Of the 3,103 who responded, 1309 identified as male and gay or bisexual (82.8% White and mean age of 38.55 [sd = 9.76]). Results A multinomial logistic regression with current and former smoking status as the outcome (never smoked as referent group) and covariates of age, education, employment, HIV status, and race, showed that the number of sexual minority stressors/traumas were significantly related to the odds of both current and former smoking. In comparison to participants with no trauma history, those who reported 1, 2, 3, and 4 traumas had respectively 1.70 (OR=1.70: 95% CI: 1.24-2.34), 2.19 (OR=2.19: 95% CI: 1.48-3.23), 2.88 (OR=2.88: 95% CI: 1.71-4.85), and 6.94 (OR=6.94: 95% CI: 2.62-18.38) the odds of identifying as a current smoker. Adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed a significant dose effect of number of sexual minority stressors/traumas with odds of ever smoking. Experiencing intimate partner violence, anti-gay verbal attack, anti-gay physical attack, and childhood sexual abuse were each independently associated with increased odds of the smoking outcomes. Conclusion A sexual minority specific trauma history may represent a vulnerability for smoking among gay/bisexual men. Interventions that address trauma may enhance the efficacy of smoking cessation programs and improve the mental health of gay/bisexual men. PMID:25754971

  12. The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia

    PubMed Central

    Burtseva, Tatiana E.; Uvarova, Tatiana E.; Tomsky, Mikhail I.; Odland, Jon Ø.

    2014-01-01

    This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, “Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements.” The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements. PMID:25405106

  13. Childhood sexual abuse by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church: a prevalence estimate among the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA. PMID:26003819

  14. Sexual assault while too intoxicated to resist: a general population study of Norwegian teenage girls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15–18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Methods Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n = 2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. Results The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Conclusion Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway – notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females’ sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk

  15. Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population

    PubMed Central

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E.; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760–1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

  16. Does it get better? A quasi-cohort analysis of sexual minority wage gaps.

    PubMed

    Waite, Sean

    2015-11-01

    With few exceptions, it has been found that gay men earn less and lesbians earn more than their heterosexual counterparts. Most of the current literature has used single cross-sectional datasets to test possible sources of these wage differentials. This study adds to this literature by presenting a theoretical framework, grounded in gender theory, to explore: (a) whether sexual minority wage gaps have attenuated over the last decade, (b) whether wage gaps vary by age group, and (c) if wage gaps vary with duration in the labor market. Using Canadian census and survey data, this study finds no evidence that wage gaps have attenuated for gay men and only small reductions for lesbians and heterosexual women, relative to heterosexual men. Wage gaps are larger for younger gay men than for older gay men, which may suggest a "coming out penalty". The lesbian wage premium, vis-á-vis heterosexual women, does not appear at initial labor market entry; rather it develops with duration in the labour market. PMID:26463538

  17. Black, queer, and looking for a job: an exploratory study of career decision making among self-identified sexual minorities at an urban historically black college/university.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latashia N

    2014-01-01

    This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise. PMID:24885738

  18. Rate of fixation of beneficial mutations in sexual populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Joseilme F.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Sátiro, Caio; Campos, Paulo R. A.

    2009-06-01

    We have investigated the rate of substitution of advantageous mutations in populations of haploid organisms where the rate of recombination can be controlled. We have verified that in all the situations recombination speeds up adaptation through recombination of beneficial mutations from distinct lineages in a single individual, and so reducing the intensity of clonal interference. The advantage of sex for adaptation is even stronger when deleterious mutations occur since now recombination can also restore genetic background free of deleterious mutations. However, our simulation results demonstrate that evidence of clonal interference, as increased mean selective effect of fixed mutations and reduced likelihood of fixation of small-effect mutations, are also present in sexual populations. What we see is that this evidence is delayed when compared to asexual populations.

  19. Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.

    PubMed Central

    Bui, T. D.; Pham, C. K.; Pham, T. H.; Hoang, L. T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Vu, T. Q.; Detels, R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. FINDINGS: A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase. PMID:11217661

  20. HIV, Sexual Violence and Special Populations: Adolescence and Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Herold, Betsy C.

    2013-01-01

    The risk of male to female transmission of HIV is impacted by baseline inflammation in the female genital tract, semen viral load and seminal plasma’s ability to induce specific patterns of cervical cytokine signalling and influx of immune cell populations. Disruption of the epithelial barrier during non-consensual intercourse may trigger further inflammation and initiation of cell-signalling pathways, thus facilitating transmission of HIV and expansion of local infection. Adolescent and pregnant women are at high risk for sexual violence and may exhibit alterations of genital mucosal immunity that promote immune activation, making them uniquely vulnerable to HIV acquisition. PMID:23176128

  1. Associations between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review of population-based data.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Wendy; Patrick, Kent; Smith, Anthony M A; Pitts, Marian K

    2015-04-01

    The assumption that early sexual debut leads to adverse outcomes has been used as justification for sexual health interventions and policies aimed at delaying sexual initiation, yet research in the area has been limited. This review identified and synthesized published literature on the association between early first sexual intercourse and later sexual/reproductive outcomes. Literature searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Current Contents. In all, 65 citations met the selection criteria (industrialized, population-based studies). By far the most common sexual behavior to have been investigated has been sexual partners. Studies consistently reported early first intercourse to be associated with more recent, lifetime, and concurrent sexual partners. Early initiators were also more likely to participate in a wider range of sexual practices and report increased sexual satisfaction (among men). Furthermore, early first intercourse, in some studies, was shown to increase the risk of teen pregnancies, teen births, and having an abortion, while findings on STIs and contraceptive use have been mixed. These findings, however, must be interpreted with caution due to methodological problems and limitations present in the research, including a lack of consensus on what constitutes early sexual intercourse and inconsistencies and problems with analyses. PMID:25425161

  2. Sexual Minority Health Disparities in Adult Men and Women in the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2010

    PubMed Central

    Gamarel, Kristi E.; Grin, Benjamin M.; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kahler, Christopher W.; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Zaller, Nickolas D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used nationally representative data to investigate health disparities associated with sexual minority status among adults in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from 11 114 adults who participated in the 2001 to 2010 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Using multiple logistic regressions, we examined the prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, mental health problems, cigarette smoking, and alcohol and illicit drug use in sexual minorities and heterosexual adults. Results. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, sexual minority men had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 and self-reported gonorrhea and chlamydia. Sexual minority women had greater odds of mental health problems, testing positive for hepatitis C, smoking, heavy drinking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions. Numerous health disparities continue to face sexual minority men and women in the United States. Notably, health disparities persisted beyond the role of sociodemographic factors, including access to insurance and primary care, suggesting that further research is warranted to identify the determinants of health inequity for sexual minorities. PMID:26270288

  3. Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

  4. Body image and eating disorder symptoms in sexual minority men: A test and extension of objectification theory.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Marcie C; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-04-01

    On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of objectification theory with the sample. Specifically, findings were consistent with relations posited in objectification theory among sexual objectification experiences, internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness, body surveillance, body shame, and eating disorder symptoms. Within this set of positive relations, internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness partially mediated the link of sexual objectification experiences with body surveillance; body surveillance partially mediated the relation of internalization with body shame; and body shame partially mediated the relation of body surveillance with eating disorder symptoms. In addition to these relations, internalized homophobia was related to greater eating disorder symptoms through body shame, and recalled childhood harassment for gender nonconformity was linked with eating disorder symptoms through a positive series of relations involving internalization of cultural standards of attractiveness, body surveillance, and body shame. PMID:21133567

  5. Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

  6. A Perspective on Delivering Educational Services to Special Populations--Black and Other Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavis, Kanawha Z.

    For educational delivery systems to meet the needs of special rural populations of minority children, teaching and learning strategies must take into account the three factors of human identity, culture, and ruralness itself. Children who are members of special populations often have an even greater need than most children for recognition,…

  7. Adolescent sexuality in Asia: new focus for population policy.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1989-09-01

    As the age at marriage continues to rise in East and Southeast Asia, the fertility behavior of unmarried teenagers is receiving more attention from population policymakers. In addition to fertility reduction through family planning, Asian societies today consider population planning strategies in relation to national needs and social goals, including such matters as the population's growth rate, age structure, educational quality and skills. The number of single youth in Asia is growing much more rapidly than the total youth population. By the year 2010, for example, India is projected to have nearly 70 million single teenagers, aged 15-19, 188% more than in 1980. In many developing countries today, such as the Philippines and Korea, the rising age at marriage has combined with rapid urbanization, improved status for women, and more educational opportunity to alter both the behavioral norms of young people and the traditional means of social control over youth. Studies of contemporary adolescent sexuality have been conducted in 4 Asian countries. In the Philippines an overt independent youth homosexual culture was found to exist in urban and to some extent rural areas. In Thailand research revealed little conservative resistance to family planning or to contraceptives for young unmarried people. Surveys in Taiwan indicate that behavior related to dating and choice of spouse has become more liberal, and a survey in Hong Kong revealed a higher level of premarital sex and use of prostitutes among Chinese men than expected. Population policy perspectives that need to be considered in these changing times include: 1) issues of access to family planning services by unmarried people below the legal age of maturity; 2) the development of social institutions, such as exist in Thailand and the Philippines, to guide adolescents' behavior; 3) more extensive study of adolescent sexuality; 4) establishment of the scope of family policy. PMID:12315866

  8. Patterns of body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors in heterosexual and sexual minority adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Masyn, Katherine E; Corliss, Heather L; Scherer, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual orientation, past-year desire for toned/defined muscles and concerns with weight and shape, and past-year binge eating, restrictive dieting, purging (vomiting or laxative use), and use of products to increase muscularity (e.g., creatine, steroids). Latent class analyses identified 2 patterns at ages 15-16 years and 3 patterns at 17-18 and 19-20 years: healthy (all ages; low body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors; 54-74% of observations), muscle-concerned (ages 17-18 and 19-20; relatively high muscularity concern and product use; 18-21% of observations), and lean-concerned (all ages; relatively high weight and shape concern, dieting, and binge eating; 19-28% of observations). Latent transition analyses revealed that sexual minority males (i.e., mostly heterosexual, gay, and bisexual) were more likely than completely heterosexual males to be lean-concerned at ages 17-18 and 19-20 years and to transition to the lean-concerned class from the healthy class. There were no sexual orientation differences in odds of being muscle-concerned. Both heterosexual and sexual minority males are at risk for presenting body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors that may have deleterious health consequences. Results suggest the need for screening for concerns and behaviors related to leanness and muscularity in early adolescence among all males, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:26098578

  9. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the US national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15–20 years) participants reported sexual orientation, past-year desire for toned/defined muscles and concerns with weight and shape, and past-year binge eating, restrictive dieting, purging (vomiting or laxative use) and use of products to increase muscularity (e.g., creatine, steroids). Latent class analyses identified two patterns at ages 15–16 years and three patterns at 17–18 and 19–20 years: Healthy (all ages; low body image concerns and weight-and shape-related behaviors; 54%–74% of observations), Muscle-Concerned (ages 17–18 and 19– 20; relatively high muscularity concern and product use; 18%–21% of observations), and Lean-Concerned (all ages; relatively high weight and shape concern, dieting, and binge eating; 19%– 28% of observations). Latent transition analyses revealed that sexual minority males (i.e., mostly heterosexual, gay, and bisexual) were more likely than completely heterosexual males to be Lean-Concerned at ages 17–18 and 19–20 years and to transition to the Lean-Concerned class from the Healthy class. There were no sexual orientation differences in odds of being Muscle-Concerned. Both heterosexual and sexual minority males are at risk for presenting body image concerns and weight- and shape-related behaviors that may have deleterious health consequences. Results suggest the need for screening for concerns and behaviors related to leanness and muscularity in early adolescence among all males, regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:26098578

  10. Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

    2011-01-01

    How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

  11. Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.

    PubMed

    Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

    2013-01-01

    Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

  12. Sexual dimorphism of human sternum in a contemporary Spanish population.

    PubMed

    García-Parra, Patricia; Pérez Fernández, Ángela; Djorojevic, Mirjana; Botella, Miguel; Alemán, Inmaculada

    2014-11-01

    Sex estimation is one of the first steps in forensic anthropology to identify human remains. In absence of the skull or the pelvis, any skeletal remain becomes fundamental for identification, especially in mass-disaster cases. The sternum is a potentially useful element in anthropological analysis with a high recovery rate in both forensic-and archaeological context. This study aims to develop classification functions for use in Spanish population. For this, sternum sexual dimorphism is studied in a sample of 105 individuals, known age-at-death, ancestry and sex, from San José Municipal Cemetery of Granada (Spain). Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was used to estimate intra-and inter-observer error. In discriminant analysis for estimating sex, cross-validation shows accuracy rates exceeds 90% for sternum body length and maximum width (91.8%), or total length with maximum width (90.7%). Isolated variables with higher accuracy rates are total sternum length (89.1%), and sternum body length (87%). Although there is compliance with Hyrtl's law it is not useful for estimating sex in Spanish population. These discriminant functions have also been validated successfully in two samples from Portugal (Coimbra identified skeletal collection--CISC, and 21st century identified ckeletal collection--Santarém XXI): the variables with higher accuracy rates sternum total length with its maximum width (92.3% the correctly classified individual in the sample CISC; and 83.5% in the sample of Santarém XXI) and the sternum total length (92.1% and 78.5%, respectively). The discriminant functions achieved with the collection of the San Jose cemetery of Granada can be applied to current remains, provided that study populations present a similar sexual dimorphism, like the two samples from Portuguese population presented in this study. PMID:25102779

  13. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From Medical Student CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Przedworski, Julia M.; Dovidio, John F.; Hardeman, Rachel R.; Phelan, Sean M.; Burke, Sara E.; Ruben, Mollie A.; Perry, Sylvia P.; Burgess, Diana J.; Nelson, David B.; Yeazel, Mark W.; Knudsen, John M.; van Ryn, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as non-heterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. Method This study included 4,673 first-year students with self-reported sexual orientation data in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Results Of the 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] =1.59 [95% CI, 1.24–2.04]) anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08–2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15–2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% vs 12.7%, P < .001) and isolation (53.7% vs 42.8%, P = .001). Exposure to social stressors attenuated but did not eliminate the observed association between minority sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. Conclusions First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:25674912

  14. The Women's Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations: design and baseline descriptions.

    PubMed

    Bowen, D; Clifford, C K; Coates, R; Evans, M; Feng, Z; Fouad, M; George, V; Gerace, T; Grizzle, J E; Hall, W D; Hearn, M; Henderson, M; Kestin, M; Kristal, A; Leary, E T; Lewis, C E; Oberman, A; Prentice, R; Raczynski, J; Toivola, B; Urban, N

    1996-11-01

    The Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations (WHT:FSMP), a randomized trial of 2208 women, was conducted to investigate three questions. First, can women from minority and low-socioeconomic-status populations be recruited in numbers sufficient to evaluate a dietary intervention designed to lower fat intake. Second, the efficacy of a low fat, increased fruit/vegetable/ grain product intervention for reducing fat consumption. Third, will participation in the intervention lower plasma cholesterol and estradiol levels relative to the controls. The baseline results showed that an adequate number of minority and low SES women could be recruited to test the study hypotheses. A diverse study population of postmenopausal women consuming a high fat diet was recruited: 28% of participants were Black, 16% were Hispanic, 11% had less than a high school level of education, and 15.5% had household incomes of < $15,000. PMID:8978881

  15. Protection of Racial/Ethnic Minority Populations During an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, Kevin; Levine, Robert S.; Ompad, Danielle C.; McDonald, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minority populations experience worse health outcomes than do other groups during and after disasters. Evidence for a differential impact from pandemic influenza includes both higher rates of underlying health conditions in minority populations, increasing their risk of influenza-related complications, and larger socioeconomic (e.g., access to health care), cultural, educational, and linguistic barriers to adoption of pandemic interventions. Implementation of pandemic interventions could be optimized by (1) culturally competent preparedness and response that address specific needs of racial/ethnic minority populations, (2) improvements in public health and community health safety net systems, (3) social policies that minimize economic burdens and improve compliance with isolation and quarantine, and (4) relevant, practical, and culturally and linguistically tailored communications. PMID:19797739

  16. Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

    2014-01-01

    Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

  17. Iteratively Developing an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Sexual Minority Adolescent Men.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Philips, Gregory L; Bull, Sheana S; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Five activities were implemented between November 2012 and June 2014 to develop an mHealth HIV prevention program for adolescent gay, bisexual, and queer men (AGBM): (1) focus groups to gather acceptability of the program components; (2) ongoing development of content; (3) Content Advisory Teams to confirm the tone, flow, and understandability of program content; (4) an internal team test to alpha test software functionality; and (5) a beta test to test the protocol and intervention messages. Findings suggest that AGBM preferred positive and friendly content that at the same time, did not try to sound like a peer. They deemed the number of daily text messages (i.e., 8-15 per day) to be acceptable. The Text Buddy component was well received but youth needed concrete direction about appropriate discussion topics. AGBM determined the self-safety assessment also was acceptable. Its feasible implementation in the beta test suggests that AGBM can actively self-determine their potential danger when participating in sexual health programs. Partnering with the target population in intervention development is critical to ensure that a salient final product and feasible protocol are created. PMID:26238038

  18. Sexual Reproduction in a Simple Growth Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Carlos Gentil Oro; Santos, Marcio

    2012-05-01

    One of the most important characteristics in the survival of a species is related to the kind of reproduction responsible for the offspring generation. However, only in the last years the role played by sexual reproduction has been investigated. Then, for a better understanding of this kind of process we introduce, in this work, a surface reaction model that describes the role of the sexual reproduction. In our model two different elements of the species, representing male and female, can interact to reproduce a new element. The sex of this new element is chosen with a given probability and in order to take into account the mortality rate we introduce another kind of individual. The value of the spatial density of this element remains constant during the time evolution of the system. The model is studied using Monte Carlo simulations and mean field approximation. Depending on the values of the control parameters of the model, the system can attain two stationary states: In one of them the population survives and in the other it can be extinguished. Besides, accordingly to our results, the phase diagram of the model shows a discontinuous transition between these two states.

  19. Sexual offender recidivism among a population-based prison sample.

    PubMed

    Rettenberger, Martin; Briken, Peer; Turner, Daniel; Eher, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines recidivism rates in sexual offenders using officially registered reconvictions in a representative data set of N = 1,115 male sexual offenders from Austria. In general, results indicate that most sexual offenders do not reoffend sexually after release from prison. More detailed, within the first 5 years after release, the sexual recidivism rate was 6% for the total sample, 4% for the rapist subgroup, and 8% for the child molester subgroup. The findings confirmed previous studies about sex offender recidivism which have shown that first-time sexual offenders are significantly less likely to sexually reoffend than those with previous sexual convictions. With regard to the relationship between age and sexual recidivism, the results challenged the traditional assumption of a clear linear function between age and recidivism. Taken together, compared with previous studies, the recidivism rates found in the present investigation are substantially lower than previous research has indicated. PMID:24398599

  20. Change in Depressive Symptoms among Treatment-Seeking College Students Who Are Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Maloch, Janelle K.; McAleavey, Andrew; Locke, Benjamin D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in students' depressive symptoms during the course of treatment at college counseling centers were examined by sexual orientation. In Study 1, results showed that depressive symptoms decreased similarly across sexual orientation groups during the course of treatment. In Study 2, family support did not moderate the relationship between…

  1. Natural and sexual selection in a wild insect population.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, R; Bretman, A; Slate, J; Walling, C A; Tregenza, T

    2010-06-01

    The understanding of natural and sexual selection requires both field and laboratory studies to exploit the advantages and avoid the disadvantages of each approach. However, studies have tended to be polarized among the types of organisms studied, with vertebrates studied in the field and invertebrates in the lab. We used video monitoring combined with DNA profiling of all of the members of a wild population of field crickets across two generations to capture the factors predicting the reproductive success of males and females. The factors that predict a male's success in gaining mates differ from those that predict how many offspring he has. We confirm the fundamental prediction that males vary more in their reproductive success than females, and we find that females as well as males leave more offspring when they mate with more partners. PMID:20522773

  2. Alcohol Abuse Training Relevant to Minority Populations. Trainer Manual, Trainee Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Area Alcohol and Education Training Program, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    This training manual presents current information about alcohol abuse and alcoholism among minority populations. It is designed to aid counselors employed in alcohol abuse programs. Areas discussed in this report include: interpersonal communication, knowledge of alcohol abuse and alcoholism, evaluation and assessment, planning, referral,…

  3. Diverse Voices -- The Inclusion of Language-Minority Populations in National Studies: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rose Maria, Ed.; McCardle, Peggy, Ed.; Clark, Rebecca L., Ed.; Kinsella, Kevin, Ed.; Berch, Daniel, Ed.

    This report presents information developed from a workshop on the Inclusion of Language Minority Populations in National Studies (Bethesda, MD, July 17-28, 2000). To help find ways for survey research to capture the increasing linguistic diversity of the United States and thus be truly representative, this report focuses on current barriers to…

  4. 75 FR 29776 - Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotion to Youth and Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is soliciting information, research, and ideas to assist FDA in fulfilling its responsibilities regarding tobacco product advertising and promotion that is designed to appeal to specific racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. For the same reasons, we are also interested in receiving information about the advertising and promotion of......

  5. Comparing the sensitivity of geographically distinct Lemna minor populations to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Rebecca L; Nussbaumer, Christina; Pick, Frances R; Boutin, Céline

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the sensitivities of field populations and a laboratory culture of a duckweed species (Lemna minor) to the herbicide atrazine using three different endpoints and to determine whether sensitivity to atrazine was affected by past exposure to the herbicide. L. minor cultures were purchased commercially or collected from field sites within an agricultural watershed and exposed to atrazine for 7 days under greenhouse conditions. Populations differed significantly in their sensitivity to atrazine. Biomass was more sensitive than frond number, while chlorophyll fluorescence was not a sensitive endpoint. Overall, the sensitivity of the various populations to atrazine was not strongly related to measures of past exposure to agriculture stressors. Positive correlations between biomass twenty-five percent inhibition concentrations (IC25s), biomass estimated marginal means and in-stream atrazine concentrations were observed, providing evidence that atrazine exposure is linked to a decrease in sensitivity to atrazine. However, IC25s generated for each population were similar, ranging from 19 to 40 and 57 to 92 μg/L atrazine for biomass and frond data respectively, and likely do not represent biologically significant differences in atrazine sensitivity. Given the small range in sensitivity observed between populations, commercial laboratory cultures appear to provide a good estimate of the sensitivity of field populations of L. minor to atrazine and should continue to be used in regulatory phytotoxicity testing. PMID:23535915

  6. Culturally Grounded Prevention for Minority Youth Populations: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Michela; Valdez, Jessica K; Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; Zaremba, Colleen

    2016-02-01

    Contemporary prevention science has focused on the application of cultural adaptations of evidence-based prevention programs for minority youth populations. Far less is known about culturally grounded methods that are intended to organically develop prevention programs within specific populations and communities. This article systematically reviews recent literature on culturally grounded interventions used to prevent health disparities in ethnic minority youth populations. In this review, we assessed 31 peer-reviewed articles published in 2003 or later that fit inclusionary criteria pertaining to the development and evaluation of culturally grounded prevention programs. The evaluated studies indicated different approaches toward cultural grounding, as well as specific populations, geographic regions, and health issues that have been targeted. Specifically, the findings indicated that most of the studies focused on the development and evaluation of culturally grounded HIV/STI and substance abuse prevention programs for Mexican-American, African American, and American Indian/Alaska Native youth residing in the South or Southwestern US. These studies largely relied on community-based participatory or qualitative research methods to develop programs from the "ground up." This review has implications for the development of future culturally grounded and culturally adapted prevention programs targeting underserved minority youth populations and geographic regions. Specifically, it identifies populations and regions where culturally grounded prevention efforts are underdeveloped or non-existent, providing some scientific direction for the future development of these types of programs. PMID:26733384

  7. Social Stressors and Alcohol Use among Immigrant Sexual and Gender Minority Latinos in a Non-Traditional Settlement State

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Perreira, Krista; Eng, Eugenia; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to quantify the association of social stressors with alcohol use among immigrant sexual and gender minority Latinos in North Carolina (n = 190). We modeled any drinking in past year using logistic regression and heavy episodic drinking in past 30 days using Poisson regression. Despite a large proportion of abstainers, there were indications of hazardous drinking. Among current drinkers, 63% reported at least one heavy drinking episode in past 30 days. Ethnic discrimination increased, and social support decreased, odds of any drinking in past year. Social support moderated the associations of English use and ethnic discrimination with heavy episodic drinking. PMID:24708429

  8. Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

    2011-01-01

    Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

  9. Predictors of Sexual Bother in a Population of Male North American Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. Aims The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Methods Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. Main Outcome Measures The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Conclusions ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to

  10. An epidemiological study of sexual disorders in south Indian rural population

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sexuality is an important aspect of the personality of an individual and influences psychological, physical and social well-being of both men and women. It is a paradox, that in the country where ‘kamasutra’ (by Vatsyayana) took birth, there is a lack of research publications and sexuality related literature; hence the current study was conducted, to estimate the prevalence and association of sexual disorders with various socio-demographic variables, in the selected rural population. Materials and Methods: Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as screening tool for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to be having sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: 21.15% of the male subjects were diagnosed to have one (or more) sexual disorder. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction was found to be 15.77%, male hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) 2.56%; premature ejaculation was found to be prevalent in 8.76% of the male subjects. Around 14% of the female subjects were diagnosed to have female sexual disorders. Prevalence of female arousal dysfunction was found to be 6.65%, female HSDD 8.87%, female anorgasmia 5.67%, female dyspareunia 2.34% and female sexual aversion disorder was found to be prevalent in 0.37% of the female subjects. Conclusion: This study concluded that one in five males and one in seven females were suffering from one (or more) sexual disorder. Improving the training of undergraduate medical and nursing students in sexuality related issues, increasing trained individuals in sexual medicine by starting new courses, providing sex education to the general population using media and merging sexual health care with primary care, are likely to play a significant role in addressing the increasing sexual health morbidity. PMID:26124520

  11. Configurations of identity among sexual minority youth: context, desire, and narrative.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Phillip L; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire. Through an interpretive, holistic analysis of the personal narratives of youth, we examine the integration of same-sex desire, behavior, and identity in the general life story and the selective appropriation of elements of "master narratives" of sexual identity development. Narratives were characterized by challenges to integrate desire, behavior, and identity into a configuration that conformed to the received sexual taxonomy. Implications for theory and further research on sexual identity development are discussed. PMID:19636732

  12. A population of sexual Daphnia pulex resists invasion by asexual clones

    PubMed Central

    Innes, David J.; Ginn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asexual reproduction avoids the costs associated with sex, predicting that invading asexual clones can quickly replace sexual populations. Daphnia pulex populations in the Great Lakes area are predominately asexual, but the elimination of sexual populations by invading clones is poorly understood. Asexual clones were detected at low frequency in one rare sexual population in 1995, with some increase in frequency during 2003 and 2004. However, these clones remained at low frequency during further yearly sampling (2005–2013) with no evidence that the resident sexual population was in danger of elimination. There was evidence for hybridization between rare males produced by asexual clones and sexual females with the potential to produce new asexual genotypes and spread the genetic factors for asexuality. In a short-term laboratory competition experiment, the two most common asexual clones did not increase in frequency relative to a genetically diverse sexual population due in part to a greater investment in diapausing eggs that trades-off current population growth for increased contribution to the egg bank. Our results suggest that a successful invasion can be prolonged, requiring a combination of clonal genotypes with high fitness, persistence of clones in the egg bank and negative factors affecting the sexual population such as inbreeding depression resulting from population bottlenecks. PMID:24943366

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  14. Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations

    PubMed Central

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes. PMID:19101788

  15. Not in whose backyard Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people's reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  16. Not in whose backyard? Minority population concentrations and noxious facility sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.

    1992-04-01

    The NIMBY (not in may backyard) syndrome has become the nemesis of facility siting efforts in the USA. Given people`s reluctance to live near noxious facilities, in whose backyard are such facilities located? This study employs US county-level data to examine relative concentrations of minorities living near noxious facilities. Facility types analyzed include electric generating plants, manufacturing plants, Superfund sites, and radioactive waste disposal sites. While this study does not address which cam first, the minority population concentration or the noxious facilities, it documents their current degree of association.

  17. Women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor are different from women convicted of traditional sexual offenses: a brief research report.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2015-06-01

    Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women. PMID:25336248

  18. Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Selz, O M; Thommen, R; Pierotti, M E R; Anaya-Rojas, J M; Seehausen, O

    2016-05-11

    Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are based on the same components of male coloration and go in the same direction when females choose among males of their own population, their own and other conspecific populations and a closely related para-allopatric sister-species, P. igneopinnis Mate-choice experiments revealed that females of the three populations mated species-assortatively, that populations varied in their extent of population-assortative mating and that females chose among males of their own population based on different male colours. Females of different populations exerted directional intrapopulation sexual selection on different male colours, and these differences corresponded in two of the populations to the observed differences in male coloration between the populations. Our results suggest that differences in male coloration between populations of P. nyererei can be explained by divergent sexual selection and that population-assortative mating may directly result from intrapopulation sexual selection. PMID:27147097

  19. Methodological issues in analyzing small populations using CCHS cycles based on the official language minority studies.

    PubMed

    Makvandi, Ewa; Bouchard, Louise; Bergeron, Pierre-Jerôme; Sedigh, Golnaz

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analyses for small populations or small domains of interest can be challenging. To obtain reliable estimates, only very large surveys such as the Canadian Community Health Survey can be considered. However, despite its good geographical and temporal coverage, the analysis of small populations in smaller regions (e.g., health regions) and in regards to specific health issues remains challenging. We will look at the methodological issues in analysis of small populations in relation to sampling and non-sampling survey errors that affect the precision and accuracy of the estimates. Francophone minorities in Canada will be used to illustrate the issues throughout the paper. PMID:24300323

  20. Unmet health and mental health need among adolescents: the roles of sexual minority status and child-parent connectedness.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kelly A; Chapman, Mimi V

    2012-10-01

    Using a representative national sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) survey (N = 18,924), this article explores sexual minority status (SMS) and child-parent connectedness in relation to the unmet needs for health or mental health care among adolescents. Through the use of logistic regression models, data were analyzed to determine whether SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. In addition, models tested whether child-parent connectedness, sex or gender, and race or ethnicity interact with SMS to predict unmet need. Results show that both SMS and child-parent connectedness predict unmet health and mental health need. Being a sexual minority youth (SMY) significantly increases the odds of having an unmet need for health or mental health care; female SMY have the highest odds of an unmet mental health need. Child-parent connectedness is a predictor of unmet need regardless of SMS. Youth with lower levels of child-parent connectedness have significantly higher odds of an unmet health or mental health need. Findings call for service providers to address the unmet needs of SMY both in terms of outreach to youth and parents and to communicate the importance of the parental role in helping teens access care. PMID:23039345

  1. Cross-sectional evidence for a stress-negative affect pathway to substance use among sexual minority girls.

    PubMed

    Marshal, Michael P; Burton, Chad M; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-08-01

    Sexual minority girls (SMGs) are four times more likely to engage in substance use than are heterosexual girls. A better understanding of the explanatory mechanisms of this disparity is needed to inform prevention and intervention programs. The goal of this study was to conduct a preliminary test of a "stress-negative affect" pathway by examining gay-related victimization and depression as mediators of substance use among SMGs. Adolescent girls (N = 156, 41% SMGs) were recruited from two urban adolescent medicine clinics to participate in an NIH-funded study of adolescent substance use. The average age was 17.0 years old and 57% were nonwhite. Mediation analyses were conducted in a multiple regression framework using SPSS and a mediation macro utilizing bias-corrected bootstrapping. Four models were estimated to test mediated pathways from sexual orientation to gay-related victimization (Mediator 1), to depression symptoms (Mediator 2), and then to each of four substance use variables: cigarettes, marijuana, alcohol, and heavy alcohol use. Significant mediated pathways (mediation tests with 95% CIs) were found for cigarette, alcohol and heavy alcohol use outcome variables. Results provide preliminary support for the minority stress hypothesis and the stress-negative affect pathway, and may inform the development of future prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23919370

  2. Childhood Cancer Survivorship Research in Minority Populations: A Position Paper from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Smita; Gibson, Todd M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liu, Qi; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Krull, Kevin R; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2016-01-01

    By the middle of this century, racial/ethnic minority populations will collectively constitute 50% of the US population. This temporal shift in the racial/ethnic make-up of the US population demands a close look at the race/ethnicity-specific burden of morbidity and premature mortality among childhood cancer survivors. To optimize targeted long-term follow-up care, it is essential to understand whether the burden of morbidity borne by survivors of childhood cancer differs by race/ethnicity. This is challenging because the number of minority participants is often limited in current childhood cancer survivorship research, resulting in a paucity of race/ethnicity-specific recommendations and/or interventions. We show that while the overall childhood cancer incidence increased between 1973 and 2003, the mortality rate declined; however these changes did not differ appreciably by race/ethnicity. We speculate that any racial/ethnic differences in outcome are likely to be multifactorial, and draw upon data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to illustrate the various contributors (socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors and comorbidities) that could explain any observed differences in key treatment-related complications. Finally, we outline challenges in conducting race/ethnicity-specific childhood cancer survivorship research, showing that there are limited absolute numbers of children who are diagnosed and survive cancer in any one racial/ethnic minority population, precluding a rigorous evaluation of adverse events among specific primary cancer diagnoses and treatment exposure groups. PMID:27253866

  3. Use of the Internet for Sexual Health Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 16 to 44 Years: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Survey of the British Population

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Background Those who go online regarding their sexual health are potential users of new Internet-based sexual health interventions. Understanding the size and characteristics of this population is important in informing intervention design and delivery. Objective We aimed to estimate the prevalence in Britain of recent use of the Internet for key sexual health reasons (for chlamydia testing, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] testing, sexually transmitted infection [STI] treatment, condoms/contraceptives, and help/advice with one’s sex life) and to identify associated sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Methods Complex survey analysis of data from 8926 sexually experienced persons aged 16-44 years in a 2010-2012 probability survey of Britain’s resident population. Prevalence of recent (past year) use of Internet sources for key sexual health reasons was estimated. Factors associated with use of information/support websites were identified using logistic regression to calculate age-adjusted odds ratios (AORs). Results Recent Internet use for chlamydia/HIV testing or STI treatment (combined) was very low (men: 0.31%; women: 0.16%), whereas 2.35% of men and 0.51% of women reported obtaining condoms/contraceptives online. Additionally, 4.49% of men and 4.57% of women reported recent use of information/support websites for advice/help with their sex lives. Prevalence declined with age (men 16-24 years: 7.7%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001; women 16-24 years: 7.8%; 35-44 years: 1.84%, P<.001). Use of information/support websites was strongly associated with men’s higher socioeconomic status (managerial/professional vs semiroutine/routine: AOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.27-2.93, P<.001). Despite no overall association with area-level deprivation, those in densely populated urban areas were more likely to report use of information/support websites than those living in rural areas (men: AOR 3.38, 95% CI 1.68-6.77, P<.001; women: AOR 2.51, 95% CI 1.34-4.70, P<.001). No

  4. Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

    2008-01-01

    This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks. PMID:19042291

  5. The cellular generation and a new risk environment: implications for texting-based sexual health promotion interventions among minority young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G

    2012-01-01

    African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the "cellular generation," these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18-25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the "etiquette" of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

  6. Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

    2013-01-01

    School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

  7. Dating Violence among Urban, Minority, Middle School Youth and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…

  8. Sexual Minority Youth Perspectives on the School Environment and Suicide Risk Interventions: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Philip A.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the experiences of five gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents' perspectives on their schools' acceptance of their sexual orientation, and perceptions of these schools' approach to suicide risk intervention. Focus groups were tape recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Themes that…

  9. Configurations of Identity among Sexual Minority Youth: Context, Desire, and Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Thompson, Elisabeth Morgan; Pilecki, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Youth with same-sex desire undergo a process of narrative engagement as they construct configurations of identity that provide meaning and coherence with available sexual taxonomies. This article presents a theoretical analysis and four case studies centering on the relationship among context, desire, and identity for youth with same-sex desire.…

  10. Feelings of Belonging: An Exploratory Analysis of the Sociopolitical Involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Angelique; Battle, Juan; Pastrana, Antonio; Daniels, Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts the sociopolitical involvement of Black, Latina, and Asian/Pacific Islander American sexual minority women within lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) communities of color. For the analysis, a sample of over 1,200 women from the Social Justice Sexuality project was analyzed. Findings indicate that, for all groups of women, feelings of connectedness to the LGBT community was the most significant predictor of sociopolitical involvement within LGBT communities of color. PMID:26073263

  11. Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

  12. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  13. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143

  14. Predictors of Postpartum Sexual Activity and Function in a Diverse Population of Women

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lynn M.; Kaimal, Anjali J.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Houston, Kathryn; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of postpartum sexual activity and functioning in a diverse population of women using the Sexual Health Outcomes in Women Questionnaire (SHOW-Q). Methods This was a prospective study of 160 postpartum women assessing relationships between demographic factors, mode of birth, depression, breastfeeding, and sexual activity and function. Questionnaires were administered over the telephone 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and in person 6 to 8 months postpartum. Primary outcomes were sexual activity at 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and global and subscale SHOW-Q scores at 6 to 8 months postpartum; the primary predictor was mode of birth. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Seventy-five percent of this population (n = 140 at 8–10 weeks, n = 129 at 6–8 months) gave birth vaginally, and 60.7% resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum. Only multiparity was associated with increased odds of having resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.44; P = .03), whereas older age was associated with decreased odds (aOR, 0.92; P = .02) of having resumed sexual activity. Women who were depressed (effect estimate, −13.3; P = .01), older (−1.1, P = .01), or exclusively breastfeeding (−16.5, P < .001) had significantly poorer sexual satisfaction, whereas multiparous women reported better sexual satisfaction (11.1, P = .03). A significant relationship between mode of birth and SHOW-Q scores did not emerge, although we did observe a trend toward lower SHOW-Q scores among women who underwent cesarean compared with those giving birth vaginally. Discussion Multiparity and younger age predict early resumption of sexual activity, whereas depression and breastfeeding are associated with poorer postpartum sexual functioning. The relationship between mode of birth and resumed sexual activity or postpartum sexual function remains

  15. A Population-Based Study of Sexual Orientation Identity and Gender Differences in Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Landers, Stewart J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. Methods. We aggregated data from the 2001–2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67 359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Conclusions. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed. PMID:20516373

  16. Parents of Minors Who Have Sexually Abused: Legal Liability and Clinical Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    While children and adolescents generally do not have the right to vote, marry, or sign contracts independently, they are often held responsible for their crimes. In spite of this, some parents of minor victims file civil suits against parents of the youth responsible for the harm. The courts must then decide to what extent, if any, parents are…

  17. The Influence of Family Structure on Sexual Activity in a Randomized Effectiveness Trial for Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…

  18. Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola from USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cercospora leaf spot, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most economically damaging foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. Although most C. beticola populations display characteristics reminiscent of sexual recombination, no teleomorph has been described. To ass...

  19. Physical Activity Disparities in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Youth Ages 12-22 Years Old: Roles of Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Athletic Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Kroshus, Emily; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is an important health determinant. Little is known about sexual orientation differences in physical activity and their psychosocial determinants. Purpose To examine adolescent and young adult hours/week of moderate/vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and team sports participation by sexual orientation and investigate contributions of gender nonconformity and low athletic self-esteem to possible sexual orientation differences. Methods Analysis of data from 5,272 males and 7,507 females from 1999-2005 waves of the US Growing Up Today Study (ages 12-22 years). Results Sexual minorities (i.e., lesbian, gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) reported 1.21-2.62 hours/week less MVPA (p's<0.01) and were 46%-76% less likely to participate in team sports than same-gender heterosexuals. Gender nonconformity and athletic self-esteem accounted for 46%-100% of sexual orientation MVPA differences. Conclusions Physical activity contexts should be modified to welcome sexual minority males and females. Targeting intolerance of gender nonconformity and fostering athletic self-esteem may mitigate sexual orientation MVPA disparities. PMID:24347406

  20. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities

    PubMed Central

    Yingying, Huang; Abler, Laurie; Suiming, Pan; Henderson, Gail E.; Xin, Wang; Xingliang, Yao; Parish, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, STI/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STI) in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n=398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n=2186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  1. Population-based sexual behavior surveys in China: Liuzhou compared with other prefectural cities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yingying; Abler, Laurie; Pan, Suiming; Henderson, Gail E; Wang, Xin; Yao, Xingliang; Parish, William L

    2014-02-01

    Sexual behaviors in China are rapidly changing; simultaneously, sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV prevalence is increasing in the general population. To investigate these major shifts, we examined sexual behaviors and self-reported STI in one prefectural city in southern China, Liuzhou, and compared it to other prefectural cities throughout China. We used adults age 18-39 from two sets of population-based surveys that paralleled each other in both content and method. The first set was the Liuzhou survey conducted in 2008 (n = 398). The second set consisted of two national surveys collected in 2006 and 2010 (n = 2,186). Liuzhou respondents reported more active social and sexual behaviors than their national counterparts, including more socializing, dancing, drinking excessively, sexual activity among never married men and women, purchasing commercial sex among men, one-night stands among men, multiple sexual partnerships and self-reported STI among both men and women. Women in Liuzhou reported greater sexual risk behavior than their national counterparts, although overall they reported less than their male counterparts; they were also more likely to have had an abortion than women in other prefectural cities. Our findings provide a comprehensive overview of the sexual context of Liuzhou among the general population, which may help explain the greater STI/HIV prevalence in Liuzhou. PMID:24174289

  2. Coming Out and the Potential for Growth in Sexual Minorities: The Role of Social Reactions and Internalized Homonegativity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, David; McAbee, James; Åsberg, Kia; McGee, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Coming out is a significant and sometimes difficult process in the lives of sexual minorities, but disclosure can also affect wellbeing in positive ways, including reduced distress and greater relationship satisfaction. This study investigates the possibility of stress-related growth and depreciation following coming out. To obtain a diverse sample with varying coming-out experiences, data were collected from undergraduate students as well as from online sources, including lesbian, gay, and bisexual support groups and Pride groups. Regression analyses indicated that negative social reactions to coming out predicted both growth and depreciation, although they more strongly predicted depreciation. Positive social reactions were positively related to stress-related growth, while internalized homonegativity was inversely associated with growth. Although the two sample sources (online and campus) differed in some ways, sample source was not a significant predictor in the regressions, nor was it indicated as a moderator in exploratory ANOVA analyses. PMID:26182185

  3. The Social Context of Depression Symptomology in Sexual Minority Male Youth: Determinants of Depression in a Sample of Grindr Users.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand which social context factors most influence depression symptomology among sexual minority male youth (SMMY). In 2011, 195 SMMY who use Grindr were recruited to complete an online survey in Los Angeles, California. Items focused on social context variables and depression symptomology. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using an ecological framework. The best fitting model accounted for 29.5% of the variance in depression. Experiences of homophobia, gay community connection, presence of an objecting network member, and emotional support were found to be significant predictors. Past experiences of homophobia continuing to affect youth indicates the need for intervention to reduction of homophobia in youths' social contexts. Interventions that teach youth skills to manage objecting viewpoints or help youth to reorganize their social networks may help to reduce the impact of an objecting network alter. PMID:26295497

  4. Impact of heart disease and quality of care on minority populations in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Garth N.; Guendelman, Mayadallia; Leong, Benjamin S.; Hogan, Sara; Dennison, Adrienne

    2006-01-01

    Heart disease is a leading cause of death across all populations in the United States. In 1985, the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health recognized the existence of widespread health disparities for heart disease and related risk factors among minorities in America. Inequalities in heart health and healthcare continue to exist. This review compares measures of heart disease and healthcare for white, African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, American-Indian/Alaska-Native and Hispanic/Latino populations. Lack of healthcare data for minorities continues to be a barrier to understanding the nature and extent of heart disease and related risk factors for these groups. In combination with programs that address preventive measures to reduce risk factors for heart disease, the integration of quality improvement measures has developed as an important strategy for reducing cardiovascular health disparities. Improved data collection and reporting, enhanced use of information technology, and promotion of cultural competency hold potential for improving the quality of cardiac care and reducing health disease for all Americans. PMID:17052047

  5. Literature review of type 2 diabetes mellitus among minority Muslim populations in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni

    2015-01-01

    This review surveys the literature published on the characteristics and implications of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for the Arab and Bedouin populations of Israel. T2DM is a global health problem. The rapid rise in its prevalence in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel is responsible for their lower life expectancy compared to Israeli Jews. The increased prevalence of T2DM corresponds to increased rates of obesity in these populations. A major risk group is adult Arab women aged 55-64 years. In this group obesity reaches 70%. There are several genetic and nutritional explanations for this increase. We found high hospitalization rates for micro and macrovascular complications among diabetic patients of Arab and Bedouin origin. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes and its negative health implications, there is evidence that care and counseling relating to nutrition, physical activity and self-examination of the feet are unsatisfactory. Economic difficulties are frequently cited as the reason for inadequate medical care. Other proposed reasons include faith in traditional therapy and misconceptions about drugs and their side effects. In Israel, the quality indicators program is based on one of the world’s leading information systems and deals with the management of chronic diseases such as diabetes. The program’s baseline data pointed to health inequality between minority populations and the general population in several areas, including monitoring and control of diabetes. Based on these data, a pilot intervention program was planned, aimed at minority populations. This program led to a decrease in inequality and served as the basis for a broader, more comprehensive intervention that has entered the implementation stage. Interventions that were shown to be effective in other Arabic countries may serve as models for diabetes management in the Arab and Bedouin populations in Israel. PMID:25685290

  6. Childhood cancer survivorship research in minority populations: A position paper from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Smita; Gibson, Todd M; Ness, Kirsten K; Liu, Qi; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Krull, Kevin R; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T

    2016-08-01

    By the middle of this century, racial/ethnic minority populations will collectively constitute 50% of the US population. This temporal shift in the racial/ethnic composition of the US population demands a close look at the race/ethnicity-specific burden of morbidity and premature mortality among survivors of childhood cancer. To optimize targeted long-term follow-up care, it is essential to understand whether the burden of morbidity borne by survivors of childhood cancer differs by race/ethnicity. This is challenging because the number of minority participants is often limited in current childhood cancer survivorship research, resulting in a paucity of race/ethnicity-specific recommendations and/or interventions. Although the overall childhood cancer incidence increased between 1973 and 2003, the mortality rate declined; however, these changes did not differ appreciably by race/ethnicity. The authors speculated that any racial/ethnic differences in outcome are likely to be multifactorial, and drew on data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study to illustrate the various contributors (socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, and comorbidities) that could explain any observed differences in key treatment-related complications. Finally, the authors outlined challenges in conducting race/ethnicity-specific childhood cancer survivorship research, demonstrating that there are limited absolute numbers of children who are diagnosed and survive cancer in any one racial/ethnic minority population, thereby precluding a rigorous evaluation of adverse events among specific primary cancer diagnoses and treatment exposure groups. Cancer 2016;122:2426-2439. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27253866

  7. Are depression and poor sexual health neglected comorbidities? Evidence from a population sample

    PubMed Central

    Field, Nigel; Prah, Philip; Mercer, Catherine H; Rait, Greta; King, Michael; Cassell, Jackie A; Heath, Laura; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Clifton, Soazig; Datta, Jessica; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between sexual behaviour, sexual function and sexual health service use of individuals with depression in the British general population, to inform primary care and specialist services. Setting British general population. Participants 15 162 men and women aged 16–74 years were interviewed for the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), undertaken in 2010–2012. Using age-adjusted ORs (aAOR), relative to a comparator group reporting no treatment or symptoms, we compared the sexual health of those reporting treatment for depression in the past year. Outcome measures Sexual risk behaviour, sexual function, sexual satisfaction and sexual health service use. Results 1331 participants reported treatment for depression (5.2% men; 11.8% women). Relative to the comparator group, treatment for depression was associated with reporting 2 or more sexual partners without condoms (men aAOR 2.07 (95% CI 1.38 to 3.10); women 2.22 (1.68 to 2.92)), and concurrent partnerships (men 1.80 (1.18 to 2.76); women 2.06 (1.48 to 2.88)), in the past year. Those reporting depression treatment were more likely to be dissatisfied with their sex lives (men 2.32 (1.74 to 3.11); women 2.30 (1.89 to 2.79)), and to score in the lowest quintile on the Natsal-sexual function measure. They were also more likely to report a recent chlamydia test (men 1.92 (1.15 to 3.20)); women (1.27 (1.01 to 1.60)), and to have sought help regarding their sex life from a healthcare professional (men 2.92 (1.98 to 4.30); women (2.36 (1.83 to 3.04)), most commonly from a family doctor. Women only were more likely to report attending a sexual health clinic (1.91 (1.42 to 2.58)) and use of emergency contraception (1.98 (1.23 to 3.19)). Associations were broadly similar for individuals with depressive symptoms but not reporting treatment. Conclusions Depression, measured by reported treatment, was strongly associated with sexual risk behaviours, reduced

  8. Exploring young adult sexual minority women’s perspectives on LGBTQ smoking

    PubMed Central

    Youatt, Emily J.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily S.; Soler, Jorge H.; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Smoking rates are higher among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals than among heterosexuals. These disparities are exacerbated during the transition from youth to young adulthood. The current study uses in-depth qualitative interviews to understand perceptions of LGBTQ smoking among LBQ-identified women (N=30, ages 18-24). Major themes identified include the belief that smoking was a way of overcoming stressors faced by heterosexual and LGBTQ young adults alike, a mechanism to relieve sexuality-related stressors, and an ingrained part of LGBTQ culture. Results suggest unique stressors influence LGBTQ smokers. Implications for smoking cessation interventions for LGBTQ youth are discussed. PMID:26508993

  9. A Y-STR database of Iranian and Azerbaijanian minority populations.

    PubMed

    Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR) DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4 were studied in five minor linguistic groups from Iran (Arabs, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Bakhtiari and Southern Talysh) and one from Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) with the goal of constructing of a representative Y-STR database for this region in Southwest Asia. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) reveals non-significant or low genetic distances between the Iranian Gilaki, Mazandarani, Bakhtiari and non-Iranian Turkish, Azerbaijanian, Armenian and Kurd populations, but larger genetic distances to both Talysh populations, the Iranian Arabs, Georgian and Kazakh populations. PMID:19948326

  10. Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

  11. High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Students of a Minority-Serving University in a Community with a High HIV/AIDS Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…

  12. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  13. Sexual selection counteracts extinction of small populations of the bulb mites.

    PubMed

    Jarzebowska, Magdalena; Radwan, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Genetic drift in small populations can increase frequency of deleterious recessives and consequently lead to inbreeding depression and population extinction. On the other hand, as homozygosity at deleterious recessives increases, they should be purged from populations more effectively by selection. Sexual selection has been postulated to strengthen selection against deleterious mutations, and should thus decrease extinction rate and intensify purging of inbreeding depression. We tested these predictions in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini. We created 100 replicate lines of small populations (five males and five females) and in half of them experimentally removed sexual selection by enforcing monogamy. The lines were propagated for eight generations and then assayed for purging of inbreeding depression. We found that proportion of lines which went extinct was lower with sexual selection than without. We also found evidence for purging of inbreeding depression in the lines with sexual selection, but not in lines without sexual selection. Our results suggest that purging of inbreeding depression was more effective against mutations with relatively large deleterious effects. Thus, although our data clearly indicate a positive impact of sexual selection on short-term survival of bottlenecked populations, long-term consequences are less clear as they may be negatively impacted by accumulation of deleterious mutations of small effect. PMID:19930452

  14. Sleep Disorders and Cardio-Renal Disease: Implications for Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Judith; Salifu, Moro O.; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem that is reaching pandemic proportion. Currently two thirds of the American population is either overweight or obese and worldwide, 39% of the population is overweight and 13% are considered obese [1,2]. This rapid rise in obesity is associated with increased in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), hypertension (HTN), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the major killer of adults in the USA. Parallel to this epidemic is the rapid rise of sleep disorders such as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). These disorders lead to increased morbidity and mortality and generally go undiagnosed and undertreated, particularly among minority groups. Accumulating evidence indicates common pathophysiologic background underlying all of these related disorders. Among these include: increased inflammation, increased oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia and hypercoagulability. We discuss the rising epidemic of sleep disorders and its interrelationship with DM2, HTN, CVD and renal disease highlighting the racial disparity in diagnosis and treatment of these disorders that disproportionately affects minority populations. We also discuss the various treatment modalities and the cutting edge developments in this field.

  15. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-01-01

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

  16. Germline Selection: Population Genetic Aspects of the Sexual/Asexual Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    Population geneticists make a distinction between sexual and asexual organisms depending on whether individuals inherit genes from one or two parents. When individual genes are considered, this distinction becomes less satisfactory for multicellular sexual organisms. Individual genes pass through numerous asexual mitotic cell divisions in the germline prior to meiosis and sexual recombination. The processes of mitotic mutation, mitotic crossing over, and mitotic gene conversion create genotypic diversity between diploid cells in the germline. Genes expressed in the germline whose products affect cell viability (such as many ``housekeeping'' enzymes) may be subjected to natural selection acting on this variability resulting in a non-Mendelian output of gametes. Such genes will be governed by the population genetics of the sexual/asexual life cycle rather than the conventional sexual/Mendelian life cycle. A model is developed to investigate some properties of the sexual/asexual life cycle. When appropriate parameter values were included in the model, it was found that mutation rates per locus per gamete may vary by a factor of up to 100 if selection acts in the germline. Sexual/asexual populations appear able to evolve to a genotype of higher fitness despite intervening genotypes of lower fitness, reducing the problems of underdominance and Wright's adaptive landscape encountered by purely sexual populations. As might be expected this ability is chiefly determined by the number of asexual mitotic cell divisions within the germline. The evolutionary consequences of ``housekeeping'' loci being governed by the dynamics of the sexual/asexual life cycle are considered. PMID:1783297

  17. Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age = 57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age = 55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR = 1.88, 95%CI = 1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed. PMID:23251692

  18. YOGA FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN IN A PREDOMINANTLY MINORITY POPULATION: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ≤$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with

  19. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2011-07-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n = 325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health

  20. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  1. The effects of sexual selection on trait divergence in a peripheral population with gene flow.

    PubMed

    Servedio, Maria R; Bürger, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    The unique aspects of speciation and divergence in peripheral populations have long sparked much research. Unidirectional migration, received by some peripheral populations, can hinder the evolution of distinct differences from their founding populations. Here, we explore the effects that sexual selection, long hypothesized to drive the divergence of distinct traits used in mate choice, can play in the evolution of such traits in a partially isolated peripheral population. Using population genetic continent-island models, we show that with phenotype matching, sexual selection increases the frequency of an island-specific mating trait only when female preferences are of intermediate strength. We identify regions of preference strength for which sexual selection can instead cause an island-specific trait to be lost, even when it would have otherwise been maintained at migration-selection balance. When there are instead separate preference and trait loci, we find that sexual selection can lead to low trait frequencies or trait loss when female preferences are weak to intermediate, but that sexual selection can increase trait frequencies when preferences are strong. We also show that novel preference strengths almost universally cannot increase, under either mating mechanism, precluding the evolution of premating isolation in peripheral populations at the early stages of species divergence. PMID:26332694

  2. Decreased sexual signalling reveals reduced viability in small populations of the drumming wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata.

    PubMed Central

    Ahtiainen, Jari J.; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Mappes, Johanna; Vertainen, Laura

    2004-01-01

    One of the important goals in conservation biology is to determine reliable indicators of population viability. Sexual traits have been suggested to indicate population extinction risk, because they may be related to viability through condition dependence. Moreover, condition-dependent sexual traits may be more sensitive indicators of population viability than early life-history traits, because deleterious fitness effects of inbreeding tend to be expressed mainly at the end of the species' life history. However, empirical evidence of the significance of sexual behaviour for population viability is missing. In this study, we examined two male sexual traits and survival in 39 different-sized and isolated natural populations of the wolf spider, Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. We also used several traits to estimate female reproductive success in 25 populations of H. rubrofasciata. According to previous studies, H. rubrofasciata males have a costly and condition-dependent acoustic signal, courtship drumming, which is the target of female choice. Males with a high drumming rate have considerably higher viability than males with a low drumming rate, and females that mate with the more actively drumming males gain genetic benefits in terms of increased offspring viability. Our results show that males in small populations had both lower survival and lower drumming rate than males in larger populations. However, we did not find any evidence for a decline in important early life-history traits (offspring number, hatching success or offspring body mass) or female body mass in small populations. Our results have two important messages for conservation biology. First, they show that sexual traits can be used as sensitive indicators of population viability. Second, the indirect benefits of female choice in terms of good genes might partially compensate for the reduction of viability in declining populations. Also, our results support the view that deleterious effects of small

  3. Screening for Chlamydial Cervicitis in a Sexually Active University Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malotte, C. Kevin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays to detect chlamydial cervicitis were performed on samples from 1,320 sexually active university women. Seventy-five had positive tests. Demographic, history, symptom, and physical examination variables were insufficient to predict infection accurately. Concludes that screening during routine visits with this…

  4. Traumatogenic Processes and Pathways to Mental Health Outcomes for Sexual Minorities Exposed to Bias Crime Information.

    PubMed

    Lannert, Brittany K

    2015-07-01

    Vicarious traumatization of nonvictim members of communities targeted by bias crimes has been suggested by previous qualitative studies and often dominates public discussion following bias events, but proximal and distal responses of community members have yet to be comprehensively modeled, and quantitative research on vicarious responses is scarce. This comprehensive review integrates theoretical and empirical literatures in social, clinical, and physiological psychology in the development of a model of affective, cognitive, and physiological responses of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals upon exposure to information about bias crimes. Extant qualitative research in vicarious response to bias crimes is reviewed in light of theoretical implications and methodological limitations. Potential pathways to mental health outcomes are outlined, including accumulative effects of anticipatory defensive responding, multiplicative effects of minority stress, and putative traumatogenic physiological and cognitive processes of threat. Methodological considerations, future research directions, and clinical implications are also discussed. PMID:24626458

  5. Traditional CVD risk factors and socio-economic deprivation in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narancic, Nina Smolej; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Barbalić, Maja; Starcević, Boris; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Janićijević, Branka

    2008-09-01

    Researches into health inequalities consistently show disadvantages in health status, morbidity and mortality for various ethnic minority groups. Current knowledge about prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mainly derives from studies carried out in populations of European origin while the evidences involving Roma population are scarce. Roma, an ethnic minority of northern Indian origin, live in many countries throughout the world and are well known for preserved traditions and resistance to assimilation. They are most often marginalized economically, spatially, politically and in terms of culture. In order to assess the health status and health-related lifestyle attributes, a multidisciplinary anthropological and epidemiological community-based study was carried out including a total of 423 members of the Bayash Roma minority population living in two regions of Croatia (144 men and 279 women, aged 18-84 yrs). Hypertension (HT) was found in 24.8% Bayash Roma (21.5% men and 26.5% women) using standard diagnostic criteria (i.e. BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive therapy). The prevalence increases from 5.9% in the age group 18-34 yrs; 35.0% in the age group 35-64 yrs, and 51.4% in the age group 65+ yrs. The prevalence of hypertension in the Bayash Roma is almost half of the magnitude of what is usually reported for the general population of Croatia. It is also lower when compared with other European populations and this finding is not due to comparatively younger average age of the Bayash sample. The significant association of hypertension with age and BMI was confirmed in this study and the importance of non-traditional SES-related CVD risk factors was highlighted. Smoking is a part of traditional Roma life-style and with 70% of smokers almost the entire population is equally exposed to this risk factor in their family environment. Since homogenously distributed, this risk factor did not show to be a significant predictor of hypertension. The

  6. Overcoming Challenges in Conducting Clinical Trials in Minority Populations: Identifying and Testing What Works

    PubMed Central

    Azuine, Romuladus E.; Ekejiuba, Sussan E.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in clinical trials is one of the greatest gifts that humanity can give to the fields of medicine and public health. Clinical trials are central in public health’s mission to advance drug discovery. The enrollment and retention of participants, especially minority populations, is one of the most practical challenges of successfully implementing a clinical trial. In spite of these challenges, there are many reasons why a broader public participation in clinical trials is critical. The ability to generalize the scientific findings and the principles of equity, justice, and beneficence require an equitable distribution of the risks, benefits, and burdens of research for all classes and groups of people. A new methodology article published in this journal presents a promising framework for addressing minority recruitment and retention using what is known and using it innovatively to address a difficult problem facing clinical trials and public health. The innovative application of what is known in addressing a challenging problem, as this article presents, is worth the reading of all those interested in scientifically rigorous and ethically sound clinical trials that substantially comprise of diverse populations.

  7. Poppr: an R package for genetic analysis of populations with mixed (clonal/sexual) reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poppr is an R package for analysis of population genetic data. It extends the adegenet package and provides several novel tools, particularly with regard to analysis of data from admixed, clonal, and/or sexual populations. Currently, poppr can be used for dominant/codominant and haploid/diploid gene...

  8. Prevalence of Sexual Violence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an Urban African-American Population

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Koenen, Karestan C.; Aiello, Allison E.; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is prevalent nationally and contributes to psychopathology in the general population. Despite elevated traumatic event exposure among economically disadvantaged urban-dwelling African-Americans, there is insufficient information on lifetime sexual violence exposure and associated psychopathology in this population. Methods In 2008–2009, 1,306 African Americans from a Detroit household probability sample reported on lifetime rape and sexual assault and past-month and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results Lifetime sexual violence prevalence was 26.3% for women and 5.1% for men. Relative to non-victims, sexual violence victims: reported more other traumatic events; had 4 times greater unadjusted odds of past-month and lifetime PTSD; had 1.6 times greater adjusted odds of lifetime PTSD only after controlling for other traumatic events. Conclusions Sexual violence was associated with increased risk for lifetime PTSD and exposure to other traumas. Findings highlight a need to screen for sexual violence and PTSD among urban African Americans. PMID:23686528

  9. Sexual and gender minority health: what we know and what needs to be done.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Bradford, Judith B; Makadon, Harvey J; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

    2008-06-01

    We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. PMID:18445789

  10. Sexual and Gender Minority Health: What We Know and What Needs to Be Done

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Makadon, Harvey J.; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. PMID:18445789

  11. Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

  12. Initial Design of Culturally Informed Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Developing an mHealth Intervention for Young Sexual Minority Men With Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

    2013-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. Objective This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. Methods We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. Results General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users’ ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. Conclusions This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities. PMID:24311444

  13. Examining Attitudes toward College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations: Findings and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgens, Jill C.; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Middleton, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study combined descriptive written instruments and focus group data to investigate heterosexual college students' current attitudes toward gay and lesbian peers, a distinctly at-risk population. Overall, participants were generally supportive, but participants felt public pressure to hide or shield the support they felt for gay…

  14. Predation risk as a driving force for sexual segregation: a cross-population comparison.

    PubMed

    Croft, Darren P; Morrell, Lesley J; Wade, Amy S; Piyapong, Chantima; Ioannou, Christos C; Dyer, John R G; Chapman, Ben B; Wong, Yan; Krause, Jens

    2006-06-01

    Sexual segregation is widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Although a number of hypotheses have been proposed to account for observed patterns, the generality of the mechanisms remains debated. One possible reason for this is the focus on segregation patterns in large mammals such as ungulates, where the majority of studies are descriptions of a single population. Here, we present the results of a cross‐population comparison of patterns of sexual segregation in the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We relate observed patterns to experimental quantification of predation risk and sexual harassment of females by males in eight populations. We find that the degree of segregation increases with predation risk, with deeper waters becoming increasingly female biased. Furthermore, we observed that levels of male harassment are lower in deeper water but only in those rivers that contain major guppy predators. We conclude that sexual segregation in guppies is consistent with the predation risk hypothesis: sexual segregation results from a combination of predation risk driving males (the more vulnerable sex) into less risky habitats and females gaining benefits of reduced sexual harassment by remaining in high‐predation environments. PMID:16649156

  15. Population genetic structure of sexual and parthenogenetic damselflies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear markers.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-Carballa, M O; Hadrys, H; Cordero-Rivera, A; Andrés, J A

    2012-04-01

    It has been postulated that obligate asexual lineages may persist in the long term if they escape from negative interactions with either sexual lineages or biological enemies; and thus, parthenogenetic populations will be more likely to occur in places that are difficult for sexuals to colonize, or those in which biological interactions are rare, such as islands or island-like habitats. Ischnura hastata is the only known example of natural parthenogenesis within the insect order Odonata, and it represents also a typical example of geographic parthenogenesis, as sexual populations are widely distributed in North America, whereas parthenogenetic populations of this species have only been found at the Azores archipelago. In order to gain insight in the origin and distribution of parthenogenetic I. hastata lineages, we have used microsatellites, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, to examine the population genetic structure of this species over a wide geographic area. Our results suggest that sexual populations of I. hastata in North America conform to a large subdivided population that has gone through a recent spatial expansion. A recent single long distance dispersal event, followed by a demographic expansion, is the most parsimonious hypothesis explaining the origin of the parthenogenetic population of this species in the Azores islands. PMID:21915148

  16. Highly Recombinant VGII Cryptococcus gattii Population Develops Clonal Outbreak Clusters through both Sexual Macroevolution and Asexual Microevolution

    PubMed Central

    Croll, Daniel; Li, Wenjun; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Carter, Dee A.; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kronstad, James W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An outbreak of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii began in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the late 1990s. This outbreak consists of three clonal subpopulations: VGIIa/major, VGIIb/minor, and VGIIc/novel. Both VGIIa and VGIIc are unique to the PNW and exhibit increased virulence. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of isolates from these three groups, as well as global isolates, and analyzed a total of 53 isolates. We found that VGIIa/b/c populations show evidence of clonal expansion in the PNW. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence that VGIIb originated in Australia, while VGIIa may have originated in South America, and these were likely independently introduced. Additionally, the VGIIa outbreak lineage may have arisen from a less virulent clade that contained a mutation in the MSH2 ortholog, but this appears to have reverted in the VGIIa outbreak strains, suggesting that a transient mutator phenotype may have contributed to adaptation and evolution of virulence in the PNW outbreak. PNW outbreak isolates share genomic islands, both between the clonal lineages and with global isolates, indicative of sexual recombination. This suggests that VGII C. gattii has undergone sexual reproduction, either bisexual or unisexual, in multiple locales contributing to the production of novel, virulent subtypes. We also found that the genomes of two basal VGII isolates from HIV+ patients contain an introgression tract spanning three genes. Introgression substantially contributed to intra-VGII polymorphism and likely occurred through sexual reproduction with VGI. More broadly, these findings illustrate how both microevolution and sexual reproduction play central roles in the development of infectious outbreaks from avirulent or less virulent progenitors. PMID:25073643

  17. Sexual dimorphism in relation to big-game hunting and economy in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Collier, S

    1993-08-01

    Postcranial skeletal data from two recent Eskimo populations are used to test David Frayer's model of sexual dimorphism reduction in Europe between the Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Frayer argued that a change from big-game hunting and adoption of new technology in the Mesolithic reduced selection for large body size in males and led to a reduction in skeletal sexual dimorphism. Though aspects of Frayer's work have been criticized in the literature, the association of big-game hunting and high sexual dimorphism is untested. This study employs univariate and multivariate analysis to test that association by examining sexual dimorphism of cranial and postcranial bones of two recent Alaskan Eskimo populations, one being big-game (whale and other large marine mammal) hunting people, and the second being salmon fishing, riverine people. While big-game hunting influences skeletal robusticity, it cannot be said to lead to greater sexual dimorphism generally. The two populations had different relative sexual dimorphism levels for different parts of the body. Notably, the big-game hunting (whaling) Eskimos had the lower multivariate dimorphism in the humerus, which could be expected to be the structure under greatest exertion by such hunting in males. While the exertions of the whale hunting economic activities led to high skeletal robusticity, as predicted by Frayer's model, this was true of the females as well as the males, resulting in low sexual dimorphism in some features. Females are half the sexual dimorphism equation, and they cannot be seen as constants in any model of economic behavior. PMID:8372937

  18. Implicit bias against sexual minorities in medicine: cycles of professional influence and the role of the hidden curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fallin-Bennett, Keisa

    2015-05-01

    Despite many recent advances in rights for sexual and gender minorities in the United States, bias against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people still exists. In this Commentary, the author briefly reviews disparities with regard to LGBT health, in both health care and medical education, and discusses the implications of Burke and colleagues’ study of implicit and explicit biases against lesbian and gay people among heterosexual first-year medical students, published in this issue of Academic Medicine. Emphasis is placed on the ways in which physicians’ implicit bias against LGBT people can create a cycle that perpetuates a professional climate reinforcing the bias. The hidden curriculum in academic health centers is discussed as both a cause of this cycle and as a starting point for a research and intervention agenda. The findings from Burke and colleagues’ study, as well as other evidence, support raising awareness of LGBT discrimination, increasing exposure to LGBT individuals as colleagues and role models in academic health centers, and modifying medical education curricula as methods to break the cycle of implicit bias in medicine. PMID:25674911

  19. Longitudinal Detection and Persistence of Minority Drug-Resistant Populations and Their Effect on Salvage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Masako; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hattori, Junko; Shiino, Teiichiro; Matano, Tetsuro; Heneine, Walid; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant HIV are more prevalent and persist longer than previously demonstrated by bulk sequencing due to the ability to detect low-frequency variants. To clarify a clinical benefit to monitoring minority-level drug resistance populations as a guide to select active drugs for salvage therapy, we retrospectively analyzed the dynamics of low-frequency drug-resistant population in antiretroviral (ARV)-exposed drug resistant individuals. Materials and Methods Six HIV-infected individuals treated with ARV for more than five years were analyzed. These individuals had difficulty in controlling viremia, and treatment regimens were switched multiple times guided by standard drug resistance testing using bulk sequencing. To detect minority variant populations with drug resistance, we used a highly sensitive allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) with detection thresholds of 0.3–2%. According to ARV used in these individuals, we focused on the following seven reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant mutations: M41L, K65R, K70R, K103N, Y181C, M184V, and T215F/Y. Results of AS-PCR were compared with bulk sequencing data for concordance and presence of additional mutations. To clarify the genetic relationship between low-frequency and high-frequency populations, AS-PCR amplicon sequences were compared with bulk sequences in phylogenetic analysis. Results The use of AS-PCR enabled detection of the drug-resistant mutations, M41L, K103N, Y181C, M184V and T215Y, present as low-frequency populations in five of the six individuals. These drug resistant variants persisted for several years without ARV pressure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that pre-existing K103N and T215I variants had close genetic relationships with high-frequency K103N and T215I observed during treatment. Discussion and Conclusion Our results demonstrate the long-term persistence of drug-resistant viruses in the absence of drug pressure. The rapid virologic failures with pre-existing mutant viruses

  20. Velocity space evolution of a minority energetic electron population undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, W. N.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.

    2015-11-15

    The kinetic evolution in velocity space of a minority suprathermal electron population that is undergoing the anomalous Doppler instability (ADI) is investigated using the results from fully nonlinear numerical simulations that self-consistently evolve particles and fields in a plasma. Electron trajectories in phase space during different stages of the ADI are captured, and are analysed in relation to the characteristics of the excited electric fields and of the overall distribution of particles. For some electrons, trapping and mirroring effects are observed during the saturation phase. A relationship between the second order moments of the perpendicular electron distribution function and time is established, and is used to investigate the range of applicability of analytical approximations drawn from classical theory, that involve a quasilinear wave-driven diffusion operator.

  1. High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.

    PubMed

    Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

    2006-02-01

    We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

  2. Within-population covariation between sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Amanda K; Xu, Julie Y; Lively, Curtis M

    2016-09-01

    Evolutionary biology has yet to reconcile the ubiquity of sex with its costs relative to asexual reproduction. Here, we test the hypothesis that coevolving parasites maintain sex in their hosts. Specifically, we examined the distributions of sexual reproduction and susceptibility to local parasites within a single population of freshwater snails (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). Susceptibility to local trematode parasites (Microphallus sp.) is a relative measure of the strength of coevolutionary selection in this system. Thus, if coevolving parasites maintain sex, sexual snails should be common where susceptibility is high. We tested this prediction in a mixed population of sexual and asexual snails by measuring the susceptibility of snails from multiple sites in a lake. Consistent with the prediction, the frequency of sexual snails was tightly and positively correlated with susceptibility to local parasites. Strikingly, in just two years, asexual females increased in frequency at sites where susceptibility declined. We also found that the frequency of sexual females covaries more strongly with susceptibility than with the prevalence of Microphallus infection in the field. In linking susceptibility to the frequency of sexual hosts, our results directly implicate spatial variation in coevolutionary selection in driving the geographic mosaic of sex. PMID:27402345

  3. Testing for a genetic response to sexual selection in a wild Drosophila population.

    PubMed

    Gosden, T P; Thomson, J R; Blows, M W; Schaul, A; Chenoweth, S F

    2016-06-01

    In accordance with the consensus that sexual selection is responsible for the rapid evolution of display traits on macroevolutionary scales, microevolutionary studies suggest sexual selection is a widespread and often strong form of directional selection in nature. However, empirical evidence for the contemporary evolution of sexually selected traits via sexual rather than natural selection remains weak. In this study, we used a novel application of quantitative genetic breeding designs to test for a genetic response to sexual selection on eight chemical display traits from a field population of the fly, Drosophila serrata. Using our quantitative genetic approach, we were able to detect a genetically based difference in means between groups of males descended from fathers who had either successfully sired offspring or were randomly collected from the same wild population for one of these display traits, the diene (Z,Z)-5,9-C27 : 2 . Our experimental results, in combination with previous laboratory studies on this system, suggest that both natural and sexual selection may be influencing the evolutionary trajectories of these traits in nature, limiting the capacity for a contemporary evolutionary response. PMID:26914275

  4. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138

  5. Provider-Initiated HIV Testing for Migrants in Spain: A Qualitative Study with Health Care Workers and Foreign-Born Sexual Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Navaza, Barbara; Abarca, Bruno; Bisoffi, Federico; Pool, Robert; Roura, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Provider-initiated HIV testing (PITC) is increasingly adopted in Europe. The success of the approach at identifying new HIV cases relies on its effectiveness at testing individuals most at risk. However, its suitability to reach populations facing overlapping vulnerabilities is under researched. This qualitative study examined HIV testing experiences and perceptions amongst Latin-American migrant men who have sex with men and transgender females in Spain, as well as health professionals’ experiences offering HIV tests to migrants in Barcelona and Madrid. Methods We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and 8 discussion groups with 38 Latin-American migrants and 21 health professionals. We imported verbatim transcripts and detailed field work notes into the qualitative software package Nvivo-10 and applied to all data a coding framework to examine systematically different HIV testing dimensions and modalities. The dimensions analysed were based on the World Health Organization “5 Cs” principles: Consent, Counselling, Connection to treatment, Correctness of results and Confidentiality. Results Health professionals reported that PITC was conceptually acceptable for them, although their perceived inability to adequately communicate HIV+ results and resulting bottle necks in the flow of care were recurrent concerns. Endorsement and adherence to the principles underpinning the rights-based response to HIV varied widely across health settings. The offer of an HIV test during routine consultations was generally appreciated by users as a way of avoiding the embarrassment of asking for it. Several participants deemed compulsory testing as acceptable on public health grounds. In spite of—and sometimes because of—partial endorsement of rights-based approaches, PITC was acceptable in a population with high levels of internalised stigma. Conclusion PITC is a promising approach to reach sexual minority migrants who hold high levels of internalised stigma but

  6. Population structure influences sexual conflict in wild populations of water striders.

    PubMed

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J; Holt, Galen P; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, Johnw

    2010-08-01

    In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we

  7. The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

  8. Age of Sexual Consent Law in Canada: Population-Based Evidence for Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bonnie B.; Cox, David N.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the implications of the 2008 increase in age for sexual consent in Canada using a population health survey of Canadian adolescents. Government rationales for the increase asserted younger adolescents were more likely to experience sexual exploitation and engage in risky sexual behaviour than adolescents 16 and older. Using data from sexually experienced adolescents in the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS, N=6,262; age range 12 – 19; 52% female), analyses documented the scope of first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, then compared sexual behaviours of younger teens (14 and 15 years) with older teens (16 and 17) navigating their first year of sexual activity. Comparisons included: forced sex, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, multiple partners, condom use, effective contraception use, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy involvement. Results showed very few 14- and 15-year-olds had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions based on age (boys: <2%, girls: 3–5%). In contrast, among 12- and 13-year-olds (a group unaffected by the law’s change) between 25% and 50% had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, and almost 40% of teens who first had sex before age 12 reported a first partner age 20 years or more. In their first year of intercourse, 14- and 15-year-olds were slightly more likely to report forced sex and 3 or more partners than older teens, but otherwise made similarly healthy decisions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating policy using population health data and shows that better strategies are needed to protect children 13 and under from sexual abuse. PMID:27087775

  9. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.

    PubMed

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

    2014-05-01

    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

  10. Sexual activity and concerns in people with coronary heart disease from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sexual activity is a central component of intimate relationships, but sexual function may be impaired by coronary heart disease (CHD). There have been few representative population-based comparisons of sexual behaviour and concerns in people with and without CHD. We therefore investigated these issues in a large nationally representative sample of older people. Methods We analysed cross-sectional data from 2979 men and 3711 women aged 50 and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual behaviour and concerns were assessed by validated self-completion questionnaire and analyses were weighted for non-response. Covariates included age, partnerships status and comorbidities. Results There were 376 men and 279 women with CHD. Men with CHD were less likely to be sexually active (68.7% vs 80.0%, adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.81), thought less about sex (74.7% vs 81.9%, OR 0.72, CI 0.54 to 0.95), and reported more erectile difficulties (47.4% vs 38.1%, OR 1.46, CI 1.10 to 1.93) than men without CHD. Effects were more pronounced among those diagnosed within the past 4 years. Women diagnosed <4 years ago were also less likely to be sexually active (35.4% vs 55.6%, OR 0.44, CI 0.23 to 0.84). There were few differences in concerns about sexual activity. Cardiovascular medication showed weak associations with erectile dysfunction. Conclusions There is an association between CHD and sexual activity, particularly among men, but the impact of CHD is limited. More effective advice after diagnosis might reverse the reduction in sexual activity, leading to improved quality of life. PMID:27126394

  11. Colorectal cancer risk perceptions and screening intentions in a minority population.

    PubMed Central

    Lipkus, I. M.; Lyna, P. R.; Rimer, B. K.

    2000-01-01

    This is a 2-year follow-up to a previously reported baseline paper. We focused on a predominantly low-income African-American population from a community health center and investigated the relationships among perceptions of perceived risks for colorectal cancer (CRC), concerns about getting CRC, screening intentions, and whether participants had a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) on schedule at follow-up. Baseline absolute risk did not predict screening intentions or being on schedule (15% of sample), nor did it predict follow-up perceived absolute risk, comparative risk, or CRC concerns. Participants who expressed greater perceived absolute risk, comparative risk, and concerns at follow-up were more likely to report thinking about or definitely planning to get an FOBT within the next 2 years (49% of the sample). In addition, baseline absolute risk and whether or not a person had an FOBT on schedule at baseline did not predict being on schedule at follow-up. A significant percentage of the population (20%) were not able to state whether their CRC risk was below average, average, or above average. In addition, 44% of the population viewed their risks as lower than their peers, and 58% reported being not at all or slightly concerned about getting CRC. These results suggest that educational efforts are needed especially for low-income minority populations to enhance knowledge and accuracy of risk perceptions for CRC and interventions that explicitly manipulate risk are needed to assess to what extent risk perceptions can be modified and subsequently affect screening. PMID:11105730

  12. Partner Preference Among Men Who Have Sex with Men: Potential Contribution to Spread of HIV Within Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Hammond, Sydney; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Most prior research into drivers of HIV transmission has focused on individual characteristics rather than on dyadic-level behaviors such as sex partner selection. This article explores racial/ethnic preferences in sex and relationship partner selection among MSM to further contextualize the spread of HIV within minority groups. Methods: Participants were recruited through a mobile application (app) for men to meet other men in 2015 and completed an online survey on behaviors related to HIV risk. All analyses on the sample of 530 MSM were conducted in 2015. Results: There was significant homophily in partner selection within racial/ethnic minorities, but not for white MSM. In general, mobile app-using MSM reported a general preference for white and Hispanic men and a dispreference for black and Asian men, both for sex and relationship partners. Conclusion: Racial/ethnic preferences were found to drive intentions to form partnerships within this sample. Combined with the stigma many of these racial/ethnic minorities may also feel from homophobic attitudes within their own racial/ethnic communities, these MSM may be at particular risk for social isolation. These partner preferences likely affect the structure of the sexual networks of MSM and may contribute to increased clustering within high HIV incident sexual networks. PMID:26907954

  13. The Cellular Generation and a New Risk Environment: Implications for Texting-Based Sexual Health Promotion Interventions among Minority Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G.

    2012-01-01

    African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the “cellular generation,” these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18–25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the “etiquette” of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

  14. Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics

    PubMed Central

    Grigg, Michael E.; Sundar, Natarajan

    2009-01-01

    The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe’s human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite’s host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma’s current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer. PMID:19217909

  15. Adiabatic theory for the population distribution in the evolutionary minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kan; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yuan, Baosheng

    2004-02-01

    We study the evolutionary minority game (EMG) using a statistical mechanics approach. We derive a theory for the steady-state population distribution of the agents. The theory is based on an “adiabatic approximation” in which short time fluctuations in the population distribution are integrated out to obtain an effective equation governing the steady-state distribution. We discover the mechanism for the transition from segregation (into opposing groups) to clustering (towards cautious behaviors). The transition is determined by two generic factors: the market impact (of the agents’ own actions) and the short time market inefficiency (arbitrage opportunities) due to fluctuations in the numbers of agents using opposite strategies. A large market impact favors “extreme” players who choose fixed opposite strategies, while large market inefficiency favors cautious players. The transition depends on the number of agents (N) and the effective rate of strategy switching. When N is small, the market impact is relatively large; this favors the extreme behaviors. Frequent strategy switching, on the other hand, leads to a clustering of the cautious agents.

  16. Environmental change disrupts communication and sexual selection in a stickleback population.

    PubMed

    Candolin, Ulrika; Tukiainen, Iina; Bertell, Elina

    2016-04-01

    Environmental change that disrupts communication during mate choice and alters sexual selection could influence population dynamics. Yet little is known about such long-term effects. We investigated experimentally the consequences that disrupted visual communication during mate choice has for the quantity and viability of offspring produced in a threespine stickleback population (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We further related the results to long-term monitoring of population dynamics in the field to determine if changes are apparent under natural conditions. The results show that impaired visual communication because of algal blooms reduces reliability of male visual signals as indicators of offspring survival during their first weeks of life. This relaxes sexual selection but has no effect on the number of offspring hatching, as most males have a high hatching success in turbid water. Despite eutrophication and high turbidity levels that interfere with communication during mate choice, the population has grown during recent decades. Large numbers of offspring hatching, combined with high variation in juvenile fitness, has probably shifted selection to later life history stages and maintained a viable population. Together with reduced cost of sexual selection and ongoing ecosystem changes caused by human activities, this could have promoted population growth. These results point to the complexity of ecosystems and the necessity to consider all influencing factors when attempting to understand impacts of human activities on populations. PMID:27220213

  17. An ephemeral sexual population of Phytophthora infestans in the northeastern United States and Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or ...

  18. Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

  19. Mutation screening for thalassaemia in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiyun; Zhang, Rong; Xiang, Guangxin; Li, Yang; Hou, Xuhong; Jiang, Fusong; Jiang, Feng; Hu, Cheng; Jia, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to detect α- and β-thalassaemia mutations in the Jino ethnic minority population of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. Design A total of 1613 Jino adults were continuously recruited from February 2012 to April 2012. Fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine haematological variables. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography. Participants with hypochromic microcytic anaemia or positive haemoglobin analysis profiles were confirmed by α- and β-globin genetic testing, including DNA microarray analysis, direct sequencing methods and multiplex gap-PCR assays. Setting Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Diabetes Mellitus, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital. Results We found 363 suspected cases by primary screening of haematological variables and haemoglobin analysis. After further genetic testing, four types of α- and β-thalassaemia mutation were detected in 203 out of 363 individuals. Both α0- and α+-thalassaemia mutations, --SEA and -α3.7, were identified. β-Thalassaemia mutations included CD17 (HBB:c.52A>T) and CD26 (HbE or HBB:c.79G>A). In addition, 13 HbE carriers had coexisting α0- or α+-thalassaemia deletions. Clinical haematological variables indicated that, in this study, carriers of all thalassaemic genotypes had more severe hypochromic microcytic anaemia than non-thalassaemic individuals. Conclusions Our results provide information on the Jino ethnic minority that may be useful for further genetic counselling, prenatal screening and clinical diagnosis of thalassaemia in this region. PMID:26715484

  20. Association between sexually transmitted disease and church membership. A retrospective cohort study of two Danish religious minorities

    PubMed Central

    Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243

  1. How statewide LGB policies go from ‘‘under our skin’’ to ‘‘into our hearts’’: fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being among emerging adult sexual minority men.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A

    2014-08-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65% White; 92% gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  2. How Statewide LGB Policies Go From “Under Our Skin” to “Into Our Hearts”: Fatherhood Aspirations and Psychological Well-Being Among Emerging Adult Sexual Minority Men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have noted increasingly the public health importance of addressing discriminatory policies towards lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations. At present, however, we know little about the mechanisms through which policies affect LGB populations’ psychological well-being; in other words, how do policies get under our skin? Using data from a study of sexual minority young men (N = 1,487; M = 20.80 (SD = 1.93); 65 % White; 92 % gay), we examined whether statewide bans (e.g., same-sex marriage, adoption) moderated the relationship between fatherhood aspirations and psychological well-being. Fatherhood aspirations were associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem scores among participants living in states without discriminatory policies. In states with marriage equality bans, fatherhood aspirations were associated with higher depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem scores, respectively. Fatherhood aspirations were associated negatively with self-esteem in states banning same-sex and second parent adoptions, respectively. Our findings underscore the importance of recognizing how anti-equality LGB policies may influence the psychosocial development of sexual minority men. PMID:24233971

  3. The Rate of Fitness-Valley Crossing in Sexual Populations

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Daniel B.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Fisher, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Biological traits result in part from interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, in which a beneficial adaptation involves a combination of individually deleterious or neutral mutations; in this case, a population must cross a “fitness valley” to adapt. Recombination can assist this process by combining mutations from different individuals or retard it by breaking up the adaptive combination. Here, we analyze the simplest fitness valley, in which an adaptation requires one mutation at each of two loci to provide a fitness benefit. We present a theoretical analysis of the effect of recombination on the valley-crossing process across the full spectrum of possible parameter regimes. We find that low recombination rates can speed up valley crossing relative to the asexual case, while higher recombination rates slow down valley crossing, with the transition between the two regimes occurring when the recombination rate between the loci is approximately equal to the selective advantage provided by the adaptation. In large populations, if the recombination rate is high and selection against single mutants is substantial, the time to cross the valley grows exponentially with population size, effectively meaning that the population cannot acquire the adaptation. Recombination at the optimal (low) rate can reduce the valley-crossing time by up to several orders of magnitude relative to that in an asexual population. PMID:20923976

  4. 'Migrants from over there' or 'racial minority here'? Sexual networks and prevention practices among sub-Saharan African migrants in France.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elise; Lydié, Nathalie; Bajos, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection in Europe, with an increasing proportion of them acquiring HIV after migration. This transformation in the epidemic pattern has raised concerns about the sexual mixing and preventive behaviours of migrants. This paper aims at exploring how racial boundaries shape sexual networks and structure prevention practices among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses are based on a French survey carried out among 1874 individuals born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged 18-49 and living in Paris and its surroundings. Our results provide evidence of the existence of African sexual networks, over and beyond those of national origin. The intra-African segregation of these sexual networks leads to sexual contacts between migrants from low- and high-HIV prevalence countries, which probably contribute to the development of the epidemic amongst these migrants. Moreover, racially-based perceptions of HIV-related risk seem to produce a specific attitude toward prevention practices as shown by higher rates of condom use among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa with a partner born outside sub-Saharan Africa. As a consequence, community-based approaches to HIV prevention should take into account the identification of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa as a racial minority and not only focus on national borders. PMID:23659520

  5. Religiosity and risky sexual behaviors among an African American church-based population.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Starlyn M; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y

    2014-04-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  6. Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population

    PubMed Central

    Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

    2014-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings. PMID:23054481

  7. Evolution of Population with Sexual and Asexual Reproduction in Changing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Mingfeng; Yu, Changliang; Ruan, Hongbo; Yao, Lei

    Using a lattice model based on Monte Carlo simulations, we study the role of the reproduction pattern on the fate of an evolving population. Each individual is under the selection pressure from the environment and random mutations. The habitat ("climate") is changing periodically. Evolutions of populations following two reproduction patterns are compared, asexual and sexual. We show, via Monte Carlo simulations, that sexual reproduction by keeping more diversified populations gives them better chances to adapt themselves to the changing environment. However, in order to obtain a greater chance to mate, the birth rate should be high. In the case of low birth rate and high mutation probability there is a preference for the asexual reproduction.

  8. Patient Test Preference for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Uptake in an Insured Urban Minority Population.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-06-01

    The study examines the role of patient colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test preference and CRC screening uptake in an insured, urban minority population. Study subjects were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote CRC screening. The interventions were educational, with an emphasis on colonoscopy screening. Subjects were 50+ years of age, fully insured for CRC screening, and out of compliance with current CRC screening recommendations. This paper includes those who answered a question about CRC screening test preference and indicated that they intended to receive such a test in the coming year (n = 453). CRC screening uptake was ascertained from medical claims data. Regardless of test preference, few received CRC screening (22.3 %). Those preferring the home stool test (HST) were less likely to get tested than those preferring a colonoscopy (16.6 vs 29.9 %, χ(2) = 9.9, p = .002). Preference for HST was more strongly associated with beliefs about colonoscopy than with knowledge about colonoscopy. In the context of an RCT emphasizing colonoscopy screening for CRC, patients expressing a preference for HST are at heightened risk of remaining unscreened. Colonoscopy should be recommended as the preferred CRC test, but HSTs should be accessible and encouraged for patients who are averse to colonoscopy.Clinical trials.gov: Identifier: NCT02392143. PMID:26585609

  9. Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

  10. Proceedings of a National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations (Norfolk, Virginia, October 10-12, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastating among persons living in depressed, disrupted, and impoverished environments. Nineteen papers…

  11. Systematic review of differential inorganic arsenic exposure in minority, low-income, and indigenous populations in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is carcinogenic in humans and also associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, and skin diseases. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to low concentrations of iAs in water, food, soil, and air. Minority and low income populations are often at hig...

  12. THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY WALKING PROGRAMS TO IMPROVE HEALTH, AND PREVENT OBESITY, IN RURAL, HIGH RISK, MINORITY POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of community walking programs to improve health (e.g., reduce blood pressure, improve lipid profile) and prevent obesity (e.g., maintain or reduce BMI and body fat) in rural, high risk, minority populations. Original data will be presented from ...

  13. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  14. Evidence of the negative effect of sexual minority stigma on HIV testing among MSM and transgender women in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John; Guardado, Maria Elena; de Maria Hernández, Flor; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Melendez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was administered to 670 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in San Salvador through respondent driven sampling to identify determinants of ever testing for HIV using a minority stress framework. A positive association was found between ever testing and older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.10], past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.92), perceiving that most social acquaintances had tested (aOR 1.81), and knowing a PLHIV (aOR 1.94). A negative association was found between homelessness and ever testing (aOR 0.43). Among the MSM sub-sample (n = 506), similar results were found for older age (aOR 2.63), and past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.56). Internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with ever testing for HIV among MSM (aOR 0.46), and HIV testing stigma and experienced provider discrimination further strengthened this relationship. It is important to mitigate sexual minority stigma in order to increase HIV testing among MSM. Future research should explore this construct among TW. PMID:24907779

  15. Sexual violence, mood disorders and suicide risk: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Mondin, Thaíse Campos; Cardoso, Taiane de Azevedo; Jansen, Karen; Konradt, Caroline Elizabeth; Zaltron, Rosana Ferrazza; Behenck, Monalisa de Oliveira; de Mattos, Luciano Dias; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2016-03-01

    This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypo)manic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05), except for the occurrence of (hypo)manic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk. PMID:26960097

  16. Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana; Kubátová, Barbora; Krejčíková, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lučanová, Magdalena; Krajníková, Eva; Těšitelová, Tamara; Štípková, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedrén, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. PMID:23002267

  17. Examining stress and coping as a mediator for internalizing symptomatology: A comparison between sexual minority and majority first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Riley, Tracey J; Kirsch, Alexandra C; Shapiro, Jenna B; Conley, Colleen S

    2016-06-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents experience unique stressors and elevated internalizing symptoms. This study examines differences in coping styles between SGM and heterosexual adolescents and the potential mediating roles of stress and coping styles. Analyses indicated that SGM (N = 75) adolescents reported higher levels of internalizing symptoms (depression, anxiety, and distress), higher use of maladaptive coping styles (denial and blame), lesser use of adaptive coping styles (reframing and religion), and greater experiences of stress, compared to their heterosexual counterparts (N = 1702). Bootstrapping analyses revealed the relationship between sexual identity and internalizing symptoms measured approximately 3 months later was not mediated by stress and coping, adjusting for gender, age, and baseline symptomatology. Findings suggest that earlier adolescent differences in internalizing symptoms presage increasing symptomatology across the transition to college, and other mediators during the college transition explain the continued increases in internalizing symptoms. PMID:27055249

  18. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Béria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andréia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

  19. The Group-Level Consequences of Sexual Conflict in Multigroup Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Gallup, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within-and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced) of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics. PMID:22039491

  20. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations

    PubMed Central

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L.; Parsons, Scott A.; Alford, Ross A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  1. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations.

    PubMed

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L; Parsons, Scott A; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  2. The influence of early-life conditions on cardiovascular disease later in life among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bijker, Rimke; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The reasons for the high prevalence of CVD in ethnic minority groups are not fully understood. Recently, the importance of early-life developmental factors and their impact on CVDs in adulthood is increasingly being recognised, but little is known about this among ethnic minority groups. Therefore, the current paper aimed to fill this knowledge gap by reviewing the available literature to assess the influence of early-life conditions on CVDs and its risk factors in ethnic minority populations residing in Western countries. A systematic search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE between 1989 and 2014. In total, 1418 studies were identified of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Six studies investigated the relationship between early-life anthropometrics and CVD risk factors of which all except one found significant associations between the assessed anthropometric measures and CVD risk factors. Seven studies evaluated the influence of childhood socio-economic status (SES) on CVD and risk factors of which five found significant associations between childhood SES measures and CVD risk factors. Five studies investigated the relationship between other early-life conditions including early-life nutrition, physical development, and childhood psychosocial conditions, and CVD risk factors. Four of these studies found significant associations between the assessed childhood conditions and CVD risk factors. This review reinforces the importance of early-life conditions on adult CVD in ethnic minority groups. Improvement of early-life conditions among ethnic minority groups may contribute to reducing CVD risk in these populations. PMID:26141120

  3. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders. PMID:25507355

  4. Risk factors influencing non-use of condoms at sexual relations in populations under heightened risk.

    PubMed

    Medić, Alan; Dzelalija, Boris; Koźul, Karlo; Novosel, Iva Pem; Dijanić, Tomislav

    2014-09-01

    To determine risk factors for non-use of condoms when engaging in sexual intercourse among high-risk population groups for acquiring HIV/STIs. We collected the data obtained by interviews in the period from 2005 to 2011 in the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Center for HIV/AIDS at the Institute of Public Health of Zadar County. Four hundred ninety four respondents were divided into risk and control groups. The majority of the respondents in our population does not consistently use condoms, in the risk group as much as 89.9%, and in the control group 65.7% of them (p< 0.001). Persons consuming alcohol when having sexual relations use condoms about 5x less often compared to those not consuming alcohol at all (OR=5.00; CI=1.69-14.29). There are significant differences among women and men in the risk group regarding reasons for non-use of condoms. The main reason with women is "I trust mypartners" 33.7% while men "do not like having sex with condoms, 53.6% of them (p < 0.001). The main risk factors for non-use of condoms are alcohol consumption at sexual relations, non-use of condoms in a casual relationship. Having in mind the non-use of condoms among populations of high-risk groups of acquiring HIV there are significant differences among genders. PMID:25420371

  5. Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

  6. INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals. PMID:20373222

  7. Sexual reproduction in Aspergillus flavus sclerotia: acquisition of novel alleles from soil populations and uniparental mitochondrial inheritance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus colonizes agricultural commodities worldwide and contaminates them with carcinogenic aflatoxins. The high genetic diversity of A. flavus populations is largely due to sexual reproduction characterized by the formation of ascospore-bearing ascocarps embedded within sclerotia. A. ...

  8. Evolutionary divergence in sexual signals: Insights from within and among barn swallow populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Matthew Reed

    A wealth of studies across diverse animal groups indicate the importance of sexual selection in shaping phenotypes within and across breeding populations. In recent decades, much research has focused on how divergent sexual selection pressures among populations may lead to speciation. For my first dissertation chapter, I performed a literature review on the causes and consequences of evolutionary divergence in acoustic signals and developed the acoustic window conceptual framework for understanding the contributions of selection, genetic drift, and evolutionary constraint to signal divergence. Further, I found that sexual selection explains acoustic differences between recently diverged populations of the best-studied taxa. However, the relative contributions of ecological selection, sexual selection, and drift to acoustic divergence have not typically been considered within the same study systems. The remainder of my dissertation used the Northern Hemisphere-distributed barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica) species complex as a model system to study sender-receiver dynamics, intra- and intersexual selection pressures, and visual and acoustic signal interactions at the local scale, and signal divergence across populations at the global scale. From song recordings taken across 19 sampling sites, spanning five of six described subspecies, I demonstrated considerable conservation in song structure. However, temporal traits were highly divergent across subspecies, and in particular, the speed of the terminal trill of songs. In a detailed study of the multimodal communication system of the barn swallow (including visual and acoustic traits), I demonstrated that males and females use different types of signals to mediate competition and mate choice. One of the only exceptions to this rule was trill rate, which was also implicated in song divergence across populations. In order to test the function of trill rate in communication, I performed a two-year playback study within the

  9. Alleles versus genotypes: Genetic interactions and the dynamics of selection in sexual populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neher, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Physical interactions between amino-acids are essential for protein structure and activity, while protein-protein interactions and regulatory interactions are central to cellular function. As a consequence of these interactions, the combined effect of two mutations can differ from the sum of the individual effects of the mutations. This phenomenon of genetic interaction is known as epistasis. However, the importance of epistasis and its effects on evolutionary dynamics are poorly understood, especially in sexual populations where recombination breaks up existing combinations of alleles to produce new ones. Here, we present a computational model of selection dynamics involving many epistatic loci in a recombining population. We demonstrate that a large number of polymorphic interacting loci can, despite frequent recombination, exhibit cooperative behavior that locks alleles into favorable genotypes leading to a population consisting of a set of competing clones. As the recombination rate exceeds a certain critical value this ``genotype selection'' phase disappears in an abrupt transition giving way to ``allele selection'' - the phase where different loci are only weakly correlated as expected in sexually reproducing populations. Clustering of interacting sets of genes on a chromosome leads to the emergence of an intermediate regime, where localized blocks of cooperating alleles lock into genetic modules. Large populations attain highest fitness at a recombination rate just below critical, suggesting that natural selection might tune recombination rates to balance the beneficial aspect of exploration of genotype space with the breaking up of synergistic allele combinations.

  10. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. PMID:26146162

  11. A Comparison by Sexual Orientation of Sexual Health and Sexual Behaviors among Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Gattamorta, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Significance High rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related to high risk sexual behaviors are a public health problem in the U.S. Hispanics have the second highest rates of HIV infection among racial/ethnic minorities. Previous research with Hispanic men has identified a number of factors that influence sexual risk and render Hispanic men at risk for HIV/STIs. These factors vary by sexual orientation. Despite these differences in sexual risk by sexual orientation, no study to date has compared the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual behaviors of a sample of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 Hispanic men in South Florida, 80 heterosexual and 83 MSM. Participants completed measures of sexual health, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners during the previous 3 months, condom usage during the previous 3 months, HIV testing history, and substance use during sex. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of certain STIs. Implications Hispanic men as a population may engage in high risk sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV/STIs. More research is needed to develop both culturally tailored and sexual orientation appropriate interventions to assist Hispanic men reduce high risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25663832

  12. Increased condom use without other major changes in sexual behavior among the general population in Switzerland.

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Arber, F; Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Paccaud, F

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study is part of a continuous evaluation of the Swiss AIDS prevention strategy from 1987 through 1994. METHODS: Annual telephone surveys of samples representative of the general population aged 17 through 45 years have been conducted since 1987 to monitor behavioral change. RESULTS: No major changes in level of sexual activity (lifetime number of partners, frequency of sexual encounters in the past week) or potential exposure to risk of HIV transmission (acquisition of a new steady partner during the year or of casual partners in the last 6 months) were observed. Systematic condom use with a new steady partner increased between 1988 and 1994, from 40% to 64% among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 57% to 72% among those aged 31 to 45. Systematic condom use with casual partners increased from 8% to 56% between 1987 and 1994 among 17- to 30-year-olds and from 22% to 42% between 1989 and 1994 among those aged 31 to 45. Condom use was higher among those with multiple partners. CONCLUSIONS: A general-population approach to AIDS prevention was able to achieve large-scale improvements in condom-based protection against HIV infection without inducing other major changes in sexual behavior. PMID:9146432

  13. Evaluation of sexuality in a Paraguayan mid-aged female urban population using the six-item Female Sexual Function Index.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S C; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Ortiz-Benegas, M E; Palacios-De Franco, Y

    2016-06-01

    Background There are scant data related to sexuality assessed among mid-aged women from Paraguay. Objective To assess sexual function in a sample of mid-aged Paraguayan women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 265 urban-living women from Asunción (Paraguay) aged 40-65 years were surveyed with the six-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6) and a questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Results The median age of the sample was 48 years, 48.2% were postmenopausal (median/interquartile range age at menopause 46/13 years), 11.3% used hormone therapy, 37.0% used psychotropic drugs, 44.5% had hypertension, 7.2% diabetes, 46.1% abdominal obesity and 89.4% had a partner (n = 237). Overall, 84.1% (223/265) of surveyed women were sexually active, presenting a median total FSFI-6 score of 23.0, and 25.6% obtained a total score of 19 or less, suggestive of sexual dysfunction (lower sexual function). Upon bivariate analysis, several factors were associated with lower total FSFI-6 scores; however, multiple linear regression analysis found that lower total FSFI-6 scores (worse sexual function) were significantly correlated to the postmenopausal status and having an older partner, whereas coital frequency was positively correlated to higher scores (better sexual function). Conclusion In this pilot sample of urban-living, mid-aged Paraguayan women, as determined with the FSFI-6, lower sexual function was related to menopausal status, coital frequency and partner age. There is a need for more research in this regard in this population. PMID:26940601

  14. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

  15. Behavior Change Interventions to Improve the Health of Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: A Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Emma M; Liu, Jing Jing; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark RD; Netto, Gina; Wabnitz, Cecile; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Context Adapting behavior change interventions to meet the needs of racial and ethnic minority populations has the potential to enhance their effectiveness in the target populations. But because there is little guidance on how best to undertake these adaptations, work in this field has proceeded without any firm foundations. In this article, we present our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches as a framework for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers interested in delivering behavior change interventions to ethnically diverse, underserved populations in the United Kingdom. Methods We undertook a mixed-method program of research on interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and promoting healthy eating that had been adapted to improve salience and acceptability for African-, Chinese-, and South Asian–origin minority populations. This program included a systematic review (reported using PRISMA criteria), qualitative interviews, and a realist synthesis of data. Findings We compiled a richly informative data set of 161 publications and twenty-six interviews detailing the adaptation of behavior change interventions and the contexts in which they were undertaken. On the basis of these data, we developed our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches, which contains (1) a forty-six-item Typology of Adaptation Approaches; (2) a Pathway to Adaptation, which shows how to use the Typology to create a generic behavior change intervention; and (3) RESET, a decision tool that provides practical guidance on which adaptations to use in different contexts. Conclusions Our Tool Kit of Adaptation Approaches provides the first evidence-derived suite of materials to support the development, design, implementation, and reporting of health behavior change interventions for minority groups. The Tool Kit now needs prospective, empirical evaluation in a range of intervention and population settings. PMID:24320170

  16. Promoting Career Opportunities in Nursing to the Minority and Male Population of Galveston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Viola Ruth

    In 1991, a project was undertaken to increase the number of minority and male students entering and completing the Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) program at Galveston College (GC) in Texas. The goal of the project was achieved in three interrelated phases. The initial phase focused on establishing an outreach program within the community. The…

  17. The Unique Leadership Needs of Minority Student Populations: Crafting a Leadership Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how college-level minority student leaders make meaning of those leadership experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 students. Major findings noted a strong personal motivation to participate in student leadership positions. Further research on the impact of familial…

  18. A Framework for Developing Comparable Multilingual Assessments for Minority Populations: Why Context Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveri, Maria Elena; Ercikan, Kadriye; Simon, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of linguistic minorities often involves using multiple language versions of assessments. In these assessments, comparability of scores across language groups is central to valid comparative interpretations. Various frameworks and guidelines describe factors that need to be considered when developing comparable assessments. These…

  19. The Research Apprenticeship Program: Promoting Careers in Biomedical Sciences and the Health Professions for Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Denise D.

    This study examined the career decisions of 54 high school students who participated in the Research Apprenticeship Program (RAP) at Ohio State University during 1990-92. RAP is a precollege program which aims to provide meaningful experiences in various aspects of health-related research for minority high school students and teachers. RAP…

  20. Are ethnic minorities synonymous for genetic isolates? Comparing Walser and Romance populations in the Upper Lys Valley (Western Alps).

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Griso, Clio; Pettener, Davide

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences between neighbouring populations are often said to give rise to reproductive barriers. For ethnic minorities, these barriers can easily result in genetic isolation. In this study, we analyse the surname structure of the Walser of the upper Lys Valley, a German-speaking ethnic minority in the Italian Western Alps, to better understand the relationships between linguistic and genetic isolation. Analyses were based on 1713 marriages registered from 1838 to 1938 in four villages of the valley: three Walser communities (Issime, Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Gressoney-La-Trinité) and the Romance community of Gaby. The results show that endogamy and inbreeding are lower than in other Italian linguistic minorities, with the exception of Gaby, whose values rank among the highest ever found in Italy. Compared to the Walser communities' Gaby behaves as an outgroup and has an almost exclusively autochthonous surname set. The latter aspect is also true, but to a lesser extent, for the Walser villages, in particular for Issime on the one hand and Gressoney-Saint-Jean and Gressoney-La-Trinité on the other. These findings strongly suggest that the Walser communities' ethnic minority status is not associated with genetic isolation, whereas genetic isolation was found in the linguistically non-isolated Gaby. Finally, our results are consistent with two independent late medieval migration events at the origin of these Walser settlements. PMID:21757790

  1. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  2. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  3. Educating future physicians for a minority population: a French-language stream at the University of Ottawa.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Jeanne; Jean, Pierre

    2002-03-01

    The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Ottawa has recently developed a French-language undergraduate medical education stream in order to train physicians for the francophone minority population of the province of Ontario. This new program was planned with the following societal requirements in mind: the need to receive health care in one's mother tongue, the need to have physicians who know the community, and the expectation of receiving good medical care in an ambulatory setting. A systematic educational planning model was used in order to develop three educational innovations in response to these needs and expectations: a communication skills laboratory; early student exposure to the ambulatory, primary care setting for development of clinical skills; and clerkship rotations in a francophone community hospital. Program developers provided ongoing faculty development activities in order to prepare francophone faculty for their new roles. They also considered student participation in program development an essential element of its success. The program has positive outcomes both within and outside the Faculty of Medicine. These include an enrichment effect on the English-language stream, an increased interest in medical education, student satisfaction with their community hospital clerkship rotations, and the recognition of the educational program as a national resource for francophone minority groups. Medical schools that serve minority population groups may benefit from the experience gained at the University of Ottawa. PMID:11891158

  4. The role of sexual selection and conflict in mediating among-population variation in mating strategies and sexually dimorphic traits in Sepsis punctum.

    PubMed

    Dmitriew, Caitlin; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U

    2012-01-01

    The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive traits is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it has the potential to limit gene flow among populations, contributing to speciation. Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. Flies from five distinct populations were reared at high or low food, generating high and low quality males. The expression of body size, forelimb morphology and courtship rate were each greater at high food, but high food males experienced higher mating success or reduced latency to first copulation in only one of the populations. Among populations, overall mating success increased with the degree of male-bias in overall body size and forelimb modification, suggesting that these traits have evolved as a means of increasing male mating rate. The increased mating success observed in large-male populations raises the question of why variation in magnitude of dimorphism persists among populations. One reason may be that costs of producing a large size constrain the evolution of ever-larger males. We found no evidence that juvenile mortality under food stress was greater for large-male populations, but development time was considerably longer and may represent an important constraint in an ephemeral and competitive growth environment. PMID:23227145

  5. Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson, Ed.

    Due to cultural and linguistic misunderstandings, racism, and even homophobia, sexual abuse is frequently mishandled by professionals working with minority populations. Research and multiculturalism have led to advances in understanding sexual abuse in its various contexts. The complicated issues which surround such abuse, in nine different…

  6. Determination of sexual dimorphism via maxillary first molar teeth in Himachali population

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Swati; Gupta, Rakhi; Puri, Abhiney; Bansal, Sucheta; Singla, Smita; Nangia, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sex determination of skeletal remains forms part of archaeological and medicolegal examinations. It is an aspect of forensic odontology. Forensic odontology primarily deals with identification, based on recognition of unique features present in an individual's dental structures. Correct sex determination limits the pool of missing persons to just one half of the population. Aim of Study: Purpose of this study is to evaluate the existence of sexual dimorphism and variation in left and right maxillary first molars using bucco-lingual and mesio-distal dimensions in population of Sirmour District, H.P. Materials and Methods: Base sample comprised 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) of an age group ranging from 17 to 25 years. Statistical Analysis Used: Unpaired t-test. Results: It was observed that the comparison of mean values of bucco-lingual and mesio-distal parameters showed highly statistically significant differences between males and females, measured both intraorally and on study casts. There were no significant differences between the mean values of both the parameters on the left side as compared to right side. Conclusion: The study concludes that sexual dimorphism is population specific. Among Himachali people, mesio-distal dimensions and bucco-lingual dimensions of first molar can aid in sex determination. PMID:26005295

  7. An Ephemeral Sexual Population of Phytophthora infestans in the Northeastern United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Danies, Giovanna; Myers, Kevin; Mideros, María F.; Restrepo, Silvia; Martin, Frank N.; Cooke, David E. L.; Smart, Christine D.; Ristaino, Jean B.; Seaman, Abby J.; Gugino, Beth K.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.; Fry, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight disease, has been reported in North America since the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States the lack of or very limited sexual reproduction has resulted in largely clonal populations of P. infestans. In 2010 and 2011, but not in 2012 or 2013, 20 rare and diverse genotypes of P. infestans were detected in a region that centered around central New York State. The ratio of A1 to A2 mating types among these genotypes was close to the 50∶50 ratio expected for sexual recombination. These genotypes were diverse at the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase locus, differed in their microsatellite profiles, showed different banding patterns in a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay using a moderately repetitive and highly polymorphic probe (RG57), were polymorphic for four different nuclear genes and differed in their sensitivity to the systemic fungicide mefenoxam. The null hypothesis of linkage equilibrium was not rejected, which suggests the population could be sexual. These new genotypes were monomorphic in their mitochondrial haplotype that was the same as US-22. Through parentage exclusion testing using microsatellite data and sequences of four nuclear genes, recent dominant lineages US-8, US-11, US-23, and US-24 were excluded as possible parents for these genotypes. Further analyses indicated that US-22 could not be eliminated as a possible parent for 14 of the 20 genotypes. We conclude that US-22 could be a parent of some, but not all, of the new genotypes found in 2010 and 2011. There were at least two other parents for this population and the genotypic characteristics of the other parents were identified. PMID:25551215

  8. Validity and reliability in reporting sexual partners and condom use in a Swiss population survey.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, A; Konings, E; Dubois-Arber, F; Landert, C; Van Melle, G

    1998-02-01

    To monitor the impact of its AIDS prevention efforts, Switzerland conducts an annual telephone survey about AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior in the general population aged 17-45 years. Based upon a test-retest study with additional focused interviews conducted upon a subsample of 138 respondents aged 17-22, the authors report their findings from an investigation of the validity and reliability of indicators of sexual behavior and condom use in those surveys. The initial survey sample was comprised of 2800 respondents aged 17-45 in October 1992. The subsample included more French-speaking respondents and more people in stable relationships than did the initial sample. Survey indicators are the number of lifetime sex partners, casual sex during lifetime and number of casual sex partners during the preceding 6 months, condom use with casual partners during the past 6 months, the acquisition of a new steady partner during the year, condom use with that partner, age at first intercourse, and condom use at last intercourse. These indicators were determined to be highly reliable, although more research is needed on the validity of the data. Among sexually active respondents, 12.5% of the men and 1.9% of women included nonpenetrative sex in their definitions of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, 40% of the 15 respondents who reported consistent condom use with casual sex partners at the initial interview later admitted at reinterview that they sometimes have unprotected sex. PMID:9556172

  9. Prevalence and predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships in a predominantly African American population in Jackson, Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; MacCarthy, Sarah; Barnett, Nancy; Rose, Jennifer; Chan, Philip; Yolken, Annajane; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Barnes, Arti; Riggins, Reginald; Moore, Elya; Simmons, Dantrell; Parker, Sharon; Mena, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, have been associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) infection. How best to measure concurrency and the personal characteristics and predictors of concurrency are not yet well understood. We compared two frequently used concurrency definitions, including a self-reported measure based on participant response regarding overlapping sex with partners, and the UNAIDS measure based on overlapping dates of last sex and intention to have sex again. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and structural predictors of concurrency among 1,542 patients at an urban STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Nearly half (44%) reported concurrency based on self-reported sex with other partners, and 26% reported concurrency according to the UNAIDS concurrency measure. Using the self-reported concurrency measure, the strongest predictors of concurrency were perceived partner concurrency, drug use at last sex, having more than 10 lifetime partners, and being recently incarcerated. Strongest predictors of concurrency using the UNAIDS measure were lifetime number of partners and perceived partner concurrency. Concurrency is highly prevalent in this population in the Deep South and social, structural and behavioral factors were important predictors of concurrency for both measures. Future research should use time anchored data collection methods and biomarkers to assess whether both definitions of concurrency are associated with HIV outcomes. PMID:24803130

  10. Factors associated with early sexual debut in Slovenia: results of a general population survey

    PubMed Central

    Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Weiss, H A; Hayes, R

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate time trends in age at first heterosexual intercourse (FHI) and associated factors. Methods Data were collected from a national probability sample of the general population aged 18–49 years. Results Median age at FHI was 17 years for men and 18 years for women, but declined from 18 years to 17 years in men born after the early 1960s and in women born after the early 1970s. Early FHI (before age 16) was reported by 15.2% of men and 7.4% of women, but in recent cohorts (born 1975–82), proportions were similar in both sexes (16.9% and 14.4%, respectively). In women, higher educational level and acquiring most knowledge about sex from parents or in school were associated with later age at FHI. Half the women with early FHI judged the event to have occurred too soon. 4.2% of women with early FHI reported coercion at FHI, compared to 0.9% overall. The main factor associated with early FHI in men was not living with both parents up to the age of 15. Individuals with early FHI were more likely to report higher risk sexual behaviour as well as teenage motherhood and, for men, not having used a condom at FHI and bacterial sexually transmitted infections. Three in four individuals with early FHI thought they had inadequate sexual knowledge at FHI. Many would have liked to have learned more from parents and in school. Conclusions Improved sexual education among young Slovenians should aim to delay FHI until a more mature age and to be better prepared for safer sex. PMID:17151034

  11. Preferential sexual transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine populations may not account for observed seroprevalence in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gary

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares the behavior of two competing models for the transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine in the USA. In first model, horizontal (non-sexual) density dependent transmission is the only transmission modality. In the second model, the only transmission modality is sexual transmission between mature males and females. The comparison of model behavior was carried out to test the hypothesis that preferential sexual transmission of PRV in feral swine can account for the seroprevalence observed in the field. The observed range of seroprevalence of PRV in mature feral swine in the USA is consistent with a preferential sexual transmission only if the feral swine mating system is a random mating system or a polygynous system in which there is a relatively large rate of acquisition of new mates. The observed range of seroprevalence of PRV in mature feral swine in the USA is not consistent with a preferential sexual transmission if there is mate guarding. This is important because the National Pseudorabies Surveillance Plan deems monitoring the risk of PRV introduction from feral swine to be a “minor objective” both in terms of the scope of the plan and with respect to the resources allocated. The rationale for this statement was derived from experimental studies, which suggested that the PRV indigenous to feral swine in the USA is preferentially sexually transmitted. PMID:21962753

  12. Populations of the Minor α-Conformation in AcGXGNH2 and the α-Helical Nucleation Propensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanjun; He, Liu; Zhang, Wenwen; Hu, Jingjing; Shi, Zhengshuang

    2016-06-01

    Intrinsic backbone conformational preferences of different amino acids are important for understanding the local structure of unfolded protein chains. Recent evidence suggests α-structure is relatively minor among three major backbone conformations for unfolded proteins. The α-helices are the dominant structures in many proteins. For these proteins, how could the α-structures occur from the least in unfolded to the most in folded states? Populations of the minor α-conformation in model peptides provide vital information. Reliable determination of populations of the α-conformers in these peptides that exist in multiple equilibriums of different conformations remains a challenge. Combined analyses on data from AcGXPNH2 and AcGXGNH2 peptides allow us to derive the populations of PII, β and α in AcGXGNH2. Our results show that on average residue X in AcGXGNH2 adopt PII, β, and α 44.7%, 44.5% and 10.8% of time, respectively. The contents of α-conformations for different amino acids define an α-helix nucleation propensity scale. With derived PII, β and α-contents, we can construct a free energy-conformation diagram on each AcGXGNH2 in aqueous solution for the three major backbone conformations. Our results would have broad implications on early-stage events of protein folding.

  13. Populations of the Minor α-Conformation in AcGXGNH2 and the α-Helical Nucleation Propensities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanjun; He, Liu; Zhang, Wenwen; Hu, Jingjing; Shi, Zhengshuang

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic backbone conformational preferences of different amino acids are important for understanding the local structure of unfolded protein chains. Recent evidence suggests α-structure is relatively minor among three major backbone conformations for unfolded proteins. The α-helices are the dominant structures in many proteins. For these proteins, how could the α-structures occur from the least in unfolded to the most in folded states? Populations of the minor α-conformation in model peptides provide vital information. Reliable determination of populations of the α-conformers in these peptides that exist in multiple equilibriums of different conformations remains a challenge. Combined analyses on data from AcGXPNH2 and AcGXGNH2 peptides allow us to derive the populations of PII, β and α in AcGXGNH2. Our results show that on average residue X in AcGXGNH2 adopt PII, β, and α 44.7%, 44.5% and 10.8% of time, respectively. The contents of α-conformations for different amino acids define an α-helix nucleation propensity scale. With derived PII, β and α-contents, we can construct a free energy-conformation diagram on each AcGXGNH2 in aqueous solution for the three major backbone conformations. Our results would have broad implications on early-stage events of protein folding. PMID:27256621

  14. Methodological issues in ethnic and racial identity research with ethnic minority populations: theoretical precision, measurement issues, and research designs.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Syed, Moin; Yip, Tiffany; Knight, George P; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Lee, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    This article takes stock of research methods employed in the study of racial and ethnic identity with ethnic minority populations. The article is presented in three parts. The first section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ethnic and racial identity (ERI) development. The second section reviews theories, conceptualizations, and measurement of ERI content. The final section reviews key methodological and analytic principles that are important to consider for both ERI development and content. The article concludes with suggestions for future research addressing key methodological limitations when studying ERI. PMID:24490892

  15. Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L. |

    1992-12-01

    In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

  16. Regional differences in the potential exposure of US minority populations to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A. ); Nieves, A.L. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1992-01-01

    In the literature that examines the distribution of environmental disamenities of various types, there is considerable documentation that minority groups and lower income groups are more likely to be exposed. Such differential exposure has been attributed to environmental racism'' by some authors, but there has been no systematic investigation of the factors and dynamics underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-American, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range facility types and explores the degree to which this may be related to urban and income factors.

  17. Characterization of a Self-renewing and Multi-potent Cell Population Isolated from Human Minor Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Li, Yan; Du, Ming-juan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Xiang-yu; Tong, Hai-zhou; Liu, Lei; Han, Ting-lu; Li, Wan-di; Yan, Li; Yin, Ning-bei; Li, Hai-dong; Zhao, Zhen-min

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Although these cells are found in many tissues, the presence of stem cells in the human minor salivary glands is not well explored. Using the explant culture method, we isolated a population of cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities harboring that reside in the human minor salivary glands, called human minor salivary gland mesenchymal stem cells (hMSGMSCs). These cells show embryonic stem cell and mesenchymal stem cell phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that hMSGMSCs have the potential to undergo mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal differentiation in conditioned culture systems in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo transplantation of hMSGMSCs into SCID mice after partial hepatectomy shows that hMSGMSCs are able to survive and engraft, characterized by the survival of labeled cells and the expression of the hepatocyte markers AFP and KRT18. These data demonstrate the existence of hMSGMSCs and suggest their potential in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:26054627

  18. Characterization of a Self-renewing and Multi-potent Cell Population Isolated from Human Minor Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lin; Li, Yan; Du, Ming-juan; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Xiang-yu; Tong, Hai-zhou; Liu, Lei; Han, Ting-lu; Li, Wan-di; Yan, Li; Yin, Ning-bei; Li, Hai-dong; Zhao, Zhen-min

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells play an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis. Although these cells are found in many tissues, the presence of stem cells in the human minor salivary glands is not well explored. Using the explant culture method, we isolated a population of cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacities harboring that reside in the human minor salivary glands, called human minor salivary gland mesenchymal stem cells (hMSGMSCs). These cells show embryonic stem cell and mesenchymal stem cell phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that hMSGMSCs have the potential to undergo mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal differentiation in conditioned culture systems in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo transplantation of hMSGMSCs into SCID mice after partial hepatectomy shows that hMSGMSCs are able to survive and engraft, characterized by the survival of labeled cells and the expression of the hepatocyte markers AFP and KRT18. These data demonstrate the existence of hMSGMSCs and suggest their potential in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:26054627

  19. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  20. Testing the "Sexually Abused-Abuser Hypothesis" in Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Aebi, Marcel; Landolt, Markus A; Mueller-Pfeiffer, Christoph; Schnyder, Ulrich; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2015-11-01

    A long-standing belief in the literature on sex offenders is that sexually victimized youths are at increased risk of becoming sex offenders themselves. The present study tested the link between past sexual abuse, either with or without contact, and sexually offending behavior in a representative sample of male and female adolescents while controlling for other types of abuse, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behaviors. Self-reported data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 6,628 students attending 9th grade public school in Switzerland (3,434 males, 3,194 females, mean age = 15.50 years, SD = 0.66 years). Exposure to contact and non-contact types of sexual abuse was assessed using the Child Sexual Abuse Questionnaire and sexually offending behavior by the presence of any of three behaviors indicating sexual coercion. Two-hundred-forty-five males (7.1 %) and 40 females (1.2 %) reported having sexually coerced another person. After controlling for non-sexual abuse, low parent education, urban versus rural living, mental health problems, substance use, and non-sexual violent behavior, male adolescents who were victims of contact sexual abuse and non-contact sexual abuse were significantly more likely to report coercive sexual behaviors. Females who experienced contact or non-contact sexual abuse were also found at increased risk of committing sexual coercion after controlling for covariates. The present findings demonstrate a strong relationship between past sexual abuse, with and without physical contact, and sexual-offending behavior in male and female adolescents. Reducing exposure to non-contact sexual abuse (like Internet-based sexual exploitation) should become a new area of sexual violence prevention in youths. PMID:25981223