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1

Measuring community connectedness among diverse sexual minority populations.  

PubMed

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study examined the reliability and validity of an existing measure of connectedness to the LGBT Community among a diverse group of sexual minority individuals in New York City, and whether differences in connectedness existed across gender and race or ethnicity. Scores on the measure demonstrated both internal consistency and construct stability across subgroups defined by gender and race or ethnicity. The subgroups did not differ in their mean levels of connectedness, and scores on the measure demonstrated factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity, both generally and within each of the subgroups. Inconsistencies were observed with regard to which scores on the measure demonstrated predictive validity in their associations with indicators of mental health and well-being. The scale is a useful tool for researchers and practitioners interested in understanding the role of community connectedness in the lives of diverse populations of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21512945

Frost, David M; Meyer, Ilan H

2012-01-01

2

Sexual Minority Supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are an ever-growing number of sexual minority therapists, many are supervised by heterosexual supervisors who are not knowledgeable about sexual minority issues, which impact the sexual minority therapist and her\\/his interactions with their clients (Halpert & Pfaller, 2001; Pfohl, 2004). In light of this, the authors designed a qualitative inquiry based in a one-semester sexual minority supervision group.

Brent A. Satterly; Donald Dyson

2008-01-01

3

Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study

David M. Frost; Ilan H. Meyer

2011-01-01

4

Measuring Community Connectedness among Diverse Sexual Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and research agree that connectedness to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community is an important construct to account for in understanding issues related to health and well-being among gay and bisexual men. However, the measurement of this construct among lesbian and bisexual women or racial and ethnic minority individuals has not yet been adequately investigated. This study

David M. Frost; Ilan H. Meyer

2012-01-01

5

Sexual Minorities Seeking Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the mental health needs of lesbian and bisexual (sexual minority) women is an integral part of designing and providing appropriate mental health services and treatment for them. In an effort to understand the mental health needs of sexual minority women who seek community treatment, a chart review was conducted of the 223 lesbian and bisexual women who presented for

Tracey L. Rogers; Kristen Emanuel; Judith Bradford

2002-01-01

6

Minority Status Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter examines the ways that minority status of African-American, Latina, or Asian-American women within sexual minority\\u000a populations shapes the lived experience of women who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or transgender. Consider the following:\\u000a In 2008 elections, voters elected Barbara “Bobbi” Lopez, an out Latina lesbian, to the San Francisco school board. In the\\u000a same election, California voters cast statewide

Jessie Daniels

7

Biology and Sexual Minority Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of current knowledge pertaining to the biology of sexual\\u000a minority status. Under the umbrella of sexual minority are included homosexuals, bisexuals, transgenders and intersexes. The\\u000a most developed biologic theory pertaining to sexual minority status is the prenatal hormonal\\u000a hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, prenatal hormones act (primarily during

William Byne

8

Sexual minority population density and incidence of lung, colorectal and female breast cancer in California  

PubMed Central

Objective Risk factors for breast, colorectal, and lung cancer are known to be more common among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, suggesting they may be more likely to develop these cancers. Our objective was to determine differences in cancer incidence by sexual orientation, using sexual orientation data aggregated at the county level. Methods Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and data on sexual orientation were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey, from which a measure of age-specific LGB population density by county was calculated. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, the association between the age–race-stratified incident rate of breast, lung and colorectal cancer in each county and LGB population density was examined, with race, age group and poverty as covariates. Results Among men, bisexual population density was associated with lower incidence of lung cancer and with higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Among women, lesbian population density was associated with lower incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with higher incidence of breast cancer; bisexual population density was associated with higher incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with lower incidence of breast cancer. Conclusions These study findings clearly document links between county-level LGB population density and cancer incidence, illuminating an important public health disparity.

Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Maxwell, Nancy I; Ozonoff, Al

2014-01-01

9

After breast cancer: sexual functioning of sexual minority survivors.  

PubMed

Research on sexual difficulties after cancer has neglected sexual minority women (SMW); for example, lesbian and bisexual women. Clinicians treating these women are therefore at a disadvantage as they lack information about sexual problems in this population. This study tested the hypothesis that SMW with breast cancer have poorer sexual function than SMW without breast cancer, distinguishing partnered from unpartnered women. Using convenience sample recruitment, we conducted a case-control study to compare survivors of breast cancers who are SMW, in other words, cases to controls, that is, SMW without cancer. Anonymous survey data were collected from 85 cases after they had completed active cancer treatment and 85 age- and partner-status matched controls with no history of any cancer. Participants' self-reported sexual frequency and sexual function measured by the Female Sexual Function Index were evaluated. Cases and controls did not differ in risk of sexual dysfunction or the level of overall sexual functioning; however, cases had lower sexual frequency and scored lower on desire and ability to reach orgasm, and higher on pain compared to controls. Results inform clinicians about sexual minority survivors' sexual domains affected by cancer. When discussing sexual problems and therapeutic options, sexual orientation should be ascertained. PMID:23730713

Boehmer, Ulrike; Ozonoff, Al; Timm, Alison; Winter, Michael; Potter, Jennifer

2014-01-01

10

Smoking Initiation, Tobacco Product Use, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among General Population and Sexual Minority Youth, Missouri, 2011-2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Research indicates disparities in risky health behaviors between heterosexual and sexual minority (referred to as LGBQ; also known as lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning) youth. Limited data are available for tobacco-use–related behaviors beyond smoking status. We compared data on tobacco age of initiation, product use, and secondhand smoke exposure between general population and LGBQ youth. Methods Data for general population youth were from the statewide, representative 2011 Missouri Youth Tobacco Survey, and data for LGBQ youth were from the 2012 Out, Proud and Healthy survey (collected at Missouri Pride Festivals). Age-adjusted Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to examine differences between general population (N = 1,547) and LGBQ (N = 410) youth, aged 14 to 18 years. Logistic regression models identified variables associated with current smoking. Results The 2 groups differed significantly on many tobacco-use–related factors. General population youth initiated smoking at a younger age, and LGBQ youth did not catch up in smoking initiation until age 15 or 16. LGBQ youth (41.0%) soon surpassed general population youth (11.2%) in initiation and proportion of current smokers. LGBQ youth were more likely to use cigars/cigarillos, be poly-tobacco users, and be exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in a vehicle (for never smokers). Older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.18–1.62), female sex (OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.13–2.37), LGBQ identity (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.50–5.94), other tobacco product use (OR = 8.67, 95% CI = 6.01–12.51), and SHS exposure in a vehicle (OR = 5.97, 95% CI = 3.83–9.31) all significantly increased the odds of being a current smoker. Conclusion This study highlights a need for the collection of data on sexual orientation on youth tobacco surveys to address health disparities among LGBQ youth.

McElroy, Jane A.; Everett, Kevin D.

2014-01-01

11

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths’ Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, the authors examined the validity of Sternberg's triangular theory of love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, the authors examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and

JosÉ A. Bauermeister; Michelle M. Johns; Emily Pingel; Anna Eisenberg; Matt Leslie Santana; Marc Zimmerman

2011-01-01

12

Queer Youth Space: A Protective Factor for Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, psychological, and social vulnerabilities of sexual minority youth are well documented. Yet factors that protect this population from these risks remain relatively unknown. Previous researchers suggest that (1) a sense of safety, meaningful relationships with others, and positive identity development are protective and (2) social support programs focusing on sexual minority youth (Queer Youth Space) have a positive impact.

Kenta Asakura

2010-01-01

13

Assessing School Climate Among Sexual Minority High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (i.e., sexual minority) youth are often targets of aggression because of their sexual identity, both in and out of schools. Literature on school-related aggression toward sexual minority youth often relies on quantitative surveys or retrospective studies. Little non-retrospective research has been done with this population investigating the nature of bullying, school climate, and

Kris Varjas; Will C. Mahan; Joel Meyers; Lamar Birckbichler; Gene Lopp; Brian J. Dew

2007-01-01

14

Health Disparities Among Sexual Minority Women Veterans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Lesbian and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) identity is more common among women veterans than among male veterans. Unique health issues have been identified among women veterans and among sexual minority women, but little is known about women who are both sexual minorities and veterans. This study aimed to compare demographic and health information from sexual minority women veterans with sexual minority women non-veterans and heterosexual women veterans. Methods Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data were pooled from ten U.S. states that elected to ask sexual identity during 2010. The analytic sample was comprised of women who identified both their sexual identity and veteran status (n=1,908). Mental health indicators were frequent mental distress, sleep problems, low social/emotional support, and low satisfaction with life. Health risk indicators included current smoking, overweight, and obesity. Physical health status was defined by three components: disability requiring assistive equipment, >14 days of poor physical health in the past 30 days, and activity limitations. Results Compared with heterosexual women veterans, sexual minority women veterans had higher odds of mental distress (odds ratio [OR]=3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61–5.70) and smoking (OR=2.31, 95%CI: 1.19–4.48). After adjusting for demographic correlates, sexual minority women veterans had three times the odds of poor physical health (OR=3.01, 95%CI: 1.51–5.99) than their sexual minority non-veteran peers. Conclusions Results suggest sexual minority women veterans may experience unique health disparities relevant to provision of care in both Veterans Affairs (VA) and non-VA healthcare systems. Future research requires availability of data that include sexual minority status.

Foynes, Melissa Ming; Shipherd, Jillian C.

2013-01-01

15

Measures of Sexual Minority Status and Suicide Risk among Young Adults in the United States.  

PubMed

Multiple measures of sexual minority status are necessary to accurately describe the diversity of attractions, identities, and behaviors in sexual minority populations. We investigated whether four measures of sexual minority status (sexual minority attraction, sexual minority identity, sexual minority lifetime behavior, and sexual minority recent 12-month behavior) were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts among young adults ages 24 to 34 in the United States. We analyzed data from Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We employed logistic regression models in the analysis. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicidal thoughts among women and men. Multiple sexual minority status measures had significant associations with increased suicide attempts among women, but not among men. Diverse sexual minority populations are at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts. Multiple measures of sexual minority status should be utilized in future studies of sexual minority status and suicide risk. Suicide prevention programs should ensure intervention is available across diverse sexual minority populations. PMID:24611686

Almazan, Elbert P; Roettger, Michael E; Acosta, Pauline S

2014-01-01

16

Counseling Psychology Research on Sexual (Orientation) Minority Issues: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This lead article of the special issue discusses conceptual and methodological considerations in studying sexual minority issues, particularly in research conducted by counseling psychologists (including the work represented in this special issue). First, the overarching challenge of conceptualizing and defining sexual minority populations is described. Second, the importance and value of scholarship about sexual minority issues are highlighted. Third, challenges

Bonnie Moradi; Jonathan J. Mohr; Roger L. Worthington; Ruth E. Fassinger

2009-01-01

17

Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

1999-01-01

18

Attributions to Sexual Minority Women's Academic Success.  

PubMed

Narratives from 33 sexual minority women were examined to discover what factors contributed to their ability to acquire academic success, and what, if any, attributions are evident in some sexual minority women's experiences that provide the ability to persist and graduate. Coping strategies the participants used to gain the resiliency and persistence necessary to acquire academic success are discussed. Intrinsic themes were work ethic values, altruism, and self-efficacy. Extrinsic themes were mentors, family, and friends. Sexual minority women identified the complexity of intrinsic and extrinsic attributions that were used to successfully complete a four-year undergraduate degree in the United States. PMID:24328892

McCleaf, Kathy J

2014-06-01

19

Measuring Love: Sexual Minority Male Youths' Ideal Romantic Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Research examining how sexual minorities characterize love within same-sex relationships is scarce. In this study, we examined the validity of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love in a sample of sexual minority male youth (N = 447). To test the adequacy of the theory for our population, we examined the psychometric properties of the Triadic Love Scale (TLS) and tested whether the three underlying constructs of the theory (Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment) emerged when participants were asked to consider their ideal relationship with another man. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we found support for the three-factor solution to characterize sexual minority male youths’ ideal romantic relationship, after minimizing item cross-loadings and adapting the content of the Passion subscale. We discuss the implications of our findings regarding the measurement of the TLS among sexual minority male youth and propose ways to enhance its measurement in future research.

Bauermeister, Jose A.; Johns, Michelle M.; Pingel, Emily; Eisenberg, Anna; Santana, Matt Leslie; Zimmerman, Marc

2011-01-01

20

Outcomes of sexual behaviors among sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

Very little is known about outcomes of sexual behavior for sexual minority youth. In this chapter, I review relevant literature and draw on findings from my own research to initiate an inquiry into this important topic. I begin with a brief overview of the range of sexual behaviors of sexual minority adolescents and young adults. Next, I describe what we know about positive and negative outcomes of sexual behavior among sexual minority youth. This discussion takes into account physical outcomes, psychological and emotional outcomes, and outcomes related to identity development. Lastly, I discuss the limitations of prior research and propose several goals for future research to expand our understanding of this topic. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962360

Morgan, Elizabeth M

2014-06-01

21

Depressive Symptoms Among Immigrant Latino Sexual Minorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence and identify correlates of depressive symptoms among immigrant Latino sexual minorities. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, and univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify correlates of depressive symptoms. Results Unweighted and RDS-weighted prevalence estimates of depressive symptoms were 69.2% and 74.8%, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, low social support, sexual compulsivity, and high self-esteem were significantly associated with increased depressive symptoms. Conclusions A need exists for culturally congruent mental health services for immigrant Latino sexual minorities in the southern United States.

Rhodes, Scott D.; Martinez, Omar; Song, Eun-Young; Daniel, Jason; Alonzo, Jorge; Eng, Eugenia; Duck, Stacy; Downs, Mario; Bloom, Fred R.; Allen, Alex Boeving; Miller, Cindy; Reboussin, Beth

2014-01-01

22

Violence and Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the most maligned and harassed students in high schools are those who are perceived not to fit the norms for sexual behavior. These include gay and lesbian students, bisexual students, transgendered students, effeminate heterosexual males, and masculine-acting heterosexual females. Together these students are the targets of a wide range of negative behaviors from subtle exclusion to physical assault. In

James Lock

2002-01-01

23

Shanghai, China: Hotline for Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Placed in the current political context of growing liberalization within China, this essay describes the Shanghai Hotline for Sexual Minorities. Funded by agencies outside the government, these services target LGBTs toward self-acceptance and AIDS/STD education while seeking to reduce social prejudice.

Gu, Steven

2005-01-01

24

Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships. PMID:19802760

Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

2009-01-01

25

The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual

Ottenritter, Nan

1998-01-01

26

A systematic review of the aetiology of tobacco disparities for sexual minorities  

PubMed Central

Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk factors/correlates of cigarette smoking among lesbian, gay and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations. Methods Sets of terms relevant to sexual minority populations and cigarette smoking were used in a simultaneous search of 10 databases through EBSCOhost. The search was limited to the peer-reviewed literature up to January 2011, using no geographic or language limits. For inclusion, the paper was required to: (1) have been written in English, (2) have sexual minorities (defined by either attraction, behaviour, or identity) included in the study population and (3) have examined some form of magnitude of association for risk factors/correlates of any definition of cigarette smoking. A total of 386 abstracts were reviewed independently, with 26 papers meeting all inclusion criteria. Abstracts were reviewed and coded independently by authors JB and JGLL using nine codes derived from the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Studies used various measures of sexual orientation and of smoking. Risk factors that could be considered unique to sexual minorities included internalised homophobia and reactions to disclosure of sexual orientation. Some studies also indicated common smoking risk factors experienced at higher rates among sexual minorities, including stress, depression, alcohol use and victimisation. Conclusions This review identified risks that were associated with sexual minority status and common to the general population but experienced at potentially higher rates by sexual minorities. Government and foundation funds should be directed towards research on the origins of this disparity.

Blosnich, John; Lee, Joseph G L; Horn, Kimberly

2013-01-01

27

Sexual minority status and long-term breast cancer survivorship.  

PubMed

Sexual minority women, such as lesbians, bisexuals, and women who have a woman partner face unique challenges, such as deciding on disclosing their sexual minority status to health providers. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of sexual minority women who were long-term breast cancer survivors. Twenty-two sexual minority women, diagnosed with non-metastatic breast cancer between 2000 and 2005, participated in semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed to identify emergent themes to summarize sexual minority women's perceptions of breast cancer survivorship. Participants' perceptions about the impact of their sexual minority identity on breast cancer survivorship consisted of: (1) breast cancer is a women's issue, not a lesbian issue; (2) I can manage my identity in the context of breast cancer; and (3) I am better off than heterosexual women. The authors' findings suggest a possible disconnect between sexual minority women with breast cancer who de-emphasized the importance of sexual minority status and the research community that emphasizes the importance of this status. Prior to counting on sexual minority women's interest in studies, researchers may need to educate sexual minority women about the need of breast cancer studies. PMID:22324359

Boehmer, Ulrike; White, Jessica Lee

2012-01-01

28

Mental health characteristics of sexual minority veterans.  

PubMed

This study examines the mental health characteristics of sexual minority (lesbian, gay, and bisexual, or LGB) veterans, compared these characteristics to those of an existing Veterans Affairs (VA) sample, and examined the relationship between mental health and anxiety around concealment of LGB identity while in the military. Data regarding LGB veterans' (n = 409) military experiences and current mental health were collected via an online survey; comparison data (n = 15,000) were retrieved from a VA data warehouse. LGB veterans were more likely to screen positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and alcohol problems than the comparison sample. Anxiety around concealment of one's sexual orientation while in the service was related to current depression and PTSD symptoms. PMID:23414280

Cochran, Bryan N; Balsam, Kimberly; Flentje, Annesa; Malte, Carol A; Simpson, Tracy

2013-01-01

29

Perceived risk for cancer in an urban sexual minority.  

PubMed

Lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals are a sexual minority experiencing elevated cancer risk factors and health disaparites, e.g., elevated tobacco use, disproportionate rates of infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Little attention has been paid to cancer prevention, education, and control in sexual minorities. This study describes cancer risk perceptions and their correlates so as to generate testable hypotheses and provide a foundation for targeting cancer prevention and risk reduction efforts in this high risk population. A cross-sectional survey of affiliates of a large urban community center serving sexual minority persons yielded a study sample of 247 anonymous persons. The survey assessed demographics, absolute perceived cancer risk, cancer risk behaviors, desired lifestyle changes to reduce cancer risk, and psychosocial variables including stress, depression, and stigma. Univariate and multivariate nonparametric statistics were used for analyses. The sample was primarily white non-Hispanic, middle-aged, and > 80% had at least a high school education. Mean values for absolute perceived cancer risk (range 0-100% risk), were 43.0 (SD = 25.4) for females, and for males, 49.3 (SD = 24.3). For females, although the multivariate regression model for absolute perceived cancer risk was statistically significant (P < .05), no single model variable was significant. For men, the multivariate regression model was significant (P < .001), with endorsement of "don't smoke/quit smoking" to reduce personal cancer risk (P < .001), and greater number of sexual partners (P = .054), positively associated with absolute perceived risk for cancer. This study provides novel data on cancer risk perceptions in sexual minorities, identifying correlates of absolute perceived cancer risk for each gender and several potential foci for cancer prevention interventions with this at-risk group. PMID:20872174

Burkhalter, Jack E; Hay, Jennifer L; Coups, Elliot; Warren, Barbara; Li, Yuelin; Ostroff, Jamie S

2011-06-01

30

Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

2013-01-01

31

Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers.

Hughes, Tonda

2012-01-01

32

Sexual Minority Youth Victimization and Social Support: The Intersection of Sexuality, Gender, Race, and Victimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In comparison to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth are more likely to experience victimization. Multiple studies have connected anti-gay prejudice and anti-gay victimization to negative outcomes. Research shows that social support may protect sexual minorities from the harmful effects of anti-gay victimization. However, rates of victimization and the negative outcomes linked to sexual identity within the sexual minority community have

Deeanna M. Button; Daniel J. OConnell; Roberta Gealt

2012-01-01

33

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

34

Unseen risks: HIV-related risk behaviors among ethnically diverse sexual minority adolescent females.  

PubMed

High rates of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among lesbian and bisexual female adolescents have been documented. However, previous research has not adequately described racial/ethnic subgroup differences in risk behaviors within this population. We examined HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among an ethnically diverse sample of sexual minority girls (N = 244). Compared to their White peers, girls who identified their race/ethnicity as mixed had more than four times the odds of reporting both unprotected vaginal sex with a male and multiple male sex partners. All subgroups exhibited risk behaviors, indicating that sexual minority girls must be included in HIV-prevention efforts targeting adolescent females. PMID:24245599

Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M; Rullo, Jordan E

2013-12-01

35

Applying Person-Centered Counseling to Sexual Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing attention to the very unique and complex needs of stigmatized sexual minority youth, the authors explore the therapeutic potential of person-centered counseling in helping lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/sexual (LGBT) adolescents who are working toward the acceptance and disclosure of their sexual identity. They suggest that…

Lemoire, S. Jim; Chen, Charles P.

2005-01-01

36

The Influences of Career Support and Sexual Identity on Sexual Minority Women's Career Aspirations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between sexual identity, family/friend career support, and career aspirations in a sample of 381 sexual minority women. The results indicated that family career support and friend career support were positively related to career aspirations of sexual minority women. The results also indicated that the…

Fisher, Lauren D.; Gushue, George V.; Cerrone, Michelle T.

2011-01-01

37

Determinants of Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities in a Community Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress were examined as mediators of the associations between adherence to different male gender norms and aggression toward sexual minorities. This study also sought to extend past research to a community sample and employ multiple methods to assess aggression. Method Participants were 199 heterosexual men between the ages of 18–30 who were recruited from a large southeastern United States city. Participants completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and aggression toward sexual minorities. Results Associations between adherence to the status and antifemininity norms and aggression toward sexual minorities were mediated by sexual prejudice, but not masculine gender role stress. The portion of unique association between adherence to the antifemininity norm and aggression toward sexual minorities was about three times larger than the portion mediated by sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress. Conclusions Findings provide the first multivariate evidence from a community-based sample for determinants of aggression toward sexual minorities motivated by gender role enforcement. These data support intervention programming and preventative intervention studies aimed at reducing sexual prejudice and facilitating less stereotypic attitudes about the male gender role, particularly surrounding the antifemininity norm.

Parrott, Dominic J.; Peterson, John L.; Bakeman, Roger

2011-01-01

38

An exploration of multisystemic factors contributing to sexual risk-taking in minority suburban youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual risk-taking in minority youth in the United States is a public health concern that has been linked to theories of neighborhood effects and urban deprivation. We used a qualitative interview method to explore possible factors contributing to sexual risk-taking among minority youth in a densely populated, high-risk, segregated suburban community, with a purposive sample of 34 participants who were

Julie Askew; Darlene Rampasaud; Ingrid Solano; Jessica Donaldson

2012-01-01

39

Identity Development Among Sexual-Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Sexual identity is the name and meaning individuals assign to themselves based on the most salient sexual aspects of their life – such as\\u000a sexual attractions, fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Sexual identities usually fall within existing social categories, such\\u000a as straight, bisexual, or lesbian\\/gay, and are historically and culturally specific. Youth in today’s cohort have expanded\\u000a the list of sexual

Ritch C. Savin-Williams

40

Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.  

PubMed

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-08-01

41

Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression  

PubMed Central

The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

2012-01-01

42

Student-on-Student Sexual Orientation Harassment: Legal Protections for Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing student-on-student harassment perpetrated on the basis of real or perceived sexual orientation. Federal courts are holding school districts

David L. Stader; Thomas J. Graca

2007-01-01

43

Conceptualization of Sexual Partner Relationship Steadiness Among Ethnic Minority Adolescent Women: Implications for Evidence-Based Behavioral Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral interventions for sexual risk reduction have been less successful among ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) than among other adolescent populations. African American and Mexican American adolescent women (ages 14–18 years, n = 548) self-reported sexual partner relationship steadiness and sexual risk behaviors via semi-structured interviews at study entry. Descriptive and bivariate analyses compared sexual risk behaviors by sexual partner relationship steadiness. Steady and unsteady relationships were conceptualized differently. Steady relationships included emotional or financial support, sexual communication, greater relationship importance, unintended pregnancy, and perceived monogamy during break-ups. Unsteady relationships were unpredictable, including sex with ex-steady partners and friends with benefits, lack of mutual respect, and poor sexual communication. Modification of sexual risk reduction interventions including conceptualizations of risk by context of sexual partner relationship status is recommended to enhance efficacy among minority adolescent women with STI or history of abuse.

Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L.

2012-01-01

44

Articulating identities: Language and practice with multiethnic sexual minority youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinicians working with sexual minority youth (SMY) should be knowledgeable about the contemporary language around sexuality and gender used by adolescent clients. Such knowledge contributes to the clinical environment and aids clinicians in developing therapeutic relationships. However, individuals working with SMY should also be aware of the potential impact of social environment and individual context on SMYs language and terminology.

Lauren McInroy; Shelley L. Craig

2012-01-01

45

THERAPIST QUALITIES PREFERRED BY SEXUAL-MINORITY INDIVIDUALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy research concerning lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has focused on matching clients on gender and sexual orientation, yet has not considered how factors such as therapeutic skill, presenting problem, and cohort membership may influence preference for therapists. This study was designed to identify those therapist qualities that sexual-minority individuals prefer and to determine how the presenting problem influences

Lisa A. Burckell; Marvin R. Goldfried

2006-01-01

46

Suicidal ideation among sexual minority veterans: results from the 2005-2010 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey.  

PubMed

Suicide is a public health problem disproportionately associated with some demographic characteristics (e.g., sexual orientation, veteran status). Analyses of the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data revealed that more lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) veterans reported suicidal ideation compared with heterosexual veterans. Decreased social and emotional support contributed to explaining the association between sexual minority status and suicidal ideation. More research is needed about suicide risk among sexual minority veterans; they might be a population for outreach and intervention by the Veterans Health Administration. PMID:22390600

Blosnich, John R; Bossarte, Robert M; Silenzio, Vincent M B

2012-03-01

47

Suicidal Ideation Among Sexual Minority Veterans: Results From the 2005-2010 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey  

PubMed Central

Suicide is a public health problem disproportionately associated with some demographic characteristics (e.g., sexual orientation, veteran status). Analyses of the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey data revealed that more lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) veterans reported suicidal ideation compared with heterosexual veterans. Decreased social and emotional support contributed to explaining the association between sexual minority status and suicidal ideation. More research is needed about suicide risk among sexual minority veterans; they might be a population for outreach and intervention by the Veterans Health Administration.

Bossarte, Robert M.; Silenzio, Vincent M. B.

2012-01-01

48

Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses. PMID:22826897

Epprecht, Marc

2012-01-01

49

Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth  

MedlinePLUS

... City, San Diego, and San Francisco—that collected data on high school students’ sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, ... Risk Behavior Surveillance Overall Results Slides Participation Map - High School Participation Map - ... Files & Methods Requesting Data Files Data Request Form ...

50

Minority Stress and Psychological Distress among Asian American Sexual Minority Persons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine multiple minority stressors (i.e., heterosexist events, racist events, heterosexism in communities of color, racism in sexual minority communities, race-related dating and relationship problems, internalized heterosexism or homophobia, outness to family, and outness to world) as they relate to the…

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Sung, Mi Ra

2010-01-01

51

The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

52

Exclusionary health policy: responding to the risk of poor health among sexual minority youth in Canada.  

PubMed

Measuring indicators of health status and demographics are essential in the population health approach. In Canada, sexual minority youth face increased risk for poor health outcomes in behavioral and mental health indicators, yet the health policy response has been severely lacking. The current population health approach exacerbates the social exclusion of a vulnerable, at-risk population. The authors examine health status through the social determinants of health to highlight the need for including sexual identity, attraction, and behavior in youth population health surveys. Additional interventions that address the social determinants of health are needed. PMID:24188299

Ylioja, Thomas; Craig, Shelley L

2014-01-01

53

Religion and religiosity: protective or harmful factors for sexual minority youth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority youth are disproportionately impacted by a number of psychosocial risks including a greater likelihood of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) when compared to heterosexual counterparts. Emerging research seeks to identify the risk and resilience factors that contribute to the mental health of this stigmatised population. Considering that most Americans grow up with at least some religious teachings and that most

Joseph Longo; N. Eugene Walls; Hope Wisneski

2012-01-01

54

Strengths First: An Empowering Case Management Model for Multiethnic Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article (1) describes the development of a strengths-based case management (SBCM) model for multiethnic sexual minority youths; (2) provides a profile of participant risks and strengths; and (3) discusses critical considerations for implementation with this population. Participants (N = 162) reported complex risks such as family rejection as well as personal strengths. SBCM is a promising intervention that provides

Shelley L. Craig

2012-01-01

55

Effects of Sexual Expectancies on Early Sexualized Behavior Among Urban Minority Youth.  

PubMed

This study examines the effects of different types of sexual expectancies on early sexual behavior among racial/ethnic minority young adolescents. African American and Latino participants between 11 and 13 years old were recruited through schools and community-based agencies in the South Bronx, New York (N = 223). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to predict early sexual behavior outcomes, which include engagement in sexual possibility situations, kissing, and sexual touching. The moderating effect of gender was examined using multiplicative interaction terms. Higher expectations categorized as personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies related to the negative consequences of sexual intercourse decreased the odds of engagement in early sexual behavior; whereas higher academic/career and sexual health expectancies did not. Gender moderated the relationships between personal/parental expectancies and engagement in sexual possibility situations and romantic/peer expectancies and kissing. Social workers formulating sexual health promotion and HIV prevention programs for racial/ethnic minority young adolescents should focus on personal/parental and romantic/peer expectancies in favor of negative expectancies regarding academic/career achievement, pregnancy, and HIV. Social work interventions to delay sexual debut should include a family-based component and should be sensitive to gender differences in sexual expectancies. PMID:22461958

Holloway, Ian W; Traube, Dorian E; Schrager, Sheree M; Levine, Brooklyn; Alicea, Stacey; Watson, Janet L; Miranda, Ana; McKay, Mary M

2012-01-01

56

LGBT community, social network characteristics, and smoking behaviors in young sexual minority women.  

PubMed

Smoking rates among young sexual minority women (YSMW) are disproportionately high as compared to heterosexual populations. While this disparity has commonly been attributed to the sexual minority stress process, little empirical work has explored what may protect YSMW from high rates of smoking. Using data (N = 471) from a cross-sectional study designed to investigate YSMW's (age 18-24) smoking behaviors and correlates; we explore the relationship of LGBT community connections, YSMW's social network characteristics, and stress to smoking behaviors (i.e., status, frequency, amount). Through this analysis, we find support for LGBT community connection as well as friendships with other sexual minorities as protective in relation to YSMW's smoking behaviors. We discuss the implications of our results, highlighting the need for future longitudinal research and interventions designed to bolster YSMW's connections to the LGBT community and their social networks. PMID:23783884

Johns, Michelle Marie; Pingel, Emily S; Youatt, Emily J; Soler, Jorge H; McClelland, Sara I; Bauermeister, Jose A

2013-09-01

57

Correlates of sexual risk among sexual minority and heterosexual South african youths.  

PubMed

We explored psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among heterosexual and sexual minority youths (SMYs) in Johannesburg, South Africa. Young people 16 to 18 years old (n?=?822) were administered surveys assessing demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, mental health, and parent-child communication. Adjusted multivariate regressions examining correlates of sexual risk revealed that SMYs had more sexual partners than heterosexual youths (B?=?3.90; SE?=?0.95; P < .001) and were more likely to engage in sex trading (OR?=?3.11; CI?=?1.12-8.62; P < .05). South African SMYs are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. PMID:24832149

Thurston, Idia B; Dietrich, Janan; Bogart, Laura M; Otwombe, Kennedy N; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Nkala, Busiswe; Gray, Glenda E

2014-07-01

58

Sexual Minority Young Adult Religiosity, Sexual Orientation Conflict, Self-Esteem and Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive associations between religious involvement and psychosocial health outcomes have been amply documented. However, many of these studies have not accounted for the sexual identification of the participants sampled and have been limited in their conceptualization of religiosity. The religious context may be a source of conflict for some sexual minority individuals. As such, additional research is needed to examine

Angie Dahl; Renee Galliher

2010-01-01

59

Ethical and Methodological Complexities in Research Involving Sexual Minorities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there is growing attention to sexual minorities in adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) literature, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people have received very little attention in AE or in HRD research. This article captures methodological issues and concerns from LBGTQ-related research from…

Bettinger, Thomas V.

2010-01-01

60

Beyond Risk: Resilience in the Lives of Sexual Minority Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several decades of research tell us that sexual minority youth are among those most at risk for the negative outcomes of frequent concern in the lives of young people: academic failure, emotional distress, compromised relationships, risk behavior, and suicidality. We know much less about resilience, the characteristics and factors that explain or…

Russell, Stephen T.

2005-01-01

61

Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

2012-02-01

62

An exploration of sexual minority stress across the lines of gender and sexual identity.  

PubMed

Despite growing evidence to suggest that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals experience a range of stressors and consequences related to their sexual minority status, no known studies to date have employed focus group discussion to explore and document their perceptions of sexual minority stress. In this exploratory study, we present focus group data on a range of sexual minority stressors as described by 43 gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women. We explore gender and sexual identity differences in the respondents' perceptions of heteronormativity, disclosure issues in different social settings, sources of support, and strategies for coping with stress. Respondents reported that women's same-sex relationships were eroticized and distorted to accommodate heterosexual male desire, while men were negatively depicted as sexually promiscuous and deviant. These differing stereotypes held important consequences for disclosure decisions and affected men's and women's social interactions with heterosexual men. Bisexual respondents reported unique strategies to cope with exclusion and isolation associated with misunderstandings about their sexual identities. Directions for future research on sexual minority stress are discussed. PMID:19319738

Hequembourg, Amy L; Brallier, Sara A

2009-01-01

63

Sexual Minority Status and Self-Rated Health: The Importance of Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Objectives I examined how sexual minority status, as indicated by sex of sexual partners, is associated with self-rated health and how socioeconomic status suppresses and age and sex moderate this association. Methods I used multinomial logistic regression to analyze aggregated data from the 1991 to 2010 General Social Survey, a population-based data set (n = 13 480). Results Respondents with only different-sex partners or with any same-sex partners reported similar levels of health. With socioeconomic status added to the model, respondents with any same-sex partners reported worse health than those with only different-sex partners, but only if sexual intercourse with same-sex partners occurred in the previous 5 years. Age and sex moderated this relationship: having any same-sex partners was associated with worse health for women but not men and among younger adults only. Conclusions The relationship between sexual minority status and self-rated health varies across sociodemographic groups. Future research should use population-level data to examine other health outcomes and continue to explore how the intersection of sexual minority status and other sociodemographic indicators shapes health.

Thomeer, Mieke Beth

2013-01-01

64

New Project Launched to Study Minority Populations  

Cancer.gov

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today that it is accepting applications for projects that create and implement cancer control and prevention programs in minority and underserved communities to address the disparities in cancer rates within certain subgroups of the United States population.

65

The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use Among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social–psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social–psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. Results The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, ?2(79) = 414.00, p < .05, confirmatory fit index = .93, Tucker–Lewis index = .91, standardized root-mean-square residual = .05, root-mean-square error of approximation = .06, accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social–psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Conclusions Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social–psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments.

Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

2014-01-01

66

Sexual victimization and health-related indicators among sexual minority men  

PubMed Central

This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men, and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime STIs, higher sexual compulsivity scores, and greater gay-related stigma scores than men with no histories of sexual victimization. Few differences are found in comparisons of health outcomes based on age at first sexual victimization (childhood vs. adulthood). Furthermore, men with histories of sexual victimization report healthier coping skills than men with no histories of sexual victimization, but no significant group differences are found in social support or stress-related growth. Findings underscore the importance of assessing lifetime sexual victimization among sexual minority men during counseling, with special attention given to the enhancement of protective factors among those at risk for harmful behaviors and subsequent poor health outcomes.

Hequembourg, Amy L.; Bimbi, David; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

2013-01-01

67

Beyond lesbian bed death: enhancing our understanding of the sexuality of sexual-minority women in relationships.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to characterize the sexuality of sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, queer, unlabeled, questioning) women. Participants were 586 women (87% White) in a same-sex relationship of 1 to 36 years in duration. They completed measures assessing their sexual behavior (frequency of nongenital and genital sexual activities), motivation (sexual desire), and cognitive-affective responses (sexual satisfaction, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, negative automatic thoughts). On average, the women reported experiencing their sexuality positively across all domains. Regardless of relationship duration, most of the women reported engaging in both genital and nongenital sexual behaviors with their partner once a week or more; few reported that they had not engaged in sexual activity in the previous month. A multiple regression analysis indicated that frequency of genital sexual activity, sexual desire, sexual anxiety, and automatic thoughts contributed uniquely to the prediction of sexual satisfaction over and above the other sexuality variables. The findings are discussed in terms of the idea that lesbians have sex less frequently than other couple types and that sexual frequency declines rapidly in lesbian relationships (i.e., "lesbian bed death") and descriptions of sexual-minority women's sexuality that suggest that genital sexual activity is not important to sexual satisfaction. PMID:23924274

Cohen, Jacqueline N; Byers, E Sandra

2014-01-01

68

Non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity in sexual minority and heterosexual young adults.  

PubMed

The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21796485

Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles

2012-04-01

69

Disparities in Smoking and Acute Respiratory Illnesses Among Sexual Minority Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morbidity and mortality from cigarette smoking remain major public health issues. Particularly, smoking has been associated\\u000a with increased risk of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). Literature indicates that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual\\u000a minority) persons smoke more than the general population. Additionally, young adulthood is the second-most prevalent period\\u000a of smoking uptake. Given this constellation of risk correlates, the authors

John Blosnich; Traci Jarrett; Kimberly Horn

2010-01-01

70

Performance Modeling Using Anthropometry for Minority Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop predictive models for grip strength, dexterity and manipulability, for four minority\\u000a populations using anthropometry. A total of sixty subjects representing Hispanics, African Americans, Asian Indians and Vietnamese\\u000a participated in this study. Subjects performed the three tasks for the following five hand conditions: bare hand, cotton gloves,\\u000a Kevlar gloves, leather gloves and vinyl

V. Gnaneswaran; Ram R. Bishu

2007-01-01

71

Relationship trajectories and psychological well-being among sexual minority youth.  

PubMed

Dating in adolescence plays an integral part in the development of sexual and social identities. This process is particularly salient for sexual minority youth who face additional obstacles to their identity formation due to their marginalized status. We investigated the influence of participating in a same-sex relationship (SSR) or an opposite-sex relationship (OSR) on sexual minority youths' psychological well-being (i.e., symptoms of depression, anxiety and internalized homophobia, and self-esteem) in an ethnically-diverse sample of 350 youth (55% male) between the ages of 15-19 years, recruited from three GLBT drop-in centers in the New York City area. Using longitudinal data, we examined youths' SSR and OSR over time. Multivariate regression analyses suggest that involvement in a SSR was positively associated with changes in self-esteem in males, and negatively correlated with changes in internalized homophobia in females. We discuss the implications for positive development in sexual minority adolescent populations. PMID:20535536

Bauermeister, José A; Johns, Michelle Marie; Sandfort, Theo G M; Eisenberg, Anna; Grossman, Arnold H; D'Augelli, Anthony R

2010-10-01

72

Sexual Minorities and Selection of a Primary Care Physician in a Midwestern U.S. City  

Microsoft Academic Search

How and why sexual minorities select a primary care physician is critical to the development of methods for attracting these clients to a physician's practice. Data obtained from a sample of sexual minorities in a mid-size city in our nation's heartland would indicate that these patients are loyal when the primary care physician has a positive attitude toward their sexual

Chalmer E. Labig Jr; Tim O. Peterson

2006-01-01

73

Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.  

PubMed

Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers. PMID:24825194

Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

2014-06-01

74

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development Among Gay–Bisexual–Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self-identification. Although research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have 1 minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in people who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. In this

Omar B. Jamil; Gary W. Harper; M. Isabel Fernandez

2009-01-01

75

Body image disturbance and health behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV.  

PubMed

Objective: Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Method: Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures, including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results: The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions: Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area for future clinical practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24977311

Blashill, Aaron J; Goshe, Brett M; Robbins, Gregory K; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

2014-07-01

76

Higher Chlamydia trachomatis Prevalence in Ethnic Minorities Does Not Always Reflect Higher Sexual Risk Behaviour  

PubMed Central

Background In affluent countries, the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is often higher in certain ethnic minorities than in the majority population. In the Netherlands, we examined why CT prevalence is higher in Surinamese/Antilleans, the largest minority in the country. Methods Heterosexuals were recruited for a cross-sectional survey from May through August 2010 at the sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic in Amsterdam. Participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for STI. A causal directed acyclic graph was assumed to investigate whether the association between ethnicity and CT could be explained by differences in sexual risk behaviour and socio-economic status. Results Subjects included 1044 with Dutch background and 335 with Surinamese/Antillean background. Median age for the combined population was 25 (IQR 22-30) years, and 55.4% was female. Sexual risk behaviour did not differ significantly between the two groups. CT was diagnosed in 17.9% of Surinamese/Antilleans and in 11.4% of Dutch. Surinamese/Antilleans were significantly more likely to have CT (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.21-2.38). The association between ethnicity and CT remained statistically significant after adjusting for sexual risk behaviour, age, sex, and ethnic mixing (aOR 1.48; 95% CI 1.00-2.18), but not after adjusting for education and neighbourhood, markers of socio-economic status (aOR 1.08; 95% CI 0.71-1.64). Conclusion The difference in CT prevalence between the minority and majority groups was not explained by differences in sexual risk behaviour. The higher CT prevalence found among Surinamese/Antilleans appeared to reflect their lower educational level and neighbourhood, two markers of lower socio-economic status. We hypothesise that the effect results from lower health-seeking behaviour.

Matser, Amy; Luu, Nancy; Geskus, Ronald; Heijman, Titia; Heiligenberg, Marlies; van Veen, Maaike; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

2013-01-01

77

Victimization, Smoking, and Chronic Physical Health Problems Among Sexual Minority Women  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual minority women (SMW) have been shown to be at increased risk for abuse, smoking, and chronic physical health problems compared with heterosexual women. In the general population, abuse and smoking are associated with physical health problems. However, there has been little research on their associations among SMW. Purpose The current study examined a mediational model of abuse, smoking, and self-reported physical health conditions in a national sample of SMW. Methods Participants (N=1,224) were recruited via the Internet and completed measures of childhood trauma, adult sexual assault, smoking, body mass index, and chronic medical conditions. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that childhood abuse was associated with adult sexual assault, smoking, and physical health problems, but smoking was not a significant mediator. Conclusions The results highlight the impact of childhood abuse on physical health problems among SMW and the need to examine other health behaviors that may mediate this relation.

Simoni, Jane M.

2014-01-01

78

Social Networks and Risk for Depressive Symptoms in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Youth  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming

2012-01-01

79

Validation of the coping with discrimination scale in sexual minorities.  

PubMed

The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the five-factor structure of the original scale with the exclusion of five items. Adequate internal consistency reliability was found. Internalization, drug and alcohol use, and detachment subscales were correlated positively with measures of psychological distress and negatively with a measure of life satisfaction, providing evidence of construct validity. The education/advocacy and resistance subscales were largely unrelated to concurrently administered validation measures, consistent with prior findings. Coping strategy use varied as a function of primary sources of social support. The CDS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of several discrimination coping strategies for use with sexual minorities. PMID:24325286

Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Walch, Susan E; Raveepatarakul, Jirapattara

2014-07-01

80

Sexual-Minority and Heterosexual Youths' Peer Relationships: Experiences, Expectations, and Implications for Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study compared the peer relationships and well-being of 60 sexual-minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) and 65 heterosexual youths between the ages of 15 and 23. Sexual-minority youths had comparable self-esteem, mastery, and perceived stress as did heterosexuals, but greater negative affect. Younger sexual-minority male adolescents had smaller overall peer networks than did young male heterosexuals, whereas older male and fe-

Lisa M. Diamond; Sarah Lucas

2004-01-01

81

Families, resources, and adult health: where do sexual minorities fit?  

PubMed

Extensive research documents the relevance of families and socioeconomic resources to health. This article extends that research to sexual minorities, using 12 years of the National Health Interview Survey (N = 460,459) to examine self-evaluations of health among male and female adults living in same-sex and different-sex relationships. Adjusting for socioeconomic status eliminates differences between same- and different-sex cohabitors so that they have similarly higher odds of poor health relative to married persons. Results by gender reveal that the cohabitation disadvantage for health is more pronounced for different-sex cohabiting women than for men, but little difference exists between same-sex cohabiting men and women. Finally, the presence of children in the home is more protective for women's than men's health, but those protections are specific to married women. In all, the results elucidate the importance of relationship type, gender, and the presence of children when evaluating health. PMID:23315360

Denney, Justin T; Gorman, Bridget K; Barrera, Cristina B

2013-03-01

82

The Challenge of Asthma in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Although asthma affects all races and ethnic groups, there is a significant disparity in asthma morbidity and mortality. Minority\\u000a populations suffer disproportionately higher rates of fatalities, hospitalizations, and emergency department visits resulting\\u000a from asthma. For example, non-Hispanic blacks have more than three times the death rate of non-Hispanic whites in the United\\u000a States.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Few studies have addressed ethnic

Albin B. Leong

83

Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women  

PubMed Central

Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of a minority sexual orientation to another person, and same-gender sexual contact), and childhood maltreatment and suicide attempt experiences in a sample of 2,001 women recruited from multiple-community sources. Younger age of minority sexual orientation development milestones was positively linked to self-reported recall of childhood maltreatment experiences, and to a childhood suicide attempt. After adjusting for differences in maltreatment, the odds of suicide attempt attributable to younger age of sexual orientation development milestones was reduced by 50 to 65%, suggesting that maltreatment may account for about half of the elevated risk for childhood suicide attempts among women with early minority sexual orientation development. Implications for services, interventions, and further research to address maltreatment disparities for sexual minorities are discussed.

Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

84

Risk of Substance Abuse and Dependence Among Young Adult Sexual Minority Groups Using a Multidimensional Measure of Sexual Orientation  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined associations between two definitions of sexual minority status (SMS) and substance abuse and/or dependence among young adults in a national population. Methods A total of 14,152 respondents (7,529 women and 6,623 men) interviewed during wave four of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were included in the study (age range: 24–32 years). We used two definitions of SMS based on self-reported attraction, behavior, and identity: 1-indicator SMS (endorsing any dimension) and 3-indicator SMS (endorsing all dimensions). Outcomes included nicotine dependence as well as ?3 signs of substance dependence, any sign of substance abuse, and lifetime diagnosis of abuse or dependence for alcohol, marijuana, and a composite measure of other drugs. Weighted logistic regression models were fit to estimate the odds of each outcome for each of the sexual minority groups (compared with the heterosexual majority), controlling for sociodemographic covariates. Results SMS women were more likely than exclusively heterosexual women to experience substance abuse and dependence, regardless of substance or SMS definition. In adjusted models for women, 3-indicator SMS was most strongly associated with abuse/dependence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range: 2.74–5.17) except for ?3 signs of cannabis dependence, where 1-indicator SMS had the strongest association (AOR=3.35). For men, the 1-indicator SMS group had higher odds of nicotine dependence (AOR=1.35) and the 3-indicator SMS group had higher odds of ?3 signs of alcohol dependence (AOR=1.64). Conclusions Young adult female sexual minority groups, regardless of how defined, are at a higher risk than their heterosexual peers of developing alcohol, drug, or tobacco abuse and dependence.

Strutz, Kelly L.; Herring, Amy A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

2013-01-01

85

An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the "National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health" (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation…

Toomey, Russell B.; Russell, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

86

Suicidal Ideation and Attempts among Sexual Minority Youths Receiving Social Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increased risk of suicidal ideation and attempts among sexual minority youths have been documented in studies using both convenience samples and representative community samples. However, as most youths do not access social services, these studies do not necessarily represent the sexual minority youths that community-based social workers may…

Walls, Eugene N.; Freedenthal, Stacey; Wisneski, Hope

2008-01-01

87

Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Sexual Minority Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the author describes the historical context for research on sexual minority women's drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; the author summarizes gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women's drinking over the past several decades and reviews recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus

Tonda Hughes

2011-01-01

88

Mental health and suicidality among racially/ethnically diverse sexual minority youths.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n?=?72?691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

Bostwick, Wendy B; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

2014-06-01

89

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared with heterosexuals. The field has identified 2 distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present article is to develop a…

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2009-01-01

90

Using the Multiple Lenses of Identity: Working with Ethnic and Sexual Minority College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors discuss the complexities of working with clients with dual minority status (i.e., sexual orientation and ethnicity). The authors explore the multiple contexts that influence ethnic and sexual minority clients' self-concept. A case illustration of a Puerto Rican lesbian college student is presented, and suggestions for implementing…

Estrada, Diane; Rutter, Phil

2006-01-01

91

A Different Kind of "Outing": Training Counsellors to Work with Sexual Minority Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research indicates sexual minority training provided to graduate students of counselling psychology is minimal and inadequate (Bahr, Brish, & Croteau, 2000; Morrison & L'Heureux, 2001; Murphy, 1991). Graduates feel unprepared to work competently with sexual-minority individuals, yet Canadian and American Associations require their members to…

Alderson, Kevin G.

2004-01-01

92

Understanding Suicide among Sexual Minority Youth in America: An Ecological Systems Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed…

Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.

2011-01-01

93

Two Means of Sampling Sexual Minority Women: How Different Are the Samples of Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared 2 sampling approaches of sexual minority women in 1 limited geographic area to better understand the implications of these 2 sampling approaches. Sexual minority women identified through the Census did not differ on average age or the prevalence of raising children from those sampled using nonrandomized methods. Women in the convenience sample were better educated and lived in

Ulrike Boehmer; Melissa Clark; Alison Timm; Al Ozonoff

2009-01-01

94

The emotional well-being of Asian-American sexual minority youth in school.  

PubMed

This study examined family and school correlates of emotional distress among Asian-American sexual minority youth in the Midwestern United States. Responses from 91 predominantly among Asian-American youth who participated in a state-wide, school-based census survey and reported recent same-gender sexual activity were analyzed. Results showed that sexual minority youth who perceived lower levels of family caring and those with negative perceptions of school climate reported lower self-esteem, which in turn was associated with greater emotional distress. These results highlight the importance of safe and caring environments, and culturally sensitive support for Asian-American sexual minority adolescents. PMID:18029317

Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

2007-01-01

95

Minority stress and sexual problems among African-American gay and bisexual men.  

PubMed

Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined in the literature. African-American gay/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174 African-American gay/bisexual men. Covarying for age, a forward multiple regression analysis showed that the measures of self-esteem, male gender role stress, HIV prevention self-efficacy, and lifetime experiences with racial discrimination significantly added to the prediction of sexual problems. Gay bashing, psychiatric symptoms, low life satisfaction, and low social support were significantly correlated with sexual problems, but did not add to the prediction of sexual problems in the regression analysis. Mediation analyses showed that stress predicted psychiatric symptoms, which then predicted sexual problems. Sexual problems were not significantly related to HIV status, racial/ethnic identity, or gay identity. The findings from this study showed a relationship between experiences with racial and sexual discrimination and sexual problems while also providing support for mediation to illustrate how stress might cause sexual problems. Addressing minority stress in therapy may help minimize and treat sexual difficulties among minority gay/bisexual men. PMID:17109233

Zamboni, Brian D; Crawford, Isiaah

2007-08-01

96

Internalized Stigma among Sexual Minority Adults: Insights from a Social Psychological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a social psychological framework for understanding sexual stigma, and it reports data on sexual minority individuals' stigma-related experiences. The framework distinguishes between stigma's manifestations in society's institutions ("heterosexism") and among individuals. The latter include "enacted sexual stigma" (overt…

Herek, Gregory M.; Gillis, J. Roy; Cogan, Jeanine C.

2009-01-01

97

Minority Stress and Sexual Problems among African-American Gay and Bisexual Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minority stress, such as racism and gay bashing, may be associated with sexual problems, but this notion has not been examined\\u000a in the literature. African-American gay\\/bisexual men face a unique challenge in managing a double minority status, putting\\u000a them at high risk for stress and sexual problems. This investigation examined ten predictors of sexual problems among 174\\u000a African-American gay\\/bisexual men.

Brian D. Zamboni; Isiaah Crawford

2007-01-01

98

High Burden of Homelessness Among Sexual-Minority Adolescents: Findings From a Representative Massachusetts High School Sample  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We compared the prevalence of current homelessness among adolescents reporting a minority sexual orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, or heterosexual with same-sex sexual partners) with that among exclusively heterosexual adolescents. Methods. We combined data from the 2005 and 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample of public school students in grades 9 though 12 (n = 6317). Results. Approximately 25% of lesbian/gay, 15% of bisexual, and 3% of exclusively heterosexual Massachusetts public high school students were homeless. Sexual-minority males and females had an odds of reporting current homelessness that was between 4 and 13 times that of their exclusively heterosexual peers. Sexual-minority youths’ greater likelihood of being homeless was driven by their increased risk of living separately from their parents or guardians. Conclusions. Youth homelessness is linked with numerous threats such as violence, substance use, and mental health problems. Although discrimination and victimization related to minority sexual orientation status are believed to be important causal factors, research is needed to improve our understanding of the risks and protective factors for homelessness and to determine effective strategies to prevent homelessness in this population.

Goodenow, Carol S.; Nichols, Lauren; Austin, S. Bryn

2011-01-01

99

The Link Between Alcohol Use and Aggression Toward Sexual Minorities: An Event-Based Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current study used an event-based assessment approach to examine the day-to-day relationship between heterosexual men’s alcohol consumption and perpetration of aggression toward sexual minorities. Participants were 199 heterosexual drinking men between the ages of 18–30 who completed (1) separate timeline followback interviews to assess alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities during the past year, and (2) written self-report measures of risk factors for aggression toward sexual minorities. Results indicated that aggression toward sexual minorities was twice as likely on a day when drinking was reported than on non-drinking days, with over 80% of alcohol-related aggressive acts perpetrated within the group context. Patterns of alcohol use (i.e., number of drinking days, mean drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days) were not associated with perpetration after controlling for demographic variables and pertinent risk factors. Results suggest that it is the acute effects of alcohol, and not men’s patterns of alcohol consumption, that facilitate aggression toward sexual minorities. More importantly, these data are the first to support an event-based link between alcohol use and aggression toward sexual minorities (or any minority group), and provide the impetus for future research to examine risk factors and mechanisms for intoxicated aggression toward sexual minorities and other stigmatized groups.

Parrott, Dominic J.; Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Vincent, Wilson; Bakeman, Roger

2010-01-01

100

General and minority stress in an LGB population in Flanders.  

PubMed

This article concentrates on the influence of determinants of mental health on a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in Flanders. Our sample is drawn from the Zzzip survey, and contains 2,280 LGBs, of whom 1,565 are men and 715 are women. The traditional social stress model outlines the influence of general stressors on stress (Pearlin, 1989). Meyer (1995) has expanded Pearlin's model to include the concept of minority stress. This study focuses on aspects of personal characteristics and social structural arrangements. Our study confirms the importance of age and education as relevant determinants for mental health. Additionally, although most research establishes sex differences in depression, this study does not find significant differences in depression between men and women. In women, sexual identity is a significant determinant of depressive score, but we do not find the same in men. Finally, both general and minority stressors, especially the internal stressors, are found to have an important effect on depressive outcomes. PMID:19928045

Cox, Nele; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Dewaele, Alexis; Vinke, John

2008-01-01

101

Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Adults: Results from a Multi-State Probability-Based Sample  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse) constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. Purpose To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. Methods Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states’ Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin) that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n?=?22,071). Results Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR?=?1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual) compared to their heterosexual peers. Conclusions Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

Andersen, Judith P; Blosnich, John

2013-01-01

102

Updated collisional probabilities of minor body populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The consistent increase in the discovery rate of new asteroids and Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) in these last years has urged an update of the values of intrinsic probability of collision and impact velocity for some minor body populations. With the statistical method of Dell'Oro & Paolicchi (\\cite{delloro98b}), we have recomputed the values of impact probability and velocity for Hilda asteroids, for Trojans vs. Short Period Comets (SPC), and for TNOs. The algorithm of Dell'Oro and Paolicchi is particularly suited for the task since it can account for resonant behaviour (Dell'Oro et al. \\cite{delloro98a}) and for the clustering of the perihelion longitude of Main Belt asteroids and Hildas, caused by the presence of a forced component in the eccentricity. The Hilda population turns out to be well sampled in the orbital parameter space since no significant changes are found for the collision frequency among Hildas, and of Hildas with Main Belt asteroids, although a much larger sample of orbits has been used in our computations (232 objects) vs. the smaller group used in previous computation by Dahlgren (\\cite{dahlgren}) (40 objects). We also computed the impact rate of SPCs vs. Trojans that turned out to be an order of magnitude lower respect to the Trojans vs. Trojans impact rate. The relative velocity is instead about 30% higher. Using reasonable estimates of SPC and Trojan number densities, we find that approximately 1 every 100 collisions involving Trojans may be with an SPC. In the case of TNOs there is a consistent discrepancy between our values of the collision probability and impact speed, and those computed by Davis & Farinella (\\cite{davis}). The consistent increase in the number of known TNOs (186 at present, only 16 at the time of the Davis and Farinella's work) has led to a better knowledge of their distribution in the phase space and, consequently, to more reliable estimates of the collisional probability and impact velocity.

Dell'Oro, A.; Marzari, F.; Paolicchi, P.; Vanzani, V.

2001-02-01

103

Survival Sex Work and Increased HIV Risk Among Sexual Minority Street-Involved Youth  

PubMed Central

Objectives Exchanging sex for money, drugs, or other commodities for survival is associated with an array of HIV risks. We sought to determine if street-involved drug-using sexual minority youth are at greater risk for survival sex work and are more likely to engage in risk behaviors with clients. Methods We examined factors associated with survival sex work among participants enrolled in the At Risk Youth Study using logistic regression. Self-reported risk behaviors with clients were also examined. Results Of 558 participants eligible for this analysis, 75 (13.4%) identified as a sexual minority and 63 (11.3%) reported survival sex work in the past 6 months. Sexual minority males (adjusted odds ratio = 16.1, P < .001) and sexual minority females (adjusted odds ratio = 6.87, P < 0.001) were at significantly greater risk for survival sex work. Sexual minority youth were more likely to report inconsistent condom use with clients (odds ratio = 4.30, P = 0.049) and reported a greater number of clients in the past 6 months (median = 14 vs. 3, P = 0.008). Conclusions Sexual minority street youth are not only more likely to engage in survival sex work but also demonstrate elevated HIV risk behavior. These findings suggest that harm reduction and HIV prevention programs for sexual minority youth who exchange sex are urgently required.

Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Wood, Evan

2013-01-01

104

Friendship and Attachment among Heterosexual and Sexual-Minority Youths: Does the Gender of Your Friend Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed gender and sexual orientation differences in the percentage of same-gender peers in youths' friendship networks, the gender of their best friends, and the degree of attachment to these friends. Results for 168 sexual minority and heterosexual youths show notable gender differences among the sexual minority youths, with female sexual

Diamond, Lisa M.; Dube, Eric M.

2002-01-01

105

Immigrant sexual minority latino men in rural north Carolina: an exploration of social context, social behaviors, and sexual outcomes.  

PubMed

Immigrant sexual minority Latino men-who may or may not self-identify as gay-constitute a minority within a minority. Often labeled "hidden" and "hard-to-reach," and marginalized along multiple dimensions, it is a subgroup about whom little is known. Informed by a social ecological framework, we sought to describe key social variables for 190 such men in rural North Carolina and to test associations with three sexual outcomes: consistent condom use, number of sex partners, and sexual compulsivity. Participants reported limited English-language use, predominantly Latino close friends, middle levels of social support despite numerous social ties, and frequent experiences of discrimination. There were unique sets of correlates for each sexual outcome. Findings may inform health promotion interventions and guide future research. PMID:24344629

Gilbert, Paul A; Rhodes, Scott D

2014-08-01

106

Sexual discourses and strategies among minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

This study explores the way minority ethnic youth in the Netherlands evaluate their sexual experiences, how they frame these experiences in different sexual discourses and how they deal with conflicts between different sexual discourses, both at home and in Dutch society. During 46 narrative interviews, Dutch young people (aged 12-22 years) from different minority ethnic communities shared their sexual histories and their dreams for the future relating to love and sexuality. Different sexual discourses can be identified in the language they used to describe their ideas and their experiences. Young people grow up with a variety of discourses but actively re-shape them according to circumstances and need. In many cases, young people experience a conflict between the discourses of the home and those that are prevalent more generally in Dutch society. Young people's ways of negotiating these contradictory discourses comprise four main strategies: (1) conforming to parents' values, (2) breaking up with parents, (3) leading a double life and (4) integrating competing discourses. By bringing together different sexual discourses and acknowledging diverse strategies, sexual health policies can become more effective in promoting sexual health for minority ethnic youth. Findings from the study add fuel to debate on understanding (sexual) agency among young people, exhibiting the social 'embeddedness' of individual agency. PMID:24902033

Cense, Marianne

2014-08-01

107

Sexual health of ethnic minority MSM in Britain (MESH project): design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV infection in Britain. HIV prevalence appears to vary widely between MSM from different ethnic minority groups in this country for reasons that are not fully understood. The aim of the MESH project was to examine in detail the sexual health of ethnic minority MSM living in Britain. Methods/Design The main objectives of the MESH project were to explore among ethnic minority MSM living in Britain: (i) sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence; (ii) their experience of stigma and discrimination; (iii) disclosure of sexuality; (iv) use of, and satisfaction with sexual health services; (v) the extent to which sexual health services (for treatment and prevention) are aware of the needs of ethnic minority MSM. The research was conducted between 2006 and 2008 in four national samples: (i) ethnic minority MSM living in Britain; (ii) a comparison group of white British MSM living in Britain; (iii) NHS sexual health clinic staff in 15 British towns and cities with significant ethnic minority communities and; (iv) sexual health promotion/HIV prevention service providers. We also recruited men from two "key migrant" groups living in Britain: MSM born in Central or Eastern Europe and MSM born in Central or South America. Internet-based quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Ethnic minority MSM were recruited through advertisements on websites, in community venues, via informal networks and in sexual health clinics. White and "key migrant" MSM were recruited mostly through Gaydar, one of the most popular dating sites used by gay men in Britain. MSM who agreed to take part completed a questionnaire online. Ethnic minority MSM who completed the online questionnaire were asked if they would be willing to take part in an online qualitative interview using email. Service providers were identified through the British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) and the Terrence Higgins Trust (THT) CHAPS partnerships. Staff who agreed to take part were asked to complete a questionnaire online. The online survey was completed by 1241 ethnic minority MSM, 416 men born in South and Central America or Central and Eastern Europe, and 13,717 white British MSM; 67 ethnic minority MSM took part in the online qualitative interview. In addition 364 people working in sexual health clinics and 124 health promotion workers from around Britain completed an online questionnaire. Discussion The findings from this study will improve our understanding of the sexual health and needs of ethnic minority MSM in Britain.

2010-01-01

108

Psychosocial Concerns of Sexual Minority Youth: Complexity and Caution in Group Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning\\/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction between sexual orientation and gender was identified on victimization. Boys reported higher victimization than did girls

V. Paul Poteat; Steven R. Aragon; Dorothy L. Espelage; Brian W. Koenig

2009-01-01

109

Religiosity and Alcohol Use in Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Youth and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite interest in the role of religiosity in youth development and health behavior, few studies have examined these associations in sexual minority youth. Participants (n = 11,699) who were adolescents (wave 1) and young adults (wave 3) in the Add Health survey were used to examine proximal and distal religiosity by sexual identity group and to…

Rostosky, Sharon Scales; Danner, Fred; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

2008-01-01

110

School Support Groups, Other School Factors, and the Safety of Sexual Minority Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual minority adolescents--those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences--report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts…

Goodenow, Carol; Szalacha, Laura; Westheimer, Kim

2006-01-01

111

Intimate Partner Violence Among Sexual Minorities in Japan: Exploring Perceptions and Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using qualitative interviews (n = 39) and participant observation (n = 54), this study documents perceptions and experiences of violence between lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex intimate partners in Japan, thereby providing exploratory, formative data on a previously unexamined issue. Results indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) is experienced physically, sexually, and psychologically in all sexual minority groups. Participants

Anthony S. DiStefano

2009-01-01

112

Detecting sexually antagonistic coevolution with population crosses.  

PubMed Central

The result of population crosses on traits such as mating rate, oviposition rate and survivorship are increasingly used to distinguish between modes of coevolution between the sexes. Two key hypotheses, erected from a verbal theory of sexually antagonistic coevolution, have been the subject of several recent tests. First, statistical interactions arising in population crosses are suggested to be indicative of a complex signal/receiver system. In the case of oviposition rates, an interaction between populations (x, y and z) would be indicated by the rank order of female oviposition rates achieved by x, y and z males changing depending upon the female (x, y or z) with which they mated. Second, under sexually antagonistic coevolution females will do 'best' when mated with their own males, where best is defined by the weakest response to the signal and the highest fitness. We test these hypotheses by crossing strains generated from a formal model of sexually antagonistic coevolution. Strains differ in the strength of natural selection acting on male and female traits. In our model, we assume sexually antagonistic coevolution of a single male signal and female receptor. The female receptor is treated as a preference function where both the slope and intercept of the function can evolve. Our results suggest that neither prediction is consistently supported. Interactions are not diagnostic of complex signal-receiver systems, and even under sexually antagonistic coevolution, females may do better mating with males of strains other than their own. These results suggest a reinterpretation of several recent experiments and have important implications for developing theories of speciation when sexually antagonistic coevolution is involved.

Rowe, Locke; Cameron, Erin; Day, Troy

2003-01-01

113

Social and Health Service Use and Treatment Outcomes for Sexual Minorities in a National Sample of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines substance use severity, levels of social and health service utilization, and the impact of service utilization on treatment outcomes for sexual minorities versus non-minorities. The sample included 3,094 clients from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES). Substance use severity among sexual minorities and non-sexual minorities was similar at treatment entry and at 12 months post-discharge. Differences

Melissa Hardesty; Dingcai Cao; Hee-Choon Shin; Christina M. Andrews; Jeanne Marsh

2012-01-01

114

Minority Stress and Mental Health among Dutch LGBs: Examination of Differences between Sex and Sexual Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…

Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke

2011-01-01

115

Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual correlates of tobacco use in sexual minority women.  

PubMed

Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual correlates of tobacco use among sexual minority women (SMW) were assessed using data from a larger lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) study. Of the 171 participants, 42% (n?=?71) were smokers. However, 61% of smokers reported a recent quit attempt, and 39% were taking action toward or planning to quit. In multivariable logistic regression, lack of insurance, frequent attendance at LGBT bars, greater awareness of anti-smoking messages, and fewer perceived deterrents to smoking were associated with greater odds of smoking. Our findings provide additional support for elevated smoking rates among SMW and help to identify factors associated with smoking in this population. Awareness of prevention campaigns, recent quit attempts, and intention to quit were high, suggesting opportunities for smoking cessation. PMID:21305575

Matthews, Alicia K; Hotton, Anna; DuBois, Steve; Fingerhut, David; Kuhns, Lisa M

2011-04-01

116

An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities  

PubMed Central

Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups.

Russell, Stephen T.

2012-01-01

117

Hypertension in multicultural and minority populations: Linkin communication to compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular disease disproportionately affects minority populations, in part because of multiple sociocultural factors\\u000a that directly affect compliance with antihypertensive medication regimens. Compliance is a complex health behavior determined\\u000a by a variety of socioeconomic individual, familial, and cultural factors. In general, provider-patient communication has been\\u000a shown to be linked to patient satisfaction, compliance, and health outcomes. In multicultural and minority populations,

Joseph R. Betancourt; J. Emilio Carrillo; Alexander R. Green

1999-01-01

118

Sexual Victimization and Health-Related Indicators Among Sexual Minority Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports rates of childhood and adult sexual victimization among a community sample of 634 gay and bisexual-identified men and examines how men with differing sexual victimization histories compare on a number of health-related outcomes. Results indicate that men with histories of childhood and adult sexual victimization are more likely to report substance use, more lifetime sexually transmitted infections,

Amy L. Hequembourg; David Bimbi; Jeffrey T. Parsons

2011-01-01

119

Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially-Based Risk Factors of Self-injurious and Suicidal Behaviors Among Sexual Minority College Students  

PubMed Central

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective To test the association between socially-based stressors (e.g., victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Participants A national sample of college-attending 18- to 24-year-olds. Methods Random or census samples from post-secondary educational institutions that administered the National College Health Assessment during the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 semesters. Results Sexual minorities reported more socially-based stressors than heterosexuals. Bisexuals exhibited greatest prevalence of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors. In adjusted models, intimate partner violence was most consistently associated with self-injurious behaviros. Conclusions Sexual minorities' elevated risks of self-injurious and suicidal behaviors may stem from higher exposure to socially-based stressors. Within-group differences among sexual minorities offer insight to specific risk factors that may contribute to elevated self-injurious and suicidal behaviors in sexual minority populations.

Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

2012-01-01

120

A Model of Asian and Pacific Islander Sexual Minority Acculturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, the interplay of racism, sexism, and acculturation creates psychological and social stressors that may affect the development of positive ethnic\\/sexual identities among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents. This article proposes a new model of identity formation theory for API gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) youth in order to increase understanding of the diversity of

Hyeouk Chris Hahm; Chris Adkins

2009-01-01

121

How Does Sexual Minority Stigma "Get Under the Skin"? A Psychological Mediation Framework  

PubMed Central

Sexual minorities are at increased risk for multiple mental health burdens compared to heterosexuals. The field has identified two distinct determinants of this risk, including group-specific minority stressors and general psychological processes that are common across sexual orientations. The goal of the present paper is to develop a theoretical framework that integrates the important insights from these literatures. The framework postulates that (a) sexual minorities confront increased stress exposure resulting from stigma; (b) this stigma-related stress creates elevations in general emotion dysregulation, social/interpersonal problems, and cognitive processes conferring risk for psychopathology; and (c) these processes in turn mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology. It is argued that this framework can, theoretically, illuminate how stigma adversely affects mental health and, practically, inform clinical interventions. Evidence for the predictive validity of this framework is reviewed, with particular attention paid to illustrative examples from research on depression, anxiety, and alcohol use disorders.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.

2009-01-01

122

Sexual selection hinders adaptation in experimental populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection, the suite of processes that lead to differential mating success among individuals, probably influences the evolutionary trajectory of populations. Because sexual selection often shifts traits away from their survival optima, strong sexual selection pressures are thought to increase potential for population extinction, especially during environmental change. Sexual selection pressures may also increase the opportunity for speciation by accelerating the generation of pre-zygotic isolation among populations. These relationships remain largely untested experimentally. Here, we allow populations of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to evolve for approximately 250 generations with altered sex ratios in order to test the effect of the strength of sexual selection on the fate of populations. We find that populations experiencing stronger sexual selection are less able to adapt to a novel environment compared with populations experiencing weaker sexual selection or no sex, and that strong sexual selection erases the benefits of sexual reproduction. This pattern persists when fitness is assayed in a closely related environment. We also identify a trend that may suggest the beginning of pre-zygotic isolation between populations experiencing stronger sexual selection, though this is not statistically significant. These results highlight the importance of sexual selection in shaping macroevolutionary patterns and biodiversity.

Reding, L. P.; Swaddle, J. P.; Murphy, H. A.

2013-01-01

123

The effects of childhood sexual abuse on minority adolescent mothers.  

PubMed

In 2 urban areas of Texas, 124 mothers, 13-20 years old, all but 6% of whom were Mexican American or African American, were recruited from 4 public agencies to a study designed to determine the incidence and effects of childhood sexual abuse on the lives of these adolescent mothers. The study used the Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI) to compare the personality characteristics of those mothers who had experienced sexual abuse with their nonabused counterparts. Most adolescent mothers were single (80%), lived with their parents (63%), were pregnant for the first time (56%), currently attended school (84%), and lived in a family whose annual income was less than $12,000. 44% of the mothers had experienced some form of childhood sexual abuse. More than 50% reported oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse with their abusers. The abusers tended to be male (97%) and known to the victim (66%). Male strangers accounted for 19% of abusers. The researchers were able to use data from 111 subjects to compare the 2 groups. The abused adolescent mothers always had clinically and statistically significant poorer scores than nonabused mothers. Abused mothers had greater difficulties in self-concept (p 0.0001), self-esteem (p = 0.004), body comfort (p = 0.002), sexual acceptance (p = 0.002), peer security (p = 0.002), and family rapport (p = 0.002). They also had clinically significant lower levels of academic confidence (p = 0.018), social conformity (p = 0.035), scholastic achievement (p 0.0001), and attendance consistency (p = 0.002). When researchers controlled for the effect of the Life Event Scale-Adolescents, abused mothers had differences that were significantly different than those of nonabused mothers (p = 0.001). These findings suggest that nurses within prenatal or well-baby care agencies should guide adolescent mothers who experienced childhood sexual abuse as they learn to communicate with their family or refer them to existing support services. It is important to ask adolescent mothers about a history of sexual abuse. PMID:8708833

Esparza, D V; Esperat, M C

1996-05-01

124

Sexual Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections between drinking, relational contexts, stress and coping  

PubMed Central

Few studies explore sexual minority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions.

Condit, Megan; Kitaji, Kai; Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen

2011-01-01

125

Sexual and Ethnic Identity Development among Gay/Bisexual/Questioning (GBQ) Male Ethnic Minority Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Identity development is a critical task of adolescence and occurs across multiple areas of self identification. Though research on the identity development process among individuals who are ethnic and sexual minorities has been conducted for individuals who have one minority status or the other, few studies have examined these processes in persons who are both ethnic and sexual minorities. This qualitative study examined the dual identity development processes related to ethnic and sexual identity among gay/bisexual/questioning (GBQ) Latino and African American male adolescents. Results indicated that the processes associated with the development of sexual orientation and ethnic identity occur concurrently. However, the actual processes involved with the development of each identity not only differed, but seemed to be independent of each other since neither process was referenced in the development of the other. Overall, the process of ethnic identity development involved the process of becoming aware of one’s ethnic and cultural heritage, while sexual identity development involved finding one’s own personally relevant sexual orientation label and connecting to that community. The implications of these findings for the development of interventions to assist in the healthy development of GBQ adolescents are discussed.

Jamil, Omar B.; Harper, Gary W.; Fernandez, M. Isabel

2010-01-01

126

Drivers of Disparity: Differences in Socially Based Risk Factors of Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behaviors among Sexual Minority College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (ie, sexual minority) populations have increased prevalence of both self-injurious and suicidal behaviors, but reasons for these disparities are poorly understood. Objective: To test the association between socially based stressors (eg, victimization, discrimination) and self-injurious behavior, suicide ideation, and…

Blosnich, John; Bossarte, Robert

2012-01-01

127

Attitudes, Perceptions, and Knowledge of Pre-Service Teachers Regarding The Educational Isolation of Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual minority youth (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgendered, and Questioning youth) must function in a society that condones homophobia. Rendered invisible through the stigma attached to their identification as sexual minorities, they are conveniently forgotten by the institutions charged with facilitating their education. Results from a research study conducted by Sears (1991), indicated that teachers often expressed that they should be

Renée Mudrey; Aida Medina-Adams

2006-01-01

128

Development and Validation of a Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender expression varies considerably among lesbian and bisexual women and may be related to various stressors and health outcomes. However, no current measure adequately assesses gender expression in this community. Thus, the authors conducted three studies to develop and validate the Gender Expression Measure among Sexual Minority Women…

Lehavot, Keren; King, Kevin M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2011-01-01

129

Psychosocial Concerns of Sexual Minority Youth: Complexity and Caution in Group Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation tested a large adolescent sample (n = 14,439) for significant group differences on psychosocial concerns on the basis of intersecting identities of sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning/less certain, heterosexual), race (Whites, racial minorities), and gender (boys, girls). A significant 2-way interaction…

Poteat, V. Paul; Aragon, Steven R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Koenig, Brian W.

2009-01-01

130

Framing the Issue/Framing the Question: How are Sexual Minority Issues Included in Diversity Initiatives?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper situates sexual minority issues within organizations by examining what it means to engage diversity through the perspectives of hostility, compliance, inquiry, inclusion, and advocacy. These perspectives are discussed in terms of human resource development missions of individual development, career development, and organization…

Rocco, Tonette S.; Delgado, Antonio; Landorf, Hilary

2008-01-01

131

Mental Health Service Contacts Among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls in Boston Public High Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sexual minority (SM) adolescent girls are at high risk for suicidal behavior, very little is known about their use of mental health services (MHS). Therefore, we examined survey data from a sample of Boston high school students to compare the prevalence of MHS use among SM and heterosexual girls.We used chi-square tests to assess the statistical significance of group

Jeremy D. Kidd; J. LEE WHITE; RENEE M. JOHNSON

2012-01-01

132

Teacher-Mentors and the Educational Resilience of Sexual Minority Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first study to examine the benefits of informal mentoring on the educational resilience of sexual minority youth. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we show that having a mentor, especially one that is a teacher, is associated with higher levels of post-secondary participation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Teacher-mentors are particularly significant

Billie Gastic; Dominique Johnson

2009-01-01

133

Queering psychoanalysis: power, self and identity in psychoanalytic therapy with sexual minority clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I consider whether psychoanalytic psychotherapy can be gay affirmative and ask to what extent is psychoanalytic practice able to incorporate a queer account of heteronormativity in work with sexual minority patients\\/clients. I discuss the often pathologising vocabulary of psychoanalysis and go on to consider its theoretical use in providing a complex and practical understanding of the oppression

Ian Hodges

2011-01-01

134

Unmet Mental Health and Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Sexual Minority Elders  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substance abuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55–64 years had significantly more problems with substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals

Martha A. Jessup; Suzanne L. Dibble

2012-01-01

135

Enhancing Services for Sexual-Minority Clients: A Community Mental Health Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach used by a community mental health district to (1) assess its current services for sexual-minority clients (gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals), (2) develop recommendations for more appropriate staffing and staff development, and (3) implement a plan of community outreach and professional training. (Author/ABB)

Rabin, Jack; And Others

1986-01-01

136

Welcoming Children from Sexual-Minority Families into Our Schools. Fastback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the view that schools are responsible for providing a safe and supportive setting for all students and that with education the school climate will improve for sexual-minority parents and their children, this booklet provides information on how schools can become more welcoming to all students. Following introductory comments, the book is…

Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lamme, Laurel A.

137

Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

2012-01-01

138

Correlates of Cutting Behavior among Sexual Minority Youths and Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using secondary analyses of data from a sample of 265 sexual minority youths, the authors examined correlates of cutting behavior to determine whether patterns are similar to those found in studies of self-injury with community samples of predominately heterosexual youths. The sample consisted of youths who received services at an urban social…

Walls, N. Eugene; Laser, Julie; Nickels, Sarah J.; Wisneski, Hope

2010-01-01

139

Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the british crime survey 2007-2010.  

PubMed

International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed. PMID:24972149

Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

2014-10-01

140

Minority Stress and Substance Use in Sexual Minority Adolescents: A Meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents report disparate rates of substance use, and often consume more cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and ecstasy than their heterosexual peers. It is therefore crucial to understand the risk factors for substance use among LGB adolescents, particularly those unique to their minority status. In an effort to organize the current knowledge of minority-related risk factors for substance use among LGB youth, this study presents results from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published research literature. Results from 12 unique studies of LGB youth indicated that the strongest risk factors for substance use were victimization, lack of supportive environments, psychological stress, internalizing/externalizing problem behavior, negative disclosure reactions, and housing status. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for targeted intervention programs that address minority stress risk factors for substance use among LGB youth. PMID:23605479

Goldbach, Jeremy T; Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Bagwell, Meredith; Dunlap, Shannon

2014-06-01

141

Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression among sexual minority and heterosexual women veterans.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of various traumas across the life span on screening positive for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among heterosexual and sexual minority women veterans. Women veterans were recruited over the Internet (N = 706, 37% lesbian or bisexual) to participate in an anonymous, online survey. We assessed childhood trauma; adult sexual assault and adult physical victimization before, during, and after the military; combat exposure; perceived sexist discrimination during military service; sexual minority military stressors; past-year sexist events; and whether participants screened positive for PTSD or depression. Binary logistic regressions were used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PTSD and depression, stratified by sexual orientation and controlling for demographic characteristics. Lesbian and bisexual women reported higher rates of trauma across the life span, although in some instances (e.g., sexual assault during and after military service, combat exposure), they did not differ from their heterosexual counterparts. Childhood trauma and traumas that occurred during military service added the most variance to both PTSD and depression models. Sexual assault during military service appeared to be especially harmful with respect to screening positive for PTSD for both sexual orientation groups. Results revealed a number of other predictors of mental health status for women veterans, some of which differed by sexual orientation. Findings indicate a significant burden of interpersonal trauma for both heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual women veterans and provide information on the distinct association of various traumas with current PTSD and depression by sexual orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25019543

Lehavot, Keren; Simpson, Tracy L

2014-07-01

142

Targeting Interventions for Ethnic Minority and Low-Income Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although rates of childhood obesity among the general population are alarmingly high, they are higher still in ethnic minority and low-income communities. The disparities pose a major challenge for policymakers and practitioners planning strategies for obesity prevention. In this article Shiriki Kumanyika and Sonya Grier summarize differences in…

Kumanyika, Shiriki; Grier, Sonya

2006-01-01

143

Searching the Genome to Understand Cancer Disparities among Minority Populations  

Cancer.gov

Mapping the genome has brought new insight into the causes and progression of diseases such as cancer, opening up new avenues of research to improve prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the human genome has yet to shed light into why some minority populations experience disproportionately high rates of common cancers.

144

Depression and sexual functioning in minority women: current status and future directions.  

PubMed

Despite the increasing number of non-Caucasians in the United States, the overwhelming majority of research into both depression and sexuality has been conducted with European-American (Caucasian) samples. Sexual dysfunction and depression often co-occur, impacting relationship satisfaction, quality of life, and treatment adherence. These issues may be particularly salient for African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American women, yet this area of research has been relatively unexplored. Cultural factors may shape women's response to sexual dysfunction, resulting from the depression itself as well as antidepressant medication. Further research emphasizing gender and culture is needed to elucidate the prevalence, impact, and treatment of sexual dysfunction in specific groups of depressed minority women. PMID:16234223

Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Leiblum, Sandra R; Rosen, Raymond C; Menza, Matthew; Marin, Humberto

2006-01-01

145

Hazardous Drinking, Depression, and Anxiety Among Sexual-Minority Women: Self-Medication or Impaired Functioning?  

PubMed Central

Objective: Sexual-minority women are at heightened risk for a number of mental health problems, including hazardous alcohol consumption, depression, and anxiety. We examined self-medication and impaired-functioning models of the associations among these variables and interpreted results within a life course framework that considered the unique social stressors experienced by sexual-minority women. Method: Data were from a sample of 384 women interviewed during the first two waves of the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study. Results: Covariance structure modeling revealed that (a) consistent with a self-medication process, anxiety was prospectively associated with hazardous drinking and (b) consistent with an impaired-functioning process, hazardous drinking was prospectively associated with depression. Conclusions: Our findings support a life course perspective that interprets the mental health of adult sexual-minority women as influenced by adverse childhood experiences, age at drinking onset, first heterosexual intercourse, and first sexual identity disclosure, as well as by processes associated with self-medication and impaired functioning during adulthood.

Johnson, Timothy P.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Cho, Young IK; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Aranda, Frances; Szalacha, Laura A.

2013-01-01

146

Development of Muscularity and Weight Concerns in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Males  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the development of muscularity and weight concerns among heterosexual and sexual minority males in adolescence. Method Participants were 5,868 males from the Growing Up Today Study, a US prospective cohort spanning ages 9–25 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to test sexual orientation differences in the development of muscularity concerns, weight gain attempts, and weight and shape concern. Results Desire for bigger muscles increased slightly each year across adolescence (? =.10, 95% C.I.= .09, .11) regardless of sexual orientation, but gay and bisexual participants reported greater desire for toned muscles than completely and mostly heterosexual males (?=.39, 95% C.I.=.21, .57). Desire for toned muscles did not change with age. Attempts to gain weight increased three-fold across adolescence, with up to 30% reporting weight gain attempts by age 16. Although underweight males (the smallest weight status class) were most likely to attempt to gain weight, most of the observed weight gain attempts were by healthy (69%) and overweight/obese (27%) males, suggesting that most attempts were medically unnecessary and could lead to overweight. Sexual minority participants were 20% less likely to report weight gain attempts than completely heterosexual participants. Weight and shape concern increased with age, with gay and bisexual participants experiencing a significantly greater increase than heterosexual males. Conclusions Sexual orientation modifies the development and expression of male weight and muscularity concerns. The findings have implications for early interventions for the prevention of obesity and eating disorder risk in heterosexual and sexual minority males.

Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

2013-01-01

147

Mental health services access for sexual minority individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) individuals report lower levels of positive mental health than the general\\u000a population (e.g., Cochran, 2001 ) and thus have a need for appropriate mental health services. The authors conducted an online\\u000a survey to assess factors associated with the use of such services and the perceived availability of GLBT-affirmative providers.\\u000a Of the 226 respondents, 1

Gina P. Owens; Ellen D. B. Riggle; Sharon Scales Rostosky

2007-01-01

148

"Why Can't We Learn about This?" Sexual Minority Students Navigate the Official and Hidden Curricular Spaces of High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the spaces of high school, sexual minority youth often find that their needs for inclusion are not met by their institutions and those employed within. Through interviews with sexual minority high school students and written questionnaires with high school teachers and other faculty, we find that sexual minority youth are faced with exclusion…

Castro, Ingrid E.; Sujak, Mark Conor

2014-01-01

149

Mutator dynamics in sexual and asexual experimental populations of yeast  

PubMed Central

Background In asexual populations, mutators may be expected to hitchhike with associated beneficial mutations. In sexual populations, recombination is predicted to erode such associations, inhibiting mutator hitchhiking. To investigate the effect of recombination on mutators experimentally, we compared the frequency dynamics of a mutator allele (msh2?) in sexual and asexual populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Mutator strains increased in frequency at the expense of wild-type strains in all asexual diploid populations, with some approaching fixation in 150 generations of propagation. Over the same period of time, mutators declined toward loss in all corresponding sexual diploid populations as well as in haploid populations propagated asexually. Conclusions We report the first experimental investigation of mutator dynamics in sexual populations. We show that a strong mutator quickly declines in sexual populations while hitchhiking to high frequency in asexual diploid populations, as predicted by theory. We also show that the msh2? mutator has a high and immediate realized cost that is alone sufficient to explain its decline in sexual populations. We postulate that this cost is indirect; namely, that it is due to a very high rate of recessive lethal or strongly deleterious mutation. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that msh2? also has unknown directly deleterious effects on fitness, and that these effects may differ between haploid asexual and sexual populations. Despite these reservations, our results prompt us to speculate that the short-term cost of highly deleterious recessive mutations can be as important as recombination in preventing mutator hitchhiking in sexual populations.

2011-01-01

150

Creating a Space for Spiritual Practice: Pastoral Possibilities with Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is a religious gay person an oxymoron? It appears possible, given that the research on religion and spirituality among sexual\\u000a minority individuals is so limited. While books written on the intersection of religion and psychotherapy may include a chapter\\u000a addressing the religious and spiritual lives of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, there are no critical texts\\u000a focusing solely on

Matthew Heermann; Marsha I. Wiggins; Philip A. Rutter

2007-01-01

151

Internalized Sexual Minority Stressors and Same-Sex Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious problem in both same-sex and heterosexual relationships. Although there are numerous\\u000a similarities in the dynamics of IPV, gay men and lesbians experience unique stressors related to their sexual minority status.\\u000a This preliminary, descriptive study examined the relationship among internalized homophobia, stigma consciousness, and openness\\u000a to self-reported IPV victimization and perpetration. Among 581 men

Amana F. Carvalho; Robin J. Lewis; Valerian J. Derlega; Barbara A. Winstead; Claudia Viggiano

152

Minority Status and Diabetes Screening in an Ambulatory Population  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Ethnicity has been identified as a risk factor not only for having type 2 diabetes but for increased morbidity and mortality with the disease. Current American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines advocate screening high-risk minorities for diabetes. This study investigates the effect of minority status on diabetes screening practices in an ambulatory, insured population presenting for yearly health care. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This is a retrospective population–based study of patients in a large, Midwestern, academic group practice. Included patients were insured, had ?1 primary care visit yearly from 2003 to 2007, and did not have diabetes but met ADA criteria for screening. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and predicted probabilities were calculated to determine the relationship between screening with fasting glucose, glucose tolerance test, or hemoglobin A1c and patient and visit characteristics. RESULTS Of the 15,557 eligible patients, 607 (4%) were of high-risk ethnicity, 61% were female, and 86% were ?45 years of age. Of the eight high-risk factors studied, after adjustment, ethnicity was the only factor not associated with higher diabetes screening (OR = 0.90 [95% CI 0.76–1.08]) despite more primary care visits in this group. In overweight patients <45 years, where screening eligibility is based on having an additional risk factor, high-risk ethnicity (OR 1.01 [0.70–1.44]) was not associated with increased screening frequency. CONCLUSIONS In an insured population presenting for routine care, high-risk minority status did not independently lead to diabetes screening as recommended by ADA guidelines. Factors other than insurance or access to care appear to affect minority-preventive care.

Sheehy, Ann; Pandhi, Nancy; Coursin, Douglas B.; Flood, Grace E.; Kraft, Sally A.; Johnson, Heather M.; Smith, Maureen A.

2011-01-01

153

Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into research studies on sexual behaviors and practices. The purpose of this article is to discuss challenges that arose during the recruitment and data collection stages of a study on health and sexual practices of older heterosexual men using prescribed erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs, and the strategies that were used to meet these challenges. Lessons learned from this study will be discussed, as well as implications for HIV/STD researchers and clinicians.

Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

2011-01-01

154

Minority Population Concentration and Earnings: Evidence from Fixed-Effects Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with the hypothesis that heightened visibility and competition lead to greater economic discrimination against minorities, countless studies have observed a negative association between minority population concentration and minority socioeconomic attainment. But minorities who reside in areas with high minority concentration are likely…

Johnson, Kecia; Pais, Jeremy; South, Scott J.

2012-01-01

155

Sexual mixing and HIV risk among ethnic minority MSM in Britain.  

PubMed

We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) living in Britain in 2007-2008 to examine sexual mixing among ethnic minority MSM. The sample comprised 115 black, 112 South Asian, 47 Chinese and 4,434 white MSM who reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the previous 3 months. In each ethnic minority group, MSM were three times more likely to report UAI with a partner of the same ethnicity than would be expected by chance alone (?(2) > 8.43, p < 0.05). Nonetheless, most (>80 %) ethnic minority MSM reported UAI with men from an ethnic group other than their own. In multivariable analysis there was statistical evidence that, compared with white British MSM, self-reported HIV seropositivity remained low for South Asian and Chinese MSM after adjusting for UAI with partners of the same ethnicity (e.g. South Asian MSM, adjusted odds ratio 0.35, 95 % CI 0.19-0.66). This analysis suggests that differences in self-reported HIV seropositivity between ethnic minority and white MSM in Britain cannot be explained by sexual mixing with partners from the same ethnic group. PMID:22829104

Doerner, Rita; McKeown, Eamonn; Nelson, Simon; Anderson, Jane; Low, Nicola; Elford, Jonathan

2012-10-01

156

Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.  

PubMed

Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

Lema, V M

1997-11-01

157

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant Minority Populations (CANIMP) Cancer Awareness Network for Immigrant

158

Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups  

SciTech Connect

For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

1995-06-01

159

Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual

Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

2008-01-01

160

HIV\\/AIDS and Sexual Minorities in Mexico: A Globalized Struggle for the Protection of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The fight against HIV\\/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of human rights for all, including sexual minorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political

Antonio Torres-Ruiz

2011-01-01

161

‘People Make Assumptions About Our Communities’: Sexual Health Amongst Teenagers from Black and Minority Ethnic Backgrounds in East London  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. (1) To explore sexual behaviour and relationships amongst Black and minority ethnic (BME) teenagers in East London. (2) To examine how these relationships are shaped by culture, gender, peer norms and religion. (3) To describe the implications for sexual health policy and practice in urban, multicultural areas.Design. This report draws primarily on the qualitative arm of a mixed methods

Shamser Sinha; Katherine Curtis; Amanda Jayakody; Russell Viner; Helen Roberts

2007-01-01

162

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impact myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of…

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

163

[On problems of population in minority nationalities (author's transl)].  

PubMed

China's large population is made up mostly of Han people, but there are more than 50 other ethnic groups. Population policies must be made taking into consideration the different historical and economic characteristics of each group. An example of the ill effects of high population growth is the Lin Xia autonomous state, inhabitated by the Hui ethnic group. In 1956 living conditions and food supply were still good for a population of 839,000. By 1978 the population had increased to 1,370,000, per capita income had dropped from 80 yuans to 40 yuans, and gross agricultural product could not meet the needed food supply. Although the number of schools had increased, by 1978 32% of elementary school children, 10% of elementary school graduates, and 60% of junior high school graduates were unable to enter school for lack of facilities. The standard of education decreased, and unemployment increased. In 1973 the birth control program was initiated in the province. Natural increase went from 28.7% in 1973 to 14.7%, and the total birth rate was 58,232 births less than expected; result was an increased school budget and better food and clothing for all. The opposite problem is presented by the Akesa autonomous state of Hasake ethnicity. In 1949 the population of this ethnicity was 1700 people and the standard of living was high; however, natural population increase was only 1.5/1000, not enough to provide needed labor to cope with economical development. In this area population increase should be encouraged through various means of health care. As for other minorities living in areas mainly inhabited by other ethnic groups, they should keep their customs and beliefs but follow the population policies of the majority of the people. Birth control is a communist idea; it serves to improve the health and welfare of the whole nation, and it will not interfere with the stable unity of the various ethnicities. PMID:12263423

Shi, C L; Liang, S Q; Wang, J

1981-01-01

164

Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health.

Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

2014-01-01

165

Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic risks in minority populations.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

Ferdinand, Keith C; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A; Caballero, A Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E; Ofili, Elizabeth O

2014-04-01

166

When will a sexual population evolve to an ESS?  

PubMed Central

A diploid, Mendelian population is considered in which m alleles at a single autosomal locus uniquely determine the phenotype of each individual. In the population, a game-theoretical conflict is supposed. If the genetic system is able to uniquely realize the phenotypic evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) state then the sexual population will evolve to this ESS.

Garay, J.; Varga, Z.

1998-01-01

167

Sexual minority youth, social connection and resilience: from personal struggle to collective identity.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are at increased risk for negative health outcomes including substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and suicide. Researchers suggest that sexual orientation victimization is a predictor of such outcomes. Social connectedness--or the importance of belonging where youth perceive they are cared for and empowered within a given context--has been associated with positive youth outcomes. This qualitative study utilized life story methodology. Life stories are considered to be important expressions of one's identity and are shaped by personal, social, and cultural contexts. Twenty-two interviews were conducted with 15 young people ranging in age from 14 to 22 years. Two focus groups with youth were also conducted. Youth were recruited from rural and urban communities in Massachusetts. This study contributes to the literature on resilience by including the voices of sexual minority youth and explores the meaning of social connection in their lives. Youth discuss the ways in which individual connection and group affiliation served to affirm one's identity, and provided a forum for moving personal struggle to collective action. The findings suggest the need to reconceptualize consequences of disconnection (such as depression or suicide) from individual pathology and attend to these consequences as a response to discrimination and stigma. Implications for these findings and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:21497970

DiFulvio, Gloria T

2011-05-01

168

Communication between VA providers and sexual and gender minority veterans: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Approximately one million gay and lesbian Americans are veterans, and rates of engagement in the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system may be increasing for both sexual and gender minority veterans. Very little research has examined the experience of these veterans when receiving care at VA health care facilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences, beliefs, and preferences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) veterans in their communication with VA health care providers. LGBT veterans (n = 58) participated in focus groups or individual interviews and completed self-report measures at two southern VA hospitals. Approximately 2/3 of veterans report that none of their VA providers have specifically asked about their sexual orientation, and 24% of the veterans indicate that they have not disclosed their orientation to any VA provider. Although some veterans want providers to initiate these discussions, veterans also expressed fears about disclosure and its possible negative consequences. Similarly, LGBT veterans report varied opinions about the appropriateness of routine assessment of minority status. Only 28% of these veterans experience VA as welcoming to them as LGBT veterans. Systematic training is needed for all VA providers about the rationale for assessing sexual and gender orientation. Staff education should include specific skills for initiating these assessments, and ways of responding to veteran concerns about discussing this topic in the VA health care system. PMID:24588107

Sherman, Michelle D; Kauth, Michael R; Shipherd, Jillian C; Street, Richard L

2014-05-01

169

HIV/AIDS and sexual minorities in Mexico: a globalized struggle for the protection of human rights.  

PubMed

The fight against HIV/AIDS is an example of a global struggle for the promotion of sexual health and the protection of human rights for all, including sexual minorities. It represents a challenge for the understanding of its impact on political, social, and economic processes. My central goal in this piece is twofold. First, I underline the importance of a political and human rights perspective to the analysis of the global response to the pandemic, and I introduce the concept of policy networks for a better understanding of these dynamics. Second, I argue that, in the case of Mexico, the constitution of HIV/AIDS policy networks, which incorporate civil society and state actors, such as sexual minority activists and public officials, and their actions—both domestic and international—have resulted in a more inclusive HIV/AIDS policy-making process. However, serious human rights violations of HIV/AIDS patients and sexual minorities still remain. PMID:21751474

Torres-Ruiz, Antonio

2011-01-01

170

Revision and extension of a multidimensional measure of sexual minority identity: the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to investigate a revised and extended version of the Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale (Mohr & Fassinger, 2000): the 27-item Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). This revision features more inclusive and less stigmatizing language than the previous version and includes 2 new subscales assessing identity affirmation and centrality. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis (n = 297) and a confirmatory factor analysis (n = 357) supported an 8-factor solution assessing acceptance concerns, concealment motivation, identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, difficulty with the identity development process, identity superiority, identity affirmation, and identity centrality. Predicted associations with measures of identity-related constructs and psychosocial functioning provided preliminary validity evidence for LGBIS scores in a college student population. Study 2 (N = 51) provided evidence of the test-retest and internal consistency reliability of LGBIS scores. These studies suggest that the LGBIS may offer researchers an efficient means of assessing multiple dimensions of sexual orientation minority identity. PMID:21319899

Mohr, Jonathan J; Kendra, Matthew S

2011-04-01

171

Unmet mental health and substance abuse treatment needs of sexual minority elders.  

PubMed

In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substance abuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55-64 years had significantly more problems with substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals reported significantly greater problems with depression, anxiety, and suicidality than either heterosexual or lesbian or gay elders. Mental health and substance abuse treatment utilization was low among all elders with problems. Implications for assessment, access to care, and group-specific services delivery are discussed. PMID:22587357

Jessup, Martha A; Dibble, Suzanne L

2012-01-01

172

Depressive Symptoms, Illicit Drug Use and HIV/STI Risk Among Sexual Minority Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examined the interaction of depressive symptoms and drug use on HIV/STI risk among sexual minority young adults. Analyses tested the interactive effect of depressive symptoms and drug use on unprotected sex. Among drug users, more depressive symptoms were associated with higher rates of unprotected sex with a male partner (for both male and female participants) but this was non-significant for non-users. Interventions with these groups should incorporate content on depression and drug use to reduce HIV/STI risk. Prevention efforts also should not neglect the vulnerability of young women that have sex with women and/or identify as non-heterosexual.

Tolou-Shams, Marina; Tarantino, Nicholas; McKirnan, David J.; Dyslin, Kellie J.

2013-01-01

173

Sexual isolation and mating propensity among allopatric Drosophila mettleri populations.  

PubMed

Drosophila mettleri is found in deserts of North America breeding in soil soaked by the juices of necrotic cacti. Saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and cardón (Pachycereus pringlei) are the usual host cacti in Mexico and Arizona, while prickly pear (Opuntia spp.) is used by an isolated population on Santa Catalina Island off the southern California Coast. Populations of D. mettleri show significant local genetic differentiation, especially when geographical isolation is coupled with host shifts. We tested for evidence of sexual isolation among allopatric populations of D. mettleri using a variety of choice and no-choice tests. Populations exhibited significant differences in mating propensity, which translated into significant deviations from random mating. While in some cases these deviations were consistent with sexual isolation, in others, negative assortative mating was observed. No relationship between degree of genetic differentiation and the appearance of sexual isolation was detected. PMID:18561017

Castrezana, Sergio J; Markow, Therese Ann

2008-07-01

174

Are Eukaryotic Microorganisms Clonal or Sexual? A Population Genetics Vantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the mode of reproduction of microorganisms in nature can only be decided by population genetic information. The evidence available indicates that many parasitic protozoa and unicellular fungi have clonal rather than sexual population structures, which has major consequences for medical research and practice. Plasmodium falciparum, the agent of malaria, is a special case: the scarce evidence available

Michel Tibayrenc; Finn Kjellberg; Jacques Arnaud; Bruno Oury; S. Frederique Breniere; Marle-Laure Darde; Francisco J. Ayala

1991-01-01

175

A social ecological approach to understanding correlates of lifetime sexual assault among sexual minority women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey.  

PubMed

Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence. PMID:24412812

Logie, C H; Alaggia, R; Rwigema, M J

2014-08-01

176

Interrelationships between LGBT-based victimization, suicide, and substance use problems in a diverse sample of sexual and gender minorities.  

PubMed

Research has documented significant relationships between sexual and gender minority stress and higher rates of suicidality (i.e. suicidal ideation and attempts) and substance use problems. We examined the potential mediating role of substance use problems on the relationship between sexual and gender minority stress (i.e. victimization based on lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender identity [LGBT]) and suicidality. A nonprobability sample of LGBT patients from a community health center (N = 1457) ranged in age from 19-70 years. Participants reported history of lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts, substance use problems, as well as experiences of LGBT-based verbal and physical attacks. Substance use problems were a significant partial mediator between LGBT-based victimization and suicidal ideation and between LGBT-based victimization and suicide attempts for sexual and gender minorities. Nuanced gender differences revealed that substance use problems did not significantly mediate the relationship between victimization and suicide attempts for sexual minority men. Substance use problems may be one insidious pathway that partially mediates the risk effects of sexual and gender minority stress on suicidality. Substances might be a temporary and deleterious coping resource in response to LGBT-based victimization, which have serious effects on suicidal ideation and behaviors. PMID:23535038

Mereish, Ethan H; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Bradford, Judith B

2014-01-01

177

DEFINING CULTURALLY COMPETENT PRACTICE WITH SEXUAL MINORITIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION AND PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, social work has placed an increasing emphasis on culturally competent practice. Although use of that term has referred primarily to practice with ethnic and racial minorities, the concept has been broadened to include social work with other culturally diverse populations. This article examines the application of cultural competence principles to practice with gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered

Nan Van Den Bergh; Catherine Crisp

2004-01-01

178

Current status of thalassemia in minority populations in Guangxi, China.  

PubMed

Thalassemia is one of the most common monogenic disorders in the world. In order to develop a community-based prevention program, we screened 12,900 individuals for alpha- and beta-thalassemia in Baise City, Guangxi, China, with hematological methods and molecular assays. We found that the frequency of carriers in this area for alpha-thalassemia is 15%. Beta-thalassemia carriers comprise 4.8% of the populations. Five mutations account for 98% of alpha-thalassemia [--SEA 46.7%; -alpha/4.2, 23.9%; -alpha/3.7, 21.7%; hemoglobin (Hb) Constant Spring, 6.5%; Hb Quong Sze, 1.1%]. Seven mutations in the beta-globin gene account for 99% of the mutations [codon (CD) 41/42 (-TCTT) (39.4%), CD 17(A-->T) (32%), CD 71/72 (+A) (7.4%), -28 (A-->G) (5.8%), IVS-2-654 (C-->T) (5.8%), CD26 (Hb E) (4%), IVS-1 (G-->A) (3.7%), and CD 43(G-->T) (1.9%)]. Most individuals with alpha-thalassemia major die in the uterus or shortly after birth. Among 106 patients with beta-thalassemia major followed by our clinic, the majority died before 5 years of age. Knowledge surveys about thalassemia were conducted. Our results show a severe lack of knowledge about thalassemia in both medical professionals and in the general populations. This study shows that thalassemia is a very severe public health issue in minority populations in Baise City, China. Identification of the common mutations will allow us to design cost-effective molecular tests. There is an urgent need to educate the general population and the medical community for a successful community-based prevention program. PMID:17489847

Pan, H F; Long, G F; Li, Q; Feng, Y N; Lei, Z Y; Wei, H W; Huang, Y Y; Huang, J H; Lin, N; Xu, Q Q; Ling, S Y; Chen, X J; Huang, T

2007-05-01

179

Substance abuse treatment providers' explicit and implicit attitudes regarding sexual minorities.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed. PMID:18032292

Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari

2007-01-01

180

Increasing access by priority populations to Australian sexual health clinics.  

PubMed

Data from a network of 35 Australian sexual health clinics, in geographically diverse locations, showed that the number and proportion of patients from priority populations (ie, young people, men who have sex with men, indigenous people, and female sex workers) increased significantly between 2004 and 2011. PMID:24275736

Ali, Hammad; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; O'Connor, Catherine C; Grulich, Andrew E; McNulty, Anna; Ryder, Nathan; Hellard, Margaret E; Guy, Rebecca J

2013-10-01

181

Racial and sexual identity-related maltreatment among minority YMSM: prevalence, perceptions, and the association with emotional distress.  

PubMed

Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ?16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities. PMID:21688988

Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Phillips, Gregory; Jones, Karen C; Outlaw, Angulique Y; Fields, Sheldon D; Smith, Justin C

2011-08-01

182

Computer Simulation of Sexual Selection on Age-Structured Populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using computer simulations of a bit-string model for age-structured populations, we found that sexual selection of older males is advantageous, from an evolutionary point of view. These results are in opposition to a recent proposal of females choosing younger males. Our simulations are based on findings from recent studies of polygynous bird species. Since secondary sex characters are found mostly in males, we could make use of asexual populations that can be implemented in a fast and efficient way.

Martins, S. G. F.; Penna, T. J. P.

183

Sexual Conf lict and Remarriage in Preindustrial Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict is said to occur when one mating partner has an opportunity to increase its fitness at the cost of the other. We analyzed the effect of remarriage on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in three preindustrial (1700–1900) socially monogamous Sami populations. In all populations, ever-married women’s age-specific mortality rates exceeded those of ever-married men during reproductive years. After the

Pekka Käär; Jukka Jokela; Juha Merilä; Timo Helle; Ilpo Kojola

1998-01-01

184

The Influence of General Identity Disturbance on Reports of Lifetime Substance Use Disorders and Related Outcomes Among Sexual Minority Adults With a History of Substance Use  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that sexual minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) individuals report increased problematic substance use involvement, compared with their sexual majority counterparts. We hypothesize that feelings of an unstable sense of self (i.e., identity disturbance) may potentially drive problematic substance use. The purpose of the current study is to examine identity disturbance among sexual minorities as a potential explanatory mechanism of increased sexual minority lifetime rates of substance dependence. Measures of identity disturbance and three indicators of sexual orientation from lifetime female (n = 16,629) and male (n = 13,553) alcohol/illicit drug users in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Findings generally showed that the increased prevalence of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, and combined alcohol/illicit drug dependence as well as a younger age of alcohol use initiation among sexual minority women was associated with elevated levels of identity disturbance. The results were consistent with a mediational role for identity disturbance in explaining the association between sexual minority status and substance dependence and were generally replicated among male sexual minority respondents. The current research suggests that identity disturbance, a predictor of substance use, may contribute to heightened risk for substance dependence among certain subgroups of sexual minority individuals.

Talley, Amelia E.; Tomko, Rachel L.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Trull, Timothy J.; Sher, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

185

The influence of general identity disturbance on reports of lifetime substance use disorders and related outcomes among sexual minority adults with a history of substance use.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that sexual minority (i.e., nonheterosexual) individuals report increased problematic substance use involvement, compared with their sexual majority counterparts. We hypothesize that feelings of an unstable sense of self (i.e., identity disturbance) may potentially drive problematic substance use. The purpose of the current study is to examine identity disturbance among sexual minorities as a potential explanatory mechanism of increased sexual minority lifetime rates of substance dependence. Measures of identity disturbance and three indicators of sexual orientation from lifetime female (n = 16,629) and male (n = 13,553) alcohol/illicit drug users in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were examined. Findings generally showed that the increased prevalence of alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, and combined alcohol/illicit drug dependence as well as a younger age of alcohol use initiation among sexual minority women was associated with elevated levels of identity disturbance. The results were consistent with a mediational role for identity disturbance in explaining the association between sexual minority status and substance dependence and were generally replicated among male sexual minority respondents. The current research suggests that identity disturbance, a predictor of substance use, may contribute to heightened risk for substance dependence among certain subgroups of sexual minority individuals. PMID:21480677

Talley, Amelia E; Tomko, Rachel L; Littlefield, Andrew K; Trull, Timothy J; Sher, Kenneth J

2011-09-01

186

Alcohol and drug use among sexual minority college students and their heterosexual counterparts: the effects of experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility on campus  

PubMed Central

Purpose Research suggests that discrimination contributes to increased substance use among sexual minorities. Subtle discrimination and witnessing mistreatment, however, have received little attention. Using minority stress theory as a conceptual framework the authors examined the intersection of sexual orientation, experiencing and witnessing incivility and hostility, and students’ alcohol and drug use. The authors hypothesized that experiencing/witnessing incivility/hostility would mediate the relationship between sexual minority status and drinking and drug use, as well as problematic use of these substances. Methods Data were taken from a campus climate survey (n = 2497; age mean [M] = 23.19 years; 61% female; 17% sexual minorities). Controlling for demographics, logistic regressions depicted specifications for each path of the mediation analysis and bootstrapping was used to assess the significance of each sexual minority-mistreatment-drinking/drug use path. Results Experiencing incivility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to personally experience incivility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51–2.33), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.35–2.00). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.001. Further, witnessing hostility mediated the relationship between sexual minority status and problematic drinking. Sexual minority college students were more likely to witness hostility (AOR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.48–2.36), which was associated with greater odds of problematic drinking (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.24–1.90). The mediation path was significant at P < 0.01. Conclusion The results provide further evidence for minority stress theory and suggest that clinical alcohol use interventions with sexual minorities need to assess personal incivilities and witnessing interpersonal mistreatment, especially hostility. Campus climate interventions that address subtle discrimination as well as harassment and violence may help reduce problematic drinking.

Woodford, Michael R; Krentzman, Amy R; Gattis, Maurice N

2012-01-01

187

Microarray analysis of sexually dimorphic gene expression in human minor salivary glands  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesized that differential mRNA transcription between the sexes may be linked to the 9:1 female-to-male gender-related relative risk for the development of Sjögren's syndrome (SS), an autoimmune disease that leads to inflammation and dysfunction in the lachrymal and salivary glands. Subjects and Methods RNA from minor salivary glands was collected from nine healthy volunteers (four men and five women) and analyzed using the Agilent 4 × 44K human microarray platform. Differential expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Results Comparison of the transcriptome of minor salivary glands from normal male and female volunteers with that of salivary glands and secretory epithelia identified a number of gender, species, and tissue-specific gene expression patterns. These differences include, but are not limited to, a diverse set of genes involved in immune modulation, chemotactic control, inhibition of complement, metabolism, and neurogenesis. Conclusion Analysis of these changes provides insight into the protective and predisposing molecular factors that may be involved in the development of Sjögren's syndrome. Some of the gene changes observed in this study correlate with previously observed sexual dimorphisms in salivary gland function and also illustrate several new targets for further investigation.

Michael, D; Soi, S; Cabera-Perez, J; Weller, M; Alexander, S; Alevizos, I; Illei, GG; Chiorini, JA

2014-01-01

188

Urban Students’ Attitudes About Sexual Minorities Across Intersections of Sex and Race\\/Ethnicity: Data From a Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the association between having a gay or lesbian friend and urban students’ attitudes about sexual minorities. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to express supportive views about gays and lesbians. The contours of these sex differences were distinct by race\\/ethnicity. Black males and females differed more frequently in their views than did Whites or

Billie Gastic

2012-01-01

189

Incorporating Queers: Blowback, Backlash, and Other Forms of Resistance to Workplace Diversity Initiatives That Support Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem and the solution. The Academy of Human Resource Development's Standards on Ethics and Integrity states that,“HRD professionals accord appropriate respect to the fundamental rights, dignity, and worth of all people.” This article offers insights into the resistance encountered when organizations acknowledge the worth of sexual minorities. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and self-identified Queer (LGBTQ) individuals occupy complex and

Robert J. Hill

2009-01-01

190

Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2010-01-01

191

"Does that Make Me a Woman?": Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Breast Reconstruction Decisions among Sexual Minority Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Feminist scholars and activists writing about breast cancer care among women have highlighted the sexist and heterosexist assumptions often embedded in the medical management of breast cancer, and of mastectomy in particular. Despite these contributions, and some speculation that sexual minority women may be less interested in breast…

Rubin, Lisa R.; Tanenbaum, Molly

2011-01-01

192

Assessing Developmental Trajectories of Sexual Minority Youth: Discrepant Findings from a Life History Calendar and a Self-Administered Survey  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that the timing and sequence of sexual identity development milestones impacts myriad health and mental health outcomes for sexual minority youth. Because these milestone events are typically assessed retrospectively, traditional data collection approaches are limited by recall bias and lack of precision in the recording of milestone events, which may conceal the distinctions between events and distort the recording of youths’ developmental trajectories. The purpose of this exploratory study was to compare responses to questions about psychosexual milestones elicited by a Life History Calendar and a self-administered survey. Results indicated discrepancies in the reported occurrence and timing of milestone events between the survey and Life History Calendar. Differences in the timing of specific milestone events ranged from two months to 15 years. Implications of these discordant findings for sexual minority youth are discussed.

Fisher, Colleen M.

2012-01-01

193

Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of early chronic kidney disease in indigenous populations and ethnic minorities. The rate of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to increase globally. The disproportionately high rate of ESRD among the many growing indigenous populations and racial\\/ethnic minorities in the United States highlights the need to reassess present treatment strategies to more appropriately identify and manage chronic kidney disease

Susanne B. Nicholas; NAUREEN TAREEN; ASHRAF ZADSHIR; DAVID MARTINS; DEYU PAN; Keith C. Norris

2005-01-01

194

Sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections in student population.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the differences in sexual behaviour and condom use as a protection against sexually transmitted infections (STI) between the first-year and the last-year students. Data were collected by filling anonymous and consented questionnaire in June of 2011 at University of Josip Juraj Strossmayer in Osijek, Croatia. Out of 857 students in the planned sample, 462 (53.9%) filled out the questionnaire, and 353/462 (76.4%) were sexually active. Data from sexually active students were processed and statistically significant results between first-year and the last-year students were presented. Studied sample consisted of 192/353 (54.4%) first-year students and 161/353 (45.6%) last-year students. Average age of sexual initiation for the first-year students was 17.28 +/- 1.29 years, a for the last-year students 18.45 +/- 2.14 years, and the difference is significant (Man-Whitney test = 10335.00, p < 0.01). First-year students have lower number of sexual partners (chi2 = 28.005, p < 0.01), during relationship they had lower number of intercourses with the third person (2 = 17.947, p < 0.01), and feel that lower number of their friends were already sexually active at the time of their own sexual initiation (chi2 = 18.350, p < 0.01). First-year students more often inform their partners about existing or previous STI (chi2 = 14.476, p < 0.01) and curiosity significantly influenced their decision regarding sexual initiation (chi2 = 8.689, p < 0.05). First-year students more often used condom at their first sexual intercourse (chi2 = 7.275, p < 0.01), and more rarely used withdrawal (chi2 = 6.380, p < 0.05). At their last sexual intercourse, first-year students more often used any kind of protection (chi2 = 3.853, p < 0.05),more often used condom (chi2 = 11.110, p < 0.01) and withdrawal (chi2 = 5.156, p < 0.05), and more rarely used contraceptive pills (chi2 = 4.405, p < 0.05). First-year students more often use condom in a permanent relationship (chi2 = 13.384, p < 0.05), and also plan to use it during following intercourse in the permanent relationship (chi2 = 17.575, p < 0.01). Growing condom use and decreasing risky sexual behaviour among students, as well as other adolescents and young adults needs to be maintained. Youth should learn before sexual initiation that only correct condom use at every sexual intercourse protects them against STI and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sexual education and STI/HIV prevention programmes, positive role of media (television) and civil organisations that communicate with the youth can help that. Such changes among adolescents and young adults should have to be seen in student population as well. PMID:24851594

Dijani?, Tomislav; Kozul, Karlo; Miskulin, Maja; Medi?, Alan; Jurcev-Savicevi?, Anamarija; Burazin, Jelena

2014-03-01

195

Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.  

PubMed

Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

2014-02-01

196

The maintenance of sexual reproduction in a structured population  

PubMed Central

We present the results of a computer simulation model in which a sexual population produces an asexual mutant. We estimate the probability that the new asexual lineage will go extinct. We find that whenever the asexual lineage does not go extinct the sexual population is out-competed, and only asexual individuals remain after a sufficiently long period of time has elapsed. We call this type of outcome an asexual takeover. Our results suggest that, given repeated mutations to asexuality, asexual takeover is likely in an unstructured environment. However, if the environment is subdivided into demes that are connected by migration, then asexual takeover becomes less likely. The probability of asexual takeover declines towards zero as the number of demes increases and as the rate of migration decreases. The reason for this is that asexuality leads to a greater loss of fitness due to mutation and genetic drift, in comparison to what occurs under sexual reproduction. Population subdivision slows the spread of asexual lineages, which allows more time for the genetic degeneration caused by asexuality to take place.

Peck, J. R.; Yearsley, J.; Barreau, G.

1999-01-01

197

Literacy, Access, and Libraries among the Language Minority Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on linguistic minorities and library use include: (1) "Why Consider the Library and Books?" (Stephen Krashen); (2) "Supporting Spanish Language Literacy: Latino Children and School and Community Libraries" (Sandra Pucci); (3) "'I Did Not Know You Could Get Such Things There!': Secondary ESL Students' Understanding, Use and Beliefs…

Constantino, Rebecca, Ed.

198

Long-Term Effects of Self-Control on Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior among Urban Minority Young Women  

PubMed Central

High risk alcohol use and sexual behaviors peak in young adulthood and often occur in the same individuals. Alcohol use has been found to impair decision-making and contribute to high risk sexual activity. However, the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior may also reflect enduring individual differences in risk taking, sociability, self-control, and related variables. Both behaviors can serve similar functions related to recreation, interpersonal connection, and the pursuit of excitement or pleasure. The present study examined the extent to which high risk drinking and sexual behavior clustered together in a sample of urban minority young adult women, a demographic group at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to sexual health. We tested whether psychosocial functioning measured at the beginning of high school predicted classes of risk behaviors when girls were tracked longitudinally into young adulthood. Latent class analysis indicated three distinct profiles based on high risk drinking and sexual behavior (i.e., multiple sex partners) in young adulthood. The largest class (73% of the sample) reported low levels of risky drinking and sexual behavior. The next largest class (19%) reported high risk drinking and low risk sexual behavior, and the smallest class (8%) reported high levels of both behaviors. Compared to women from other racial/ethnic groups, black women were more likely to be categorized in the high risk drinking/low risk sex class. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that self-control in adolescence had a broad and enduring protective effect on risk behaviors eight years later and was associated with a greater probability of being in the low risk drinking/low risk sex class. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the phenotypic expressions of risk behavior as they relate to early psychosocial development and the long-term protective function of self-control in reducing high risk drinking and sexual behaviors.

Griffin, Kenneth W.; Scheier, Lawrence M.; Acevedo, Bianca; Grenard, Jerry L.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2011-01-01

199

Review: Community-Based Participatory Research Approach to Address Mental Health in Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, a synthesis of studies employing community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address mental health problems\\u000a of minorities, strengths and challenges of the CBPR approach with minority populations are highlighted. Despite the fact that\\u000a minority community members voiced a need for innovative approaches to address culturally unique issues, findings revealed\\u000a that most researchers continued to use the traditional methods

Jeanne-Marie R. StacciariniMona; Mona M. Shattell; Maria Coady; Brenda Wiens

200

Black, queer, and looking for a job: an exploratory study of career decision making among self-identified sexual minorities at an urban historically black college/university.  

PubMed

This thematically analyzed study seeks to explore the career decision perceptions of sexual minority college students at an urban historically black college/university (HBCU). This qualitative focus group study delved into how sexual minorities feel their visible variables of race, gender expression, and degree of disclosure influence their career thought process. Theories relative to the study included Krumboltz's social learning theory of career decision-making, gender role theory, racial socialization, Cass's homosexual identity model, and impression management. Though participants initially proclaimed they did not allow their sexual minority identity to affect their career decisions, their overall responses indicated otherwise. PMID:24885738

Harris, Latashia N

2014-10-01

201

Cross-sectional study of sexual behaviour and knowledge about HIV among urban, rural, and minority residents in Viet Nam.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three districts of Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, to find out what proportion of the people who lived there engaged in behaviour that put them at risk of becoming infected with HIV, and to measure their knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. METHODS: The survey was conducted in a rural district, Yen Hung; a mountainous district inhabited primarily by ethnic minority groups, Binh Lieu; and an urban district, Ha Long. Participants aged 15-45 years were randomly selected from the general population to be interviewed. FINDINGS: A total of 630 people from 707 households were interviewed; 8% were not home despite repeated visits and 3% refused to participate. The prevalence of premarital intercourse ranged from 9% to 16% among married men and 4% to 7% among married women. Among single men the proportion who had ever had intercourse ranged from 6% to 16%. Fewer than 3% reported having ever had sex with a sex worker. The median number of extramarital sex partners was 1. Knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high in the urban and rural areas but low in the mountainous area. Being male and being 20-29 years old were associated with having multiple sex partners. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of individuals reporting that they had had intercourse with sex workers and partners other than their spouse may explain the low rates of HIV infection among the heterosexual population; these rates are in contrast to the high rates of HIV infection found among injecting drug users. The association between having extramarital partners and being a younger man suggests that the tendency to have more sexual partners may increase in the future. If this happens, the potential for HIV to be spread through heterosexual sex will increase.

Bui, T. D.; Pham, C. K.; Pham, T. H.; Hoang, L. T.; Nguyen, T. V.; Vu, T. Q.; Detels, R.

2001-01-01

202

Sexual assault while too intoxicated to resist: a general population study of Norwegian teenage girls  

PubMed Central

Background Underage drinking is widespread, but studies on alcohol-related sexual victimization among teenage girls are almost non-existent. Research on individual correlates and risk factors of sexual victimization more generally is also meager. This study focuses on sexual assault while incapacitated due to drunkenness among 15–18 year-old girls and examines how age, drinking behavior, impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating activities are associated with such victimization experiences. Methods Data stemmed from a school survey (response rate: 85%) in 16 Norwegian municipalities. Almost all analyses were restricted to girls who had been intoxicated in the past year (n?=?2701). In addition to bivariate associations, adjusted odds ratios and relative risks of incapacitated sexual assault (ISA) were estimated. Further, population-attributable fractions were calculated to explore how the prevalence of ISA victimization was likely to be affected if effective preventive measures were targeted solely at high-risk groups. Results The majority of the girls (71%) had been intoxicated in the past year, of which 7% had experienced ISA victimization in the same period. The proportion of victims decreased by age within the group that had been intoxicated, reflecting that the youngest girls were more likely to get severely drunk. Impulsivity and involvement in norm-violating behaviors were identified as potential risk factors, but the population-attributable fractions indicated that the groups with the highest risk of ISA victimization accounted for only a minority of all the cases of such victimization. Conclusion Sexual assault against teenage girls who are too drunk to resist seems to be prevalent in Norway – notably among the youngest girls who engage in heavy episodic drinking. This study also suggests that one should reconsider the notion that no individual attributes are related to females’ sexual assault victimization. It also indicates that a high risk approach to prevention, targeting groups with a high level of impulsivity or behavioral problems, may have limited effect on the prevalence of ISA victimization. Thus, from a public health perspective, it may be advisable to give priority to universal preventive measures to curb young girls’ risk of being sexually assaulted in a state of alcohol-induced incapacitation.

2014-01-01

203

Haplogroup distribution of Hungarian population and the largest minority group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of 49 Y-SNP loci with TaqMan assays were completed in 119 independent Hungarian, 61 Hungarian Romani and 29 Tiszavasvári Hungarian Romani male samples. Haplogroup diversity values were calculated and the populations were compared to each other with G-test. The two Romani populations were not significantly different from each other, when their haplogroup frequencies were compared (p=0.01). The Hungarian population

Antónia Völgyi; Andrea Zalán; Judit Béres; Yuet Meng Chang; Horolma Pamjav

2008-01-01

204

Coming Out Growth: Conceptualizing and Measuring Stress-Related Growth Associated with Coming Out to Others as a Sexual Minority  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coming out has long been depicted as a process that is conducive to personal growth. However, LGBTQ psychology has yet to\\u000a conduct systematic, theoretically informed research to study how individuals experience coming out growth (COG) and the impact\\u000a of such experiences on the lives of sexual minorities. The present investigation seeks to address these gaps in the literature\\u000a through an

Michelle D. VaughanCharles; Charles A. Waehler

2010-01-01

205

Mental Health Pathways From Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban setting. Participants (M age = 44.1 years, 36% non-White) filled

David W. Pantalone; Danielle M. Hessler; Jane M. Simoni

2010-01-01

206

Sexual Relationship Power, Intimate Partner Violence, and Condom Use among Minority Urban Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…

Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.

2008-01-01

207

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population.  

PubMed

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760-1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species. PMID:22547810

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-05-22

208

Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population  

PubMed Central

Whether and how human populations exposed to the agricultural revolution are still affected by Darwinian selection remains controversial among social scientists, biologists, and the general public. Although methods of studying selection in natural populations are well established, our understanding of selection in humans has been limited by the availability of suitable datasets. Here, we present a study comparing the maximum strengths of natural and sexual selection in humans that includes the effects of sex and wealth on different episodes of selection. Our dataset was compiled from church records of preindustrial Finnish populations characterized by socially imposed monogamy, and it contains a complete distribution of survival, mating, and reproductive success for 5,923 individuals born 1760–1849. Individual differences in early survival and fertility (natural selection) were responsible for most variation in fitness, even among wealthier individuals. Variance in mating success explained most of the higher variance in reproductive success in males compared with females, but mating success also influenced reproductive success in females, allowing for sexual selection to operate in both sexes. The detected opportunity for selection is in line with measurements for other species but higher than most previous reports for human samples. This disparity results from biological, demographic, economic, and social differences across populations as well as from failures by most previous studies to account for variation in fitness introduced by nonreproductive individuals. Our results emphasize that the demographic, cultural, and technological changes of the last 10,000 y did not preclude the potential for natural and sexual selection in our species.

Courtiol, Alexandre; Pettay, Jenni E.; Jokela, Markus; Rotkirch, Anna; Lummaa, Virpi

2012-01-01

209

Testing a model of minority identity achievement, identity affirmation, and psychological well-being among ethnic minority and sexual minority individuals.  

PubMed

How is social identity related to psychological well-being among minority individuals? Drawing on developmental models of identity formation (e.g., Erikson, 1968) and on Social Identity Theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), we tested a conceptual model examining links between two key aspects of social identity and psychological well-being. We proposed that the association between identity achievement (exploring and understanding the meaning of one's identity) and psychological well-being is mediated by identity affirmation (developing positive feelings and a sense of belonging to one's social group). Across three studies, including ethnic minority high school students (Study 1), ethnic minority college students (Study 2) and lesbian and gay male adults (Study 3), we found strong support for the model. Results suggest that the process of exploring and understanding one's minority identity can serve as an important basis for developing positive feelings toward and an enhanced sense of attachment to the group, which can in turn confer psychological benefits for minority individuals. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21341900

Ghavami, Negin; Fingerhut, Adam; Peplau, Letitia A; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A

2011-01-01

210

HIV, Sexual Violence and Special Populations: Adolescence and Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

The risk of male to female transmission of HIV is impacted by baseline inflammation in the female genital tract, semen viral load and seminal plasma’s ability to induce specific patterns of cervical cytokine signalling and influx of immune cell populations. Disruption of the epithelial barrier during non-consensual intercourse may trigger further inflammation and initiation of cell-signalling pathways, thus facilitating transmission of HIV and expansion of local infection. Adolescent and pregnant women are at high risk for sexual violence and may exhibit alterations of genital mucosal immunity that promote immune activation, making them uniquely vulnerable to HIV acquisition.

Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Herold, Betsy C.

2013-01-01

211

Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.  

PubMed

Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

2013-01-01

212

General and Minority Stress in an LGB Population in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concentrates on the influence of determinants of mental health on a lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population in Flanders. Our sample is drawn from the Zzzip survey, and contains 2,280 LGBs, of whom 1,565 are men and 715 are women. The traditional social stress model outlines the influence of general stressors on stress (Pearlin, 1989). Meyer (1995) has

Nele Cox; Wim Vanden Berghe; Alexis Dewaele; John Vinke

2009-01-01

213

Adult Sexual Assault: Prevalence, Symptomatology, and Sex Differences in the General Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse

Diana M. Elliott; Doris S. Mok; John Brierel

2004-01-01

214

Sexual Body Image and Its Correlates: A Population-Based Study of Finnish Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual body image was examined in a population-based sample of 9,532 Finnish men and women, age 18 to 49 years. More than one half of women and men were satisfied with their genitals, one half of the women were satisfied with their breasts. Higher levels of genital satisfaction were related to higher frequencies of sexual behavior and better sexual function

Monica Ålgars; Pekka Santtila; Patrick Jern; Ada Johansson; Minja Westerlund; N. Kenneth Sandnabba

2011-01-01

215

Gender nonconformity, perceived stigmatization, and psychological well-being in Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults: a mediation analysis.  

PubMed

Dutch sexual minority youth and young adults (106 females and 86 males, 16-24 years old) were assessed to establish whether there was a relation between gender nonconformity and psychological well-being and whether this relation was mediated by perceived experiences of stigmatization due to perceived or actual sexual orientation and moderated by biological sex. The participants were recruited via announcements on Dutch LGBTQ-oriented community websites and then linked to a protected online questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to measure gender nonconformity, perceived experiences of stigmatization, and psychological well-being. Gender nonconformity was found to predict lower levels of psychological well-being and the mediation analysis confirmed that lower levels of psychological well-being were related to the perceived experiences of stigmatization. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. These findings show that both research and interventions should pay more attention to gender nonconformity among young people in order to create a more positive climate for young sexual minority members. PMID:23358856

Baams, Laura; Beek, Titia; Hille, Helene; Zevenbergen, Felice C; Bos, Henny M W

2013-07-01

216

Sexually Coercive Behavior in Male Youth: Population Survey of General and Specific Risk Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about risk\\/protective factors for sexually coercive behavior in general population youth. We used a Swedish\\u000a school-based population survey of sexual attitudes and experiences (response rate 77%) and investigated literature-based variables\\u000a across sexually coercive (SEX), non-sexual conduct problem (CP), and normal control (NC) participants to identify general\\u000a and specific risk\\/protective factors for sexual coercion. Among 1,933 male youth,

Cecilia Kjellgren; Gisela Priebe; Carl Göran Svedin; Niklas Långström

2010-01-01

217

Sexual dimorphism, extrapair fertilizations, and operational sex ratio in great frigatebirds (Fregata minor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across taxa, the presence of sexual ornaments in one sex is usually correlated with disproportionately great parental effort by the other. Frigatebirds (Fregatidae) are sexually dimorphic, with males exhibiting morphological and behavioral ornaments, but males and females share in all aspects of parental effort. All other taxa in a clade of 237 species exhibit biparental care, but only frigatebirds exhibit

Donald C. Dearborn; Angela D. Anders; Patricia G. Parker

2001-01-01

218

Breaking the Silence in the Counselor Education Classroom: A Training Seminar on Counseling Sexual Minority Clients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A counselor training seminar on sexual orientation is presented in this article. The seminar incorporated popular songs, readings, and class discussion to increase awareness of sexual identity development, stereotypes, and counseling interventions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients. Results of evaluations suggest that the seminar had a…

Pearson, Quinn M.

2003-01-01

219

The obligation to report sexual abuse of minors and incompetents: Theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines social workers' compliance with the law requiring reporting each case of sexual abuse of children or otherwise incompetent persons. In a random representative sample of 212 Israeli social workers, participants were asked to relate to an ethical dilemma concerning sexual abuse. The resolution of the ethical dilemma was measured by choice of one of the following: system

Ruth Landau; Rujla Osmo

1999-01-01

220

Effective Recruitment of Minority Populations Through Community-Led Strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional research approaches frequently fail to yield representative numbers of people of color in research. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may be an important strategy for partnering with and reaching populations who bear a greater burden of illness but have been historically difficult to engage. A Community Action Board of 20 East Harlem residents, leaders and advocates used CBPR to compare the effectiveness of different strategies in recruiting and enrolling adults with prediabetes into a peer-led diabetes prevention intervention. Methods The Board created five different recruitment strategies: recruiting through clinicians, at large public events like farmers markets, organizing special local recruitment events, recruiting at local organizations, and a partner-led approach in which community partners developed and managed the recruitment efforts at their sites. Results In 3 months, 555 local adults were approached; 249 were appropriate candidates for further evaluation (overweight, nonpregnant, East Harlem residents without known diabetes); 179 consented and returned fasting for 1/2 day of prediabetes testing; and 99 had prediabetes and enrolled in a pilot randomized trial. The partner-led approach was most successful, recruiting 68% of people enrolled. This was also the most efficient strategy; 34% of those approached through partners were ultimately enrolled, versus 0%–17% through the other four strategies. Participants were predominantly low-income, uninsured, undereducated Spanish-speaking women. Conclusions This CBPR approach highlights the value of a partner-led recruitment to identify, reach out and motivate a vulnerable population into research, using techniques that may be unfamiliar to researchers, but are nevertheless rigorous and effective.

Horowitz, Carol R.; Brenner, Barbara L.; Lachapelle, Susanne; Amara, Duna A.; Arniella, Guedy

2009-01-01

221

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…

Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell

2011-01-01

222

The Women's Health Trial Feasibility Study in Minority Populations: design and baseline descriptions.  

PubMed

The Women's Health Trial: Feasibility Study in Minority Populations (WHT:FSMP), a randomized trial of 2208 women, was conducted to investigate three questions. First, can women from minority and low-socioeconomic-status populations be recruited in numbers sufficient to evaluate a dietary intervention designed to lower fat intake. Second, the efficacy of a low fat, increased fruit/vegetable/ grain product intervention for reducing fat consumption. Third, will participation in the intervention lower plasma cholesterol and estradiol levels relative to the controls. The baseline results showed that an adequate number of minority and low SES women could be recruited to test the study hypotheses. A diverse study population of postmenopausal women consuming a high fat diet was recruited: 28% of participants were Black, 16% were Hispanic, 11% had less than a high school level of education, and 15.5% had household incomes of < $15,000. PMID:8978881

Bowen, D; Clifford, C K; Coates, R; Evans, M; Feng, Z; Fouad, M; George, V; Gerace, T; Grizzle, J E; Hall, W D; Hearn, M; Henderson, M; Kestin, M; Kristal, A; Leary, E T; Lewis, C E; Oberman, A; Prentice, R; Raczynski, J; Toivola, B; Urban, N

1996-11-01

223

Population clustering and clonal structure evidence the relict state of Ulmus minor Mill. in the Balearic Islands.  

PubMed

Field elm (Ulmus minor) is a riparian tree that grows in rare, small populations scattered along temporary watercourses in the Balearic Islands, nowadays mostly covered with Mediterranean vegetation. Agriculture and farming on the fertile land along the periodically flooded plains have reduced the elm populations to sparse tree lines along the creek beds. The presence of field elm in this very anthropic landscape has led some authors to consider it as an introduced species in the Balearics. However, pollen data suggest these elms may be the remains of larger populations experiencing continuous population shrinkage during the Holocene, and hence be native to the isles. In this paper, we apply genetic markers to assess whether field elm is or is not indigenous to the Balearic Islands. We compare the genetic variation in nine nuclear microsatellites of six Balearic populations (three in each of the largest islands, Majorca and Minorca) with that of three natural Iberian populations located in two regions, one geologically (Baetic mountains, SE Iberia) and another historically (Catalonia, NE Iberia) related to the islands. Principal coordinates analysis and Bayesian clustering methods reveal a strong genetic differentiation of the Balearic populations from the Iberian ones, and even among islands, which support their native origin. Genotypic variation in the islands is very low and clonal reproduction is very high compared with the mainland, as it is frequently observed in populations of clonal species where sexual reproduction is limited. We discuss the practical implications of these findings for the conservation of elm genetic resources of these findings. PMID:24619184

Fuentes-Utrilla, P; Valbuena-Carabaña, M; Ennos, R; Gil, L

2014-07-01

224

The impact of sexually abstaining groups on persistence of sexually transmitted infections in populations with ephemeral pair bonds.  

PubMed

Individuals often stop reproducing some time before they die. In this paper we compose and analyze a logistic two-sex population model in which individuals form pairs just to mate (i.e. pair bonds are ephemeral) and later move on to sexually abstaining groups. Using this model, we study the impact of sexually abstaining groups on persistence of a benign sexually transmitted infection (STI) in populations with such ephemeral pair bonds. We observe that the presence of sexually abstaining groups cannot prevent an STI from invasion or eliminate it when already present if the transition rates to the sexually abstaining groups are independent of the infection status of individuals (susceptible or infected). On the other hand, if they depend on that status, the presence of sexually abstaining groups can prevent an STI from invasion or eliminate it when present. Specifically, in the simple case of sex-independent vital parameters, this happens if the transition rate of the infected individuals to the sexually abstaining group is higher than the transition rate of the susceptible ones. These results contrast the earlier results based on assuming long-term, stable pair bonds, in which case one is capable of preventing or eliminating the disease with the same isolation rate for the susceptible and infected individuals. PMID:21978737

Maxin, D; Berec, L; Covello, M; Jessee, J; Zimmer, M

2012-01-01

225

Predictors of Sexual Bother in a Population of Male North American Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Introduction The prevalence and associations of sexual bother in male medical students has not been extensively studied. Aims The aim of this study is to analyze predictors of sexual bother in a survey of male North American medical students. Methods Students enrolled in allopathic and osteopathic medical schools in North America between February 2008 and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexuality and sexual function. Main Outcome Measures The principle outcome measure was a single-item question inquiring about global satisfaction with sexual function. The survey also consisted of a questionnaire that included ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and a validated scale for the assessment of depression. Respondents completed the International Index of Erectile Function, the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool, and the Self-Esteem and Relationship Quality survey (SEAR). Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. Results There were 480 male subjects (mean age 26.3 years) with data sufficient for analysis. Forty-three (9%) reported sexual bother. Sexual bother was significantly more common in men with erectile dysfunction (ED), high risk of premature ejaculation (HRPE), depressive symptoms, and lower sexual frequency. However, after multivariate analysis including SEAR scores, ED, and HRPE were no longer independently predictive of sexual bother. Higher scores for all domains of the SEAR were associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Conclusions ED and HRPE are associated with sexual bother in this young and presumably healthy population. However, after controlling for relationship factors neither ED nor HRPE independently predicted sexual bother. It is plausible to hypothesize that sexual dysfunction from organic causes is rare in this population and is seldom encountered outside of relationship perturbations. Attention to relationship and psychological factors is likely of key importance in addressing sexual concerns in this population.

Smith, James F.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

2013-01-01

226

Infection dynamics in coexisting sexual and asexual host populations: support for the red queen hypothesis *.  

PubMed

Abstract The persistence of sexual reproduction is a classic problem in evolutionary biology. The problem stems from the fact that, all else equal, asexual lineages should rapidly replace coexisting sexual individuals due to the cost of producing males in sexual populations. One possible countervailing advantage to sexual reproduction is that, on average, outcrossed offspring are more resistant than common clones to coevolving parasites, as predicted under the Red Queen hypothesis. In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of infection by a sterilizing trematode (Microphallus sp.) in a natural population of freshwater snails that was composed of both sexual and asexual individuals (Potamopyrgus antipodarum). More specifically, we compared the frequency of infection in sexual and asexual individuals over a 5-year period at four sites at a natural glacial lake (Lake Alexandrina, South Island, New Zealand). We found that at most sites and over most years, the sexual population was less infected than the coexisting asexual population. Moreover, the frequency of uninfected sexual females was periodically greater than two times the frequency of uninfected asexual females. These results give clear support for a fluctuating parasite-mediated advantage to sexual reproduction in a natural population. PMID:25061675

Vergara, Daniela; Jokela, Jukka; Lively, Curtis M

2014-08-01

227

A population of sexual Daphnia pulex resists invasion by asexual clones.  

PubMed

Asexual reproduction avoids the costs associated with sex, predicting that invading asexual clones can quickly replace sexual populations. Daphnia pulex populations in the Great Lakes area are predominately asexual, but the elimination of sexual populations by invading clones is poorly understood. Asexual clones were detected at low frequency in one rare sexual population in 1995, with some increase in frequency during 2003 and 2004. However, these clones remained at low frequency during further yearly sampling (2005-2013) with no evidence that the resident sexual population was in danger of elimination. There was evidence for hybridization between rare males produced by asexual clones and sexual females with the potential to produce new asexual genotypes and spread the genetic factors for asexuality. In a short-term laboratory competition experiment, the two most common asexual clones did not increase in frequency relative to a genetically diverse sexual population due in part to a greater investment in diapausing eggs that trades-off current population growth for increased contribution to the egg bank. Our results suggest that a successful invasion can be prolonged, requiring a combination of clonal genotypes with high fitness, persistence of clones in the egg bank and negative factors affecting the sexual population such as inbreeding depression resulting from population bottlenecks. PMID:24943366

Innes, David J; Ginn, Michael

2014-08-01

228

Sexual recombination in the Botrytis cinerea populations in Hungarian vineyards.  

PubMed

Botrytis cinerea (anamorph of Botryotinia fuckeliana) causes gray mold on a high number of crop plants including grapes. In this study, we investigated the genetic properties of a grape pathogenic population of B. cinerea in the area of Eger, Hungary. A total of 109 isolates from 12 areas were sampled. Based on the sequence of the beta-tubulin (tub1) locus, they all belong to group II, a phylogenetic species within B. cinerea. Seventy-four isolates were classified as transposa, with both the Flipper and Boty transposons, and 10 were classified as vacuma, lacking both transposons. The remaining isolates contained either only Flipper (13) or Boty (12). Multilocus analysis of sequences from tub1 and two other loci (elongation factor 1-alpha, tef1, and a minisatellite from the intron of an ATPase, MSB1) led to poor phylogenetic resolution of strains in individual clades. Analysis of five microsatellites (Bc2, Bc3, Bc5, Bc6, and Bc10) resulted in 55 microsatellite haplotypes within the 109 strains. No correlation was detected among individual haplotypes and the presence/absence of Flipper and/or Boty, the geographic origin, or the year of isolation. Application of the index of association, the chi-square test, and the phi test consistently indicated that the population of Hungarian isolates of B. cinerea undergoes sexual reproduction. However, the index of association test suggested the presence of some clonality, and the fixation index showed a low or occasionally moderate level of fixation in the Flipper populations. We conclude that the B. cinerea populations in Hungary consist of a strongly recombining group II phylogenetic species. PMID:19000006

Váczy, Kálmán Z; Sándor, Erzsébet; Karaffa, Levente; Fekete, Erzsébet; Fekete, Eva; Arnyasi, Mariann; Czeglédi, Levente; Kövics, György J; Druzhinina, Irina S; Kubicek, Christian P

2008-12-01

229

Limits to the Rate of Adaptive Substitution in Sexual Populations  

PubMed Central

In large populations, many beneficial mutations may be simultaneously available and may compete with one another, slowing adaptation. By finding the probability of fixation of a favorable allele in a simple model of a haploid sexual population, we find limits to the rate of adaptive substitution, , that depend on simple parameter combinations. When variance in fitness is low and linkage is loose, the baseline rate of substitution is , where is the population size, is the rate of beneficial mutations per genome, and is their mean selective advantage. Heritable variance in log fitness due to unlinked loci reduces by under polygamy and under monogamy. With a linear genetic map of length Morgans, interference is yet stronger. We use a scaling argument to show that the density of adaptive substitutions depends on , , , and only through the baseline density: . Under the approximation that the interference due to different sweeps adds up, we show that , implying that interference prevents the rate of adaptive substitution from exceeding one per centimorgan per 200 generations. Simulations and numerical calculations confirm the scaling argument and confirm the additive approximation for ; for higher , the rate of adaptation grows above , but only very slowly. We also consider the effect of sweeps on neutral diversity and show that, while even occasional sweeps can greatly reduce neutral diversity, this effect saturates as sweeps become more common—diversity can be maintained even in populations experiencing very strong interference. Our results indicate that for some organisms the rate of adaptive substitution may be primarily recombination-limited, depending only weakly on the mutation supply and the strength of selection.

Weissman, Daniel B.; Barton, Nicholas H.

2012-01-01

230

Lesbian workers: personal strategies amid changing organisational responses to 'sexual minorities' in UK workplaces.  

PubMed

This article reports emerging findings from a qualitative research study about lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people at work in the UK. The research focuses on the personal experiences and strategies of LGB people amidst changing organisational responses to sexuality within a new legal and political landscape following the introduction of the Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003. The article draws specifically on the perceptions of lesbian respondents about a range of issues concerning social inclusion and exclusion in the workplace including coming out at work, treatment by managers and colleagues, workplace and organisational culture and participation in LGBT groups and networks. PMID:19042291

Colgan, Fiona; Creegan, Chris; McKearney, Aidan; Wright, Tessa

2008-01-01

231

A summary of the survey and study meeting of the population of national minorities.  

PubMed

A survey and study meeting of the population of national minorities was held in in Lanzhow, China in 1982; the participants of the meeting included 53 scientific research workers from social science academies. In view of the actual conditions in different regions, the participants pointed out that rapid population growth in some regions had already resulted in nonconformity with material production and that it was impeding the development of productive forces and the improvement of the people's livelihood. Participants also earnestly discussed and analyzed the form of marriage and public health conditions in various minority regions. The factors that make it difficult to improve the quality of the minority population are: 1) marriages between cousins, 2) old customs of intermarriages, and 3) hierarchical inner marriages. Extensive discussions were conducted by participants on the family planning and nationality policies, the intensive study of minority populations, the promotion of nationalities' prosperity, and the indications of such prosperity. Huang Guangxue of the State Nationalities Commission pointed out that planned birth is different from birth control and, on the basis of survey and research, stressed the implementation of the principle of classified guidance and differential treatment, and the formulation of family planning policies that are practical and acceptable to the masses. PMID:12268514

1985-01-01

232

Schools, Sex Education, and Support for Sexual Minorities: Exploring Historic Marginalization and Future Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School-based adolescent sexual health education in the United States has long served as a means of combating emotional and physical threats to the well-being of youth. However, this sex education has since its inception marginalized the experiences and health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) students and contributed to school…

McCarty-Caplan, David Milo

2013-01-01

233

The cellular generation and a new risk environment: implications for texting-based sexual health promotion interventions among minority young men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

African American and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at the forefront of the U.S. HIV epidemic. As members of the "cellular generation," these youth are very likely to use text messaging; yet, relatively little research has explored use of text messaging as a tool for sexual health promotion, particularly among racial ethnic minorities who are also sexual minorities. We report on the results of ten focus groups conducted among African American and Latino YMSM, aged 18-25, regarding their current texting practices and the feasibility/acceptability of text messaging as a means of conducting sexual health promotion. Our analyses revealed four main themes around their texting behaviors, texting preferences, perceived advantages/disadvantages of texting, and the "etiquette" of texting. We consider implications of these findings for the development of texting-based sexual health promotion interventions, particularly in conjunction with other existing interventions operating in a new risk environment. PMID:23304294

George, Sheba; Phillips, Robert; McDavitt, Bryce; Adams, Wallis; Mutchler, Matt G

2012-01-01

234

High Rates of Sexual Behavior in the General Population: Correlates and Predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied 2450, 18–60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk\\u000a factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population.\\u000a Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health\\u000a indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of

Niklas Långström; R. Karl Hanson

2006-01-01

235

Ecodevelopmental contexts for preventing type 2 diabetes in Latino and other racial/ethnic minority populations  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States and it is now cited along with obesity as a global epidemic. Significant racial/ethnic disparities exist in the prevalence of diabetes within the US, with racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes and its complications. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic factors influence the development and course of diabetes at multiple levels, including genetic, individual, familial, community and national. From an ecodevelopmental perspective, cultural variables assessed at one level (e.g., family level dietary practices) may interact with other types of variables examined at other levels (e.g., the availability of healthy foods within a low-income neighborhood), thus prompting the need for a clear analysis of these systemic relationships as they may increase risks for disease. Therefore, the need exists for models that aid in “mapping out” these relationships. A more explicit conceptualization of such multi-level relationships would aid in the design of culturally relevant interventions that aim to maximize effectiveness when applied with Latinos and other racial/ethnic minority groups. This paper presents an expanded ecodevelopmental model intended to serve as a tool to aid in the design of multi-level diabetes prevention interventions for application with racial/ethnic minority populations. This discussion focuses primarily on risk factors and prevention intervention in Latino populations, although with implications for other racial/ethnic minority populations that are also at high risk for type 2 diabetes.

Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Boehm-Smith, Edna

2009-01-01

236

Medfly populations differ in diel and age patterns of sexual signalling  

PubMed Central

Insect populations may differ in several life history traits, including behavioural ones such as sexual signalling. We tested whether male Mediterranean fruit fly (medlfy), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations obtained from geographically isolated areas exhibit differences in quantitative and qualitative aspects of male sexual signalling. Male sexual signalling was studied in four medfly populations (originating from Brazil, Portugal, Kenya, and Greece) under identical laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% r.h., and L14:D10). The four populations had been reared for one generation in the laboratory. Sexual signalling was studied in the F1 progeny that were fed one of two diets (yeast hydrolysate plus sugar or sugar only). On both diets, the four populations differed significantly in the progress of maturity (indicated by the average number of males exhibiting sexual signalling) and in the quantity of signalling after attaining maturity. Yeast availability significantly increased sexual signalling; however, it had a different impact on the quantity of signalling in the different populations. A bimodal pattern of sexual signalling, with one peak at approximately 08:00–09:00 hours and the second at approximately 13:00–14:00 hours, was recorded for all populations and diets. However, quantitative differences among the populations within the ‘sexually active’ period of the day resulted in significant differences in the daily pattern of sexual signalling. The significance of these findings for understanding adaptations of geographically-isolated medfly populations to different ecosystems, as well as its practical importance for the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against C. capitata, is discussed.

Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Carey, James R.

2009-01-01

237

Medfly populations differ in diel and age patterns of sexual signalling.  

PubMed

Insect populations may differ in several life history traits, including behavioural ones such as sexual signalling. We tested whether male Mediterranean fruit fly (medlfy), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations obtained from geographically isolated areas exhibit differences in quantitative and qualitative aspects of male sexual signalling. Male sexual signalling was studied in four medfly populations (originating from Brazil, Portugal, Kenya, and Greece) under identical laboratory conditions (25 °C, 60% r.h., and L14:D10). The four populations had been reared for one generation in the laboratory. Sexual signalling was studied in the F(1) progeny that were fed one of two diets (yeast hydrolysate plus sugar or sugar only). On both diets, the four populations differed significantly in the progress of maturity (indicated by the average number of males exhibiting sexual signalling) and in the quantity of signalling after attaining maturity. Yeast availability significantly increased sexual signalling; however, it had a different impact on the quantity of signalling in the different populations. A bimodal pattern of sexual signalling, with one peak at approximately 08:00-09:00 hours and the second at approximately 13:00-14:00 hours, was recorded for all populations and diets. However, quantitative differences among the populations within the 'sexually active' period of the day resulted in significant differences in the daily pattern of sexual signalling. The significance of these findings for understanding adaptations of geographically-isolated medfly populations to different ecosystems, as well as its practical importance for the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against C. capitata, is discussed. PMID:19774092

Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Carey, James R

2008-09-01

238

Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection.  

PubMed

In sexual populations, selection operates neither on the whole genome, which is repeatedly taken apart and reassembled by recombination, nor on individual alleles that are tightly linked to the chromosomal neighborhood. The resulting interference between linked alleles reduces the efficiency of selection and distorts patterns of genetic diversity. Inference of evolutionary history from diversity shaped by linked selection requires an understanding of these patterns. Here, we present a simple but powerful scaling analysis identifying the unit of selection as the genomic "linkage block" with a characteristic length, , determined in a self-consistent manner by the condition that the rate of recombination within the block is comparable to the fitness differences between different alleles of the block. We find that an asexual model with the strength of selection tuned to that of the linkage block provides an excellent description of genetic diversity and the site frequency spectra compared with computer simulations. This linkage block approximation is accurate for the entire spectrum of strength of selection and is particularly powerful in scenarios with many weakly selected loci. The latter limit allows us to characterize coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics. PMID:24019480

Neher, Richard A; Kessinger, Taylor A; Shraiman, Boris I

2013-09-24

239

Patterns of Vaginal, Oral, and Anal Sexual Intercourse in an Urban Seventh-Grade Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study examines the prevalence of vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse among a population of urban, public middle school students, the characteristics of early sexual initiators, and the sequence of sexual initiation. Such data are limited for early adolescents. Methods: A total of 1279 seventh-grade students (57.3% female, 43.6%…

Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Tortolero, Susan R.

2009-01-01

240

Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

2008-01-01

241

Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles  

PubMed Central

Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

Arnqvist, Goran; Tuda, Midori

2010-01-01

242

Recruitment of Minority and Underserved Populations in the United States: The Centers for Population Health & Health Disparities Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The recruitment of minority and underserved individuals to research studies is often problematic. The purpose of this study was to describe the recruitment experiences of projects that actively recruited minority and underserved populations as part of The Centers for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative. Methods Principal investigators and research staff from 17 research projects at eight institutions across the United States were surveyed about their recruitment experiences. Investigators reported the study purpose and design, recruitment methods employed, recruitment progress, problems or challenges to recruitment, strategies used to address these problems, and difficulties resulting from Institutional Review Board (IRB) or Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements. Additionally, information was collected about participant burden and compensation. Burden was classified on a three-level scale. Recruitment results were reported as of March 31, 2007. Results Recruitment attainment ranged from 52% to 184% of the participant recruitment goals. Commonly reported recruitment problems included administrative issues, and difficulties with establishing community partnerships and contacting potential participants. Long study questionnaires, extended follow-up, and narrow eligibility criteria were also problematic. The majority of projects reported difficulties with IRB approvals, though few reported issues related to HIPAA requirements. Attempted solutions to recruitment problems varied across Centers and included using multiple recruitment sites and sources and culturally appropriate invitations to participate. Participant burden and compensation varied widely across the projects, however, accrual appeared to be inversely associated with the amount of participant burden for each project. Conclusion Recruitment of minority and underserved populations to clinical trials is necessary to increase study generalizbility and reduce health disparities. Our results demonstrate the importance of flexible study designs which allow adaptation to recruitment challenges. These experiences also highlight the importance of involving community members and reducing participant burden to achieve success in recruiting individuals from minority and underserved populations.

Paskett, Electra D.; Reeves, Katherine W.; McLaughlin, John M.; Katz, Mira L.; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Ruffin, Mack T.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Merete, Cristina; Davis, Faith; Gehlert, Sarah

2008-01-01

243

Associations between Caregiver Support, Bullying, and Depressive Symptomatology among Sexual Minority and Heterosexual Girls: Results from the 2008 Boston Youth Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although sexual minority (SM) youth are at an increased risk for being bullied and experiencing depression, it is unclear how caregiver support is interrelated with those variables. Therefore, we sought to assess (a) the prevalence of nonphysical bullying, depressive symptomatology, and caregiver support among heterosexual and SM girls, (b) the…

Johnson, Renee M.; Kidd, Jeremy D.; Dunn, Erin C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Corliss, Heather L.; Bowen, Deborah

2011-01-01

244

High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Students of a Minority-Serving University in a Community with a High HIV/AIDS Prevalence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors used a stratified cluster sampling design to inform campus sexually transmitted diseases prevention programs. Participants and Methods: They conducted a cross-sectional study of students (N = 1,130) at a large, urban, minority-serving university in South Florida using the 2004 National College Health Assessment Survey…

Trepka, Mary Jo; Kim, Sunny; Pekovic, Vukosava; Zamor, Peggy; Velez, Elvira; Gabaroni, Mariela V.

2008-01-01

245

Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada).  

PubMed

Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities. PMID:24714888

Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

2014-03-01

246

When sorry is not enough: Archbishop Cardinal Bernard Law's image restoration strategies in the statement on sexual abuse of minors by clergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In January 2002, the Boston Globe ran a two-part story on sexual abuse of minors by clergy in the Archdiocese of Boston that sparked the biggest crisis in the history of the American Catholic Church. Two days after the articles appeared, Archbishop Cardinal Bernard Law held a press conference to respond to the Globe's charges. This study examines Law's image

James Kauffman

2008-01-01

247

Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

2009-01-01

248

Genetic differences among populations in sexual dimorphism: evidence for selection on males in a dioecious plant  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation among populations in the degree of sexual dimorphism may be a consequence of selection on one or both sexes. We analysed genetic parameters from crosses involving three populations of the dioecious plant Silene latifolia, which exhibits sexual dimorphism in flower size, to determine whether population differentiation was a result of selection on one or both sexes. We took the novel approach of comparing the ratio of population differentiation of a quantitative trait (QST) to that of neutral genetic markers (FST) for males vs. females. We attributed 72.6% of calyx width variation in males to differences among populations vs. only 6.9% in females. The QST/FST ratio was 4.2 for males vs. 0.4 for females, suggesting that selection on males is responsible for differentiation among populations in calyx width and its degree of sexual dimorphism. This selection may be indirect via genetic correlations with other morphological and physiological traits.

YU, Q.; ELLEN, E. D.; WADE, M. J.; DELPH, L. F.

2011-01-01

249

Characteristics of victims of sexual abuse by gender and race in a community corrections population.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White women, African American men, and African American women) using univariate and logistic regression analyses, which were conducted separately for each group. White women were the most likely to report a history of sexual abuse (26.5%), followed by African American women (16.0%), White men (4.0%), and African American men (1.1%). For all groups, histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were associated with a history of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse was associated with substance abuse problems for women but not the men. Cannabis dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the White women while cocaine dependence was associated with sexual abuse for the African American women. Several other variables were associated with sexual abuse for women but not men, including lower education (White women only), a history of violent offenses (White women only), and living in a shelter (African American women only). African American men tended to have higher levels of education; this was the only variable uniquely associated with either male group. Receiving psychiatric medications was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except African American men and a history of sex for drugs was associated with sexual abuse for all groups except White men. Consistent with national sample, women, particularly White women, were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse. The gender-race differences for the sociodemographic factors associated with sexual abuse, particularly the risk of substance abuse for women, suggest the need for tailored interventions for sexual abuse prevention and treatment. PMID:22203627

Clark, C Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B; Islam, M Aminul; Hanover, Erin E; Cropsey, Karen L

2012-06-01

250

Trends in High-Risk Sexual Behaviors among General Population Groups in China: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Results We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Discussion Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W. N.; de Vlas, Sake J.

2013-01-01

251

Sexual Behaviors among Adults in Puerto Rico: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Given changes in sexual behaviors and norms in the United States, there is a need for current and representative data on sexual behaviors with particular interest in gender, age, and racial/ethnic group differences. Aim Given the limited data for Hispanics and for Puerto Rico (PR), we described patterns of sexual behaviors and characteristics among a sexually active sample (n = 1,575) of adults aged 21–64 years in PR. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures for this study are sexual behaviors including age at sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, vaginal and anal intercourse, and oral sex, among others. Methods Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005–2008) was analyzed. The prevalence of sexual behaviors and characteristics was described by age-group and gender during the lifetime and in the past 12 months. Results Overall, 96.8%, 81.6%, and 60.9% of participants had ever engaged in vaginal, oral and anal sex, respectively, whereas 23.7% were seropositive to any of the sexually transmitted infections under study. Sexual initiation ?15 years was reported by 37.8% of men and 21.4% of women; whereas 47.9% of men and 13.2% of women reported to have had ?7 sexual partners in their lifetime. Approximately, 3% of women and 6% of men reported same-sex sexual practices, while history of forced sexual relations was reported by 9.6% of women and 2.5% of men. Sexual initiation ?15 years was more common among individuals aged 21–34 years (41.4% men and 33.6% women) as compared with older cohorts. Although having had ?7 sexual partners over a lifetime among men was similar across age groups, this behavior decreased in older women cohorts. In both genders, the prevalence of oral and anal sex was also lower in the older age cohorts. Conclusion This study provides essential information than can help health professionals understand the sexual practices and needs of the population of PR.

Ortiz, Ana Patricia; Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Suarez, Erick; Santos-Ortiz, Maria del Carmen; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Perez, Cynthia M.

2012-01-01

252

Impact of heart disease and quality of care on minority populations in the United States.  

PubMed Central

Heart disease is a leading cause of death across all populations in the United States. In 1985, the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health recognized the existence of widespread health disparities for heart disease and related risk factors among minorities in America. Inequalities in heart health and healthcare continue to exist. This review compares measures of heart disease and healthcare for white, African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, American-Indian/Alaska-Native and Hispanic/Latino populations. Lack of healthcare data for minorities continues to be a barrier to understanding the nature and extent of heart disease and related risk factors for these groups. In combination with programs that address preventive measures to reduce risk factors for heart disease, the integration of quality improvement measures has developed as an important strategy for reducing cardiovascular health disparities. Improved data collection and reporting, enhanced use of information technology, and promotion of cultural competency hold potential for improving the quality of cardiac care and reducing health disease for all Americans.

Graham, Garth N.; Guendelman, Mayadallia; Leong, Benjamin S.; Hogan, Sara; Dennison, Adrienne

2006-01-01

253

Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.  

PubMed

The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes. PMID:25034518

Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

2014-01-01

254

Sexual Activity and Impairment in Women with Systemic Sclerosis Compared to Women from a General Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Reports of low sexual activity rates and high impairment rates among women with chronic diseases have not included comparisons to general population data. The objective of this study was to compare sexual activity and impairment rates of women with systemic sclerosis (SSc) to general population data and to identify domains of sexual function driving impairment in SSc. Methods Canadian women with SSc were compared to women from a UK population sample. Sexual activity and, among sexually active women, sexual impairment were evaluated with a 9-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Results Among women with SSc (mean age?=?57.0 years), 296 of 730 (41%) were sexually active, 181 (61%) of whom were sexually impaired, resulting in 115 of 730 (16%) who were sexually active without impairment. In the UK population sample (mean age?=?55.4 years), 956 of 1,498 women (64%) were sexually active, 420 (44%) of whom were impaired, with 536 of 1,498 (36%) sexually active without impairment. Adjusting for age and marital status, women with SSc were significantly less likely to be sexually active (OR?=?0.34, 95%CI?=?0.28–0.42) and, among sexually active women, significantly more likely to be sexually impaired (OR?=?1.88, 95%CI?=?1.42–2.49) than general population women. Controlling for total FSFI scores, women with SSc had significantly worse lubrication and pain scores than general population women. Conclusions Sexual functioning is a problem for many women with scleroderma and is associated with pain and poor lubrication. Evidence-based interventions to support sexual activity and function in women with SSc are needed.

Levis, Brooke; Burri, Andrea; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

2012-01-01

255

Sexual and Gender Minority Health: What We Know and What Needs to Be Done  

PubMed Central

We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people.

Mayer, Kenneth H.; Bradford, Judith B.; Makadon, Harvey J.; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

2008-01-01

256

Sexual and gender minority health: what we know and what needs to be done.  

PubMed

We describe the emergence of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health as a key area of study and practice for clinicians and public health professionals. We discuss the specific needs of LGBT populations on the basis of the most recent epidemiological and clinical investigations, methods for defining and measuring LGBT populations, and the barriers they face in obtaining appropriate care and services. We then discuss how clinicians and public health professionals can improve research methods, clinical outcomes, and service delivery for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. PMID:18445789

Mayer, Kenneth H; Bradford, Judith B; Makadon, Harvey J; Stall, Ron; Goldhammer, Hilary; Landers, Stewart

2008-06-01

257

Perspectives on provider behaviors: a qualitative study of sexual and gender minorities regarding quality of care.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) identified patients report receiving substandard care from healthcare providers. They face the fear and disturbing reality of discrimination when accessing health care. Without culturally sensitive treatment, nursing and other health professions do not properly care for this population. Following the recent trend towards awareness and need for inclusion of LGBTQ populations in healthcare, this paper provides a summary of the current literature on the treatment and needs of LGBTQ people and describes focus groups conducted to explore perceptions regarding provider behaviors. It concludes with a list of behaviors that enhance or impede quality care that can serve as a guide for healthcare professionals. PMID:23721392

Rounds, Kelsey E; McGrath, Barbara Burns; Walsh, Elaine

2013-04-01

258

A Y-STR database of Iranian and Azerbaijanian minority populations.  

PubMed

Seventeen Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STR) DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a, DYS385b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4 were studied in five minor linguistic groups from Iran (Arabs, Gilaki, Mazandarani, Bakhtiari and Southern Talysh) and one from Azerbaijan (Northern Talysh) with the goal of constructing of a representative Y-STR database for this region in Southwest Asia. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) reveals non-significant or low genetic distances between the Iranian Gilaki, Mazandarani, Bakhtiari and non-Iranian Turkish, Azerbaijanian, Armenian and Kurd populations, but larger genetic distances to both Talysh populations, the Iranian Arabs, Georgian and Kazakh populations. PMID:19948326

Roewer, Lutz; Willuweit, Sascha; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

2009-12-01

259

Examining Attitudes toward College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations: Findings and Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study combined descriptive written instruments and focus group data to investigate heterosexual college students' current attitudes toward gay and lesbian peers, a distinctly at-risk population. Overall, participants were generally supportive, but participants felt public pressure to hide or shield the support they felt for gay…

Jurgens, Jill C.; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Middleton, Tracy

2004-01-01

260

Initial Design of Culturally Informed Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Developing an mHealth Intervention for Young Sexual Minority Men With Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depression  

PubMed Central

Background To our knowledge, there is no well-articulated process for the design of culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. Objective This paper describes the early stages of such a process, illustrated by the methodology for the ongoing development of a behavioral intervention technology targeting generalized anxiety disorder and major depression among young sexual minority men. Methods We integrated instructional design for Internet behavioral intervention technologies with greater detail on information sources that can identify user needs in understudied populations, as well as advances in the understanding of technology-specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions that may need to be culturally tailored. Results General psychological theory describing how to effect change in the clinical target is first integrated with theory describing potentially malleable factors that help explain the clinical problem within the population. Additional information sources are then used to (1) evaluate the theory, (2) identify population-specific factors that may affect users’ ability to relate to and benefit from the behavioral intervention technology, and (3) establish specific skills, attitudes, knowledge, etc, required to change malleable factors posited in the theory. User needs result from synthesis of this information. Product requirements are then generated through application of the user needs to specific behavioral intervention technology dimensions (eg, technology platform). We provide examples of considerations relevant to each stage of this process and how they were applied. Conclusions This process can guide the initial design of other culturally informed behavioral intervention technologies. This first attempt to create a systematic design process can spur development of guidelines for design of behavioral intervention technologies aimed to reduce health disparities.

Montague, Enid; Mohr, David C

2013-01-01

261

Sexual Orientation and Mental and Physical Health Status: Findings From a Dutch Population Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. Methods. Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited

THEO G. M. SANDFORT; FLOOR BAKKER; FRANÇOIS G. SCHELLEVIS; INE VANWESENBEECK

262

Sexual orientation and mental and physical health status: findings from a Dutch population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001 among an all-age random sample of the population. Of the 19685 persons invited

T. G. M. Sandfort; F. Bakker; F. G. Schellevis; I. Vanwesenbeeck

2006-01-01

263

Recruitment strategies in the women's health trial: feasibility study in minority populations. WHT:FSMP Investigators Group. Women's Health Trial:Feasibility Study in Minority Populations.  

PubMed

The Women's Health Trial:Feasibility Study in Minority Populations (WHT:FSMP) examined the feasibility of recruiting postmenopausal women from a broad range of racial and socioeconomic backgrounds into a primary prevention trial requiring marked reductions in dietary fat. Postmenopausal women aged 50-79 yr who had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer and who consumed 36% or more total energy from fat qualified to participate. We randomized the women into dietary intervention (60%) or control (40%) groups; we aimed to randomize 750 women in 18 months in each of the three clinical centers. All centers achieved goals for randomization based on ethnicity, and two centers exceeded overall recruitment goals. The greatest source of randomized participants was mass mailing, followed by items in the media, referrals, and community outreach. Recruitment yields were generally similar for the ethnic groups but lower for less-educated participants. The experience of WHT:FSMP indicates that postmenopausal women from the African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white communities can be recruited into dietary intervention studies for the prevention of disease. PMID:9741867

Lewis, C E; George, V; Fouad, M; Porter, V; Bowen, D; Urban, N

1998-10-01

264

Characteristics of Victims of Sexual Abuse by Gender and Race in a Community Corrections Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine how victims of sexual abuse in a community corrections population differ as a result of their sex and race. Of the 19,422 participants, a total of 1,298 (6.7%) reported a history of sexual abuse and were compared with nonabused participants. The sample was analyzed by race-gender groups (White men, White…

Clark, C. Brendan; Perkins, Adam; McCullumsmith, Cheryl B.; Islam, M. Aminul; Hanover, Erin E.; Cropsey, Karen L.

2012-01-01

265

YOGA FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN IN A PREDOMINANTLY MINORITY POPULATION: A PILOT RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies suggest yoga may be effective for chronic low back pain; however, trials targeting minorities have not been conducted. Primary Study Objectives Assess the feasibility of studying yoga in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain. Collect preliminary data to plan a larger powered study. Study Design Pilot randomized controlled trial. Setting Two community health centers in a racially diverse neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Participants Thirty English-speaking adults (mean age 44 years, 83% female, 83% racial/ethnic minorities; 48% with incomes ?$30000) with moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. Interventions Standardized series of weekly hatha yoga classes for 12 weeks compared to a waitlist usual care control. Outcome Measures Feasibility measured by time to complete enrollment, proportion of racial/ethnic minorities enrolled, retention rates, and adverse events. Primary efficacy outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 weeks in pain score (0=no pain to 10=worst possible pain) and back-related function using the modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (0–23 point scale, higher scores reflect poorer function). Secondary efficacy outcomes were analgesic use, global improvement, and quality of life (SF-36). Results Recruitment took 2 months. Retention rates were 97% at 12 weeks and 77% at 26 weeks. Mean pain scores for yoga decreased from baseline to 12 weeks (6.7 to 4.4) compared to usual care, which decreased from 7.5 to 7.1 (P=.02). Mean Roland scores for yoga decreased from 14.5 to 8.2 compared to usual care, which decreased from 16.1 to 12.5 (P=.28). At 12 weeks, yoga compared to usual care participants reported less analgesic use (13% vs 73%, P=.003), less opiate use (0% vs 33%, P=.04), and greater overall improvement (73% vs 27%, P=.03). There were no differences in SF-36 scores and no serious adverse events. Conclusion A yoga study intervention in a predominantly minority population with chronic low back pain was moderately feasible and may be more effective than usual care for reducing pain and pain medication use.

Saper, Robert B.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cullum-Dugan, Diana; Davis, Roger B.; Phillips, Russell S.; Culpepper, Larry

2009-01-01

266

Analyses of Lettuce Drop Incidence and Population Structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT To understand the geographical distribution of lettuce drop incidence and the structure of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum populations, commercial lettuce fields were surveyed in the Salinas, San Joaquin, and Santa Maria Valleys in California. Lettuce drop incidence, pathogen species, and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were determined and analyzed using geostatistic and geographical information system tools. Lettuce drop incidence was lowest in the San Joaquin Valley, and not significantly different between the other two valleys. Semivariogram analysis revealed that lettuce drop incidence was not spatially correlated between different fields in the Salinas Valley, suggesting negligible field-to-field spread or influence of inoculum in one field on other fields. Lettuce drop incidence was significantly lower in fields with a surface drip system than in fields with furrow or sprinkler irrigation systems, suggesting that the surface drip system can be a potential management measure for reducing lettuce drop. In the San Joaquin Valley, S. sclerotiorum was the prevalent species, causing drop in 63.5% of the fields, whereas S. minor also was identified in 25.4% of the fields. In contrast, in the Salinas Valley, S. minor was the dominant species (76.1%) whereas S sclerotiorum only observed in only 13.6% fields, in which only a few plants were infected by S. sclerotiorum. In the Santa Maria Valley, both species frequently were identified, with S. minor being slightly more common. Although many MCGs were identified in S. minor, most of them consisted of only one or two isolates. In all, approximately 91.4% of the isolates belonged to four MCGs. Among them, MCG-1 was the most prevalent group in all three valleys, accounting for 49.8% of total isolates. It was distributed all over the surveyed areas, whereas other MCGs were distributed more or less locally. Populations of S. sclerotiorum exhibited greater diversity, with 89 isolates collected from the Salinas and San Joaquin Valleys belonging to 37 different MCGs. Among them, the most recurrent MCG-A contained 16 isolates, and 30 MCGs contained only 1 isolate each. Many MCGs occurred within only one or a part of the two valleys. Potential reasons for this abundant diversity are discussed. PMID:18943664

Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

2006-12-01

267

Sexual Orientation and Supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosexism and homophobia complicate the supervisory relationship regardless of whether it is the therapist, client, or supervisor who is a sexual minority. Several supervision models have been applied to gay and lesbian populations, including Stoltenberg and Delworth's (1987) Developmental Model, Buhrke's Conflictual Situation Model (1986), Holloway's (1995) Supervisee Empowerment Model, and Russell and Greenhouse's (1997) Homonegativity Model. Each of these

Stephen C. Halpert; Joan Pfaller

2001-01-01

268

The Association between Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Proxies for Sexual Risk Behavior: A Random Sample of the General Population of Sweden  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Several studies with small and ''high risk'' samples have demonstrated that a history of childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA) is associated with sexual risk behaviors (SRBs). However, few studies with large random samples from the general population have specifically examined the relationship between CASA and SRBs with a…

Steel, Jennifer L.; Herlitz, Claes A.

2005-01-01

269

High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.  

PubMed

We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

2006-02-01

270

Resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in an Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) population in China.  

PubMed

Asia minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax) is a common annual grass weed of winter crops distributed across China. We conducted a study on the resistance level and the mechanism of resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in a P. fugax population from China. Whole-plant dose-response experiments in greenhouse showed that the resistant P. fugax population was 1991, 364, 269, 157, and 8-fold resistant to clodinafop-propargyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, haloxyfop-R-methyl, quizalofop-p-ethyl and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl relative to the reference susceptible population, which was susceptible to all the five AOPP herbicides. Much lower R/S values of 3.5, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively, were detected for clethodim, sethoxydim and pinoxaden. Molecular analysis of resistance confirmed that the Ile2041 to Asn mutation in the resistant population conferred resistance to AOPP herbicides, but not to CHD and DEN herbicides. This is the first report of a target site mutation that corresponded to resistance to AOPP herbicides in P. fugax. Proper resistance management practices are necessary to prevent ACCase-inhibiting herbicides from becoming ineffective over wide areas. PMID:24485310

Tang, Wei; Zhou, Fengyan; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Xiaogang

2014-01-01

271

Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Health Care Use and Expenditures in Sexual Minority Men: A Quasi-Natural Experiment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. Methods. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. Results. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Conclusions. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men.

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

2012-01-01

272

Adult sexual assault: prevalence, symptomatology, and sex differences in the general population.  

PubMed

The prevalence and impact of adult sexual assault (ASA) were examined in a stratified random sample of the general population. Among 941 participants, ASA was reported by 22% of women and 3.8% of men. Multivariate risk factors for ASA included a younger age, being female, having been divorced, sexual abuse in childhood, and physical assault in adulthood. Childhood sexual abuse was especially common among sexually assaulted men and women (61 and 59%, respectively). ASA victims were more symptomatic than their nonassaulted cohorts on all scales of the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI; J. Briere, 1995), despite an average of 14 years having passed since the assault. Assaulted men reported greater symptomatology than assaulted women, whereas nonassaulted men reported less symptomatology than nonassaulted women. PMID:15253092

Elliott, Diana M; Mok, Doris S; Briere, John

2004-06-01

273

Populations with elevated mutation load do not benefit from the operation of sexual selection.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures - flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism. PMID:21658188

Hollis, B; Houle, D

2011-09-01

274

Populations with elevated mutation load do not benefit from the operation of sexual selection  

PubMed Central

Theory predicts that if most mutations are deleterious to both overall fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success, sexual selection will purge mutation load and increase nonsexual fitness. We explored this possibility with populations of mutagenized Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting elevated levels of deleterious variation and evolving in the presence or absence of male-male competition and female choice. After 60 generations of experimental evolution, monogamous populations exhibited higher total reproductive output than polygamous populations. Parental environment also affected fitness measures—flies that evolved in the presence of sexual conflict showed reduced nonsexual fitness when their parents experienced a polygamous environment, indicating trans-generational effects of male harassment and highlighting the importance of a common garden design. This cost of parental promiscuity was nearly absent in monogamous lines, providing evidence for the evolution of reduced sexual antagonism. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between selection regimes. If mutation load was reduced by the action of sexual selection in this experiment, the resultant gain in fitness was not sufficient to overcome the costs of sexual antagonism.

Hollis, Brian; Houle, David

2011-01-01

275

Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda.  

PubMed

This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority. PMID:24908456

Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith

2014-06-01

276

Genetic diversity in populations of asexual and sexual bag worm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two strictly sexual (Dahlica charlottae and Siederia rupicolella) and one strictly asexual (D. fennicella). These species compete for the same resources and share the same parasitoids. Results Allelic richness was comparable between the sexual species but it was higher than in the asexual species. All species showed high heterozygote deficiency and a large variation was observed among FIS values across loci and populations. Large genetic differentiation was observed between populations confirming the poor dispersal ability of these species. The asexual species showed lower genotype diversity than the sexual species. Nevertheless, genotype diversity was high in all asexual populations. Conclusion The three different species show a similar population structure characterised by high genetic differentiation among populations and low dispersal. Most of the populations showed high heterozygote deficiency likely due to the presence of null alleles at most of the loci and/or to the Wahlund effect. Although the parthenogenetic D. fennicella shows reduced genetic diversity compared to the sexual species, it still shows surprisingly high genotype diversity. While we can not totally rule out the presence of cryptic sex, would explain this high genotype diversity, we never observed sex in the parthenogenetic D. fennicella, nor was there any other evidence of this. Alternatively, a non-clonal parthenogenetic reproduction, such as automictic thelytoky, could explain the high genotypic diversity observed in D. fennicella.

Grapputo, Alessandro; Kumpulainen, Tomi; Mappes, Johanna; Parri, Silja

2005-01-01

277

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach  

PubMed Central

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16–44?years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling.

Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-01-01

278

Testing for sexually transmitted infections in a population-based sexual health survey: development of an acceptable ethical approach.  

PubMed

Population-based research is enhanced by biological measures, but biological sampling raises complex ethical issues. The third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) will estimate the population prevalence of five sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV and Mycoplasma genitalium) in a probability sample aged 16-44 years. The present work describes the development of an ethical approach to urine testing for STIs, including the process of reaching consensus on whether to return results. The following issues were considered: (1) testing for some STIs that are treatable and for which appropriate settings to obtain free testing and advice are widely available (Natsal-3 provides all respondents with STI and healthcare access information), (2) limits on test accuracy and timeliness imposed by survey conditions and sample type, (3) testing for some STIs with unknown clinical and public health implications, (4) how a uniform approach is easier to explain and understand, (5) practical difficulties in returning results and cost efficiency, such as enabling wider STI testing by not returning results. The agreed approach, to perform voluntary anonymous testing with specific consent for five STIs without returning results, was approved by stakeholders and a research ethics committee. Overall, this was acceptable to respondents in developmental piloting; 61% (68 of 111) of respondents agreed to provide a sample. The experiences reported here may inform the ethical decision making of researchers, research ethics committees and funders considering population-based biological sampling. PMID:22252417

Field, Nigel; Tanton, Clare; Mercer, Catherine H; Nicholson, Soazig; Soldan, Kate; Beddows, Simon; Ison, Catherine; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam

2012-06-01

279

Population structure influences sexual conflict in wild populations of water striders  

PubMed Central

Summary In sexual conflict, aggressive males frequently diminish the long-term reproductive success of females in efforts to gain a short-term advantage over rival males. This short-term advantage can selectively favour high-exploitation males. However, just as the over-exploitation of resources can lead to local extinction, the over-exploitation of females in the form of harassment by aggressive males can yield similar consequences resulting in reduced female fecundity, increased female mortality and overall decline in mating activity. This outcome may often be prevented by selection acting at multiple levels of biological organization. Directional selection favouring aggressive exploitation within groups can be balanced by directional selection amongst groups opposing exploitation. Such between-group selection has recently been demonstrated in laboratory studies of water striders, where the conditional dispersal of individuals increased variation amongst groups and influenced the balance of selection toward reduced male aggression. This multilevel selection (MLS) framework also provides predictive value when investigating natural populations differing in their relative strength of selection within versus among groups. For water striders, the consequences of local exploitation cause fitness differences between groups, favouring less aggressive males. Inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams consist of isolated pools that prevent aggressive male water striders from escaping the consequences of local exploitation. We, therefore, predicted that inconsistently flowing ephemeral streams would favour the evolution of less aggressive males than would perennial streams, which allow aggressive males to move more freely and to escape the group-level costs of their aggression. Comparing two neighbouring streams during the mating season, we found that males dispersed naturally between pools at much higher rates in the perennial stream than in the ephemeral stream. As predicted, we found that males from the perennial stream were significantly more aggressive than those from the ephemeral stream. We also found that dispersers were significantly more aggressive than non-dispersers within each stream. These field results illustrate the relevance of the MLS framework in our understanding of the evolution of sexual conflict.

Eldakar, Omar Tonsi; Dlugos, Michael J.; Holt, Galen P.; Wilson, David Sloan; Pepper, JohnW.

2013-01-01

280

Sexual recombination punctuated by outbreaks and clonal expansions predicts Toxoplasma gondii population genetics  

PubMed Central

The cosmopolitan parasitic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting essentially any warm-blooded vertebrate worldwide, including most birds and mammals, and establishes chronic infections in one-third of the globe’s human population. The success of this highly prevalent zoonosis is largely the result of its ability to propagate both sexually and clonally. Frequent genetic exchanges via sexual recombination among extant parasite lineages that mix in the definitive felid host produces new lines that emerge to expand the parasite’s host range and cause outbreaks. Highly successful lines spread clonally via carnivorism and in some cases sweep to pandemic levels. The extent to which sexual reproduction versus clonal expansion shapes Toxoplasma’s current, global population genetic structure is the central question this review will attempt to answer.

Grigg, Michael E.; Sundar, Natarajan

2009-01-01

281

The role of sexual harassment in cave and surface dwelling populations of the Atlantic molly, Poecilia mexicana (Poeciliidae, Teleostei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual coercion is a common behaviour for males trying to compensate for being inferior in male competition and\\/or female choice. We measured the cost of male sexual harassment for females as reduced feeding time in three populations of the Atlantic molly ( Poecilia mexicana). Of these populations, one originated from a typical river habitat, another from a lightless cave chamber

Martin Plath; Jakob Parzefall; Ingo Schlupp

2003-01-01

282

'Migrants from over there' or 'racial minority here'? Sexual networks and prevention practices among sub-Saharan African migrants in France.  

PubMed

Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection in Europe, with an increasing proportion of them acquiring HIV after migration. This transformation in the epidemic pattern has raised concerns about the sexual mixing and preventive behaviours of migrants. This paper aims at exploring how racial boundaries shape sexual networks and structure prevention practices among migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Analyses are based on a French survey carried out among 1874 individuals born in sub-Saharan Africa, aged 18-49 and living in Paris and its surroundings. Our results provide evidence of the existence of African sexual networks, over and beyond those of national origin. The intra-African segregation of these sexual networks leads to sexual contacts between migrants from low- and high-HIV prevalence countries, which probably contribute to the development of the epidemic amongst these migrants. Moreover, racially-based perceptions of HIV-related risk seem to produce a specific attitude toward prevention practices as shown by higher rates of condom use among migrant women from sub-Saharan Africa with a partner born outside sub-Saharan Africa. As a consequence, community-based approaches to HIV prevention should take into account the identification of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa as a racial minority and not only focus on national borders. PMID:23659520

Marsicano, Elise; Lydié, Nathalie; Bajos, Nathalie

2013-01-01

283

Population dynamics with a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a fluctuating environment  

PubMed Central

Background Carassius gibelio, a cyprinid fish from Eurasia, has the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually. This fish is also known as an invasive species which colonized almost all continental Europe, most likely originating from Asia and Eastern Europe. Populations of both sexually and asexually reproducing individuals exist in sympatry. In this study we try to elucidate the advantages of such a mixed type of reproduction. We investigate the dynamics of two sympatric populations with sexual and asexual reproduction in a periodically fluctuating environment. We define an individual-based computational model in which genotypes are represented by L loci, and the environment is composed of L resources for which the two populations compete. Results Our model demonstrates advantageous population dynamics where the optimal percentage of asexual reproduction depends on selection strength, on the number of selected loci and on the timescale of environmental fluctuations. We show that the sexual reproduction is necessary for "generating" fit genotypes, while the asexual reproduction is suitable for "amplifying" them. The simulations show that the optimal percentage of asexual reproduction increases with the length of the environment stability period and decrease with the strength of the selection and the number of loci. Conclusions In this paper we addressed the advantages of a mixed type of sexual and asexual reproduction in a changing environment and explored the idea that a species that is able to adapt itself to environmental fluctuation can easily colonize a new habitat. Our results could provide a possible explanation for the rapid and efficient invasion of species with a variable ratio of sexual and asexual reproduction such as Carassius gibelio.

2012-01-01

284

Role of Minority Populations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in the Evolution of Viral Resistance to Protease Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance results from the accumulation of mutations in the viral genes targeted by the drugs. These genetic changes, however, are commonly detected and monitored by techniques that only take into account the dominant population of plasma virus. Because HIV-1-infected patients harbor a complex and diverse mixture of virus populations, the mechanisms underlying the emergence and the evolution of resistance are not fully elucidated. Using techniques that allow the quantification of resistance mutations in minority virus species, we have monitored the evolution of resistance in plasma virus populations from patients failing protease inhibitor treatment. Minority populations with distinct resistance genotypes were detected in all patients throughout the evolution of resistance. The emergence of new dominant genotypes followed two possible mechanisms: (i) emergence of a new mutation in a currently dominant genotype and (ii) emergence of a new genotype derived from a minority virus species. In most cases, these population changes were associated with an increase in resistance at the expense of a reduction in replication capacity. Our findings provide a preliminary indication that minority viral species, which evolve independently of the majority virus population, can eventually become dominant populations, thereby serving as a reservoir of diversity and possibly accelerating the development of drug resistance.

Charpentier, Charlotte; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Mammano, Fabrizio; Lecossier, Denise; Clavel, Francois; Hance, Allan J.

2004-01-01

285

Sexual selection and temporal phenotypic variation in a damselfly population.  

PubMed

Temporal variation in selection can be generated by temporal variation in either the fitness surface or phenotypic distributions around a static fitness surface, or both concurrently. Here, we use within- and between-generation sampling of fitness surfaces and phenotypic distributions over 2 years to investigate the causes of temporal variation in the form of sexual selection on body size in the damselfly Enallagma aspersum. Within a year, when the average female body size differed substantially from the average male body size, male body size experienced directional selection. In contrast, when male and female size distributions overlapped, male body size experienced stabilizing selection when variances in body size were large, but no appreciable selection when the variances in body size were small. The causes of temporal variation in the form of selection can only be inferred by accounting for changes in both the fitness surface and changes in the distribution of phenotypes. PMID:21569154

Steele, D B; Siepielski, A M; McPeek, M A

2011-07-01

286

Genetic diversity in populations of asexual and sexual bag worm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the two-fold cost of sex, most of the higher animals reproduce sexually. The advantage of sex has been suggested to be its ability, through recombination, to generate greater genetic diversity than asexuality, thus enhancing adaptation in a changing environment. We studied the genetic diversity and the population structure of three closely related species of bag worm moths: two

Alessandro Grapputo; Tomi Kumpulainen; Johanna Mappes; Silja Parri

2005-01-01

287

Parental Opinion Concerning School Sexuality Education in a Culturally Diverse Population in the USA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to expand upon previous research related to parental opinion concerning school sexuality education by sampling a culturally diverse, low-income population that has been traditionally under-represented in the literature. A total of 191 parents attending an urban community college completed a written questionnaire about what topics…

Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

2013-01-01

288

The Exclusion of Intimacy in the Sexuality of the Contemporary College-Age Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that heterosexual sexual involvement in the contemporary college population is often sporadic, episodic, without commitment, and accompanied by deliberate effort of both partners to suppress tender, romantic feelings and intimacy. Suggests the sources of this situation lie in changes in the ethos, the ascent of women, advances in…

Cobliner, W. Godfrey

1988-01-01

289

Lifetime sexual assault prevalence rates and reporting practices in an emergency department population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Studies suggest significant rates of female sexual assault (SA); the majority of SAs remain unreported, and few victims receive medical care. The purpose of this study was to determine lifetime prevalence rates of SA in an emergency department population and to assess reporting patterns to police, physicians, and social service agencies. Methods: A verbally administered survey was given

Kim M. Feldhaus; Debra Houry; Robin Kaminsky

2000-01-01

290

FAP with Sexual Minorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The landscape of psychotherapy with lesbian,\\u000a \\u000a gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients\\u000a has evolved so dramatically in recent history it would seem unrecognizable to those who defined the field only five decades\\u000a ago. The first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, American Psychiatric Association,\\u000a 1952) described “homosexuality” as a sociopathic personality disturbance requiring long-term treatment. Almost

Mary D. Plummer

291

Adiabatic theory for the population distribution in the evolutionary minority game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the evolutionary minority game (EMG) using a statistical mechanics approach. We derive a theory for the steady-state population distribution of the agents. The theory is based on an “adiabatic approximation” in which short time fluctuations in the population distribution are integrated out to obtain an effective equation governing the steady-state distribution. We discover the mechanism for the transition from segregation (into opposing groups) to clustering (towards cautious behaviors). The transition is determined by two generic factors: the market impact (of the agents’ own actions) and the short time market inefficiency (arbitrage opportunities) due to fluctuations in the numbers of agents using opposite strategies. A large market impact favors “extreme” players who choose fixed opposite strategies, while large market inefficiency favors cautious players. The transition depends on the number of agents (N) and the effective rate of strategy switching. When N is small, the market impact is relatively large; this favors the extreme behaviors. Frequent strategy switching, on the other hand, leads to a clustering of the cautious agents.

Chen, Kan; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yuan, Baosheng

2004-02-01

292

Rethinking sources of representative controls for the conduct of case-control studies in minority populations  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of controls remains a challenge in case–control studies and particularly in studies involving minority populations. Methods We compared characteristics of controls recruited through random digit dialing (RDD) to those of community controls enrolled through churches, health events and other outreach sources among women of African ancestry (AA) participating in the Women’s Circle of Health Study, a case–control study of breast cancer. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also computed using unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the impact of including the community controls for selected variables relevant to breast cancer and for which there were significant differences in distribution between the two control groups. Results Compared to community controls (n=347), RDD controls (n=207) had more years of education and higher income, lower body mass index, were more likely to have private insurance, and less likely to be single. While the percentage of nulliparous women in the two groups was similar, community controls tended to have more children, have their first child at a younger age, and were less likely to breastfeed their children. Dietary intake was similar in the two groups. Compared to census data, the combination of RDD and community controls seems to be more representative of the general population than RDD controls alone. Furthermore, the inclusion of the community group had little impact on the magnitude of risk estimates for most variables, while enhancing statistical power. Conclusions Community-based recruitment was found to be an efficient and feasible method to recruit AA controls.

2013-01-01

293

The Rate of Fitness-Valley Crossing in Sexual Populations  

PubMed Central

Biological traits result in part from interactions between different genetic loci. This can lead to sign epistasis, in which a beneficial adaptation involves a combination of individually deleterious or neutral mutations; in this case, a population must cross a “fitness valley” to adapt. Recombination can assist this process by combining mutations from different individuals or retard it by breaking up the adaptive combination. Here, we analyze the simplest fitness valley, in which an adaptation requires one mutation at each of two loci to provide a fitness benefit. We present a theoretical analysis of the effect of recombination on the valley-crossing process across the full spectrum of possible parameter regimes. We find that low recombination rates can speed up valley crossing relative to the asexual case, while higher recombination rates slow down valley crossing, with the transition between the two regimes occurring when the recombination rate between the loci is approximately equal to the selective advantage provided by the adaptation. In large populations, if the recombination rate is high and selection against single mutants is substantial, the time to cross the valley grows exponentially with population size, effectively meaning that the population cannot acquire the adaptation. Recombination at the optimal (low) rate can reduce the valley-crossing time by up to several orders of magnitude relative to that in an asexual population.

Weissman, Daniel B.; Feldman, Marcus W.; Fisher, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

294

Religiosity and Risky Sexual Behaviors among an African American Church-based Population  

PubMed Central

African Americans are disproportionately burdened by STDs and HIV in the US. This study examined the relationships between demographics, religiosity, and sexual risk behaviors among 255 adult African American church-based participants. Although participants were highly religious, they reported an average of seven lifetime sex partners and most inconsistently used condoms. Several demographic variables and religiosity significantly predicted lifetime HIV-related risk factors. Taken together, findings indicated that this population is at risk for HIV. Future research should continue to identify correlates of risky sexual behavior among African American parishioners to facilitate the development of HIV risk reduction interventions in their church settings.

Hawes, Starlyn M.; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y.

2014-01-01

295

Treating Clergy Who Sexually Abuse Minors: A 16Year Experience in the Professionals and Clergy Program at the IOL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, as the Director of Psychology at the Institute of Living, I was asked to join a committee to establish a special program to treat impaired and distressed professionals and clergy. In my role as clinician I have been active in treatment and research into sexuality and the sexual problems with the clergy. To date our program has evaluated

L. M. Lothstein

296

Evolutionary rescue of sexual and asexual populations in a deteriorating environment.  

PubMed

The environmental change experienced by many contemporary populations of organisms poses a serious risk to their survival. From the theory of evolutionary rescue, we predict that the combination of sex and genetic diversity should increase the probability of survival by increasing variation and thereby the probability of generating a type that can tolerate the stressful environment. We tested this prediction by comparing experimental populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that differ in sexuality and in the initial amount of genetic diversity. The lines were serially propagated in an environment where the level of stress caused by salt increased over time from fresh water to the limits of marine conditions. In the long term, the combination of high diversity and obligate sexuality was most effective in supporting evolutionary rescue. Most of the adaptation to high-salt environments in the obligate sexual-high diversity lines had occurred by midway through the experiment, indicating that positive genetic correlations of adaptation to lethal stress with adaptation to sublethal stress greatly increased the probability of evolutionary rescue. The evolutionary rescue events observed in this study provide evidence that major shifts in ways of life can arise within short time frames through the action of natural selection in sexual populations. PMID:23106714

Lachapelle, Josianne; Bell, Graham

2012-11-01

297

Healthy sex and sexual health: new directions for studying outcomes of sexual health.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social health, and identity outcomes; examining both intraindividual and interindividual differences in outcomes; recognizing the romantic relationship context of sexual behavior; and understanding how sexual media may impact sexual health outcomes. We suggest new directions for studying sexual health outcomes, such as studying behaviors beyond vaginal sex and condom use, new methodologies such as latent class analysis, sophisticated longitudinal designs, and collection and analysis of dyadic data. We recommend research on populations underrepresented in sexual health research such as late adolescents who do not attend traditional universities and adolescents from ethnic/racial minorities. Finally, we consider future directions for sexuality education and prevention efforts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24962364

Lefkowitz, Eva S; Vasilenko, Sara A

2014-06-01

298

Analysis of sexually transmitted disease spreading in heterosexual and homosexual populations.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases can pose major health problems so scientists and health agencies are very concerned about the spread of these diseases. Sexually transmitted diseases spread through a network of contacts created by the formation of sexual partnerships. In the paper, the spreading of sexually transmitted diseases on bipartite scale-free graphs, representing heterosexual and homosexual contact networks, is considered. We propose an SIS model on sexual contact networks. We analytically derive the expression for the epidemic threshold and its dependence with the ratio of female and male in finite populations. It is shown that if the basic reproduction number R0 is less than 1 then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; if R0>1 then the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and there is a unique endemic equilibrium, which asymptotically attracts all nontrivial solutions. These theoretical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also carry out some sensitivity analysis of the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of various model parameters. PMID:23403371

Zhang, Juping; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Yuming

2013-04-01

299

Change in male secondary sexual characters in artificial interspecific hybrid populations.  

PubMed Central

The interfertile Hawaiian species Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura were hybridized, forming reciprocal populations; the SH hybrid line was begun with D. silvestris female parents, and the HS hybrid line was begun with D. heteroneura female parents. Mass laboratory cultures were maintained for 14 generations without artificial selection. The species differ strikingly in two male secondary sexual characters, head shape and foreleg tibial cilia number. These characters are known to be quantitative characters that are influenced by both sex-linked and autosomal factors and appear to be involved in sexual selection. In the later generations (4-14), head shape in SH flies changes significantly; cilia number changes in both SH and HS populations. In terms of the parental phenotypes, the SH population evolved toward a heteroneura-like head while simultaneously evolving toward a silvestris-like tibia. In the HS population, there was no significant change in head shape, but cilia number decreased, making it more like the parental heteroneura. Accordingly, these two secondary sexual characters pursue separate evolutionary pathways. We suggest that these changes are brought about by selection occurring naturally during the later generations.

Carson, H L; Val, F C; Templeton, A R

1994-01-01

300

The Prevalence, Coverage, & Emphasis of Serious Health Risks: A Content Analysis of Women's Magazines Targeting Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inequalities exist between the health statuses of the general population compared with minority sub-groups in the United States. Researchers suggest one environmental factor potentially effecting such inequalities is the uneven coverage of health information in the media. The following study is a content analysis of the health articles available in three popular women’s magazines, which target audiences across sub-populations. The

Shanna Tiffany Michelle Kurpe

2008-01-01

301

Acceptance and Mindfulness Techniques as Applied to Refugee and Ethnic Minority Populations with PTSD: Examples from "Culturally Adapted CBT"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we illustrate how we utilize acceptance and mindfulness techniques in our treatment (Culturally Adapted CBT, or CA-CBT) for traumatized refugees and ethnic minority populations. We present a Nodal Network Model (NNM) of Affect to explain the treatment's emphasis on body-centered mindfulness techniques and its focus on psychological…

Hinton, Devon E.; Pich, Vuth; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Otto, Michael W.

2013-01-01

302

Attitudes Towards Health Technologies for Telecare and Their Relationship To Successful Aging in a Community-Based Older Minority Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Examined attitudes and practices related to readiness and use of health technologies for telecare among an older minority population residing in affordable housing. Design and Methods: A model of successful aging based on Rowe and Kahn is used as a conceptual framework. Eighty-five respondents with an average age of 73 completed a self-administered survey that assessed receptivity to health

Elizabeth M. Bertera; Binh Q. Tran; Ellen M. Wuertz; Aisha A. Bonner

303

Spiritual and Religious Issues in Counseling Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations: An Introduction to the Special Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that because of the importance of spiritual and religious issues in the lives of many racial and ethnic minorities, this issue highlights salient considerations and themes when counseling such populations. Recommends that understanding these spiritual and religious issues may allow counselors to help identify a broader range of available…

Constantine, Madonna G.

1999-01-01

304

Proceedings of a National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations (Norfolk, Virginia, October 10-12, 1977).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Multicultural Seminar on Mental Retardation among Minority Disadvantaged Populations was initiated in response to concern about the root causes of mental retardation especially in mild forms which tend to be more prevalent and more devastating among persons living in depressed, disrupted, and impoverished environments. Nineteen papers…

President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

305

Impact of Inorganic Arsenic Exposure on the Differential Health Burden faced by Minority, Low-income, and Indigenous Populations  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to low concentrations of inorganic arsenic in water, food, soil, and air, although exposure to higher levels of inorganic arsenic may occur in certain communities. Minority, low-income, and indigenous populations often have higher chem...

306

Homogeneity and Synchronous Dynamics of Microbial Communities in Particulate Biofilms: from Major Populations to Minor Groups  

PubMed Central

Natural or engineered microbial populations often show variations over time. These variations may be due to environmental fluctuations or intrinsic factors. Thus, studying the dynamics of microbial diversity for different communities living in a spatially homogeneous landscape is of interest. As a model ecosystem, nitrifying biofilm communities were grown in a two litre inverse turbulent bed reactor (ITBR) containing an estimated 200 million small particles (about 150 ?m in diameter). Each particulate biofilm is considered as a distinct community growing in the neighborhood of other similar particles, in a homogeneous and well-controlled environmental context. A molecular approach was adopted to test how microbial community structures might evolve: either in synchrony, converging or diverging. The shape of biofilm was observed by microscopy for each particle. The biomass content was evaluated by quantitative PCR and showed similar values for each particle. The microbial community structure was evaluated by Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting and showed extraordinary homogeneity between particles, even though transitory community structures were observed when reactor operating conditions were modified. This homogeneity was observed for the Bacteria primer set but, more interestingly, was also observed when minor non-nitrifying bacteria making up the biofilm, representing about 5% and 10% of total cells, were targeted.

Gevaudan, Gaelle; Hamelin, Jerome; Dabert, Patrick; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Bernet, Nicolas

2012-01-01

307

The Relationship Between Sexual Minority Verbal Harassment and Utilization of Health Services: Results from Countywide Risk Assessment Survey (CRAS) 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine the prevalence of and associations between sexual orientation–based verbal harassment and reported utilization of health services across levels of sexual orientation in a diverse sample of adult recipients of Los Angeles County–funded HIV-related health and social services. Thirty-two percent reported they had experienced verbal harassment, the majority (80.3%) of whom identified as lesbian, gay, or

Laura Hoyt DAnna; Hannah-Hanh D. Nguyen; Grace L. Reynolds; Dennis G. Fisher; Michael Janson; Cristy Chen; C. Kevin Malotte

2012-01-01

308

Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations.

Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Beria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andreia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

2009-01-01

309

Sexual Selection by Male Choice in Monogamous and Polygynous Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical possibility of coevolution of a viability-reducing female physical trait and a male mating preference for that trait by Fisherian sexual selection in monogamous and polygynous populations is demonstrated using two-locus haploid models. It is assumed that there is dichotomous variation in male resources, resource-rich males have a wider choice among females than resource-poor males, and a female has

Yasuo Ihara; Kenichi Aoki

1999-01-01

310

Assessing the Validity of Sexual Behaviour Reports in a Whole Population Survey in Rural Malawi  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual behaviour surveys are widely used, but under-reporting of particular risk behaviours is common, especially by women. Surveys in whole populations provide an unusual opportunity to understand the extent and nature of such under-reporting. Methods All consenting individuals aged between 15 and 59 within a demographic surveillance site in northern Malawi were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Validity of responses was assessed by analysis of probing questions; by comparison of results with in-depth interviews and with Herpes simplex type-2 (HSV-2) seropositivity; by comparing reports to same sex and opposite sex interviewers; and by quantifying the partnerships within the local community reported by men and by women, adjusted for response rates. Results 6,796 women and 5,253 men (83% and 72% of those eligible) consented and took part in sexual behaviour interviews. Probing questions and HSV-2 antibody tests in those who denied sexual activity identified under-reporting for both men and women. Reports varied little by sex or age of the interviewer. The number of marital partnerships reported was comparable for men and women, but men reported about 4 times as many non-marital partnerships. The discrepancy in reporting of non-marital partnerships was most marked for married women (men reported about 7 times as many non-marital partnerships with married women as were reported by married women themselves), but was only apparent in younger married women. Conclusions We have shown that the under-reporting of non-marital partnerships by women was strongly age-dependent. The extent of under-reporting of sexual activity by young men was surprisingly high. The results emphasise the importance of triangulation, including biomarkers, and the advantages of considering a whole population.

Glynn, Judith R.; Kayuni, Ndoliwe; Banda, Emmanuel; Parrott, Fiona; Floyd, Sian; Francis-Chizororo, Monica; Nkhata, Misheck; Tanton, Clare; Hemmings, Joanne; Molesworth, Anna; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil

2011-01-01

311

Special Populations Networks--how this innovative community-based initiative affected minority and underserved research programs.  

PubMed

The Special Populations Networks (SPN) Program was created to address both community needs for cancer information and NCI's desire to obtain community-based answers to research questions and promote training opportunities for racial/ethnic minority and underserved researchers in populations with an unequal burden of cancer. The SPN program included 3 components: 1) infrastructure and capacity building combined with cancer awareness, 2) community-based research, and 3) community-centered training. The 18 SPN grantees conducted more than 1000 cancer awareness activities. More than 2000 community lay health workers were trained. Communities formalized more than 300 partnerships with Memoranda of Understanding (MOU). More than 255 pilot research project applications were submitted by junior researchers and over 135 were funded. Approximately 90% of the applications were submitted by minority junior researchers; of which more than 100 were funded. More than 290 scientific publications thus far have resulted from the work of the SPNs. In the first 3 years of the program, the SPNs also secured an additional $20 million in outside funding. The SPN program effected a paradigm shift for minority research programs by combining community-based cancer awareness, research, and training into a single program. By engaging research leaders of minority and underserved populations to aid their own, train their own, and develop research to help their own, the SPN program activated the power of their commitment to their own. That commitment was reflected in the trust and participation offered by their communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society. PMID:16944469

Jackson, Frank E; Chu, Kenneth C; Garcia, Roland

2006-10-15

312

Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture.

Travnicek, Pavel; Jersakova, Jana; Kubatova, Barbora; Krejcikova, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lucanova, Magdalena; Krajnikova, Eva; Tesitelova, Tamara; Stipkova, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedren, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Curn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

2012-01-01

313

Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

Walker, Gabriela

2008-01-01

314

INCREASING CULTURALLY COMPETENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES FOR ETHNIC MINORITY POPULATIONS: A CALL TO ACTION  

PubMed Central

US demographic and sociopolitical shifts have resulted in a rapidly growing need for culturally competent neuropsychological services. However, clinical neuropsychology as a field has not kept pace with the needs of ethnic minority clients. In this discussion we review: historical precedents and the limits of universalism in neuropsychology; ethical/professional guidelines pertinent to neuropsychological practice with ethnic minority clients; critical cultural considerations in neuropsychology; current disparities germane to practice; and challenges to the provision of services to racial/ethnic minority clients. We provide a call to action for neuropsychologists and related organizations to advance multiculturalism and diversity within the field by increasing multicultural awareness and knowledge, multicultural education and training, multicultural neuropsychological research, and the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services to racial/ethnic minority clients. Lastly, we discuss strategies for increasing the provision of culturally competent neuropsychological services, and offer several resources to meet these goals.

Mindt, Monica Rivera; Byrd, Desiree; Saez, Pedro; Manly, Jennifer

2010-01-01

315

Challenges Faced by Homeless Sexual Minorities: Comparison of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Homeless Adolescents With Their Heterosexual Counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The goal of this study was to identify differences between gay, lesbian, bi- sexual, and transgender (GLBT) homeless youths and their heterosexual counterparts in terms of physical and mental health difficulties. Methods. A sample of 84 GLBT adolescents was matched in regard to age and self- reported gender with 84 heterosexual adolescents. The 2 samples were compared on a

Bryan N. Cochran; Angela J. Stewart; Joshua A. Ginzler; Ana Mari Cauce

2002-01-01

316

Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  European studies about ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms are scarce, show inconclusive results and are complicated\\u000a by the discussion of what constitute (im)migrant and ethnic minority groups. Moreover, comparisons across countries are hampered\\u000a by a lack of comparable measures of depressive symptoms. This study aims to assess the prevalence and determinants of depressive\\u000a symptoms among immigrants, ethnic minorities and natives

Sarah Missinne; Piet Bracke

317

High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites.

Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

2009-01-01

318

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidty and Mortality Weekly Repor, Early Release, Vo.l. 60.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk ...

2011-01-01

319

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Surveillance Summaries, Volume 60, No. 7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk ...

D. Chyen E. O. Olsen H. Wechsler L. Kann S. Kinchen T. McManus W. A. Harris

2011-01-01

320

Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors Among Students in Grades 9-12 - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Mobility and Morality Weekly Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the hea...

D. Chyen E. O. Olsen H. Wechsler L. Kann S. Kinchen T. McManus W. A. Harris

2011-01-01

321

Changes and Correlates in Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Chinese Adult Women----Population Based Surveys in 2000 and 2006  

PubMed Central

The sexual transmission of HIV and STI is becoming a major public health concern in China. However, studies on sexuality in China remain scant, particularly those that analyze female sexuality. This study is to investigate the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships among adult women, and to examine trends and correlates for having more than one lifetime sexual partner. Multiple sexual partnership (MSP), coded as having one or none vs. two or more lifetime sexual partners, was the key binary outcome measure. The data were from two national probability surveys on sexual behaviors in China carried out in 2000 and 2006. The sample size of adult women was 1899 in 2000 (total sample n= 3812), and 2626 in 2006 (n=5404). Overall prevalence of MSP increased from 8.1% in 2000 to 29.6% in 2006 (Chi-square test, sig.=0.000). The most rapid changes took place among women with less education, those who worked in blue collar jobs and lower social status positions, and those living in rural areas or small towns. Women who were better educated, lived in big cities, and held management level occupations exhibited less change but had a higher baselines prevalence of MSP, suggesting that changes in MSP behavior may occur initially among women of higher socioeconomic status. Based on the 2006 dataset, significant positive correlates of MSP included more years of education, being in a long-term relationship, being middle aged, having a lower status job, going out dancing at entertainments venues, and being a state of overall health in the past 12 months. The significant recent increase in MSP among women reinforces the need to examine China’s sexual revolution in the context of a rapidly transitioning society. Findings regarding female sexuality also raise new questions to be explored in further sexuality studies, in order to better understand population sexual behaviors and to inform future HIV prevention efforts.

Yingying, Huang; Smith, Kumi; Suiming, Pan

2011-01-01

322

The Role of Sexual Selection and Conflict in Mediating Among-Population Variation in Mating Strategies and Sexually Dimorphic Traits in Sepsis punctum  

PubMed Central

The black scavenger fly Sepsis punctum exhibits striking among-population variation in the direction and magnitude of sexual size dimorphism, modification to the male forelimb and pre-copulatory behaviour. In some populations, male-biased sexual size dimorphism is observed; in other, less dimorphic, populations males court prior to mating. Such variation in reproductive traits is of interest to evolutionary biologists because it has the potential to limit gene flow among populations, contributing to speciation. Here, we investigate whether large male body size and modified forefemur are associated with higher male mating success within populations, whether these traits are associated with higher mating success among populations, and if these traits carry viability costs that could constrain their response to sexual selection. Flies from five distinct populations were reared at high or low food, generating high and low quality males. The expression of body size, forelimb morphology and courtship rate were each greater at high food, but high food males experienced higher mating success or reduced latency to first copulation in only one of the populations. Among populations, overall mating success increased with the degree of male-bias in overall body size and forelimb modification, suggesting that these traits have evolved as a means of increasing male mating rate. The increased mating success observed in large-male populations raises the question of why variation in magnitude of dimorphism persists among populations. One reason may be that costs of producing a large size constrain the evolution of ever-larger males. We found no evidence that juvenile mortality under food stress was greater for large-male populations, but development time was considerably longer and may represent an important constraint in an ephemeral and competitive growth environment.

Dmitriew, Caitlin; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

2012-01-01

323

Increased risk of prostate cancer following sexually transmitted infection in an Asian population.  

PubMed

The relationship between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prostate cancer (PC) remains inconclusive. Moreover, all such studies to date have been conducted in Western populations. This study aimed to investigate the risk of PC following STI using a population-based matched-cohort design in Taiwan. The study cohort comprised 1055 patients with STIs, and 10 550 randomly selected subjects were used as a comparison cohort. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the hazard ratio for PC during the 5-year follow-up period for patients with a STI was 1.95 (95% confidence interval 1.18-3.23), that of comparison subjects after adjusting for urbanization level, geographical region, monthly income, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity, chronic prostatitis, history of vasectomy, tobacco use disorder, and alcohol abuse. We concluded that the risk of PC was higher for men who were diagnosed with a STI in an Asian population. PMID:23461984

Chung, S D; Lin, Y K; Huang, C C; Lin, H C

2013-12-01

324

Phenology of Scramble Polygyny in a Wild Population of Chrysolemid Beetles: The Opportunity for and the Strength of Sexual Selection  

PubMed Central

Recent debate has highlighted the importance of estimating both the strength of sexual selection on phenotypic traits, and the opportunity for sexual selection. We describe seasonal fluctuations in mating dynamics of Leptinotarsa undecimlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We compared several estimates of the opportunity for, and the strength of, sexual selection and male precopulatory competition over the reproductive season. First, using a null model, we suggest that the ratio between observed values of the opportunity for sexual selections and their expected value under random mating results in unbiased estimates of the actual nonrandom mating behavior of the population. Second, we found that estimates for the whole reproductive season often misrepresent the actual value at any given time period. Third, mating differentials on male size and mobility, frequency of male fighting and three estimates of the opportunity for sexual selection provide contrasting but complementary information. More intense sexual selection associated to male mobility, but not to male size, was observed in periods with high opportunity for sexual selection and high frequency of male fights. Fourth, based on parameters of spatial and temporal aggregation of female receptivity, we describe the mating system of L. undecimlineata as a scramble mating polygyny in which the opportunity for sexual selection varies widely throughout the season, but the strength of sexual selection on male size remains fairly weak, while male mobility inversely covaries with mating success. We suggest that different estimates for the opportunity for, and intensity of, sexual selection should be applied in order to discriminate how different behavioral and demographic factors shape the reproductive dynamic of populations.

Baena, Martha Lucia; Macias-Ordonez, Rogelio

2012-01-01

325

Historically Black Medical Schools: Addressing the Minority Health Professional Pipeline and the Public Mission of Care For Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Substantial changes in not only access to care, cost, and quality of care, but also health professions education are needed to ensure effective national healthcare reform. Since the actionable determinants of health such as personal beliefs and behaviors, socioeconomic factors, and the environment disproportionately affect the poor (and often racial/ethnic minorities), many have suggested that focusing efforts on this population will both directly and indirectly improve the overall health of the nation. Key to the success of such strategies are the ongoing efforts by historically black medical schools (HBMSs) as well as other minority serving medical and health professional schools, who produce a disproportionate percentage of the high-quality and diverse health professionals that are dedicated to maintaining the health of an increasingly diverse nation. Despite their public mission, HBMSs receive limited public support threatening their ability to not only meet the increasing minority health workforce needs but to even sustain their existing contributions. Substantial changes in health education policy and funding are needed to ensure HBMSs as well as other minority-serving medical and health professional schools can continue to produce the diverse, high-quality health professional workforce necessary to maintain the health of an increasingly diverse nation. We explore several model initiatives including focused partnerships with legislative and business leaders that are urgently needed to ensure the ability of HBMSs to maintain their legacy of providing compassionate, quality care to the communities in greatest need.

Norris, Keith C.; Baker, Richard S.; Taylor, Robert; Montgomery-Rice, Valerie; Higginbotham, Eve J.; Riley, Wayne J.; Maupin, John; Drew-Ivie, Sylvia; Reede, Joan Y.; Gibbons, Gary

2013-01-01

326

Sociological Theories Relating to Mental Disabilities in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has demonstrated that mental disorders are one of the leading causes of disability in the United States. The level of mental health need is particularly high for members of racial and ethnic minority groups who, despite similar to higher mental disorder and disability prevalence rates, use fewer mental health services in comparison to whites and tend to receive poorer

Carol J. Peng

2009-01-01

327

The Unique Leadership Needs of Minority Student Populations: Crafting a Leadership Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to determine how college-level minority student leaders make meaning of those leadership experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 students. Major findings noted a strong personal motivation to participate in student leadership positions. Further research on the impact of familial…

Baughman, Kristen N.; Bruce, Jacklyn

2011-01-01

328

Introducing Human Sexuality into the Population Education Curriculum. The State-of-the-Art. Population Education Research Utilization Monograph Series 1 Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores one problem area that hampers the introduction and acceptance of sex education in schools. Specifically, the paper reviews problems related to the human sexuality component of population education programs in the Philippines. Research on the experiences of the Population Education Program (PEP) is discussed, as well as research…

Villanueva, Carmelita L.; Arellano-Reyes, Ma. Felicitas

329

Intragenomic conflict in populations infected by Parthenogenesis Inducing Wolbachia ends with irreversible loss of sexual reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background The maternally inherited, bacterial symbiont, parthenogenesis inducing (PI) Wolbachia, causes females in some haplodiploid insects to produce daughters from both fertilized and unfertilized eggs. The symbionts, with their maternal inheritance, benefit from inducing the production of exclusively daughters, however the optimal sex ratio for the nuclear genome is more male-biased. Here we examine through models how an infection with PI-Wolbachia in a previously uninfected population leads to a genomic conflict between PI-Wolbachia and the nuclear genome. In most natural populations infected with PI-Wolbachia the infection has gone to fixation and sexual reproduction is impossible, specifically because the females have lost their ability to fertilize eggs, even when mated with functional males. Results The PI Wolbachia infection by itself does not interfere with the fertilization process in infected eggs, fertilized infected eggs develop into biparental infected females. Because of the increasingly female-biased sex ratio in the population during a spreading PI-Wolbachia infection, sex allocation alleles in the host that cause the production of more sons are rapidly selected. In haplodiploid species a reduced fertilization rate leads to the production of more sons. Selection for the reduced fertilization rate leads to a spread of these alleles through both the infected and uninfected population, eventually resulting in the population becoming fixed for both the PI-Wolbachia infection and the reduced fertilization rate. Fertilization rate alleles that completely interfere with fertilization ("virginity alleles") will be selected over alleles that still allow for some fertilization. This drives the final resolution of the conflict: the irreversible loss of sexual reproduction and the complete dependence of the host on its symbiont. Conclusions This study shows that dependence among organisms can evolve rapidly due to the resolution of the conflicts between cytoplasmic and nuclear genes, and without requiring a mutualism between the partners.

2010-01-01

330

Evaluation of the potential for sexual reproduction in field populations of Cercospora beticola from USA.  

PubMed

Cercospora leaf spot, caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is the most economically damaging foliar disease of sugarbeet worldwide. Although most C. beticola populations display characteristics reminiscent of sexual recombination, no teleomorph has been described. To assess whether populations in northern United States have characteristics consistent with sexual reproduction, 1024 isolates collected over a 3-y period were analyzed for frequency and distribution of mating type genes. After clone correction, an approximately equal distribution of mating types was found for each sampling year. Mating type frequency was also assessed in individual lesions. Lesions always consisted of isolates with a single mating type and microsatellite haplotype, but both mating types and up to five microsatellite haplotypes could be found on an individual leaf. The MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes were sequenced from 28 MAT1-1 and 28 MAT1-2 isolates, respectively. Three MAT1-1-1 nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded a single amino acid sequence. For MAT1-2-1, five nucleotide haplotypes were identified that encoded four protein variants. MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 gene expression analyses were conducted on plants inoculated with either or both mating types. MAT1-1-1 expression remained low, but MAT1-2-1 spiked during late stages of colonization. A segment of the MAT1-2-1 coding sequence was also found in MAT1-1 isolates. Taken together, these results suggest that C. beticola has the potential for sexual reproduction. PMID:22483049

Bolton, Melvin D; Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana; Weiland, John J; Rudolph, Kurt; Birla, Keshav; Rengifo, Judith; Campbell, Larry G

2012-04-01

331

Differing Mechanisms Underlie Sexual Size-Dimorphism in Two Populations of a Sex-Changing Fish  

PubMed Central

Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained.

McCormick, Mark I.; Ryen, Christopher A.; Munday, Philip L.; Walker, Stefan P. W.

2010-01-01

332

Differing mechanisms underlie sexual size-dimorphism in two populations of a sex-changing fish.  

PubMed

Variability in the density of groups within a patchy environment lead to differences in interaction rates, growth dynamics and social organization. In protogynous hermaphrodites there are hypothesised trade-offs among sex-specific growth, reproductive output and mortality. When differences in density lead to changes to social organization the link between growth and the timing of sex-change is predicted to change. The present study explores this prediction by comparing the social organisation and sex-specific growth of two populations of a protogynous tropical wrasse, Halichoeres miniatus, which differ in density. At a low density population a strict harem structure was found, where males maintained a tight monopoly of access and spawning rights to females. In contrast, at a high density population a loosely organised system prevailed, where females could move throughout multiple male territories. Otolith microstructure revealed the species to be annual and deposit an otolith check associated with sex-change. Growth trajectories suggested that individuals that later became males in both populations underwent a growth acceleration at sex-change. Moreover, in the high density population, individuals that later became males were those individuals that had the largest otolith size at hatching and consistently deposited larger increments throughout early larval, juvenile and female life. This study demonstrates that previous growth history and growth rate changes associated with sex change can be responsible for the sexual dimorphism typically found in sex-changing species, and that the relative importance of these may be socially constrained. PMID:20485547

McCormick, Mark I; Ryen, Christopher A; Munday, Philip L; Walker, Stefan P W

2010-01-01

333

Ionizing stellar population in the disc of NGC 3310 - I. The impact of a minor merger on galaxy evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of minor mergers predict little enhancement in the global star formation activity. However, it is still unclear the impact they have on the chemical state of the whole galaxy and on the mass build-up in the galaxy bulge and disc. We present a two-dimensional analysis of NCG 3310, currently undergoing an intense starburst likely caused by a recent minor interaction, using data from the PPAK Integral Field Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxies Survey (PINGS). With data from a large sample of about a hundred H II regions identified throughout the disc and spiral arms, we derive, using strong-line metallicity indicators and direct derivations, a rather flat gaseous abundance gradient. Thus, metal mixing processes occurred, as in observed galaxy interactions. Spectra from PINGS data and additional multiwavelength imaging were used to perform a spectral energy distribution fitting to the stellar emission and a photoionization modelling of the nebulae. The ionizing stellar population is characterized by single populations with a narrow age range (2.5-5 Myr) and a broad range of masses (104-6 × 106 M?). The effect of dust grains in the nebulae is important, indicating that 25-70 per cent of the ultraviolet photons can be absorbed by dust. The ionizing stellar population within the H II regions represents typically a few per cent of the total stellar mass. This ratio, a proxy to the specific star formation rate, presents a flat or negative radial gradient. Therefore, minor interactions may indeed play an important role in the mass build-up of the bulge.

Miralles-Caballero, D.; Díaz, A. I.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Sánchez, S. F.

2014-05-01

334

Impact of black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) on a local population of Euphorbia bothae in the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Great Fish River Reserve, South Africa, black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor) feed extensively on a local population of Euphorbia bothae. Maintaining the endangered black rhinoceros and the protected E. bothae population are both conservation priorities of the reserve. Therefore, the sustainability of this plant–animal interaction was investigated by comparing population characteristics, browsing incidence and intensity within the reserve

Bodina L. Luske; Tonja Mertens; Peter C. Lent; Boer de W. F; Herbert H. T. Prins

2009-01-01

335

Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

2011-01-01

336

Prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal: results of a population-based study using a stratified sample of men aged 18 to 70 years.  

PubMed

Despite the use of different methodologies, target populations, and clinical definitions of sexual problems, recent epidemiological studies have shown that the occurrence of sexual difficulties is a very common experience among men from the general population regardless of their age. The objective of this study was to present epidemiological data on the prevalence of sexual difficulties in a community sample of 650 sexually active Portuguese men, stratified by age, marital status, and educational level. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire assessing sexual function in the previous four weeks (International Index of Erectile Function). Results showed that sexual difficulties were relatively common among this sample. Rapid ejaculation was the most frequently reported sexual difficulty (23.2%), followed by erectile difficulties (10.2%), orgasm problems (8.2%), and low desire (2.9%) in the previous four weeks. With the exception of rapid ejaculation, all categories showed age-specific prevalence rates, with sexual difficulties increasing gradually in men above age 45. Age was a significant predictor of all sexual difficulties except rapid ejaculation, and lower educational levels were related to orgasm difficulties. Findings are consistent with the majority of epidemiological studies indicating a high prevalence of sexual difficulties among men in the general population and highlight the importance and the need to implement sexual health promotion programs in the target population. PMID:23573897

Quinta Gomes, Ana Luísa; Nobre, Pedro J

2014-01-01

337

Attributes of Researchers and their Strategies to Recruit Minority Populations: Results of a National Survey  

PubMed Central

Despite NIH mandates for inclusion, recruiting minorities is challenging for biomedical and public health researchers. Little is known about how attributes of researchers affect their choice of recruitment strategies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap by examining how use of recruitment strategies relates to other researcher characteristics. To do this, we conducted an online survey from May to August 2010 with researchers (principal investigators, research staff, and IRB members) in which we measured the number and types of recruitment strategies utilized, along with other characteristics of the researchers and their research. We identified two clusters of researchers: comprehensive researchers who utilized a greater number and more diverse and active recruitment strategies, and traditional researchers, who utilized fewer and more passive strategies. Additional characteristics that distinguished the two groups were that comprehensive researchers were more likely than traditional researchers to 1) report racial and ethnic differences as one of their specific aims or hypotheses, 2) receive federal (CDC and NIH) funding, 3) conduct behavioral or epidemiological research, and 4) have received training in conducting research with and recruiting minorities. Traditional researchers, on the other hand, were more likely to conduct clinical research and a greater (though non-significant) percentage received funding from pharmaceutical sources. This study provides a novel description of how researcher attributes are related to their recruitment strategies and raises a number of future research questions to further examine the implications of this relationship.

Quinn, Sandra Crouse; Butler, James; Fryer, Craig S.; Garza, Mary A.; Kim, Kevin H.; Ryan, Christopher; Thomas, Stephen B.

2012-01-01

338

Variable predation regimes predict the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a population of threespine stickleback.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is widespread in nature and can be influenced by sex-specific natural selection resulting from ecological differences between the sexes. Here we show that contrasting life-history pressures and temporal shifts in ecology can exert a strong influence on the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The bony spines exhibited by stickleback are a defense against open-water avian predators but may be detrimental against benthic macroinvertebrate predators. Female stickleback from a coastal lake in western Canada occupy a more open-water ecological niche and exhibit greater dorsal and pelvic spine number than males, but the magnitude of these differences varies among life-history stages, seasons, and years. Ecological data on diet and parasite load and 62 seasonal estimates of selection over a 15-year period show that selection favors increased spine number in females and decreased spine number in males, but only when pronounced ecological differences between the sexes results in differential exposure to the two, divergent predation regimes. Thus occasional sex-reversals in ecological niche reversed the mode of selection. These processes caused a predictable response in the subsequent generation, indicating that divergent predation caused evolutionary change in dimorphism. However, temporal oscillations in sex-specific selection resulted in no net change in sexual dimorphism over the 15-year study period, indicating that fluctuations in directional selection can be responsible for long-term stasis. Replicated shifts in selective regime can demonstrate the primacy of ecological processes in driving evolution and our results illustrate how such shifts are detectable using long-term monitoring of natural populations. PMID:15266976

Reimchen, T E; Nosil, P

2004-06-01

339

Research article Haplogroup distribution of Hungarian population and the largest minority group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Testing of 49 Y-SNP loci with TaqMan assays were completed in 119 independent Hungarian, 61 Hungarian Romani and 29 Tiszavasvari Hungarian Romani male samples. Haplogroup diversity values were calculated and the populations were compared to each other with G-test. The two Romani populations were not significantly different from each other, when their haplogroup frequencies were compared (p = 0.01). The

Antonia Volgyi; Andrea Zalan; Judit Beres; Yuet Meng Chang; Horolma Pamjav

340

Detecting Genetic Isolation in Human Populations: A Study of European Language Minorities  

PubMed Central

The identification of isolation signatures is fundamental to better understand the genetic structure of human populations and to test the relations between cultural factors and genetic variation. However, with current approaches, it is not possible to distinguish between the consequences of long-term isolation and the effects of reduced sample size, selection and differential gene flow. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated the analysis of classical genetic diversity measures with a Bayesian method to estimate gene flow and have carried out simulations based on the coalescent. Combining these approaches, we first tested whether the relatively short history of cultural and geographical isolation of four “linguistic islands” of the Eastern Alps (Lessinia, Sauris, Sappada and Timau) had left detectable signatures in their genetic structure. We then compared our findings to previous studies of European population isolates. Finally, we explored the importance of demographic and cultural factors in shaping genetic diversity among the groups under study. A combination of small initial effective size and continued genetic isolation from surrounding populations seems to provide a coherent explanation for the diversity observed among Sauris, Sappada and Timau, which was found to be substantially greater than in other groups of European isolated populations. Simulations of micro-evolutionary scenarios indicate that ethnicity might have been important in increasing genetic diversity among these culturally related and spatially close populations.

Capocasa, Marco; Battaggia, Cinzia; Anagnostou, Paolo; Montinaro, Francesco; Boschi, Ilaria; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alu, Milena; Coia, Valentina; Crivellaro, Federica; Bisol, Giovanni Destro

2013-01-01

341

Feasibility of testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in a general population sexual behaviour survey in Slovenia.  

PubMed

Our objective was to assess the feasibility of integrating first void urine (FVU) specimens testing for Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection into a general population sexual behaviour survey. A total of 752 randomly selected respondents aged 18 to 54 were enrolled into the survey. Face to face interviewing with self-administered sensitive questions was used. Overall survey response rate was 77.4%. A convenience sub-sample of 83 respondents were invited to provide FVU specimens for confidential testing for C. trachomatis genitourinary infection. Fifty-five complied. This resulted in 66% FVU specimen participation rate among targeted respondents. Two specimens tested positive by Amplicor polymerase chain reaction. High feasibility study overall response rate indicated good acceptability of the survey. It proved feasible to collect FVU specimens for C. trachomatis testing in the small sub-sample. Consequently, we proceeded with integration of testing for C. trachomatis into the ongoing main survey. PMID:12537716

Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L C; Wellings, K; Kese, D; Svab, I

2002-12-01

342

Recessive mutations from natural populations of Neurospora crassa that are expressed in the sexual diplophase.  

PubMed

Wild-collected isolates of Neurospora crassa Shear and Dodge were systematically examined for recessive mutations affecting the sexual phase of the life cycle, which is essentially diploid. Seventy-four of 99 wild-collected isolates from 26 populations in the United States, India and Pakistan carried one or more recessive mutations that reduced fertility significantly when homozygous; mutations affecting spore morphology were also detected. Limited complementation tests indicate that most of the 106 recovered mutations are unique.--The recessive diplophase (= sexual phase) mutations were uncovered by crossing each wild-collected isolate to a marked two-chromosome double-reciprocal translocation strain as "balancer." Surviving progeny receive approximately 60% of their genome from the wild parent, but receive the mating-type allele from the "balancer" parent. These progeny were backcrossed to the wild parent and were also crossed with a standard laboratory strain (fl). Reduced fertility in the backcross vs. normal fertility in the cross with the laboratory standard signals the presence of a recessive mutation in the wild-collected isolate.--Most of the mutants (95 of 106) fall into two major classes: those producing barren perithecia with no or few viable ascospores (51) and those with spore maturation defects (44). Most of the recessive barrens result either from an early block in meiosis of ascus development (25) or from a late disturbance in postmeiotic ascus behavior (18).--These recessive mutations are formally equivalent to recessive lethals in higher eukaryotes and may be important in determining the breeding structure of natural Neurospora populations. PMID:2933298

Leslie, J F; Raju, N B

1985-12-01

343

"Maricón," "pájaro," and "loca": Cuban and Puerto Rican linguistic practices, and sexual minority participation, in U.S. Santería.  

PubMed

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the United States are, to varying degrees, practitioners of the Afro-Cuban religion popularly known as Santería. Cuban and Puerto Rican forms of referencing LGBT populations are illustrated in this article, which is drawing from interviews and participant observation conducted in the United States, with close to 30 practitioners, many of whom were Cuban, Cuban American, and Puerto Rican. I discuss the ways in which Santería gatherings produce an alternative use of otherwise stigmatized language for "gay" practitioners. Through the use of distinctive language to reference all of these populations, we may rethink the relationship between identities and practices, and within that, gender presentations vis a vis identities. PMID:21740217

Vidal-Ortiz, Salvador

2011-01-01

344

Sexual Segregation in Juvenile New Zealand Sea Lion Foraging Ranges: Implications for Intraspecific Competition, Population Dynamics and Conservation  

PubMed Central

Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account sex differences in foraging behaviour, as well as differential threat-risk to external impacts such as fisheries bycatch.

Leung, Elaine S.; Chilvers, B. Louise; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Moore, Antoni B.; Robertson, Bruce C.

2012-01-01

345

Up in Smoke: Vanishing Evidence of Tobacco Disparities in the Institute of Medicine's Report on Sexual and Gender Minority Health  

PubMed Central

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a groundbreaking report on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health in 2011, finding limited evidence of tobacco disparities. We examined IOM search terms and used 2 systematic reviews to identify 71 articles on LGBT tobacco use. The IOM omitted standard tobacco-related search terms. The report also omitted references to studies on LGBT tobacco use (n = 56), some with rigorous designs. The IOM report may underestimate LGBT tobacco use compared with general population use.

Lee, Joseph G. L.; Blosnich, John R.; Melvin, Cathy L.

2013-01-01

346

Sexual Orientation and Outcomes in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been well documented that sexual minority individuals are significantly more likely to be college educated than heterosexual individuals [Black, D., Gates, G., Sanders, S., & Taylor, L. (2000). Demographics of the gay and lesbian population in the United States: Evidence from available systematic data sources. "Demography," 37(2), 139-154;…

Carpenter, Christopher S.

2009-01-01

347

Relationship of sexual orientation to substance use, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and other factors in a population of homeless adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To explore the relationship of sexual orientation and gender to four sets of factors: (a) family history, (b) incarceration, (c) substance use, and (d) depression and suicide, in a population of homeless adolescents.Methods: A sample of homeless adolescents was recruited in Portland, Oregon and assessed using semi-structured interviews at baseline, three months and six months. A total of 532

John W Noell; Linda M Ochs

2001-01-01

348

Association of sexual problems with social, psychological, and physical problems in men and women: a cross sectional population survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of sexual problems with social, physical, and psychological problems. DESIGN: An anonymous postal questionnaire survey. SETTING: Four general practices in England. PARTICIPANTS: 789 men and 979 women responding to a questionnaire sent to a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). MAIN RESULTS: Strong physical, social, and psychological associations were

K. M. Dunn; P. R. Croft; G. I. Hackett

1999-01-01

349

Minor physical anomalies in patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that minor physical anomalies (MPAs) may be associated with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether any items of MPAs are more associated with schizophrenia than the others. We aimed to examine which specific MPAs are more associated with schizophrenia than others. A total of 154 patients with schizophrenia and 152 healthy controls were assessed using candidate MPAs items along with items from the Waldrop scale. Significant differences were found between the patients and controls in inner canthal distance, epicanthus, adherent ear lobe, cuspidal ear and length difference from section index to ring finger (2D:4D length difference) as well as gap between the first and the second toes. These six items were selected by the logistic regression model, which correctly classified 89.0% of patients with schizophrenia (sensitivity) and 96.7% of healthy controls (specificity). The overall classification success rate was 92.8%. MPAs are associated with neurodevelopment, especially 2D:4D associated with cerebral lateralisation. Hence, our present findings support that it is necessary to evaluate MPAs beyond the Waldrop scale, as some item, such as 2D:4D length difference may reflect the more detailed aberrant neurodevelopment of schizophrenia. PMID:22884216

Lin, Yin; Ma, Xiaohong; Deng, Wei; Han, Yuanyuan; Li, Mingli; Liu, Xiang; Loh, El-Wui; Li, Tao

2012-12-30

350

Toward Global Comparability of Sexual Orientation Data in Official Statistics: A Conceptual Framework of Sexual Orientation for Health Data Collection in New Zealand's Official Statistics System  

PubMed Central

Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens.

Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.

2013-01-01

351

Up in smoke: vanishing evidence of tobacco disparities in the Institute of Medicine's report on sexual and gender minority health.  

PubMed

The Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a groundbreaking report on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health in 2011, finding limited evidence of tobacco disparities. We examined IOM search terms and used 2 systematic reviews to identify 71 articles on LGBT tobacco use. The IOM omitted standard tobacco-related search terms. The report also omitted references to studies on LGBT tobacco use (n = 56), some with rigorous designs. The IOM report may underestimate LGBT tobacco use compared with general population use. PMID:22994185

Lee, Joseph G L; Blosnich, John R; Melvin, Cathy L

2012-11-01

352

Characteristics of childhood sexual abuse in a predominantly mexican-american population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little has been written about the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse among Mexican Americans. In addition, certain aspects of the epidemiology of reported sexual abuse in the United States have changed significantly over the past 12 years. To better understand how characteristics of sexual abuse vary with ethnicity, race, gender, and age, we reviewed the records of 2,130 children under

D. Michael Foulds

1995-01-01

353

Health of a Punjabi ethnic minority in Glasgow: a comparison with the general population.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare common health experiences of a South Asian (predominantly Punjabi) population with that of the general population, according to sex, and to related patterns of health in the fourth decade of life to the pattern of hospital admission and mortality documented in the published reports. DESIGN AND SETTING--A cross sectional survey with interviews and physical measures was undertaken in a two stage stratified random cluster sample in the city of Glasgow. SAMPLE--This comprised 159 South Asians aged 30-40 years, mean age 35 (73.6% of those invited) and 319 subjects from the general population, all aged 35 years. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Body structure, lung function, pulse and blood pressure, history of physical and mental health, results of standardised questionnaires on mental health, angina and respiratory health, recent and past symptoms, history of accidents, and sickness behaviour were determined. South Asians were shorter, broader, and more overweight (women); they had lower values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), a faster pulse, and higher diastolic pressure (men). Fewer South Asians had had accidents or digestive symptoms (men); more had psychosomatic and high total symptoms (women); fewer wore glasses, had lost teeth, or had long standing illness (men) (all p < 0.01). Women had a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS--South Asians were consistently disadvantaged only in terms of anthropometric measures. Otherwise, the many differences were balanced, with disadvantage being concentrated only among South Asian women. The health gap between sexes in South Asians seems higher than in the general population. The findings show patterns of health in the fourth decade of life which are consistent with patterns of hospital admission and mortality documented in the published reports.

Williams, R; Bhopal, R; Hunt, K

1993-01-01

354

Modeling Minority Stress Effects on Homelessness and Health Disparities among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.  

PubMed

Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population. PMID:24807702

Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

2014-06-01

355

Management strategies of iron accumulation in a captive population of black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor).  

PubMed

During routine health screens for black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis minor) in a captive setting, serum iron and ferritin were analyzed as well as total iron binding capacity and total iron saturation. Trends for ferritin and percent iron saturation showed steady increases since 2003 in four of four animals (three males; one female) with two animals (one male; one female) consistently showing higher elevations over conspecifics. The historical diet had been comprised of a commercial or in-house complete pelleted feed; several species of fresh browse, Bermuda grass, alfalfa and timothy hays, as well as enrichment and training items (apples, carrots, sweet potatoes, and a small amount of leafy greens and vegetables). In 2009, one of the three male rhinoceroses showed a threefold increase in ferritin and concurrently exhibited clinical signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, and disinterest in training. The lone female showed a twofold increase; she also became reproductively acyclic in the prior year. The male was immobilized for examination and phlebotomy. During the same time period, a new version of the complete pelleted feed, with a reduced amount of iron, was introduced. Subsequent to the diet change, the male's ferritin levels have consistently declined, and the female started cycling again. Even with these corrective steps to reduce iron levels, levels of iron saturation remained high, and ferritin levels were still above 1,500 ng/ml. Therapeutic phlebotomy was instituted via a rigorous training program that allowed phlebotomies over a 30-min time frame. This was possible because of a long-term training program for the animals, consistent training personnel, routine collection of samples on a monthly basis, and general comfort level of the animals in the restraint chute. The results of this integrated approach showed some significant improvements and an overall positive impact on the animals. PMID:23156710

Mylniczenko, Natalie D; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Corcoran, Michelle E; Fleming, Gregory J; Valdes, Eduardo V

2012-09-01

356

The perpetration of intimate partner violence among LGBTQ college youth: the role of minority stress.  

PubMed

Preliminary research suggests that partner violence is a problem among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) college youth. However, there is no study to date with college youth on the factors associated with perpetration of same-sex partner violence, which is needed to inform prevention efforts specific to this population. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to assess how facets of minority stress (i.e., sexual-orientation-related victimization, sexual minority stigma, internalized homonegativity, sexual identity concealment) relate to physical, sexual, and psychological partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ college youth (N = 391; 49% identified as men; 72% Caucasian; M age: 20.77 years). At the bivariate level, physical perpetration was related to identity concealment and internalized homonegativity; sexual perpetration was related to internalized homonegativity; and psychological perpetration was related to sexual-orientation-related victimization. However, at the multivariate level (after controlling for concurrent victimization), psychological perpetration was unrelated to minority stress variables, whereas physical and sexual perpetration were both related to internalized homonegativity; physical perpetration was also related to identity concealment. These results underscore the utility of understanding partner violence among LGBTQ youth through a minority stress framework. Moreover, the current study highlights the need for a better understanding of factors that mediate and moderate the relationship between minority stress and partner violence perpetration among LGBTQ youth in order to inform prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:23233160

Edwards, Katie M; Sylaska, Kateryna M

2013-11-01

357

Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant  

PubMed Central

Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5–1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex.

Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R.; Bacci, Mauricio; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D.; Mueller, Ulrich G.

2011-01-01

358

E2 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism is predictive for obesity status in Roma minority population of Croatia  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Roma (Gypsies) are a transnational minority, founder population characterized by unique genetic background modeled by culturally determined endogamy. The present study explores whether the widely found cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk effects of ACE I/D, APOE (?2, ?3, ?4), eNOS-VNTR and LEP G2548A polymorphisms can be replicated in this specific population. Methods and Results The community-based study was carried on 208 adult Bayash Roma living in rural settlements of eastern and northern Croatia. Risk effect of four CVD candidate polymorphisms are related to the most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes: obesity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference), hypertension and hyperlipidemia (triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol). For all of them the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The extent to which the phenotypic status is related to genotype was assessed by logistic regression analysis. The strongest associations were found for ?2 allele of the APOE as a predictor of waist circumference (OR 3.301; 95%CI 1.254-8.688; p = 0.016) as well as for BMI (OR 3.547; 95%CI 1.471-8.557; p = 0.005). It is notable that ?3 allele of APOE gene turned out to be a protective genetic factor determining low lipid levels. Conclusion The strength of the relation and the similarity of the results obtained for both tested indicators of obesity provide firm evidence that APOE plays an important role in obesity development in the Roma population.

2011-01-01

359

High prevalence of early childhood infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in a minority population in China.  

PubMed

In China, KSHV seroprevalence varies considerably among different regions and ethnicities. But in Xinjiang province, located in the northwestern China, there is a very high seroprevalence of KSHV in adults of Kazak and Ughur ethnicities. However, KSHV prevalence in children and the risk factors associated with the acquisition of infection are currently not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of KSHV infection and identify associated socioeconomic or behavioural risk factors and the humoral immune response among children in this population. This is a cross-sectional study (N = 178) to screen children and their caregivers from Xinjiang for total KSHV antibodies, KSHV neutralizing antibodies and HIV infection. Structured questionnaires were utilized to investigate risk factors associated with KSHV prevalence. KSHV seroprevalence in children and caregivers in Xinjiang was 48.3% and 64.7%, respectively. Neutralizing antibody was detected in most seropositive caregivers (93.8%) but was detected in only 5.8% of the infected children. A significant association was observed between child KSHV seroprevalence and sharing of food among family members. These results suggest that similar to other endemic areas in Africa, KSHV infection in the minority populations of Xinjiang is likely to be occurring during early childhood, probably via horizontal transmission through saliva, and results in high seroprevalence in the adult population. PMID:23992104

Cao, Y; Minhas, V; Tan, X; Huang, J; Wang, B; Zhu, M; Gao, Y; Zhao, T; Yang, L; Wood, C

2014-05-01

360

Sexuality in young patients with Parkinson's disease: a population based comparison with healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Answers from a multiple choice questionnaire on the opinions about public sexual attitudes, on emotion from personal sexual practice, on personal sexual function, and on general health perception were compared between 121 patients with Parkinson's disease (mean age 45 years) and 126 age and sex matched community derived controls. Patients were more dissatisfied with their present sexual functioning and relationship, and perceived their general health as poorer than the controls, whereas opinions about public sexual attitudes were only marginally different. No differences were found for sexual function. Further analysis showed that the perception of sexual functioning and general health in younger patients with Parkinson's disease is considerably influenced by depression and state of unemployment.??

Jacobs, H.; Vieregge, A.; Vieregge, P.

2000-01-01

361

Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sexually Active Adults in Kenya: A National Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify factors associated with prevalent HIV in a national HIV survey in Kenya. Methods: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral factors and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in adults aged 15-64 years. We analyzed questionnaire and blood testing data to identify significant correlates of HIV infection among sexually active adults. Results: Of 10,957 eligible women and 8,883 men, we interviewed 10,239 (93%) women and 7,731 (87%) men. We collected blood specimens from 9,049 women and 6,804 men of which 6,447 women and 5,112 men were sexually active during the 12 months prior to the survey. HIV prevalence among sexually active adults was 7.4%. Factors independently associated with HIV among women were region (Nyanza vs Nairobi: adjusted OR [AOR] 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.3), number of lifetime sex partners (6-9 vs 0-1 partners: AOR 3.0, 95%CI 1.6-5.9), HSV-2 (AOR 6.5, 95%CI 4.9-8.8), marital status (widowed vs never married: AOR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5-4.8) and consistent condom use with last sex partner (AOR 2.3, 95%CI 1.6-3.4). Among men, correlates of HIV infection were 30-to-39-year-old age group (AOR 5.2, 95%CI 2.6-10.5), number of lifetime sex partners (10+ vs 0-1 partners, AOR 3.5, 95%CI 1.4-9.0), HSV-2 (AOR 4.7, 95%CI 3.2-6.8), syphilis (AOR 2.4, 95%CI 1.4-4.0), consistent condom use with last sex partner (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and lack of circumcision (AOR 4.0, 95%CI 2.8 - 5.5). Conclusion: Kenya’s heterogeneous epidemic will require regional and gender-specific prevention approaches.

Oluoch, Tom; Mohammed, Ibrahim; Bunnell, Rebecca; Kaiser, Reinhard; Kim, Andrea A; Gichangi, Anthony; Mwangi, Mary; Dadabhai, Sufia; Marum, Lawrence; Orago, Alloys; Mermin, Jonathan

2011-01-01

362

Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail the transmission of HIV. PMID:20635239

Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

2010-11-01

363

Evolutionarily stable sexual allocation by both stressed and unstressed potentially simultaneous hermaphrodites within the same population.  

PubMed

Factors influencing allocation of resources to male and female offspring continue to be of great interest to evolutionary biologists. A simultaneous hermaphrodite is capable of functioning in both male and female mode at the same time, and such a life-history strategy is adopted by most flowering plants and by many sessile aquatic animals. In this paper, we focus on hermaphrodites that nourish post-zygotic stages, e.g. flowering plants and internally fertilising invertebrates, and consider how their sex allocation should respond to an environmental stress that reduces prospects of survival but does not affect all individuals equally, rather acting only on a subset of the population. Whereas dissemination of pollen and sperm can begin at sexual maturation, release of seeds and larvae is delayed by embryonic development. We find that the evolutionarily stable strategy for allocation between male and female functions will be critically dependent on the effect of stress on the trade-off between the costs of male and female reproduction, (i.e. of sperm and embryos). Thus, we identify evaluation of this factor as an important challenge to empiricists interested in the effects of stress on sex allocation. When only a small fraction of the population is stressed, we predict that stressed individuals will allocate their resources entirely to male function and unstressed individuals will increase their allocation to female function. Conversely, when the fraction of stress-affected individuals is high, stressed individuals should respond to this stressor by increasing investment in sperm and unstressed individuals should invest solely in embryos. A further prediction of the model is that we would not expect to find populations in the natural world where both stressed and unstressed individuals are both hermaphrodite. PMID:22721995

Broom, M; Hughes, R N; Burrows, M T; Ruxton, G D

2012-09-21

364

Sexual and topological differences in palmprint and ridge density in the caucasian Spanish population.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that variation in ridge breadth is of biological, medical, and genetic interest, it has not received as much attention as other dermatoglyphic characteristics. Recently, sex differences in mean epidermal ridge breadth have been proposed in the field of forensic identification in order to infer gender from fingerprints found at the scene of a crime left by an unknown donor. The aim of this research was to analyze sexual, bimanual, and topological variations in epidermal ridge breadth on palmprints taken from a Spanish population sample for subsequent application in inferring gender from the palm marks. The material used in the present study was obtained from the palmprints of 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females) from the Caucasian Spanish. Since ridge breadth varies according to age, subjects of similar ages were recruited to ensure that growth had finished. Therefore, in order to assess topological variation in ridge density or number of ridges in a given space, the count was carried out for the five palmar areas: hypothenar, thenar/first interdigital, second interdigital, third interdigital, and fourth interdigital. This allowed the segmentation of 2000 ridge count areas for analysis. For this, two methods were used, one described by Cummins et al. (the ridge count was carried out along a 1cm line) and the other by Acree (the number of ridges per 25 mm(2) of surface area). The results obtained by the second method can be compared with those obtained for the ten fingers from this same sample and evaluated in a previous study. The results have demonstrated the existence of topological differences in ridge thickness on the epidermal palm surface; also females present a significantly higher ridge density than men and, therefore, have narrower ridges over the entire palmar surface. Those sexual differences found in the sample population can be used for inferring the gender from palm marks left by an unknown donor. The hypotheses that could explain the variability in ridge breadth are evaluated according to the obtained results. PMID:23601151

Gutiérrez-Redomero, Esperanza; Alonso-Rodríguez, Concepción

2013-06-10

365

Multi-level sexual selection: individual and family-level selection for mating success in a historical human population.  

PubMed

Precopulatory sexual selection is the association between fitness and traits associated with mate acquisition. Although sexual selection is generally recognized to be a powerful evolutionary force, most investigations are limited to characters belonging to individuals. A broader multilevel perspective acknowledges that individual fitness can be affected by aspects of mating success that are characters of groups, such as families. Parental mating success in polygynous or polyandrous human societies may exemplify traits under group-level sexual selection. Using fitness measures that account for age-structure, I measure multilevel selection for mate number over 55 years in a human population with declining rates of polygyny. Sexual selection had three components: individual-level selection for ever-mating (whether an individual mated) and individual- and family-level selection for polyandry and polygyny. Family- and individual-level selection for polygyny was equally strong, three times stronger than family-level selection for polyandry and more than an order of magnitude stronger than individual-level selection for polyandry. However, individual-level selection for polyandry and polygyny was more effective at explaining relative fitness variance than family-level selection. Selection for ever-mating was the most important source of sexual selection for fitness; variation for ever-mating explained 23% of relative fitness variance. PMID:23730758

Moorad, Jacob A

2013-06-01

366

Amplification refractory mutation system-PCR is essential for the detection of chimaeras with a minor allele population: a case report.  

PubMed

Blood chimaera is a rare but important issue for immunohaematology laboratories. Several molecular approaches, such as ABO genotyping, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and DNA short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, have been used to identify chimaerism. Unfortunately, the minor allele population can be overlooked by PCR-based methods, which preferentially amplify the major allele population. A case with AweakB (AwB), demonstrating a mixed-field pattern, was sent to our laboratory for further evaluation. Direct sequencing of ABO exons 6 and 7 revealed a B101/O02 genotype. Analysis of the 12 STR loci and HLA typing did not provide any evidence of chimaerism. However, amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR identified the minor A102 allele in addition to B101/O02. Three alleles of the chimaera were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Thus, ARMS-PCR is essential, especially in the case of a chimaera with a minor allele population. PMID:23418339

Won, Eun Jeong; Park, Hye Ryoen; Park, Tae Sung; Oh, Seung Hwan; Shin, Myung Geun; Shin, Jong Hee; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook; Park, Jong Tae; Cho, Duck

2013-05-01

367

Sex in an uncertain world: environmental stochasticity helps restore competitive balance between sexually and asexually reproducing populations.  

PubMed

Like many organisms, individuals of the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens exhibit either obligate sexual or asexual reproductive modes. Both types of individual routinely co-occur, including in the same temporary freshwater pond (their natural habitat in which they undergo seasonal diapause). Given the well-known two-fold cost of sex, this begs the question of how sexually reproducing individuals are able to coexist with their asexual counterparts in spite of such overwhelming costs. Environmental stochasticity in the form of 'false dawn' inundations (where the first hydration is ephemeral and causes loss of early hatching individuals) may provide an advantage to the sexual subpopulation, which shows greater variation in hatching times following inundation. We explore the potential role of environmental stochasticity in this system using life-history data analysis, climate data, and matrix projection models. In the absence of environmental stochasticity, the population growth rate is significantly lower in sexual subpopulations. Climate data reveal that 'false dawn' inundations are common. Using matrix projection modelling with and without environmental stochasticity, we demonstrate that this phenomenon can restore appreciable balance to the system, in terms of population growth rates. This provides support for the role of environmental stochasticity in helping to explain the maintenance of sex and the occurrence of geographical parthenogenesis. PMID:24836646

Park, A W; Vandekerkhove, J; Michalakis, Y

2014-08-01

368

The interplay between local ecology, divergent selection, and genetic drift in population divergence of a sexually antagonistic female trait.  

PubMed

Genetically polymorphic species offer the possibility to study maintenance of genetic variation and the potential role for genetic drift in population divergence. Indirect inference of the selection regimes operating on polymorphic traits can be achieved by comparing population divergence in neutral genetic markers with population divergence in trait frequencies. Such an approach could further be combined with ecological data to better understand agents of selection. Here, we infer the selective regimes acting on a polymorphic mating trait in an insect group; the dorsal structures (either rough or smooth) of female diving beetles. Our recent work suggests that the rough structures have a sexually antagonistic function in reducing male mating attempts. For two species (Dytiscus lapponicus and Graphoderus zonatus), we could not reject genetic drift as an explanation for population divergence in morph frequencies, whereas for the third (Hygrotus impressopunctatus) we found that divergent selection pulls morph frequencies apart across populations. Furthermore, population morph frequencies in H. impressopunctatus were significantly related to local bioclimatic factors, providing an additional line of evidence for local adaptation in this species. These data, therefore, suggest that local ecological factors and sexual conflict interact over larger spatial scales to shape population divergence in the polymorphism. PMID:24635214

Green, Kristina Karlsson; Svensson, Erik I; Bergsten, Johannes; Härdling, Roger; Hansson, Bengt

2014-07-01

369

Sexually transmitted infections treatment and care available to high risk populations in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Limited literature exists on the quality and availability of treatment and care of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Pakistan. This article aims to document existing services for the care and treatment of STIs available in Pakistan's public and private sectors to high risk groups (HRG), particularly the transgendered population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to document STI services in Lahore, Karachi, Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and Quetta. Seventy-three interviews were administered with health service providers at the 3 largest public sector hospitals in each city, as well as with general physicians and traditional healers in the private sector. Twenty-five nongovernmental organizations (NGO) providing STI services were also interviewed. Fewer than 45% of private and public sector general practitioners had been trained in STI treatment after the completion of their medical curriculum, and none of the traditional healers had received any formal training or information on STIs. The World Health Organization (WHO) syndromic management guidelines were followed for STI management by 29% of public and private sector doctors and 5% of traditional healers. STI drugs were available at no cost at 44% of NGOs and at some public sector hospitals. Our findings show that although providers do treat HRGs for STIs, there are significant limitations in their ability to provide these services. These deterrents include, but are not limited to, a lack of STI training of service providers, privacy and adherence to recommended WHO syndromic management guidelines, and costly diagnostic and consultation fees. PMID:19856743

Rahimtoola, Minal; Hussain, Hamidah; Khowaja, Saira N; Khan, Aamir J

2008-01-01

370

Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction for the presence of sexual dysfunction within a Ghanaian urological population.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction (SD) is devastating to a man's ego and its presence could defeat his purpose of masculinity. A number of studies have explored and reported on existing comorbidities between SD and medical conditions for which urological problems are no exception. However, in Ghana there is paucity of data exploring the epidemiological, etiological and health associations of medical conditions with SD. This study was therefore conducted to determine the prevalence, types and determinants of SD in a sample of Ghanaian men with urological conditions. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between December 2012 and April 2013 at the Urology clinic of the Tamale Teaching Hospital in the Northern Region of Ghana. A total of 200 participants were enrolled in the study. All participants were evaluated by using a semistructured questionnaire and the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction questionnaire. An overall response rate of 47.5% was estimated after 69 patients refused to partake in the study; 6 patients found the questionnaire too sensitive and refused to participate and 30 participants returned incomplete questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 36.5±13.8 years and ranged from 18 to 70 years. The estimated prevalence of SD was 71.6%. The prevalence of the various SD domains was as follows: non-sensuality (71.6%), premature ejaculation (70.5%), non-communication (69.5%), impotence and infrequency (68.4%), dissatisfaction (61.1%) and avoidance (57.9%). Participants who were married, consumed alcoholic beverages, smoked cigarettes and aging males who had children were at a greater risk of developing SD. Urologic patients have a high prevalence of SD that is dependent on marital status, alcohol consumption, smoking status and aged patients with children. PMID:24430277

Amidu, N; Quaye, L; Afoko, A A; Karikari, P; Gandau, B B N; Amoah, E O; Nuwoku, E

2014-07-01

371

Gender differences in sexual behaviors and fantasies in a college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents male and female responses of 193 university students to questions about sexual experiences and fantasies. There are few significant gender differences in experiences, but many in fantasies. Males fantasized about sex more and exhibited greater interest in partner variation and in the spectrum from domination to sadism. While male sexuality is often described as aggressive\\/sadistic and female

Ethel S. Person; Nettie Terestman; Wayne A. Myers; Eugene L. Goldberg; Carol Salvadori

1989-01-01

372

A Survey of Sexual Abuse in the Population at Large: Some Policy Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey information shows that sexual abuse of children is widespread, being reported by 19% of the females and 9% of the males in the sample. Most sexual victimization took place within the child's family, not with strangers, as "child molesters" have traditionally been stereotyped. While the problem cuts across social and economic lines, it seems…

Finkelhor, David

373

Sexual attitude and information questionnaire: Reliability and validity in a spinal cord injured population  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been a number of sexual counseling programs for spinal cord injured individuals, but little attempt has been made to assess the impact of such programs. One reason for this has been the lack of reliable and valid assessment devices. The present paper attempted to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Sexual Attitude and Information Questionnaire (SAIQ) as

Jo Ann Brockway; Jeffrey C. Steger

1981-01-01

374

Abortion Research: Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Problems in a Community College Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of 70 male and 80 female community college students about their attitudes toward abortion, sexual behavior, and life problems support abortion rights. Antiabortion students were more religious, less sexually active, and less likely to know someone who had an abortion. Many students currently experienced serious problems. (SLD)

Bryan, Janice Westlund; Freed, Florence Wallach

1993-01-01

375

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse in an acute adult inpatient population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of a history of childhood sexual abuse in a series of admissions to a general psychiatric hospital was estimated. One hundred and twenty subjects were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Case notes were examined to determine previous documented disclosure, diagnosis, and rates of admission and deliberate self harm. Forty-six percent reported a history of childhood sexual abuse by

Catherine J. Wurr; Ian M. Partridge

1996-01-01

376

Is child sexual abuse declining? Evidence from a population-based survey of men and women in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Substantiated cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the United States have declined significantly over the past decade. This may, or may not, reflect change in the underlying rate in the general population. This study examines age-cohort differences in the prevalence of self-reported CSA experiences of men and women aged 18–59 years in a community-based sample from a comparable

Michael P Dunne; David M Purdie; Michelle D Cook; Frances M Boyle; Jake M Najman

2003-01-01

377

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the

Melissa D. Conrad; Andrew W. Gorman; Julia A. Schillinger; Pier Luigi Fiori; Rossana Arroyo; Nancy Malla; Mohan Lal Dubey; Jorge Gonzalez; Susan Blank; William E. Secor; Jane M. Carlton

2012-01-01

378

Adjustment among mothers reporting same-gender sexual partners: a study of a representative population sample from Quebec Province (Canada).  

PubMed

We examined the well-being of mothers and non-mothers reporting exclusive opposite-gender sexual partners (OG), same-gender sexual partners (SG), or both (BI) in a representative sample of 20,773 participants (11,034 women) 15-years-old or older from the population of Quebec province in Canada. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire and SG and BI women (n = 179) were matched to a sample of OG women (n = 179) based on age, income, geographical area, and children (having at least one 18-year-old or younger biological or adopted child at home). We assessed social milieu variables, risk factors for health disorders, mental health, and quality of mothers' relationship with children. The findings indicated a sexual orientation main effect: Mothers and non-mothers in the SG and BI group, as compared to their OG controls, were significantly less likely to live in a couple relationship, had significantly lower levels of social support, higher prevalence of early negative life events, substance abuse, suicide ideation, and higher levels of psychological distress. There were no Sexual Orientation X Parenthood status effects. The results further indicated that sexual orientation did not account for unique variance in women's psychological distress beyond that afforded by their social milieu, health risk factors, and parenthood status. No significant differences were found for the quality of mothers' relationship with children. SG-BI and OG mothers with low levels of social integration were significantly more likely to report problems with children than parents with high levels of social integration. We need to understand how marginal sexualities and their associated social stigma, as risk indicators for mothers, interact with other factors to impact family life, parenting skills, and children's adjustment. PMID:17665300

Julien, Danielle; Jouvin, Emilie; Jodoin, Emilie; L'archevêque, Alexandre; Chartrand, Elise

2008-12-01

379

What are effective approaches to increasing rates of organ donor registration among ethnic minority populations: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify effective interventions to increase organ donor registration and improve knowledge about organ donation among ethnic minorities in North America and the UK. Design Systematic review. Data Sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Central searched up to November 2012, together with four trials databases and the grey literature. Review methods A systematic search followed by assessment of eligibility and quality. An interpretive and thematic approach to synthesis was undertaken. This examined the nature and delivery of interventions in relation to a range of outcomes: verified registration, changing knowledge and a measured shift towards greater readiness. Results 18 studies were included in the review, comprising educational and mass media interventions. Mass media interventions alone reported no significant change in the intention or willingness to register. Educational interventions either alone or combined with mass media approaches were more effective in increasing registration rates, with a strong interpersonal component and an immediate opportunity to register identified as important characteristics in successful change. Conclusions Effective interventions need to be matched to the populations’ stage of readiness to register. Measured outcomes should include registration and shifts along the pathway towards this behavioural outcome.

Deedat, Sarah; Kenten, Charlotte; Morgan, Myfanwy

2013-01-01

380

Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field experiments support the hypothesis that sexual cannibalism is adaptive to females.

Rabaneda-Bueno, Ruben; Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernandez-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Larano, Jordi

2008-01-01

381

Age at sexual maturity, sex ratio, fecundity, and longevity of isolated headwater populations of Westslope cutthroat trout  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We sampled 19 isolated headwater populations of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi in Montana to provide estimates of fecundity, longevity, sex ratio, and age at sexual maturity. Fecundity was estimated for 31 fish collected from two streams in the upper Missouri River drainage. Females smaller than 149 mm fork length (FL) were generally immature and their fecundities could not be estimated. Mean fecundities (SD) were 227 eggs (41.1) for 150-174-mm fish, 346 eggs (85.6) for 175-199-mm fish, and 459 eggs (150.8) for 200-mm and larger fish. A linear regression model (two stream samples combined) to predict fecundity (E) from fork length was developed (E = -494.9 + 4.4.FL: r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001) for westslope cutthroat trout in the upper Missouri River drainage. Regression slopes of fecundity against fish length differed significantly (P < 0.01) between these and some of the previously studied populations. Steeper slopes were associated with lacustrine-adfluvial populations. The average sex ratio was 1.3 males per female across all sampled streams. Males began to mature sexually at age 2 and all were mature by age 4. Some females (27%) were sexually mature at age 3 and most of them (93%) were mature by age 5. Length was a better predictor of sexual maturity than age. Males matured at 110-160 mm and females at 150-180 mm FL. The maximum estimated age was 8 years based on otoliths from 475 fish collected from our 19 study streams and 14 additional streams.

Downs, C. C.; White, R. G.; Shepard, B. B.

1997-01-01

382

Bowel, Urinary, and Sexual Problems Among Long-Term Prostate Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To obtain insight into the long-term (5- to 10-year) effects of prostate cancer and treatment on bowel, urinary, and sexual function, we performed a population-based study. Prostate-specific function was compared with an age-matched normative population without prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Through the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry, we selected all men diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1998 in the southern Netherlands. In total, 964 patients, alive in November 2004, received questionnaire; 780 (81%) responded. Results: Urinary problems were most common after a prostatectomy; bowel problems were most common after radiotherapy. Compared with an age-matched normative population both urinary and bowel functioning and bother were significantly worse among survivors. Urinary incontinence was reported by 23-48% of survivors compared with 4% of the normative population. Bowel leakage occurred in 5-14% of patients compared with 2% of norms. Erection problems occurred in 40-74% of patients compared with 18% of norms. Conclusions: These results form an important contribution to the limited information available on prostate-specific problems in the growing group of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Bowel, urinary, and sexual problems occur more often among long-term survivors compared with a reference group and cannot be explained merely by age. Because these problems persist for many years, urologists should provide patients with adequate information before treatment. After treatment, there should be an appropriate focus on these problems.

Mols, Floortje [CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Mols@uvt.nl; Korfage, Ida J. [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vingerhoets, Ad J.J.M. [Clinical Psychology Section, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Kil, Paul J.M. [Department of Urology, Sint Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands); Coebergh, Jan Willem W. [Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise [Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Social Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de [CoRPS-Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South (CCCS), Eindhoven Cancer Registry, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2009-01-01

383

Testing founder effect speciation: Divergence population genetics of the Spoonbills Platalea regia and Pl. minor (Threskiornithidae, Aves)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete cessation of gene flow following divergence. Using regression-weighted approximate Bayesian computation, we tested the validity of these two fundamental conditions of founder effect speciation in a pair of sister species with disjunct distributions: the royal spoonbill Platalea regia in Australasia and the black-faced spoonbill Pl. minor in eastern Asia. When compared with genetic polymorphism observed at 20 nuclear loci in the two species, simulations showed that the founder effect speciation model had an extremely low posterior probability (1.55 × 10-8) of producing the extant genetic pattern. In contrast, speciation models that allowed for postdivergence gene flow were much more probable (posterior probabilities were 0.37 and 0.50 for the bottleneck with gene flow and the gene flow models, respectively) and postdivergence gene flow persisted for a considerable period of time (more than 80% of the divergence history in both models) following initial divergence (median = 197,000 generations, 95% credible interval [CI]: 50,000-478,000, for the bottleneck with gene flow model; and 186,000 generations, 95% CI: 45,000-477,000, for the gene flow model). Furthermore, the estimated population size reduction in Pl. regia to 7,000 individuals (median, 95% CI: 487-12,000, according to the bottleneck with gene flow model) was unlikely to have been severe enough to be considered a bottleneck. Therefore, these results do not support founder effect speciation in Pl. regia but indicate instead that the divergence between Pl. regia and Pl. minor was probably driven by selection despite continuous gene flow. In this light, we discuss the potential importance of evolutionarily labile traits with significant fitness consequences, such as migratory behavior and habitat preference, in facilitating divergence of the spoonbills.

Yeung, Carol K. L.; Tsai, Pi-Wen; Chesser, R. Terry; Lin, Rong-Chien; Yao, Cheng-Te; Tian, Xiu-Hua; Li, Shou-Hsien

2011-01-01

384

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare.

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

385

Access to contraception by minors in Jamaica: a public health concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Access to contraceptive by minors (pre-adolescents and adolescents) has spurred policy and legislative debates, part of which is that in an effort to successfully meet government's objective of a healthy sexual lifestyle among minors. Aims: This study examined factors affecting sexual reproductive health in minors, namely: access to contraceptive advice and treatment, pregnancy, number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted

Tazhmoye V. Crawford; Donovan A. McGrowder; Alexay Crawford

386

Foodborne Illness Incidence Rates and Food Safety Risks for Populations of Low Socioeconomic Status and Minority Race/Ethnicity: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe.

Quinlan, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

387

Foodborne illness incidence rates and food safety risks for populations of low socioeconomic status and minority race/ethnicity: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

While foodborne illness is not traditionally tracked by race, ethnicity or income, analyses of reported cases have found increased rates of some foodborne illnesses among minority racial/ethnic populations. In some cases (Listeria, Yersinia) increased rates are due to unique food consumption patterns, in other cases (Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter) it is unclear why this health disparity exists. Research on safe food handling knowledge and behaviors among low income and minority consumers suggest that there may be a need to target safe food handling messages to these vulnerable populations. Another possibility is that these populations are receiving food that is less safe at the level of the retail outlet or foodservice facility. Research examining the quality and safety of food available at small markets in the food desert environment indicates that small corner markets face unique challenges which may affect the quality and potential safety of perishable food. Finally, a growing body of research has found that independent ethnic foodservice facilities may present increased risks for foodborne illness. This review of the literature will examine the current state of what is known about foodborne illness among, and food safety risks for, minority and low socioeconomic populations, with an emphasis on the United States and Europe. PMID:23955239

Quinlan, Jennifer J

2013-08-01

388

Financing, Organisation and Governance of Education for Special Populations. Series III. Studies of Selected Population Groups. Linguistic and Indigenous Minorities: The Sami (Lapp) Case in Norway.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the condition of formal education among the Sami people (Lapps) in Norway. Part I discusses developmental phases in the formal education of indigenous minorities: (1) initial rejection of formal education imposed by the majority society; (2) gradual acceptance of formal education as the minority becomes acculturated and…

Hoem, Anton

389

[Polymorphism of 11 non-CODIS STRs in a population sample of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in northeastern Poland].  

PubMed

Population genetic data for 11 STRs included in the Humantype Chimera kit were obtained by multiplex PCR and subsequent automated fluorescent detection (ABI 310) from a sample of 125 unrelated individuals of ethnic minority of Polish Tatars residing in Podlasie Region (NE Poland). The genotype distributions conformed to HWE for all the analyzed loci except D2S1360 and D21S2055. The highly polymorphic systems exhibit high informativeness and are a potential extension to CODIS loci. PMID:20441080

Pepi?ski, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawro?ska, Ma?gorzata; Aleksandrowicz-Bukin, Maria

2009-01-01

390

Y-STR variation in Albanian populations: implications on the match probabilities and the genetic legacy of the minority claiming an Egyptian descent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y chromosome variation at 12 STR (the Powerplex® Y system core set) and 18 binary markers was investigated in two major (the\\u000a Ghegs and the Tosks) and two minor (the Gabels and the Jevgs) populations from Albania (Southern Balkans). The large proportion\\u000a of haplotypes shared within and between groups makes the Powerplex 12-locus set inadequate to ensure a suitable power

Gianmarco Ferri; Sergio Tofanelli; Milena Alù; Luca Taglioli; Erjon Radheshi; Beatrice Corradini; Giorgio Paoli; Cristian Capelli; Giovanni Beduschi

2010-01-01

391

Use of the SSLP-based method for detection of rare apomictic events in a sexual AtSERK1 transgenic Arabidopsis population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present a screening method to evaluate the potential of genes to transfer aspects of apomixis into sexual crop plants.\\u000a Based on the assumption that an apomictic progeny is an exact genetic replica of the mother plant we employed a set of single\\u000a sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers to identify individuals displaying heterozygosity fixation in segregating sexual\\u000a populations as

Laksana Kantama; Yolanda Lambert; Haifen Hu; Hans de Jong; Sacco C. de Vries; Eugenia Russinova

2006-01-01

392

Attitudes and beliefs about anti-retroviral therapy are associated with high risk sexual behaviors among the general population of Kisumu, Kenya.  

PubMed

Attitudes and beliefs about antiretroviral therapy (ART) may affect sexual risk behaviors among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in Kisumu, Kenya to test this hypothesis in October 2006. A total of 1655 participants were interviewed regarding attitudes and beliefs about ART and their sexual risk behaviors. The majority of participants, (71%) men and (70%) women, had heard of ART. Of these, 20% of men and 29% of women believed ART cures HIV. Among women, an attitude that "HIV is more controllable now that ART is available" was associated with sex with a non-spousal partner, increased lifetime number of sexual partners as well as a younger age at sexual debut. No significant associations with this factor were found among men. The belief that "ART cures HIV" was associated with younger age of sexual debut among women. The same belief was associated with an increased likelihood of exchanging sex for money/gifts and decreased likelihood of condom use at last sex among men. These findings were most significant for people aged 15-29 years. In high HIV seroprevalence populations with expanding access to ART, prevention programs must ensure their content counteracts misconceptions of ART in order to reduce high risk sexual behaviors, especially among youth. PMID:22050441

Smith, Rachel M; Carrico, Adam W; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

2011-12-01

393

Attitudes and beliefs about anti-retroviral therapy are associated with high risk sexual behaviors among the general population of Kisumu, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Attitudes and beliefs about antiretroviral therapy (ART) may affect sexual risk behaviors among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in Kisumu, Kenya to test this hypothesis in October 2006. A total of 1655 participants were interviewed regarding attitudes and beliefs about ART and their sexual risk behaviors. The majority of participants, (71%) men and (70%) women, had heard of ART. Of these, 20% of men and 29% of women believed ART cures HIV. Among women, an attitude that “HIV is more controllable now that ART is available” was associated with sex with a non-spousal partner, increased lifetime number of sexual partners as well as a younger age at sexual debut. No significant associations with this factor were found among men. The belief that “ART cures HIV” was associated with younger age of sexual debut among women. The same belief was associated with an increased likelihood of exchanging sex for money/gifts and decreased likelihood of condom use at last sex among men. These findings were most significant for people aged 15–29 years. In high HIV seroprevalence populations with expanding access to ART, prevention programs must ensure their content counteracts misconceptions of ART in order to reduce high risk sexual behaviors, especially among youth.

Smith, Rachel M.; Carrico, Adam W.; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.

2013-01-01

394

The working alliance and the transference\\/countertransference relationship: Their manifestation with racial\\/ethnic and sexual orientation minority clients and therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical propositions are offered about the interrelations of three key concepts in psychotherapy: specifically, the working alliance, on the one hand, and both transference and countertransference, on the other. The role these concepts play, including the interactions between them, is extended to the areas of race\\/ethnicity and sexual orientation. We examine working alliance, transference, and countertransference considerations for therapy dyads

Charles J. Gelso; Jonathan J. Mohr

2001-01-01

395

Minority Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple introduction to the basic Minority Game (MG) introduced\\u000aby Challet and Zhang in 1997 and discuss some of its physical properties and\\u000asubsequent developments. We also introduce some of its variants include the\\u000aEvolutionay Minority Game (EMG), the Thermal Minority Game (TMG), the simple\\u000aMinority Game without information and the Grand-canonical Minority Game (GCMG).\\u000aSome analytical

Chi Ho Yeung; Yi-cheng Zhang

2009-01-01

396

Sexual trauma increases the risk of developing psychosis in an ultra high-risk "prodromal" population.  

PubMed

Studies indicate a high prevalence of childhood trauma in patient cohorts with established psychotic disorder and in those at risk of developing psychosis. A causal link between childhood trauma and development of psychosis has been proposed. We aimed to examine the association between experience of childhood trauma and the development of a psychotic disorder in a large "Ultra High Risk" (UHR) for psychosis cohort. The data were collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of all UHR patients recruited to research studies at the Personal Assessment and Clinical Evaluation clinic between 1993 and 2006. Baseline data were collected at recruitment to these studies. The participants completed a comprehensive follow-up assessment battery (mean time to follow-up 7.5 years, range 2.4-14.9 years), which included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), a self-report questionnaire that assesses experience of childhood trauma. The outcome of interest was transition to a psychotic disorder during the follow-up period. Data were available on 233 individuals. Total CTQ trauma score was not associated with transition to psychosis. Of the individual trauma types, only sexual abuse was associated with transition to psychosis (P = .02). The association remained when adjusting for potential confounding factors. Those with high sexual abuse scores were estimated to have a transition risk 2-4 times that of those with low scores. The findings suggest that sexual trauma may be an important contributing factor in development of psychosis for some individuals. PMID:23455040

Thompson, Andrew D; Nelson, Barnaby; Yuen, Hok Pan; Lin, Ashleigh; Amminger, Günter Paul; McGorry, Patrick D; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R

2014-05-01

397

Is mixture toxicity measured on a biomarker indicative of what happens on a population level? A study with Lemna minor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For plants, pigment content has shown to be a remarkably consistent biomarker across chemicals with different modes of action. In this study, we evaluated the use of pigment content as endpoint in binary mixture toxicity studies compared to three growth endpoints on the floating plant Lemna minor. Six binary combinations of six herbicides with different mode of action were used.

Nina Cedergreen; Majid Abbaspoor; Helle Sørensen; Jens C. Streibig

2007-01-01

398

Assessment of sexual risk behaviors and perception of vulnerability to sexually transmitted diseases/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in women, 1999-2012: a population based survey in a medium-sized Brazilian city.  

PubMed

Sexual behavior is a key factor for susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. An evaluation of the sexual behavior of women at reproductive age was conducted in 1999. A replication of this study aims to evaluate the current situation and identify changes in sexual behavior, 13 years later. This is a population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with 1071 women in Pelotas, Brazil. Compared to the 1999 study, a 14% increase in early sexual debut and an 8% decrease in the non-use of condoms were observed in 2012. The proportion of women who reported anal sex doubled between these periods. There was no trend of increase or decrease in the prevalence of behaviors with distinct patterns being observed for each of them. Reduction of non-use of condoms may be an indicator of the effectiveness of campaigns to promote safe sex. However, the increased prevalence of early sexual debut and anal sex indicates the need for campaigns to continue and to expand their focus, especially among vulnerable groups. PMID:24780361

Mesenburg, Marilia Arndt; Muniz, Ludmila Correa; Silveira, Mariângela Freitas

2014-01-01

399

Sexual Desire, Erection, Orgasm and Ejaculatory Functions and Their Importance to Elderly Swedish Men: A Population-bas ed Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Relevant information for clinical decision-making in a wide spectrum of diseases includes the extent to which sexual function is intact, how important it is to preserve sexual capacity and whether waning sexual function causes distress. Little information is available on elderly men. We aimed to obtain this basic information. Radiumhemmet's Scale of Sexual Function was posted to 435 randomly

ASGEIR R. HELGASON; JAN ADOLFSSON; PAUL DICKMAN; STEFAN ARVER; MATS FREDRIKSON; MARIANNE GOTHBERG; GUNNAR STEINECK

400

Sexual orientation, social capital and daily tobacco smoking: a population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have suggested poorer health in the homosexual and bisexual groups compared to heterosexuals. Tobacco smoking, which is a health-related behavior associated with psychosocial stress, may be one explanation behind such health differences. Social capital, i.e. the generalized trust in other people and social participation/social networks which decreases the costs of social interaction, has been suggested to affect health through psychosocial pathways and through norms connected with health related behaviours, The aim of this study is to investigate the association between sexual orientation and daily tobacco smoking, taking social capital into account and analyzing the attenuation of the logit after the introduction of social participation, trust and their combination in the models. Methods In 2008 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in southern Sweden with a postal questionnaire with 28,198 participants aged 18–80 (55% participation rate). This study was restricted to 24,348 participants without internally missing values on all included variables. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco smoking were analyzed with logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, 11.9% of the men and 14.8% of the women were daily tobacco smokers. Higher and almost unaltered odds ratios of daily smoking compared to heterosexuals were observed for bisexual men and women, and for homosexual men throughout the analyses. The odds ratios of daily smoking among homosexual women were not significant. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels among both men and women, with a corresponding 54% attenuation of the logit in the “other” group among men and 31.5% among women after the inclusion of social participation and trust. In addition, only the “other” sexual orientation group had higher odds ratios of low participation than heterosexuals. Conclusions Bisexual men and women and homosexual men, but not homosexual women, are daily smokers to a higher extent than heterosexuals. Only for the “other” sexual orientation group the odds ratios of daily smoking were reduced to not significant levels after adjustments for covariates including trust and social participation.

2014-01-01

401

Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

2006-01-01

402

Prevalences of sexually transmitted infections in young adults and female sex workers in Peru: a national population-based survey  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We assessed prevalences of seven sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Peru, stratified by risk behaviours, to help to define care and prevention priorities. Methods In a 2002 household-based survey of the general population, we enrolled randomly selected 18–29-year-old residents of 24 cities with populations greater than 50?000 people. We then surveyed female sex workers (FSWs) in these cities. We gathered data for sexual behaviour; vaginal specimens or urine for nucleic acid amplification tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis; and blood for serological tests for syphilis, HIV, and (in subsamples) herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) and human T-lymphotropic virus. This study is a registered component of the PREVEN trial, number ISRCTN43722548. Findings 15?261 individuals from the general population and 4485 FSWs agreed to participate in our survey. Overall prevalence of infection with HSV2, weighted for city size, was 13·5% in men, 13·6% in women, and 60·6% in FSWs (all values in FSWs standardised to age composition of women in the general population). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 4·2% in men, 6·5% in women, and 16·4% in FSWs; of T vaginalis infection was 0·3% in men, 4·9% in women, and 7·9% in FSWs; and of syphilis was 0·5% in men, 0·4% in women, and 0·8% in FSWs. N gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0·1% in men and women, and of 1·6% in FSWs. Prevalence of HIV infection was 0·5% in men and FSWs, and 0·1% in women. Four (0·3%) of 1535 specimens were positive for human T-lymphotropic virus 1. In men, 65·0% of infections with HIV, 71·5% of N gonorrhoeae, and 41·4% of HSV2 and 60·9% of cases of syphilis were in the 13·3% who had sex with men or unprotected sex with FSWs in the past year. In women from the general population, 66·7% of infections with HIV and 16·7% of cases of syphilis were accounted for by the 4·4% who had been paid for sex by any of their past three partners. Interpretation Defining of high-risk groups could guide targeting of interventions for communicable diseases—including STIs—in the general Peruvian population. Funding Wellcome Trust-Burroughs Wellcome Fund Infectious Disease Initiative and US National Institutes of Health.

Carcamo, Cesar P; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Hughes, James P; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

2012-01-01

403

[A mathematical model representing HIV/AIDS transmission dynamics in a sexually-active population].  

PubMed

This article presents a new model explaining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission dynamics amongst heterosexually active couples. It covers the assumptions made, the variables analysed, the model's sensitivity and the ordinary differential equations and control strategies used. The information was obtained from the Colombian state Statistics Department (DANE) and applied to different simulations in the system (with and without control), using the MAPLE programme code. Simulation results led to concluding that control using condoms was relevant in the model. It was not important if control were applied in women or men, nor was the percentage of sexually-active men and women. PMID:21031241

Mesa-Mazo, Mónica J; Vergaño-Salazar, Juan G; Sánchez-Botero, Claudia E; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

2010-04-01

404

Incident sexually transmitted infections and their risk factors in an Aboriginal community in Australia: a population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

website extra Extended tables can be found on the STI website www.sextransinf.com Objective: To identify risk factors for incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a remote Aboriginal community in Australia. Design: A population based cohort study. Setting: An Aboriginal community in central Australia. Participants: 1034 Aboriginal people aged 12–40 years, resident in the study region, seen during the period 1 January 1996 to 30 June 1998 for STI diagnosis. Main outcome measures: Incident rate of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis per 100 person years. Results: There were 313 episodes of incident gonorrhoea, 240 of incident chlamydial infection, and 17 of incident syphilis. For gonorrhoea, risk factors were age, substance abuse, and previous prevalent chlamydial infection with a rate ratio (RR) of 3.2 in people aged 15–19 years, 1.6 in people who abused alcohol, and 3.2 in women who had sniffed petrol on a regular basis. For chlamydia, risk factors were sex, age, and a previous history of STI with a RR of 2.7 in people aged 15–19 years. Similar factors were associated with an increased risk of syphilis but the associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified objective predictors of incident STI which can be used to target interventions and maximise their impact. The results of this study may well have relevance to indigenous communities in other countries that are faced with high levels of STI and substance abuse. Key Words: Aborigines; sexually transmitted infections; risk factors; Australia

Miller, P; Law, M; Torzillo, P; Kaldor, J

2001-01-01

405

Prevalence of Consensual Male-Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n?=?92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n?=?164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n?=?51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n?=?79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n?=?26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n?=?21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]?=?7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR?=?3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR?=?3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR?=?3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

2013-01-01

406

The Power to Detect Quantitative Trait Loci Using Resequenced, Experimentally Evolved Populations of Diploid, Sexual Organisms  

PubMed Central

A novel approach for dissecting complex traits is to experimentally evolve laboratory populations under a controlled environment shift, resequence the resulting populations, and identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and/or genomic regions highly diverged in allele frequency. To better understand the power and localization ability of such an evolve and resequence (E&R) approach, we carried out forward-in-time population genetics simulations of 1 Mb genomic regions under a large combination of experimental conditions, then attempted to detect significantly diverged SNPs. Our analysis indicates that the ability to detect differentiation between populations is primarily affected by selection coefficient, population size, number of replicate populations, and number of founding haplotypes. We estimate that E&R studies can detect and localize causative sites with 80% success or greater when the number of founder haplotypes is over 500, experimental populations are replicated at least 25-fold, population size is at least 1,000 diploid individuals, and the selection coefficient on the locus of interest is at least 0.1. More achievable experimental designs (less replicated, fewer founder haplotypes, smaller effective population size, and smaller selection coefficients) can have power of greater than 50% to identify a handful of SNPs of which one is likely causative. Similarly, in cases where s ? 0.2, less demanding experimental designs can yield high power.

Baldwin-Brown, James G.; Long, Anthony D.; Thornton, Kevin R.

2014-01-01

407

Internet Sex Crimes Against Minors: The Response of Law Enforcement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As Internet use has become widespread, questions have emerged about how often sexual offenders are using the Internet to commit crimes involving child sexual exploitation and child pornography. Because Internet sex crimes against minors are a recent pheno...

D. Finkelhor J. Wolak K. Mitchell

2003-01-01