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Sample records for sexual partnership distributions

  1. Trajectories of intimate partnerships, sexual attitudes, desire and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N; Gauthier, J-A; Widmer, E D

    2014-12-01

    This research addresses the interrelations existing between trajectories of intimate partnerships and attitudes toward sexuality, sexual desire, and sexual satisfaction. It is based on a dataset of 600 adults aged 25-46 living in Geneva (Switzerland) and uses innovative multivariate techniques for clustering life trajectories. The results emphasize the diversity of men's and women's trajectories of intimate partnerships. Trajectories with frequent and short-term partnerships are associated with recreational attitudes and higher solitary and dyadic sexual desire. In contrast, trajectories featuring few or no intimate partnerships are associated with traditional sexual attitudes and less sexual desire. Women's attitudes toward sexuality are more strongly associated with their intimate trajectories than men's. This suggests that men and women do not develop their sexuality in the same relation with intimacy. The results are referred to the gendered master status hypothesis. PMID:26047692

  2. Concurrent Sexual Partnerships among Youth in Urban Kenya: Prevalence and Partnership Effects

    PubMed Central

    XU, Hongwei; LUKE, Nancy; ZULU, Eliya

    2010-01-01

    Research on concurrent sexual partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa is hindered by lack of accurate partnership data. Life history calendars could be beneficial for gathering such information. Using retrospective calendar data from a population-based sample of youth ages 18-24 in Kenya (N=608), we estimated the prevalence and correlates of concurrency. In the sixth month before the survey, 3.5 per cent of females and 4.0 per cent of males experienced concurrency. Males had more concurrencies and of shorter duration than females. Using survival analysis, we found that the characteristics of initial partnerships affect entry into a second (concurrent) relationship. Among females, marriage decreases and geographic separation from a partner increases the risk of concurrency, and relationship duration increases the risk for males. For both sexes, casual relationships and the perception of partner infidelity increase the risk, suggesting that concurrency expands one's egocentric sexual network and bridges additional networks involving partners' other partners. PMID:20865631

  3. Incarceration and Risky Sexual Partnerships in a Southern US City

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, David A.; Weir, Sharon S.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Moseley, Caroline; Norcott, Kathy; Duncan, Jesse; Kaufman, Jay S.; Miller, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Incarceration is strongly associated with HIV infection and may contribute to viral transmission by disrupting stable partnerships and promoting high-risk partnerships. We investigated incarceration and STI/HIV-related partnerships among a community-based sample recruited for a sexual behavior interview while frequenting venues where people meet sexual partners in a North Carolina city (N = 373). Men reporting incarceration in the past 12 months were more likely than men without recent incarceration to experience multiple new sexual partnerships (unadjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–3.1) and transactional sex defined as trading sex for money, goods, or services (unadjusted PR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.3–7.1) in the past 4 weeks. Likewise, women who were ever incarcerated were more likely than never-incarcerated women to experience recent multiple new partnerships (unadjusted PR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8–5.4) and transactional sex (unadjusted PR: 5.3, 95% CI: 2.6–10.9). Sexual partnership in the past 12 months with someone who had ever been incarcerated versus with partners with no known incarceration history was associated with recent multiple new partnerships (men: unadjusted PR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4–2.9, women: unadjusted PR 4.8, 95% CI 2.3–10.1) and transactional sex (men: unadjusted PR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7–6.6, women: unadjusted PR 6.1, 95% CI 2.4–15.4). Adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic variables had minimal effect on estimates. However, the strong overlap between incarceration, partner incarceration, and substance abuse had substantial effects in multivariable models. Correctional-facility and community-based HIV prevention, with substance abuse treatment, should reach currently and formerly incarcerated individuals and their sexual partners. PMID:18027088

  4. Migration, Multiple Sexual Partnerships, and Sexual Concurrency in the Garífuna Population of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Anisha D; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with (1) multiple sexual partnerships and (2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95 % CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration. PMID:26242612

  5. Migration, multiple sexual partnerships, and sexual concurrency in the Garífuna population of Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Anisha D.; Pettifor, Audrey; Barrington, Clare; Marshall, Stephen W.; Behets, Frieda; Guardado, Maria Elena; Farach, Nasim; Ardón, Elvia; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    The Garífuna, an ethnic minority group in Honduras, have been disproportionately affected by HIV. Previous research suggests that migration and high rates of multiple sexual partnerships are major drivers of the epidemic. Using data from a 2012 population-based survey, we assessed whether temporary migration was associated with 1) multiple sexual partnerships and 2) sexual concurrency among Garífuna men and women in Honduras. Among both men and women, temporary migration in the last year was associated with an increased likelihood of multiple sexual partnerships and with concurrency, though only the association between migration and multiple sexual partnerships among men was statistically significant (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4). Migration may contribute to HIV/STI vulnerability among Garífuna men and women via increases in these sexual risk behaviors. Research conducted among men and women at elevated risk of HIV should continue to incorporate measures of mobility, including history of internal migration. PMID:26242612

  6. Prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships among young people in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mah, Timothy L

    2010-02-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships are an important behavioral driver of HIV epidemics. This analysis examines the prevalence and correlates of concurrency among young adults in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa. 13% reported concurrency during their last sexual partnership with variability by sex and race. Concurrency was associated with race, knowledge of a partner's infidelity, and other risky sexual behaviors. PMID:19823109

  7. Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiates users with concurrent sexual partnerships: An egocentric network study in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jianhua; Luo, Jian; Koram, Nana; Detels, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate the patterns of concurrent sexual partnerships among young opiate users and sexual transmissibility of HIV in concurrent sexual partnerships in drug-use and sexual networks. Design Cross-sectional design. Participants 426 young opiate users in Yunnan, China. Measurement Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit participants. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to analyze the relationships of concurrent sexual partnerships with egocentric social network components, risky sexual behavior for HIV, and drug-use practices. Findings The RDS-adjusted prevalence of concurrent sexual partners was 42.9% among opiate users. Opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships were more likely to engage in risky HIV-related sexual behavior, compared to those without. Specifically, they were more likely to report having had four or more sexual partners (26.3% vs. 2.0%), having had a spouse or boy/girl friends who also had concurrent sexual partnerships (28.1% vs. 8.2%), having exchanged drug for sex (12.4% vs. 3.8%), having had sexual partners who were non-injection drug users (22.6% vs. 10.1%), having had sexual partners who were injection drug users (25.3% vs. 13.5%), and having used club drugs (26.3% vs. 13.5%). There were no significant differences in consistent condom use between opiate users with sexual concurrency and those without. The same proportion (25.8%) of opiate users in the two groups reported having consistently used condoms when having sex with regular partners, and 46.3% of opiate users with sexual concurrency and 36.4% of those without such concurrency consistently used condoms with non-regular partners. Conclusion The expansion of the HIV epidemic from high risk populations to the general population in China may be driven by concurrent sexual partnerships. Behavioral interventions targeting safer sex should be integrated into harm reduction programmes. PMID:21457169

  8. Concurrent sexual partnerships among married Zimbabweans – implications for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mugweni, Esther; Pearson, Stephen; Omar, Mayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role in sustaining the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe. Married couples are at an increased risk of contracting HIV from sexual networks produced by concurrent sexual partnerships. Addressing these partnerships is an international HIV prevention priority. Methods Our qualitative study presents the socioeconomic factors that contribute to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships among married people in Zimbabwe. We conducted 36 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions with married men and women in Zimbabwe in 2008 to understand the organizations of concurrent sexual partnerships. Data were analyzed using framework analysis. Results Our study indicates that relationship dissatisfaction played a key role in the engagement of concurrent sexual partnerships. Depending on the source of the dissatisfaction, there were four possible types of concurrent sexual relationships that were formed: sex worker, casual partner, regular girlfriend or informal polygyny which was referred to as “small house”. These relationships had different levels of intimacy, which had a bearing on practicing safer sex. Participants described three characteristics of hegemonic masculinity that contributed to the sources of dissatisfaction leading to concurrent sexual activity. Similarly, various aspects of emphasized femininity were described as creating opportunities for the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. Economic status was also listed as a factor that contributed to the occurrence of concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusion Marital dissatisfaction was indicated as a contributing factor to the occurrence of concurrent sexual relationships. There were several reports of satisfying marital relationships in which affairs did not occur. Lessons from these marriages can be made part of future HIV prevention interventions targeted at preventing concurrent sexual partnerships by married couples. PMID:26491372

  9. Love, Lust, and the Emotional Context of Concurrent Sexual Partnerships among Young Swazi Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ruark, Allison; Dlamini, Lunga; Mazibuko, Nonhlanhla; Green, Edward C.; Kennedy, Caitlin; Nunn, Amy; Flanigan, Timothy; Surkan, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Men and women in Swaziland who are engaged in multiple or concurrent sexual partnerships, or who have sexual partners with concurrent partners, face a very high risk of HIV infection. Ninety-four in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 Swazi men and women (14 of each sex) between the ages of 20 and 39 in order to explore participants’ sexual partnership histories, including motivations for sexual relationships which carried high HIV risk. Concurrency was normative, with most men and women having had at least one concurrent sexual partnership, and all women reporting having had at least one partner who had a concurrent partner. Men distinguished sexual partnerships that were just for sex from those that were considered to be “real relationships”, while women represented the majority of their relationships, even those which included significant financial support, as being based on love. Besides being motivated by love, concurrent sexual partnerships were described as motivated by a lack of sexual satisfaction, a desire for emotional support and/or as a means to exact revenge against a cheating partner. Social and structural factors were also found to play a role in creating an enabling environment for high-risk sexual partnerships, and these factors included social pressure and norms, a lack of social trust, poverty and a desire for material goods, and geographical separation of partners. PMID:25174630

  10. HIV Transmission by Stage of Infection and Pattern of Sexual Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hoon; Riolo, Rick L.; Koopman, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Most model analyses examining the role of primary HIV infection in the HIV epidemic ignore the fact that HIV is often transmitted through long-term, concurrent sexual partnerships. We sought to understand how duration and concurrency of sexual partnerships affect the role of transmissions during primary HIV infection. Methods We constructed a stochastic individual-based model of HIV transmission in a homogeneous population where partnerships form and dissolve. Using observed contagiousness by stage of HIV infection, the fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection at equilibrium was examined across varying partnership durations and concurrencies. Results The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection has a U-shaped relationship with partnership duration. The fraction drops with increasing partnership duration for partnerships with shorter average duration but rises for partnerships with longer average duration. Partnership concurrency modifies this relationship. The fraction of transmissions during primary HIV infection increases with increasing partnership concurrency for partnerships with shorter average duration, but decreases for partnerships with longer average duration. Conclusions Partnership patterns strongly influence the transmission of HIV and do so differentially by stage of infection. Dynamic partnerships need to be taken into account to make a robust inference on the role of different stages of HIV infection. PMID:20571409

  11. Influence of HLA on human partnership and sexual satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Kromer, J.; Hummel, T.; Pietrowski, D.; Giani, A. S.; Sauter, J.; Ehninger, G.; Schmidt, A. H.; Croy, I.

    2016-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC, called HLA in humans) is an important genetic component of the immune system. Fish, birds and mammals prefer mates with different genetic MHC code compared to their own, which they determine using olfactory cues. This preference increases the chances of high MHC variety in the offspring, leading to enhanced resilience against a variety of pathogens. Humans are also able to discriminate HLA related olfactory stimuli, however, it is debated whether this mechanism is of behavioural relevance. We show on a large sample (N = 508), with high-resolution typing of HLA class I/II, that HLA dissimilarity correlates with partnership, sexuality and enhances the desire to procreate. We conclude that HLA mediates mate behaviour in humans. PMID:27578547

  12. Influence of HLA on human partnership and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kromer, J; Hummel, T; Pietrowski, D; Giani, A S; Sauter, J; Ehninger, G; Schmidt, A H; Croy, I

    2016-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC, called HLA in humans) is an important genetic component of the immune system. Fish, birds and mammals prefer mates with different genetic MHC code compared to their own, which they determine using olfactory cues. This preference increases the chances of high MHC variety in the offspring, leading to enhanced resilience against a variety of pathogens. Humans are also able to discriminate HLA related olfactory stimuli, however, it is debated whether this mechanism is of behavioural relevance. We show on a large sample (N = 508), with high-resolution typing of HLA class I/II, that HLA dissimilarity correlates with partnership, sexuality and enhances the desire to procreate. We conclude that HLA mediates mate behaviour in humans. PMID:27578547

  13. Correlates of Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Young, Rural African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Junhan; Barnum, Stacey C.; Brown, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the social, behavioral, and psychological factors associated with concurrent (i.e., overlapping in time) sexual partnerships among rural African American young men with a primary female partner. Methods We recruited 505 men in rural areas of southern Georgia from January 2012 to August 2013 using respondent-driven sampling; 361 reported having a primary female partner and participating only in heterosexual sexual activity. Men provided data on their demographic characteristics and HIV-related risk behaviors, as well as social, behavioral, and psychological risk factors. Results Of the 361 men with a primary female partner, 164 (45.4%) reported concurrent sexual partners during the past three months. Among the 164 men with a concurrent sexual partner, 144 (92.9%) reported inconsistent condom use with their primary partners, and 68 (41.5%) reported using condoms inconsistently with their concurrent partners. Having concurrent sexual partnerships was associated with inconsistent condom use, substance use before sex, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Bivariate correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships included incarceration, substance use, early onset of sexual activity, impulsive decision-making, and masculinity attitudes (i.e., men's adherence to culturally defined standards for male behavior). In a multivariate model, both masculinity ideology and impulsive decision-making independently predicted concurrent sexual partnerships independent of other risk factors. Conclusion Masculinity attitudes and impulsive decision-making are independent predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships among rural African American men and, consequently, the spread of HIV and other STIs. Developing programs that target masculinity attitudes and self-regulatory skills may help to reduce concurrent sexual partnerships. PMID:26345725

  14. Men's Multiple Sexual Partnerships in 15 Sub-Saharan African Countries: Sociodemographic Patterns and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bingenheimer, Jeffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Men's multiple sexual partnerships contribute to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but the social determinants of these relationships remain poorly understood. Prevailing wisdom suggests that men's institutionalized authority over women and their control of economic resources are key facilitators of multiple partnerships in this region. Men's exposure to or freedom from social control mechanisms embedded in family and village life may also play a role. This article provides insight into these issues by examining sociodemographic correlates of men's multiple sexual partnerships using data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys in 15 sub-Saharan African countries. The prevalence of self-reported multiple partnerships varies widely among countries. Sociodemographic patterns of such partnerships confirm the importance of men's control of economic resources and suggest that men's freedom from social control mechanisms may be more important than their authority over their wives. PMID:21151707

  15. Concurrent sexual partnerships among African American women in Philadelphia: results from a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Rosengard, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women and the social, structural and behavioral factors that influence concurrency. Methods We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioral factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships. Grounded theory guided interview protocols and data analysis. Results Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors influencing concurrency included social normalization of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners’ other concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting main and non-main partners. Not trusting partners and the community at large were the most commonly cited reasons that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners’ dependence on women for economic support and housing, and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioral factors including alcohol and cocaine use influenced concurrency. Conclusions Social, structural, and behavioral factors strongly influenced these African American women’s concurrent sexual partnerships. Many evidence-based interventions (EBIs) disseminated by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus largely on behavioral factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women’s sexual networks

  16. The Effects of Sexual Partnerships and Relationship Characteristics on Three Sexual Risk Variables in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in the United States are experiencing an alarming increase in HIV incidence. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of new HIV infections in YMSM occur in the context of serious relationships, which underscores the importance of examining predictors of sexual risk behavior in the context of sexual partnerships, including relationship type, sexual partner characteristics, and relationship dynamics. The current study aimed to evaluate relationship and sexual partnership influences on sexual risk behavior in YMSM, including differentiating between multiple sexual risk variables (i.e., any unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, unprotected insertive anal or vaginal intercourse, and unprotected receptive anal intercourse). More serious/familiar partnerships were associated with more sexual risk across all three risk variables, while wanting a relationship to last was protective against risk across all three risk variables. Some variables were differentially linked to unprotected insertive sex (partner gender) or unprotected receptive sex (partner age, partner race, believing a partner was having sex with others, and partners repeated across waves). Sexual risk behavior in YMSM is inconsistent across sexual partnerships and appears to be determined in no small part by sexual partner characteristics, relationship dynamics, and sexual role (i.e., insertive or receptive partner). These influences are critical in understanding sexual risk in YMSM and provide important targets for intervention. PMID:24217953

  17. Attitudes towards Power in Relationships and Sexual Concurrency within Heterosexual Youth Partnerships in Baltimore, MD

    PubMed Central

    Lilleston, Pamela S.; Hebert, Luciana E.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Holtgrave, David R.; Ellen, Jonathan M.; Sherman, Susan G.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual concurrency may increase risk for HIV/STIs among youth. Attitudes about gender roles, including power balances within sexual partnerships, could be a driver. We examined this association among Baltimore youth (N=352), aged 15–24. Data were collected from February, 2011 to May, 2013. We examined whether index concurrency in male-reported partnerships (N=221) and sex partner concurrency in female-reported partnerships (N=241) were associated with youth’s attitudes towards relationship power. Males with more equitable beliefs about power were less likely to report index concurrency. Females with more equitable beliefs were more likely to report partner’s concurrency. The relationship was significant in main and casual partnerships among females and main partnerships among males. The strongest associations were detected among middle-SES males and low-SES and African American females. Implementing interventions that recognize the complex relationship between socioeconomic context, partner dynamics, gender, and sexual behavior is an important step towards reducing HIV/STI risk among youth. PMID:26054391

  18. 26 CFR 1.732-2 - Special partnership basis of distributed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special partnership basis of distributed... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.732-2 Special partnership... property to a partner, the partnership bases of the distributed properties shall reflect any increases...

  19. Is concurrency driving HIV transmission in sub-Saharan African sexual networks? The significance of sexual partnership typology.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Caraël, Michel

    2012-10-01

    Recently, there has been debate about the role of concurrent partnerships in driving the transmission of HIV, particularly in Southern Africa, where HIV prevalence is up to 25 % in many heterosexual populations and where evidence from sexual behavior surveys also suggests high levels of male concurrency. While mathematical modeling studies have shown that concurrency has the potential to enhance the speed at which HIV spreads in a population, empirical studies up to now have failed to provide conclusive evidence supportive of these effects. Here we discuss some reasons for the apparent discrepancy between theoretical and empirical studies. We propose that studying the impact of concurrency on HIV transmission should be differentiated by taking more insight from social and behavioral studies on sexual partnerships into account. We also suggest that a more rigorous definition is needed for when a factor is considered a driving force for HIV epidemic spread. We illustrate this with a modeling example. PMID:22790850

  20. Sexual orientation, partnership formation, and substance use in the transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Austin, Erika Laine; Bozick, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Evidence suggests that lesbian and gay young adults use substances more frequently than their heterosexual peers. Based on the life course perspective, we argue that this difference may be due to the unavailability of marriage as a turning point in the lives of lesbian/gay young adults. We use data from a nationally representative sample of youth (N = 13,581, 52.4% female, 68.6% white, ages 18-26) to examine sexual orientation differences in substance use and explore whether these differences vary by romantic partnership formation in young adulthood. We find that the formation of more serious partnerships (e.g., cohabitation, marriage) is associated with less frequent substance use among heterosexual young adults, though this pattern does not hold for lesbian and gay young adults. We conclude that the partnership options available to lesbians and gay men do not provide the same health-protective benefits that marriage does for heterosexuals. PMID:21409412

  1. Genotypic characterization of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates among women who have sex with women in sexual partnerships.

    PubMed

    Muzny, Christina A; Rivers, Charles A; Mena, Leandro A; Schwebke, Jane R

    2012-07-01

    The random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to delineate the genetic relatedness of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates among 3 pairs of mutually infected women who have sex with women in sexual partnerships. One of the 3 pairs of women shared a T. vaginalis isolate with the same random amplified polymorphic DNA banding patterns. Shared use of washcloths to cleanse the vaginal area after receptive oral sex was the most likely method of T. vaginalis transmission among this pair of women. PMID:22706219

  2. Race/ethnicity, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and sexually transmitted infections among a sample of urban young adult women.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Leah F; Brown, Qiana; Cavanaugh, Courtenay; Lawson, April

    2015-10-01

    In many urban neighbourhoods in the United States, drug markets borne from disadvantage have produced risk for sexually transmitted infections through altered sexual norms and partnerships. Presently, we examined the association of race, sexual partnerships with men involved with drugs, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections among 240 African American and white women aged 18-30 years. Thirty seven per cent reported ever having a sexually transmitted infection. Almost 30% of Whites reported sex with a drug user, compared to 5% of African Americans. Fifty eight per cent of African Americans compared to 31% of Whites reported sex with a drug dealer. On Step 1 of a sequential logistic regression model, race was associated with lifetime sexually transmitted infections (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.61-8.34). Results from the full sequential logistic regression model indicated a significant, but smaller association of race and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.78-7.02) and an association of sex with a drug dealer and lifetime sexually transmitted infections (Adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.55-5.20). Forming sexual partnerships with drug dealers may place women at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections and explain racial disparities. More research focused on drug dealers as core transmitters is needed. PMID:25505044

  3. Multiple Sexual Partnerships in a Sample of African-American Crack Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Mark L.; Timpson, Sandra C.; Schönnesson, Lena Nilsson

    2010-01-01

    The sample for this study consisted of 692 sexually active African-American crack cocaine users living in Houston, TX who reported more than one sexual partner in the previous 30 days. Participants were asked to describe each of their two most recent partners from a list of eight choices: spouse/like a spouse/lover; close friend/friend/acquaintance/customer you like/customer. Analyses were conducted on the 1,384 partners and 692 partnership combinations reported. Partnerships and partnership patterns were examined with respect to three risk behaviors—unprotected sex, alcohol use to accompany sex, and drug use to accompany sex—and with respect to three affective measures—partner intimacy, condom use responsibility, and condom use self-efficacy. Results indicate that while many partnerships were based on trading sex for money or drugs, many participants reported partners they considered a spouse or friend. Risk behaviors and affective measures were found to differ by partner type. PMID:18161020

  4. 26 CFR 1.732-2 - Special partnership basis of distributed property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special partnership basis of distributed... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.732-2 Special partnership basis of distributed property. (a) Adjustments under section 734(b). In the case of a...

  5. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.731-2 Partnership distributions of marketable securities. (a) Marketable securities treated as money. Except...

  6. HIV and concurrent sexual partnerships: modelling the role of coital dilution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The concurrency hypothesis asserts that high prevalence of overlapping sexual partnerships explains extraordinarily high HIV levels in sub-Saharan Africa. Earlier simulation models show that the network effect of concurrency can increase HIV incidence, but those models do not account for the coital dilution effect (non-primary partnerships have lower coital frequency than primary partnerships). Methods We modify the model of Eaton et al (AIDS and Behavior, September 2010) to incorporate coital dilution by assigning lower coital frequencies to non-primary partnerships. We parameterize coital dilution based on the empirical work of Morris et al (PLoS ONE, December 2010) and others. Following Eaton et al, we simulate the daily transmission of HIV over 250 years for 10 levels of concurrency. Results At every level of concurrency, our focal coital-dilution simulation produces epidemic extinction. Our sensitivity analysis shows that this result is quite robust; even modestly lower coital frequencies in non-primary partnerships lead to epidemic extinction. Conclusions In order to contribute usefully to the investigation of HIV prevalence, simulation models of concurrent partnering and HIV epidemics must incorporate realistic degrees of coital dilution. Doing so dramatically reduces the role that concurrency can play in accelerating the spread of HIV and suggests that concurrency cannot be an important driver of HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative explanations for HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa are needed. PMID:21914208

  7. Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships among men who have sex with men in Viet Nam: results from a National Internet-based Cross-sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    García, M C; Duong, Q L; Meyer, S B; Ward, P R

    2016-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the largest HIV risk groups in Viet Nam and have been understudied. Sexual concurrency and multiple sex partnerships may contribute to high HIV incidence among MSM in Viet Nam. Limited information is available on concurrency and multiple sexual partnerships among MSM in Viet Nam or on the extent to which this population engages in concurrent and multiple unprotected anal intercourse. Data are from a self-administered Internet-based survey of Vietnamese MSM aged 18 years or older, having sex with male partner(s) in the last 12 months and recruited from social networking MSM-specific websites in Viet Nam. Multiple partnerships and concurrency were measured using the UNAIDS-recommended sexual partner matrix, a key component in the questionnaire. Concurrent and multiple sexual partnerships were analyzed at the individual level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviors associated with multiple sexual partnerships. A total of 1695 MSM reported on multiple sexual partnerships; 69.5% indicated multiple sexual partnerships in the last 6 months. A total of 257 MSM reported on concurrent sexual partnerships, with 51.0% reporting penetrative sex with concurrent partners in the last 6 months. Respondents were more likely to engage in multiple sexual partnerships if they were no longer a student, consumed alcohol before and/or during sex, used the Internet to meet casual sex partners and had never participated in a behavioral HIV intervention. Multiple sexual partnerships in the previous 6 months were common among MSM surveyed, as was sexual concurrency. High levels of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships may be catalyzing the transmission of HIV among MSM in Viet Nam. Given the high prevalence of this high-risk sexual behavior, our findings underscore the urgent need for targeted prevention efforts, focusing on the reduction of multiple and concurrent sexual partners

  8. Young Men's Social Network Characteristics and Associations with Sexual Partnership Concurrency in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Yamanis, Thespina J; Fisher, Jacob C; Moody, James W; Kajula, Lusajo J

    2016-06-01

    Social network influence on young people's sexual behavior is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research identified networks of mostly young men in Dar es Salaam who socialize in "camps". This study describes network characteristics within camps and their relationship to young men's concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted surveys with a nearly complete census of ten camp networks (490 men and 160 women). Surveys included name generators to identify camp-based networks. Fifty seven percent of sexually active men (n = 471) reported past year concurrency, measured using the UNAIDS method. In a multivariable model, men's individual concurrency was associated with being a member of a closer knit camp in which concurrency was the normative behavior. Younger men who had older members in their networks were more likely to engage in concurrency. Respondent concurrency was also associated with inequitable personal gender norms. Our findings suggest strategies for leveraging social networks for HIV prevention among young men. PMID:26271813

  9. Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska native women.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Cynthia R; Cassels, Susan

    2014-08-01

    Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n = 129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend's or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR = 3.92; 95 % CI 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend's or family settings (AOR = 0.17; 95 % CI 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in "riskier" settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR = 4.15; 95 % CI 1.59, 10.68). Perceived "safe" places, e.g., friend's or family's house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

  10. Place and sexual partnership transition among young American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Cynthia R.; Cassels, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple challenges expose American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women to high-risk sexual partnerships and increased risk for HIV/STI. Using a unique sample of sexually-active young AIAN women (n=129), we examined characteristics of last three partners and whether transitional partnerships were associated with different risk profiles, including where partners met, lived, and had sex. Respondents were more likely to have met their previous or current secondary partner (P2) at a friend’s or family setting (versus work or social setting) (AOR=3.92; 95%CI: 1.31, 11.70). Condom use was less likely when meeting a partner at friend’s or family settings (AOR=0.17; 95%CI: 0.05, 0.59). Sexual intercourse with P2 (compared to P1) usually took place in “riskier” settings such as a car, bar, or outside (AOR=4.15; 95%CI: 1.59, 10.68). Perceived “safe” places, e.g., friend’s or family’s house, were identified with risky behaviors; thus, homogeneous messaging campaigns may promote a false sense of safety. PMID:24276791

  11. Prevalence and predictors of concurrent sexual partnerships in a predominantly African American population in Jackson, Mississippi

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy; MacCarthy, Sarah; Barnett, Nancy; Rose, Jennifer; Chan, Philip; Yolken, Annajane; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Barnes, Arti; Riggins, Reginald; Moore, Elya; Simmons, Dantrell; Parker, Sharon; Mena, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent sexual partnerships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, have been associated with HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) infection. How best to measure concurrency and the personal characteristics and predictors of concurrency are not yet well understood. We compared two frequently used concurrency definitions, including a self-reported measure based on participant response regarding overlapping sex with partners, and the UNAIDS measure based on overlapping dates of last sex and intention to have sex again. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and structural predictors of concurrency among 1,542 patients at an urban STI clinic in Jackson, Mississippi. Nearly half (44%) reported concurrency based on self-reported sex with other partners, and 26% reported concurrency according to the UNAIDS concurrency measure. Using the self-reported concurrency measure, the strongest predictors of concurrency were perceived partner concurrency, drug use at last sex, having more than 10 lifetime partners, and being recently incarcerated. Strongest predictors of concurrency using the UNAIDS measure were lifetime number of partners and perceived partner concurrency. Concurrency is highly prevalent in this population in the Deep South and social, structural and behavioral factors were important predictors of concurrency for both measures. Future research should use time anchored data collection methods and biomarkers to assess whether both definitions of concurrency are associated with HIV outcomes. PMID:24803130

  12. Female-Driven Multiple Concurrent Sexual Partnership Systems in a Rural Part of a Southern Tanzanian Province

    PubMed Central

    Agnarson, Abela Mpobela; Strömdahl, Susanne; Levira, Francis; Masanja, Honorati; Thorson, Anna Ekéus

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple concurrent sexual relationships are one of the major challenges to HIV prevention in Tanzania. This study aims to explore sexual behaviour patterns including the practice of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships in a rural Tanzanian setting. Methods This qualitative study used focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with men and women from the community as well as ethnographic participant observations. The data was collected during 16 months of fieldwork in 2007, 2008, and 2009. The focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The data was analysed through the process of latent content analysis. An open coding coding process was applied to create categories and assign themes. Findings Mafiga matatu was an expression used in this society to describe women’s multiple concurrent sexual partners, usually three partners, which was described as a way to ensure social and financial security for their families as well as to achieve sexual pleasure. Adolescent initiation ceremonies initiated and conducted by grand mothers taught young women why and how to engage successfully in multiple concurrent sexual relationships. Some men expressed support for their female partners to behave according to mafiga matatu, while other men were hesitant around this behaviour. Our findings indicate that having multiple concurrent sexual partners is common and a normative behaviour in this setting. Economical factors and sexual pleasure were identified as drivers and viewed as legitimate reason for women to have multiple concurrent sexual partnerships. Conclusions Structural changes improving women’s financial opportunities and increasing gender equality will be important to enable women to not depend on multiple concurrent sexual partnerships for financial security. Future research should explore how normative sexual behaviour changes as these structural changes take place. PMID:26683189

  13. Characteristics of sex partners and sexual partnership correlates of inconsistent condom use among male injection drug users in India.

    PubMed

    Tun, Waimar; Bhattacharya, Aruna; Apicella, Louis; Shasikumar Singh, Yumnam; Lewis, Dean

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have established the risky behaviors of IDUs in India, and that IDUs are sexually active; however, there is a need to better understand the nature of sexual partnerships of IDUs. A total of 783 (Delhi) and 766 (Imphal) male IDUs were recruited into the study through respondent-driven sampling. We examined characteristics of sex partners of male IDUs and individual and sexual partnership characteristics associated with unprotected sex in Delhi and Imphal. While 16.8% of sexual partnerships in Delhi were male-to-male, there were almost no male-to-male partnerships in Imphal. The majority of partners of male IDUs in Delhi (82.5%) and Imphal (92.3%) do not inject drugs, with the exception of male partners of male IDUs in Delhi. Commercial partners (females: 58.3%; males: 71.3%) were the most common type of sex partners of male IDUs in Delhi, while regular partners (65.2%) were the most common type of sex partners in Imphal. In Delhi, characteristics of sex partners significantly associated with unprotected sex were being male/transgender (AOR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-4.0), being a regular (AOR 5.1; 95% CI: 2.8-9.4) or non-regular partner (AOR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.7- 4.5), and sharing needles/syringes with the index IDU (AOR 2.8; 95% CI: 1.4-5.3). In Imphal, partner characteristics associated with unprotected sex were being a regular (AOR 10.1; 95% CI: 41-25.1) or non-regular partner (AOR 3.4; 95% CI: 1.5-7.6), and living outside of town or state (AOR 3.3; 95% CI: 1.2-9.6). Enhanced understanding of disassortative sexual mixing and context of unprotected sex within sexual partnerships may enhance sexual risk reduction interventions for IDUs. PMID:25427360

  14. Young Men’s Social Network Characteristics and Associations with Sexual Partnership Concurrency in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jacob C.; Moody, James W.; Kajula, Lusajo J.

    2015-01-01

    Social network influence on young people’s sexual behavior is understudied in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research identified networks of mostly young men in Dar es Salaam who socialize in “camps”. This study describes network characteristics within camps and their relationship to young men’s concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted surveys with a nearly complete census of ten camp networks (490 men and 160 women). Surveys included name generators to identify camp-based networks. Fifty seven percent of sexually active men (n = 471) reported past year concurrency, measured using the UNAIDS method. In a multivariable model, men’s individual concurrency was associated with being a member of a closer knit camp in which concurrency was the normative behavior. Younger men who had older members in their networks were more likely to engage in concurrency. Respondent concurrency was also associated with inequitable personal gender norms. Our findings suggest strategies for leveraging social networks for HIV prevention among young men. PMID:26271813

  15. Sexuality, Self-Esteem and Partnership Quality in Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Wischmann, T.; Schilling, K.; Toth, B.; Rösner, S.; Strowitzki, T.; Wohlfarth, K.; Kentenich, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertile couples often report quality-of-life impairments, especially in terms of sexuality, self-esteem and partnership quality. So far, there have been no systematic studies of the sex lives and behaviour of infertile women and men before and after the emergence of their mutual desire for a child. Materials and Methods: From February 2010 to August 2010 all couples starting treatment either at Heidelberg Universityʼs Womenʼs Hospital or at the Fertility Center Berlin were asked to fill out the Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire (SEAR). A total of n = 158 women and n = 153 men participated in the study. Results: Decreasing tendencies were observable for both partners in the domains Sexual Relationship Satisfaction and Confidence and in the subscales Self-Esteem and Overall Relationship Satisfaction. There were especially clear indications of a loss of spontaneous sexuality during the experience of infertility. We were also able to establish that infertility has a negative impact on womenʼs self-esteem. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that SEAR can be used as a feasible instrument for identifying infertile women and men whose infertility has a negative effect on their relationship quality and/or sex lives. PMID:25221344

  16. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  17. Modeling the community-level effects of male incarceration on the sexual partnerships of men and women.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Andrea K; Snow, Rachel C; Riolo, Rick L; Griffith, Derek M; Morenoff, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Men who have been incarcerated experience substantial changes in their sexual behavior after release from jail and prison, and high rates of incarceration may change sexual relationship patterns at a community level. Few studies, however, address how rates of incarceration affect community patterns of sexual behavior, and the implications of those patterns for HIV and STD risk. We describe a "proof of principle" computational model that tests whether rates of male incarceration could, in part, explain observed population-level differences in patterns of sexual behavior between communities with high rates of incarceration and those without. This validated agent-based model of sexual partnership among 20-25 year old heterosexual urban residents in the United States uses an algorithm that incarcerates male agents and then releases them back into the agent community. The results from these model experiments suggest that at rates of incarceration similar to those observed for urban African American men, incarceration can cause an increase in the number of partners at the community level. The results suggest that reducing incarceration and creating a more open criminal justice system that supports the maintenance of inmates' relationships to reduce instability of partnerships for men who are incarcerated may have important sexual health and public health implications. Incarceration is one of many social forces that affect sexual decision-making, and incarceration rates may have substantial effects on community-level HIV and STD risks. PMID:26610077

  18. Sexual behavior, body image, and partnership in chronic illness: a comparison of Huntington's disease and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Reininghaus, Eva; Reininghaus, Bernd; Fitz, Werner; Hecht, Karen; Bonelli, Raphael Maria

    2012-08-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are both chronic progressive illnesses posing a serious challenge to affected patients and families. Sexual dysfunction in HD as well as in MS is a very common problem, although it is unclear whether the dysfunction is caused by the chronic illness itself or by the sociopsychiatric burden related to the illness. Twenty-nine patients with HD and 27 patients with MS each participated in a semistructured interview and several standardized questionnaires concerning partnership, sexual function, and body image. The results display significant differences in both patient groups, displaying higher sexual desire and activity in HD patients, but MS patients also reported fewer sexual problems compared to the norming values. Conversely, the MS patients' relationships seemed to be stable despite subjectively perceived lower initiative on sexual activities. The results are discussed under the possible influences of the underlying organic changes and the psychosocial consequences of chronic progressive disorders. PMID:22850308

  19. Young People’s Sexual Partnerships in KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa: Patterns, Contextual Influences, and HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Abigail; Cleland, John; Frohlich, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Certain sexual partnering practices, such as multiple, concurrent or age-discrepant partnerships, are known to increase HIV risk. Yet the underlying dynamics of young people’s relationships are less understood. Using household survey and qualitative data, this study examines the partnership context of HIV risk, including partner types, their characteristics, and key aspects of partnership dynamics, including partner numbers and age differences, duration, concurrency, and frequency of contact among youth aged 15–24 in rural KwaZulu/Natal, South Africa. One-third of men reported multiple and/or concurrent partnering, while one-quarter of women had partners > 5 years older. Non-participation in civic organizations or schooling was correlated with higher risk partnerships for women, but not men. On average, relationships lasted >1 year for women and men, and were frequently characterized as ‘serious’. However, qualitative findings pointed to the sequential and overlapping nature of relationships, with distance and mobility as important influences. These fluid partnership patterns are an important feature of young people’s sexual risk in the context of South Africa’s severe HIV epidemic. PMID:19248716

  20. Self-Reported Sex Partner Dates for Use in Measuring Concurrent Sexual Partnerships: Correspondence Between Two Assessment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Claire E.; Cassels, Susan L.; Winer, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Although prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships is increasingly investigated as a driver of HIV epidemics, its measurement varies and its role in transmission dynamics remains contested. Relying on different methods of obtaining self-reported partnership histories may lead to significant differences in prevalence. This study examined the reliability of two methods for assessing dates of sex and the implications for measuring concurrent sexual partnerships. We conducted a cross-sectional reliability study using self-reported survey data from 650 women ages 18–65 years, recruited online nationwide for human papillomavirus natural history studies from 2007–2012. Intermethod reliability of first and last sex with the most recent partner was assessed using weighted kappa. Intraclass correlation coefficient was estimated for intramethod reliability across two consecutive questionnaires administered 4 months apart. Point prevalence of concurrent sexual partnerships at 6 months prior to the questionnaire date was similar between the two question formats (10.5% for categorical and 10.9% for continuous). The range between the minimum and maximum cumulative prevalence for 12 months was larger when using the categorical questions (17.0%–29.6% compared to 27.6%–28.6% using the continuous questions). Agreement between the two question formats was moderate for the date of first sex with the most recent partner (κ = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.48–0.64) and almost perfect for the date of last sex (κ = 0.93, 95%CI: 0.91–0.94). Longitudinal agreement for date of first sex was high for the continuous date question (ICC = 0.89, 95%CI: 0.86–0.92). Results of this reliability study can be used to inform the design of future studies of concurrent sexual partnerships and their association with HIV. PMID:25391584

  1. Reducing Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Blacks in the Rural Southeastern United States: Development of Narrative Messages for a Radio Campaign.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joan R; Francis, Diane B; Ramirez, Catalina; Brown, Jane D; Schoenbach, Victor J; Fortune, Thierry; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Adimora, Adaora A

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is dramatically higher among Blacks than among Whites. Overlapping (concurrent) sexual partnerships promote HIV transmission. The authors describe their process for developing a radio campaign (Escape the Web) to raise awareness among 18-34-year-old Black adults of the effect of concurrency on HIV transmission in the rural South. Radio is a powerful channel for the delivery of narrative-style health messages. Through six focus groups (n = 51) and 42 intercept interviews, the authors explored attitudes toward concurrency and solicited feedback on sample messages. Men were advised to (a) end concurrent partnerships and not to begin new ones; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. The narrative portrayed risky behaviors that trigger initiation of casual partnerships. Women were advised to (a) end partnerships in which they are not their partner's only partner; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. Messages for all advised better modeling for children. PMID:26134387

  2. Reducing Concurrent Sexual Partnerships Among Blacks in the Rural Southeastern United States: Development of Narrative Messages for a Radio Campaign

    PubMed Central

    CATES, JOAN R.; FRANCIS, DIANE B.; RAMIREZ, CATALINA; BROWN, JANE D.; SCHOENBACH, VICTOR J.; FORTUNE, THIERRY; HAMMOND, WIZDOM POWELL; ADIMORA, ADAORA A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is dramatically higher among Blacks than among Whites. Overlapping (concurrent) sexual partnerships promote HIV transmission. The authors describe their process for developing a radio campaign (Escape the Web) to raise awareness among 18–34-year-old Black adults of the effect of concurrency on HIV transmission in the rural South. Radio is a powerful channel for the delivery of narrative-style health messages. Through six focus groups (n = 51) and 42 intercept interviews, the authors explored attitudes toward concurrency and solicited feedback on sample messages. Men were advised to (a) end concurrent partnerships and not to begin new ones; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. The narrative portrayed risky behaviors that trigger initiation of casual partnerships. Women were advised to (a) end partnerships in which they are not their partner’s only partner; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. Messages for all advised better modeling for children. PMID:26134387

  3. Sociodemographic drivers of multiple sexual partnerships among women in three rural districts of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Exavery, Amon; Kanté, Almamy Malick; Tani, Kassimu; Hingora, Ahmed; Phillips, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines prevalence and correlates of multiple sexual partnerships (MSP) among women aged 15+ years in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania. Materials and methods Data were collected in a cross-sectional household survey in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts in Tanzania in 2011. From the survey, a total of 2,643 sexually active women ages 15+ years were selected for this analysis. While the chi-square test was used for testing association between MSP and each of the independent variables, logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results Number of sexual partners reported ranged from 1 to 7, with 7.8% of the women reporting multiple sexual partners (2+) in the past year. MSP was more likely among both ever married women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–10.49) and single women (AOR =6.13, 95% CI 2.45–15.34) than currently married women. There was an interaction between marital status and education, whereby MSP was 85% less likely among single women with secondary or higher education compared to married women with no education (AOR =0.15, 95% CI 0.03–0.61). Furthermore, women aged 40+ years were 56% less likely compared to the youngest women (<20 years) to report MSP (AOR =0.44, 95% CI 0.24–0.80). The odds of MSP among Muslim women was 1.56 times as high as that for Christians women (AOR =1.56, 95% CI 1.11–2.21). Ndengereko women were 67% less likely to report MSP compared to Pogoro women (AOR =0.33, 95% CI 0.18–0.59). Conclusion Eight percent of the women aged 15+ in Rufiji, Kilombero, and Ulanga districts of Tanzania are engaged in MSP. Encouraging achievement of formal education, especially at secondary level or beyond, may be a viable strategy toward partner reduction among unmarried women. Age, religion, and ethnicity are also important dimensions for partner reduction efforts. PMID:25914557

  4. Determinants of concurrent sexual partnerships within stable relationships: a qualitative study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Carie Muntifering; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective Concurrent sexual partnerships (CP) have been identified as a potential driver in the HIV epidemic in southern Africa, making it essential to understand motivating factors for engagement in CP. We aimed to assess community attitudes and beliefs about relationship factors that influence men and women in stable relationships to engage in CP in Tanzania. Social exchange theory was used for interpreting the data. Design Qualitative study with focus group discussions (FGDs). Setting Semiurban/rural communities in four regions across Tanzania (Dar es Salaam, Shinyanga, Iringa and Mbeya). Participants 120 women aged 17–45 years and 111 men aged 18–49 years from four study areas participated in 32 FGDs. Outcome measures FGD participants were asked the following questions about CP: definitions and types, motivations and justifications for engaging or not engaging, cultural factors, gender and socialisation, and local resources and efforts available for addressing CP. Our analysis focused specifically on beliefs about how relationship factors influence engagement in CP. Results Dissatisfaction with a stable relationship was believed to be a contributing factor for engagement in CP for both men and women. Participants more commonly reported financial dissatisfaction as a contributing factor for women engaging in CP within stable relationships, whereas emotional and sexual dissatisfaction were reported as contributing factors for men and women. Furthermore, participants described how potential outside partners are often evaluated based on what they are able to offer compared with stable partners. Conclusions Efforts to reach men and women in stable relationships with HIV prevention messages must consider the various dimensions of motivation for engaging in CP, including relationship dynamics. PMID:24508848

  5. Forming new sex partnerships while overseas: findings from the third British National Survey of Sexual Attitudes & Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Clare; Johnson, Anne M; Macdowall, Wendy; Datta, Jessica; Clifton, Soazig; Field, Nigel; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Travelling away from home presents opportunities for new sexual partnerships, which may be associated with sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. We examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, reporting new sexual partner(s) while overseas, and whether this differed by partners’ region of residence. Methods We analysed data from 12 530 men and women aged 16–74 years reporting ≥1 sexual partner(s) in the past 5 years in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3), a probability survey undertaken 2010–2012. Results 9.2% (95% CI 8.3% to 10.1%) of men and 5.3% (4.8% to 5.8%) of women reported new sexual partner(s) while overseas in the past 5 years. This was strongly associated with higher partner numbers and other sexual and health risk behaviours. Among those with new partners while overseas, 72% of men and 58% of women reported partner(s) who were not UK residents. Compared with those having only UK partners while abroad, these people were more likely to identify as ‘White Other’ or ‘Non-White’ (vs White British ethnicity), report higher partner numbers, new partners from outside the UK while in the UK and paying for sex (men only) all in the past 5 years. There was no difference in reporting STI diagnosis/es during this time period. Conclusions Reporting new partners while overseas was associated with a range of sexual risk behaviours. Advice on sexual health should be included as part of holistic health advice for all travellers, regardless of age, destination or reason for travel. PMID:27272533

  6. The Distribution of Sex Acts and Condom Use within Partnerships in a Rural Sub-Saharan African Population

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon; Lewis, James; Magutshwa, Sitholubuhle; Schumacher, Christina; Mushati, Phyllis; Hallett, Tim; Garnett, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In an HIV/AIDS epidemic driven primarily by heterosexual transmission, it is important to have an understanding of the human sexual behaviour patterns that influence transmission. We analysed the distribution and predictors of within-partnership sexual behaviour and condom use in rural Zimbabwe and generated parameters for use in future modelling analyses. Methods A population-based cohort was recruited from a household census in 12 communities. A baseline survey was carried out in 1998–2000 with follow-up surveys after 3 and 5 years. Statistical distributions were fitted to reported within-partnership numbers of total, unprotected and protected sex acts in the past two weeks. Multilevel linear and logistic regression models were constructed to assess predictors of the frequency of unprotected sex and consistent condom use. Results A normal distribution of ln(sex acts+1) provided the best fit for total and unprotected sex acts for men and women. A negative binomial distribution applied to the untransformed data provided the best fit for protected sex acts. Condom use within partnerships was predominantly bimodal with at least 88% reporting zero or 100% use. Both men and women reported fewer unprotected sex acts with non-regular compared to regular partners (men: 0.26 fewer every two weeks (95% confidence interval 0.18–0.34); women: 0.16 (0.07–0.23)). Never and previously married individuals reported fewer unprotected sex acts than currently married individuals (never married men: 0.64 (0.60–0.67); previously married men: 0.59 (0.50–0.67); never married women: 0.51 (0.45–0.57); previously married women: 0.42 (0.37–0.47)). These variables were also associated with more consistent condom use. Discussion We generated parameters that will be useful for defining transmission models of HIV and other STIs, which rely on a valid representation of the underlying sexual network that determines spread of an infection. This will enable a better

  7. Casual sex and concurrent sexual partnerships among young people from an Yi community with a high prevalence of HIV in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Luan, Rong-Sheng; Liu, Peng; Wu, Chun-Lin; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Liangshan Prefecture in Sichuan province, China, has a high prevalence of HIV infection, which is reflective of a change in the mode of transmission from injection drug use (IDU) to heterosexual intercourse. However, few studies focus on HIV-related heterosexual risk behaviours among the majority Yi population. The objectives of this study were to explore the characteristics of an egocentric sexual network and estimate the prevalence of casual sexual behaviour. Yi villagers (n=108), aged 15–35 years, who reported having had sex within the previous year were interviewed as to their sexual behaviours and networks. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions provided supplementary information on sexual norms. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Most of the respondents reported having had casual sex at some time in their life, and 66.7% reported multiple sexual partnerships. Only 21.3% reported ever having used a condom. During the study year, a total of 137 partners were involved in 153 sexual partnerships. Among the reported sexual partnerships, 67.3% originated from a casual sexual relationship. For network members in components of size ≥3, 56.9% were involved in concurrent sexual partnerships. Having never been married (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.03–4.33) and younger age (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83–0.95) were both associated with being in a component of size ≥3. Size (OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.17–7.66), pair (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.39–0.74), the number of weak components of the egocentric sexual network (OR: 30.04; 95% CI: 6.47–139.46) and gender (OR: 0.19; 95% CI: 0.06–0.67) were all associated with being in concurrent sexual partnerships. HIV-related interventions for the Yi ethnic minority in Sichuan province must therefore address concurrent sexual partnerships and promote condom use. PMID:22683999

  8. The role of intent in serosorting behaviors among MSM sexual partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Aaron J.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Khosropour, Christine M.; Rosenberg, Eli S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serosorting is increasingly assessed in studies of MSM. Most research studies have measured serosorting by combining reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and the occurrence of participant and partner same HIV status (seroconcordance). The CDC definition of serosorting also incorporates intent to be in such a partnership, although few studies incorporate both intent and behavior into their measures. Methods Using data from a national, online survey of 3,519 US MSM, we assessed the role of intention in seroconcordant partnerships, as measured by participant rating of the importance of shared serostatus when selecting a sex partner. Results For HIV+ men, 30% of partnerships were seroconcordant; of these, 48% reported intent to be in such a partnership (intentional seroconcordance). For HIV− men, 64% of partnerships were seroconcordant; of these, 80% reported intentional seroconcordance. Intentional seroconcordance was associated with UAI for HIV+ partnerships (OR 1.9; CI: 1.3, 2.9), but not significant for HIV− partnerships (OR 1.1; CI: 0.99, 1.3). In separate models where intent was not considered, seroconcordance was associated with UAI for HIV+ partnerships (odds ratio (OR) 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2, 4.6) and for HIV− partnerships (OR 1.2; CI: 1.0, 1.3; p = 0.03). Conclusions Regardless of intentionality, seroconcordance was strongly associated with UAI for HIV+ men and weakly associated with UAI for HIV− men. Intentional seroconcordance was not associated with UAI more strongly than was seroconcordance in absence of consideration of intent. Intentionality may not be a critical element of the relationship between seroconcordance and UAI. PMID:23846562

  9. Sexual agreements in the partnerships of Internet-using men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Katherine; Hoff, Colleen C.; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) have found that the majority of HIV transmission results from sex with a main partner. One factor likely to affect the risk of transmission is the type of agreements the couple has regarding sexual behaviour within and outside the relationship. This study recruited 732 Internet-using MSM through Facebook banner ads. Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics of the respondent and their main partner, the sexual behaviour of the couple, the existence of a sexual agreement, and the strength of investment in that agreement. The Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the association between sexual agreements (categorized as open, closed, or none) and the predictive variables. Respondents’ investment in their sexual agreement was measured using the sexual agreement investment scale (a composite score ranging from 0 to 52). Ninety-one percent of respondents had some form of sexual agreement in place with their main partner. The presence and type of sexual agreement was found to be strongly associated with many characteristics of the individual and couple, including the respondent’s HIV status, length of time with the main partner, having unprotected anal intercourse with a man other than their main partner, and happiness in the relationship. Increases in the strength of respondents’ investment in their sexual agreement were found to be associated with newness of the relationship, relationship happiness, having a closed relationship, and decreases in risky sexual behaviour. This study offers further evidence of the important role that sexual agreements play in male couples. The overwhelming prevalence of sexual agreements and their association with relationship happiness and risky sexual behaviours has important implications for future HIV prevention and control strategies, including the implementation of couples voluntary counseling and testing. PMID:22375729

  10. Sexual agreements in the partnerships of internet-using men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Gass, Katherine; Hoff, Colleen C; Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies among men who have sex with men (MSM) have found that the majority of HIV transmission results from sex with a main partner. One factor likely to affect the risk of transmission is the type of agreements the couple has regarding sexual behaviour within and outside the relationship. This study recruited 732 Internet-using MSM through Facebook banner ads. Participants completed an online questionnaire regarding demographic characteristics of the respondent and their main partner, the sexual behaviour of the couple, the existence of a sexual agreement, and the strength of investment in that agreement. The Pearson chi-square test was used to assess the association between sexual agreements (categorized as open, closed, or none) and the predictive variables. Respondents' investment in their sexual agreement was measured using the sexual agreement investment scale (a composite score ranging from 0 to 52). Ninety-one percent of respondents had some form of sexual agreement in place with their main partner. The presence and type of sexual agreement was found to be strongly associated with many characteristics of the individual and couple, including the respondent's HIV status, length of time with the main partner, having unprotected anal intercourse with a man other than their main partner, and happiness in the relationship. Increases in the strength of respondents' investment in their sexual agreement were found to be associated with newness of the relationship, relationship happiness, having a closed relationship, and decreases in risky sexual behaviour. This study offers further evidence of the important role that sexual agreements play in male couples. The overwhelming prevalence of sexual agreements and their association with relationship happiness and risky sexual behaviours has important implications for future HIV prevention and control strategies, including the implementation of couples voluntary counseling and testing. PMID:22375729

  11. Concurrent sexual partnerships do not explain the HIV epidemics in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The notion that concurrent sexual partnerships are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa and explain the region's high HIV prevalence is accepted by many as conventional wisdom. In this paper, we evaluate the quantitative and qualitative evidence offered by the principal proponents of the concurrency hypothesis and analyze the mathematical model they use to establish the plausibility of the hypothesis. We find that research seeking to establish a statistical correlation between concurrency and HIV prevalence either finds no correlation or has important limitations. Furthermore, in order to simulate rapid spread of HIV, mathematical models require unrealistic assumptions about frequency of sexual contact, gender symmetry, levels of concurrency, and per-act transmission rates. Moreover, quantitative evidence cited by proponents of the concurrency hypothesis is unconvincing since they exclude Demographic and Health Surveys and other data showing that concurrency in Africa is low, make broad statements about non-African concurrency based on very few surveys, report data incorrectly, report data from studies that have no information about concurrency as though they supported the hypothesis, report incomparable data and cite unpublished or unavailable studies. Qualitative evidence offered by proponents of the hypothesis is irrelevant since, among other reasons, there is no comparison of Africa with other regions. Promoters of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to establish that concurrency is unusually prevalent in Africa or that the kinds of concurrent partnerships found in Africa produce more rapid spread of HIV than other forms of sexual behaviour. Policy makers should turn attention to drivers of African HIV epidemics that are policy sensitive and for which there is substantial epidemiological evidence. PMID:20836882

  12. Dominican and Puerto Rican Women in Partnerships and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Claudia L.; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2007-01-01

    This study compares demographic characteristics, sexual risk factors for HIV/STI, and cultural predictors of sexual risk among 254 Dominican and 1,012 Puerto Rican women using outpatient health care in New York City. More Dominicans were born outside continental United States and were employed, whereas more Puerto Ricans were single and less…

  13. Sexual Behavior Varies Between Same-Race and Different-Race Partnerships: A Daily Diary Study of Highly Sexually Active Black, Latino, and White Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-08-01

    Racial homophily (partnering with those of the same race) has been suggested as contributing to racial disparities in HIV among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Using a daily diary study, we examined racial homophily and its role in anal sexual behaviors in a sample of highly sexually active Black, White, and Latino GBM (N = 294, n = 3107 sexual events). In general, (1) men tended to partner with others of the same race, (2) HIV was more prevalent among men of color, and (3) race acted independent of whether one would engage in behaviors that would put them at highest risk for transmitting HIV (i.e., no main or interaction effects for insertive condomless anal sex (CAS) among HIV-positive men, and no main or interaction effects for receptive CAS among HIV-negative men). There were some main and interactive effects observed for lower risk behaviors (receptive CAS among HIV-positive men and insertive CAS among HIV-negative). Our findings suggest that racial disparities in HIV may be due to a higher exposure frequency (i.e., the frequency with which one comes into contact with a partner where a transmission could occur). However, men were also less likely to have anal sex when having sex with someone of the same race-a finding that works against the premise of higher exposure frequency. Future researchers should examine both racial homophily as well as variation in sexual behavior based on same-race or different-race partnerships. PMID:26696407

  14. 13 CFR 107.1400 - Dividends or partnership distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dividends or partnership distributions on 4 percent Preferred Securities. 107.1400 Section 107.1400 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for...

  15. 26 CFR 1.731-2 - Partnership distributions of marketable securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partnership distributions of marketable securities. 1.731-2 Section 1.731-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... are eligible for an exception to section 731(c). The examples are as follows: Example 1....

  16. “Dying a hero”: parents’ and young people’s discourses on concurrent sexual partnerships in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Concurrent sexual partnerships (CSPs) have been speculated to drive the HIV pandemic in many sub-Saharan African countries. We have limited understanding of how people think and talk about CSPs, how beliefs are transmitted across generations, and how this might affect the practice. This paper explores these issues to understand how CSPs are perpetuated and help identify opportunities for interventions to modify them. Methods The study employed an ethnographic research design involving: participant observation in 10 households, 60 in-depth interviews (IDIs), and nine participatory focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were young people aged 14-24 and parents/carers of young people within this age group. The 60 IDIs were conducted with: 17 fathers, 13 mothers, 13 young men and 17 young women (six of whom had had unplanned pregnancies and 11 had no children). The nine FGDs were conducted with groups of: fathers (2), mothers (2), young women (2), and young men (3). A discourse analysis was carried out with all the transcripts. Data were analysed with the aid of NVIVO 8 software. Results Six distinct discourses were identified from the way participants talked about CSPs and the norms driving the practice: 1) predatory masculine sexuality; 2) masculine respectability; 3) feminine respectability; 4) empowered modern women; 5) traditional health beliefs; 6) public health. Discourses legitimating CSPs were drawn on and reproduced primarily by young people and the media and only indirectly by parents. Discourses discouraging CSPs were used primarily by parents, religious leaders and learning institutions and only indirectly by young people themselves. Conclusion Better knowledge of the discourses through which young people CSPs, and how these discourses are transmitted across generations, might help develop “culturally compelling” interventions that modify these discourses to enhance sexual health. PMID:25048413

  17. The changing cultural and economic dynamics of polygyny and concurrent sexual partnerships in Iringa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tomori, Cecilia; Francisco, Leilani V; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kajula-Maonga, Lusajo; Likindikoki, Samuel; Babalola, Stella O; Beckham, Sarah W; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2013-01-01

    Polygyny has been identified both as a 'benign' form of concurrency and as the cultural basis of concurrent partnerships that are considered important drivers of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper investigates the changing cultural and economic dynamics of polygyny in concurrency in Iringa, Tanzania, a region with traditions of polygyny and high prevalence of HIV. Our analysis of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and key informant interviews indicate that contemporary concurrent partnerships differ from regional traditions of polygyny. Whereas in the past, polygyny reflected men's and their kin group's wealth and garnered additional prestige, polygyny today is increasingly seen as a threat to health, and as leading to poverty. Nevertheless, participants evoked the social prestige of polygyny to explain men's present-day concurrency, even outside the bounds of marriage, and despite continued social prohibitions against extramarital affairs. Difficult economic conditions, combined with this prestige, made it easier for men to engage in concurrency without the considerable obligations to wives and children in polygyny. Local economic conditions also compelled women to seek concurrent partners to meet basic needs and to access consumer goods, but risked greater moral judgement than men, especially if deemed to have excessive 'desire' for money. PMID:23944717

  18. The NatCarb geoportal: Linking distributed data from the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, T.R.; Rich, P.M.; Bartley, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships are generating the data for a "carbon atlas" of key geospatial data (carbon sources, potential sinks, etc.) required for rapid implementation of carbon sequestration on a broad scale. The NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb) provides Web-based, nation-wide data access. Distributed computing solutions link partnerships and other publicly accessible repositories of geological, geophysical, natural resource, infrastructure, and environmental data. Data are maintained and enhanced locally, but assembled and accessed through a single geoportal. NatCarb, as a first attempt at a national carbon cyberinfrastructure (NCCI), assembles the data required to address technical and policy challenges of carbon capture and storage. We present a path forward to design and implement a comprehensive and successful NCCI. ?? 2007 The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding Consistent Condom Use Among Homeless Men Who Have Sex with Women and Engage in Multiple Sexual Partnerships: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Wenzel, Suzanne; Rice, Eric; Gilreath, Tamika D; Kurzban, Seth; Unger, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Consistent condom use is the main strategy aimed at preventing individuals from acquiring HIV through sexual intercourse. The mechanism of consistent condom use among a high-risk homeless subpopulation-homeless men who have sex with women and also engage in multiple sexual partnerships-remains unclear. This study identified 182 homeless men who engaged in multiple sexual partnerships from a representative sample of homeless men, who self-identified as heterosexual, using meal line services in Downtown Los Angeles' Skid Row area. Information such as participants' condom use psychosocial correlates, sexual risk behaviors, and social network characteristics were collected. Results suggested that condom efficacy is a potential intervening mechanism through which condom attitudes (β = -0.199; p = 0.005) and depression (β = -0.156; p = 0.029) are associated with an individual's consistent condom use. Having more network members with whom participants talked about HIV prevention (β = 0.051; p = 0.006) was also found to be associated with an individual's consistent condom use. HIV prevention programs should focus on increasing their condom efficacy to help reduce HIV risks among this vulnerable homeless subpopulation. PMID:25845531

  20. Exploration of Male Attitudes on Partnerships and Sexuality with Female BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    PubMed

    Mauer, Caitlin; Spencer, Sara; Dungan, Jeffery; Hurley, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Women with BRCA mutations are inundated with decisions about managing cancer risks and childbearing considerations. Decisions become more complicated when women face disclosing their mutation and risk-reduction options to a romantic partner. This study identifies the concerns and perspectives of male romantic partners regarding these unique decisions. Twenty-five male participants completed an online survey posted to cancer support group message boards. Participants reported relationship changes regarding intimacy levels (n = 9), attraction (n = 2), and communication (n = 22) after mutation disclosure. Participants whose partners had not undergone prophylactic mastectomy (n = 14) reported concerns regarding sexual relations (n = 5), post-surgical appearance (n = 2), post-surgical attraction (n = 5), and health/lifespan (n = 9). Participants did not express attitude changes toward childbearing. While mutation disclosure conversations and surgical options are concerns for many BRCA mutation carriers in relationships, male partners share these concerns. Aspects of the relationship may change, but male study participants continued to support their partners. This information can benefit female BRCA mutation carriers, their current or future partners, and genetic counselors working with this particular population. PMID:26250348

  1. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Intimate Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA

    2015-01-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  2. The Role of HIV Serostatus Disclosure on Sexual Risk Behaviours among People Living with HIV in Steady Partnerships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lana; Bastos, Francisco I.; Bertoni, Neilane; Malta, Monica; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding partnership dynamics is a crucial step in the process of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners. This study examines the relational characteristics associated with HIV serostatus disclosure and the role of disclosure on sexual behaviours within steady partnerships among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Study participants from 6 large public health facilities were surveyed to investigate psychosocial and relational factors associated with sexual health and well-being. Among 489 individuals in steady partnerships, 86% reported HIV serostatus disclosure to steady partners. After adjusting for demographic variables, attitudes towards disclosure, having an HIV-positive partner, living with partner, and longer relationships were significantly associated with reported disclosure using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Living with partner was negatively associated with partner concurrency. However, having an HIV-positive partner, sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and experiencing physical aggression by a steady partner were negatively associated with consistent condom use. Interventions supporting PLHIV to safely and voluntarily disclose to partners may be an effective prevention approach between steady partners, however addressing partner violence and substance use are important considerations for future work. PMID:25223980

  3. The role of HIV serostatus disclosure on sexual risk behaviours among people living with HIV in steady partnerships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lana; Bastos, Francisco I; Bertoni, Neilane; Malta, Monica; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding partnership dynamics is a crucial step in the process of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners. This study examines the relational characteristics associated with HIV serostatus disclosure and the role of disclosure on sexual behaviours within steady partnerships among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The overall study surveyed 900 participants from six large public health facilities to investigate psychosocial and structural factors associated with sexual health and well-being. This analysis focuses on 489 individuals reporting being in steady partnerships, 86% of whom reported HIV serostatus disclosure to steady partners. After adjusting for demographic variables, attitudes towards disclosure, having an HIV-positive partner, living with partner and longer relationships were significantly associated with reported disclosure in multivariable logistic regression. Living with partner was negatively associated with partner concurrency. However, having an HIV-positive partner, sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol and experiencing physical aggression by a steady partner were negatively associated with consistent condom use. Interventions supporting PLHIV to safely and voluntarily disclose to partners may be an effective prevention approach between steady partners; however, partner violence and substance use should be addressed in future work. PMID:25223980

  4. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A

    2015-08-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  5. Time for sex: nycthemeral distribution of human sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Refinetti, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Background Nycthemeral (daily) oscillation has been documented in a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the existence of a nycthemeral rhythm of human sexual behavior and to identify environmental factors responsible for the rhythmic pattern. Methods Non-traditional university students (ages 18 to 51 years) recorded the times of day when they went to sleep, when they woke up, and when they had sex for 3 consecutive weeks. They also answered a questionnaire designed to identify the causes of their selection of time for sex. Results The majority of sexual encounters took place at bedtime (11 pm to 1 am). The most common explanations for this temporal pattern were the rigidity of the professional work schedule and family obligations and the availability of the partner, which reduced the opportunity for sexual encounters at other times of the day. Conclusion Most sexual encounters take place around bedtime. Although the presence of an endogenous component responsible for this temporal pattern cannot be excluded, the evidence indicates strong environmental forcing, particularly from the work/family schedule of the individuals and from partner availability. PMID:15790406

  6. TIMING AND DURATION OF INCARCERATION AND HIGH-RISK SEXUAL PARTNERSHIPS AMONG AFRICAN AMERICANS IN NORTH CAROLINA

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Maria R; Miller, William C; Schoenbach, Victor J; Weir, Sharon S; Kaufman, Jay S; Wohl, David A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Incarceration may contribute to HIV transmission by disrupting stable partnerships and promoting high-risk partnerships. We investigated incarceration and high-risk partnerships among African Americans in North Carolina (NC). Methods We conducted a weighted analysis using the NC Rural Health Project (N=320), a population-based case-control study of HIV among African Americans. We measured associations between timing and duration of incarceration and high-risk partnerships (multiple partnerships or sex trade for money or drugs). Results Duration of incarceration appeared to be more important than how long ago incarceration occurred. After adjustment for socio-demographic indicators, high-risk partnerships were associated with short-term (<1 month) incarceration of the respondent versus no respondent incarceration (men: adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–2.8; women: aPR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2–8.3). High-risk partnerships were also associated with incarceration of a partner versus no partner incarceration (men: aPR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.0; women: aPR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8). Among men, associations remained when adjusting for substance abuse. Among women, adjustment for substance abuse weakened estimates due to the strong correlation between substance abuse and incarceration. Conclusions HIV prevention programs targeting currently- and formerly-incarcerated individuals and their partners may decrease HIV in African American communities with high incarceration rates. PMID:18395464

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sexual Network Mixing: A Log-Linear Analysis of HIV Status by Partnership and Sexual Behavior Among Most at-Risk MSM.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Williams, Mark L

    2015-06-01

    Mixing patterns within sexual networks have been shown to have an effect on HIV transmission, both within and across groups. This study examined sexual mixing patterns involving HIV-unknown status and risky sexual behavior conditioned on assortative/dissortative mixing by race/ethnicity. The sample used for this study consisted of drug-using male sex workers and their male sex partners. A log-linear analysis of 257 most at-risk MSM and 3,072 sex partners was conducted. The analysis found two significant patterns. HIV-positive most at-risk Black MSM had a strong tendency to have HIV-unknown Black partners (relative risk, RR = 2.91, p < 0.001) and to engage in risky sexual behavior (RR = 2.22, p < 0.001). White most at-risk MSM with unknown HIV status also had a tendency to engage in risky sexual behavior with Whites (RR = 1.72, p < 0.001). The results suggest that interventions that target the most at-risk MSM and their sex partners should account for specific sexual network mixing patterns by HIV status. PMID:25081598

  8. Frequency, Patterns and Preferences of Lubricant Use During Anal Intercourse Within Male Sexual Partnerships in Lima, Peru: Implications for a Rectal Microbicide HIV Prevention Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, J; Salvatierra, Hector Javier; Segura, Eddy Roberto; Salazar, Ximena; Konda, Kelika; Galea, Jerome; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Coates, Thomas; Caceres, Carlos Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Understanding current practices of lubricant use during anal intercourse can help to assess the contexts for the introduction of topical rectal microbicides as an HIV prevention tool for men who have sex with men (MSM). We used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess: current patterns of lubricant use; preferred characteristics of commercial lubricant formulations; and social and behavioral contexts of lubricant use within male sexual partnerships in Lima, Peru. Between 2007 and 2008, we conducted a quantitative behavioral survey with 547 MSM followed by qualitative individual and group interviews with 36 MSM from Lima, Peru. Approximately half of all participants in the quantitative survey (50.3%) reported using commercial lubricant during intercourse occasionally or consistently during the preceding two months, with lack of availability at the time of intercourse the most commonly reported reason for non-use. No clear preferences regarding the color, smell, taste, or viscosity of commercial lubricants were identified, and all participants who reported using a commercial lubricant used the same product (“Love-Lub”). In the qualitative analysis, participants characterized lubricant use as a sexual practice consistently controlled by the receptive partner, who typically obtained and applied lubricant independently, with or without the consent of the insertive partner. Quantitative findings supported this differential pattern of lubricant use, with men who reported sexual identities or roles consistent with receptive anal intercourse, including unprotected receptive intercourse, more likely to report lubricant use than MSM who claimed an exclusively insertive sexual role. Given the social, behavioral, and biological factors contributing to increased vulnerability for HIV and STI acquisition by the receptive partner in anal intercourse, delivery of a topical rectal microbicide as a lubricant formulation could provide an important HIV prevention resource for

  9. The Role of Facial and Body Hair Distribution in Women's Judgments of Men's Sexual Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Rantala, Markus J

    2016-05-01

    Facial and body hair are some of the most visually conspicuous and sexually dimorphic of all men's secondary sexual traits. Both are androgen dependent, requiring the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via the enzyme 5α reductase 2 for their expression. While previous studies on the attractiveness of facial and body hair are equivocal, none have accounted as to how natural variation in their distribution may influence male sexual attractiveness. In the present study, we quantified men's facial and body hair distribution as either very light, light, medium, or heavy using natural photographs. We also tested whether women's fertility influenced their preferences for beards and body hair by comparing preferences among heterosexual women grouped according their fertility (high fertility, low fertility, and contraceptive use). Results showed that men with more evenly and continuously distributed facial hair from the lower jaw connecting to the mustache and covering the cheeks were judged as more sexually attractive than individuals with more patchy facial hair. Men with body hair were less attractive than when clean shaven, with the exception of images depicting some hair around the areolae, pectoral region, and the sternum that were significantly more attractive than clean-shaven bodies. However, there was no effect of fertility on women's preferences for men's beard or body hair distribution. These results suggest that the distribution of facial and body hair influences male attractiveness to women, possibly as an indication of masculine development and the synthesis of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via 5α reductase. PMID:26292838

  10. Switching on After Nine: Black gay-identified men's perceptions of sexual identities and partnerships in South African towns.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Tocco, Jack Ume; Osmand, Thomas; Sandfort, Theo; Lane, Tim

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable diversity, fluidity and complexity in the expressions of sexuality and gender among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some non-gay identified MSM are known colloquially by gay-identified men in Mpumalanga, Province, South Africa, as 'After-Nines' because they do not identify as gay and present as straight during the day but also have sex with other men at night. Based on, key informant interviews and focus group discussions in two districts in Mpumalanga, we explored Black gay-identified men's perceptions of and relationships with After-Nine men, focusing on sexual and gender identities and their social consequences. Gay-identified men expressed ambivalence about their After-Nine partners, desiring them for their masculinity, yet often feeling dissatisfied and exploited in their relationships with them. The exchange of sex for commodities, especially alcohol, was common. Gay men's characterisation of After-Nines as men who ignore them during the day but have sex with them at night highlights the diversity of how same-sex practicing men perceive themselves and their sexual partners. Sexual health promotion programmes targeting 'MSM' must understand this diversity to effectively support the community in developing strategies for reaching and engaging different groups of gay and non-gay identified men. PMID:26878380

  11. Discussion of HIV Status by Serostatus and Partnership Sexual Risk among Internet-Using MSM in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Amy K.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Khosropour, Christine M.; Rosenberg, Eli S.

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly black MSM, are disproportionally infected with HIV. Little is known about how discussion of HIV status between partners varies among MSM by race/ethnicity, and by HIV transmission risk. Among a national survey of 2,031 MSM reporting 5,410 partnerships, black MSM, especially black HIV-positive MSM, serodiscussed with UAI partners less than did white MSM. Although non-black HIV-positive, non-black HIV-negative MSM, and black HIV-negative MSM were more likely to report serodiscussion with UAI partners, black HIV-positive MSM were not. Differential serodiscussion may play a role in explaining the racial/ethnic disparity in HIV incidence. PMID:22549381

  12. Community perspectives on parental influence on engagement in multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among youth in Tanzania: implications for HIV prevention programming.

    PubMed

    Fehringer, Jessica A; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kajula, Lusajo J; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-01-01

    Although concurrent sexual partnerships (CPs) have been hypothesized to be an important risk factor for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the social and cultural factors that encourage CPs are not well understood. This study explored the community's perspectives on the role that parents can play in influencing their children's decision to engage in CPs. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews, 32 focus group discussions, and 16 key informant interviews with 280 adult participants in Tanzania. Data were coded; findings and conclusions were developed based on themes that emerged from coding. Three parental influences on CPs emerged: parent-child communication about sex, both silent and explicit encouragement of CPs, and parental behavior modeling. Parents are typically either too busy or too "embarrassed" to talk with their children about sex and CPs. The information parents do give is often confusing, fear-based, inadequate, and/or only focused on daughters. Parents themselves also encourage CPs through complicity of silence when their daughters come home with extra cash or consumer goods. In some cases, parents overtly encourage their children, particularly daughters, to practice CPs due to the promise of money from wealthy partners. Finally, when parents engage in CPs, the children themselves learn to behave similarly. These results suggest that parents can influence their children's decision to engage in CPs. HIV prevention interventions should address this by promoting parent-child communication about sexuality; associated disease risks and gender-equitable relationships; promoting positive parental role modeling; and educating parents on the implications of encouragement of CPs in their children. PMID:22775066

  13. Sexual relationships outside primary partnerships and abstinence are associated with lower adherence and adherence gaps: data from the Partners PrEP Ancillary Adherence Study

    PubMed Central

    Kintu, Alexander; Hankinson, Susan E.; Balasubramanian, Raji; Ertel, Karen; Tumwesigye, Elioda; Bangsberg, David R.; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of sexual relationships on levels and patterns of adherence to medication for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV. Methods We enrolled 1,147 HIV-negative individuals in long-term serodiscordant relationships at three sites in Uganda from the Partners PrEP Study- a randomized placebo-controlled trial of daily oral tenofovir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. We used generalized estimation equations to assess the effects of sexual relationships on low adherence (<80%) and on gaps in adherence. Results Fifty-three percent were male, 51% were 18-34 years and 24% were polygamous. Participants who reported sex in the past month with someone other than their primary partner and with <100% condom use were more than twice as likely to have low adherence (aOR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.70-3.62) compared to those who had sex with only their primary partners and 100% condom use. Using the same reference group, those who abstained from sex in the previous month had 30% increased odds of low adherence (aOR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.05-1.62), and participants in non-polygamous marriages who reported sex with both their primary and other partners and <100% condom use were almost twice as likely to be low adherers (aOR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.01-3.08). At least one 72-hour gap in adherence was seen in 598 participants (54.7%); 23.2% had at least one one-week gap. Conclusions Risk of low overall adherence was higher in participants who reported sex outside primary partnerships and suboptimal condom use, as well as in those who abstained from sex. Adherence gaps were common, potentially creating risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:25942457

  14. Multiple Sexual Partnerships among Female Adolescents in Rural Uganda: The effects of family structure and school attendance

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding is needed of the contextual factors that influence HIV risk behaviors among female adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family structure on lifetime sexual partners and on the number of sexual partners in the last year among female adolescents in rural Rakai, Uganda; and to determine if the influence of family structure on these outcomes differed by adolescents’ school attendance status. Methods The sample consisted of 2,337 unmarried adolescent girls, aged 15-19, enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. The last survey interview within the time period 2001-2008 available for each girl was used. Analyses were stratified by age (15-17 year olds and 18-19 year olds) and school status. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Results Living in a household with a biological father was protective against both outcomes. Family structure was not associated with the outcomes among in-school adolescents but was significantly associated with outcomes among out-of-school adolescents. Conclusions Findings suggest that understanding the familial context in which female adolescents develop, as well as its interaction with school attendance, is important for HIV prevention efforts. Both research and programmatic initiatives must consider the interplay between the family and school domains when considering ways to reduce HIV acquisition among adolescent women. PMID:25415632

  15. Individual-Level, Partnership-Level, and Sexual Event-Level Predictors of Condom Use During Receptive Anal Intercourse Among HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Pines, Heather A; Gorbach, Pamina M; Weiss, Robert E; Reback, Cathy J; Landovitz, Raphael J; Mutchler, Matt G; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T

    2016-06-01

    We examined individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors associated with condom use during receptive anal intercourse (RAI) among 163 low-income, racially/ethnically diverse, HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Los Angeles (2007-2010). At baseline, 3-month, and 12-month visits, computer-assisted self-interviews collected information on ≤3 recent male partners and the last sexual event with those partners. Factors associated with condom use during RAI at the last sexual event were identified using logistic generalized linear mixed models. Condom use during RAI was negatively associated with reporting ≥ high school education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.32, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.96) and methamphetamine use, specifically during RAI events with non-main partners (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.07-0.53) and those that included lubricant use (AOR = 0.20, 95 % CI 0.08-0.53). Condom use during RAI varies according to individual-level, partnership-level, and sexual event-level factors that should be considered in the development of risk reduction strategies for this population. PMID:26471884

  16. Sex-specific winter distribution in a sexually dimorphic shorebird is explained by resource partitioning

    PubMed Central

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Gils, Jan A; Spaans, Bernard; ten Horn, Job; Brugge, Maarten; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) implies correlated differences in energetic requirements and feeding opportunities, such that sexes will face different trade-offs in habitat selection. In seasonal migrants, this could result in a differential spatial distribution across the wintering range. To identify the ecological causes of sexual spatial segregation, we studied a sexually dimorphic shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit Limosa lapponica, in which females have a larger body and a longer bill than males. With respect to the trade-offs that these migratory shorebirds experience in their choice of wintering area, northern and colder wintering sites have the benefit of being closer to the Arctic breeding grounds. According to Bergmann's rule, the larger females should incur lower energetic costs per unit of body mass over males, helping them to winter in the cold. However, as the sexes have rather different bill lengths, differences in sex-specific wintering sites could also be due to the vertical distribution of their buried prey, that is, resource partitioning. Here, in a comparison between six main intertidal wintering areas across the entire winter range of the lapponica subspecies in northwest Europe, we show that the percentage of females between sites was not correlated with the cost of wintering, but was positively correlated with the biomass in the bottom layer and negatively with the biomass in the top layer. We conclude that resource partitioning, rather than relative expenditure advantages, best explains the differential spatial distribution of male and female bar-tailed godwits across northwest Europe. PMID:25505527

  17. Sexual Partnerships and Considerations for HIV Antiretroviral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Utilization Among High-Risk Substance Using Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Kothary, Vishesh; Mitty, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk of HIV in the United States, representing 65 % of incident HIV infections. One factor contributing to the high rate ofHIV infectionamongMSM isuse of“recreational”drugsthat are highly associated with unprotected anal sex. Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis(PrEP)isanovelbiomedicalHIVprevention strategy that has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in MSM. Main and casual sex partners play a role in HIV prevention efforts for MSM. The study aimed to qualitatively explore the perceived influences of sexual relationships on promoting and inhibiting PrEP use among high-risk MSM who report regular drug use. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 participants recruited in Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative analysis. Casual partners presented a distinct set of concerns from primary partnerships. MSM generally viewed main partners as a potential source of support for taking PrEP. Given their informal and often temporary nature, PrEP disclosure to casual partners was considered unnecessary. HIV-related stigma and substance use were also perceived as barriers to discussing PrEP use with casual partners. MSM articulated a high degree of personal agency regarding their ability to take PrEP. Findings suggest that behavioral interventions to improve PrEP utilization and adherence for high-risk MSM should be tailored to sex partner type and the parameters established between sex partners. Approaches to PrEP disclosure and partner engagement should be informed by the relative benefits and limitations characterized by these different types of relationships. PMID:24243002

  18. Sexual variability in Histoplasma capsulatum and its possible distribution: what is going on?

    PubMed

    Muniz, Mauro Medeiros; Sousa, Carolina Nascimento; Evangelista Oliveira, Manoel Marques; Pizzini, Claudia Vera; Almeida, Marcos Abreu; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungal pathogen naturally found in the soil. Inhalation of conidia can result in pulmonary histoplasmosis and, in some cases, causes severe disseminated disease and death. This fungus is an ascomycete that has an anamorphic or asexual stage and a teleomorphic or sexual stage, known as Ajellomyces capsulatus, which results from (+) and (-) mating types. Sexual reproduction is regulated by a specialized genomic region known as the mating-type (MAT1) locus. The mating process in this heterothallic species is represented by isolates that contain only one of the two different MAT1 locus idiomorphs (MAT1-1 or MAT1-2) that have unrelated sequences encoding different transcription factors. In medically important dimorphic pathogens and in most ascomycete molds, one MAT locus idiomorph encodes a high-mobility-group (HMG) box-domain transcription factor, and the other idiomorph encodes an alpha-box domain transcription factor. There is scarce molecular information about H. capsulatum mating type although recombinant population structures have been reported that could occur in nature and this process has been documented in distinct models such as parasites and other fungi. In this review, we shall focus on published studies on H. capsulatum sexuality, and outline the distribution of the two H. capsulatum mating types in Latin America. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). PMID:24262630

  19. Why is gynodioecy a rare but widely distributed sexual system? Lessons from the Lamiaceae.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, L Ruth; Case, Andrea L; Caruso, Christina M

    2016-07-01

    Gynodioecy, a sexual system where females and hermaphrodites co-occur, is found in < 1% of angiosperm species. To understand why gynodioecy is rare, we need to understand why females are maintained in some lineages, but not in others. We modelled the evolution of gynodioecy in the Lamiaceae, and investigated whether transition rates between gynodioecious and nongynodioecious states varied across the family. We also investigated whether the evolution of gynodioecy was correlated with the evolution of a herbaceous growth form and temperate distribution. Transition rates differed between Lamiaceae subfamilies. In the Nepetoideae, there were many transitions towards gynodioecy (n = 11), but also many reversions to nongynodioecy (n = 29). In addition, a herbaceous growth form, but not a temperate distribution, affected the rate of transitions both towards and away from gynodioecy; transitions towards gynodioecy occurred ˜16 times more frequently and transitions away from gynodioecy occurred ˜11 times more frequently in herbaceous lineages than in woody lineages. Within the Lamiaceae, lineages in which gynodioecy has frequently evolved also have a high rate of reversions to the nongynodioecious state. Consequently, to understand why gynodioecy is rare, we need to understand why sexual systems are more evolutionarily labile in some lineages than in others. PMID:26991013

  20. Schooling & Sexualities: Teaching for a Positive Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.

    This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…

  1. Poor sexual reproduction on the distribution limit of the rare tree Sorbus torminalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Kristine Kjørup; Kollmann, Johannes

    2004-05-01

    Plants growing in small fragmented populations under stressful environmental conditions may have reduced sexual reproduction. This can cause low gene flow between populations and eventually extinction. Here we report on a pollination experiment with Sorbus torminalis, a rare fleshy-fruited tree with a submediterranean distribution in Europe. At the northern limit of its range in SE-Denmark two relatively small and isolated populations were studied for effects of seven pollination treatments on fruit production and on the timing of fruit abortion. There was evidence that lack of pollination and spontaneous self-pollination caused particularly high fruit abortion, which indicates that apomixis is unlikely and spontaneous self-pollination not efficient. Fruit abortion was delayed after hand pollination, which suggests limitation by pollen quantity. Self-pollination caused earlier abortion than experimental cross-pollination within or between populations indicating inbreeding depression. There was no evidence for outbreeding depression as measured by fruit abortion. We conclude that generative reproduction of S. torminalis is reduced on its northern distribution limit and that it might be negatively affected by pollen limitation and inbreeding effects, which have not been compensated for by increased self-compatibility or apomixis.

  2. Mitigating risky sexual behaviors among Russian narcology hospital patients: the PREVENT (Partnership to Reduce the Epidemic Via Engagement in Narcology Treatment) randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Krupitsky, Evgeny M.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Raj, Anita; Egorova, Valentina Y.; Levenson, Suzette; Meli, Seville; Bridden, Carly; Verbitskaya, Elena V.; Kamb, Mary L.; Zvartau, Edwin E.

    2008-01-01

    Aim To assess the effectiveness of a sexual risk reduction intervention in the Russian narcology hospital setting. Design, setting and participants This was a randomized controlled trial from October 2004 to December 2005 among patients with alcohol and/or heroin dependence from two narcology hospitals in St Petersburg, Russia. Intervention Intervention subjects received two personalized sexual behavior counseling sessions plus three telephone booster sessions. Control subjects received usual addiction treatment, which did not include sexual behavior counseling. All received a research assessment and condoms at baseline. Measurements Primary outcomes were percentage of safe sex episodes (number of times condoms were used ÷ by number of sexual episodes) and no unprotected sex (100% condom use or abstinence) during the previous 3 months, assessed at 6 months. Findings Intervention subjects reported higher median percentage of safe sex episodes (unadjusted median difference 12.7%; P = 0.01; adjusted median difference 23%, P = 0.07); a significant difference was not detected for the outcome no unprotected sex in the past 3 months [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-3.1; adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.3]. Conclusions Among Russian substance-dependent individuals, sexual behavior counseling during addiction treatment should be considered as one potential component of efforts to decrease risky sexual behaviors in this HIV at-risk population. PMID:18636998

  3. Partnership Successes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Through partnerships with industry and academia, NASA s space-age technology improves all aspects of society. While not every technology transfer activity results in commercialization, these partnerships offer far-reaching benefits to U.S. citizens. The following examples are just a few of the ways NASA is applying its technology and resources to improve the quality of life on Earth.

  4. Partnership Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on partnership research moderated by Richard Torraco at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Partnership Research in HRD: Pulling Rabbits from Hats" (Ronald L. Jacobs) demonstrates that human resource development (HRD) researchers should adopt the…

  5. Partnership Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlin, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Portrays partnerships as strategic alliances and temporary relationships characterized by self-interest. References a series of national and organizational case studies throughout the world. Compares the organizational and sectoral domains of partnerships. Examines the asymmetries of power and their implications for educational policy and…

  6. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima. PMID:25800683

  7. Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy on Sexual Behaviors and HIV-1 Transmission Risk Among Adults With Diverse Heterosexual Partnership Statuses in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Fassassi, Raïmi; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, at CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/mm3) on sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) transmission risk has not been documented in populations other than HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable relationships. Methods. On the basis of data from a behavioral study nested in a randomized, controlled trial (Temprano-ANRS12136) of early ART, we compared proportions of risky sex (ie, unprotected sex with a partner of negative/unknown HIV status) reported 12 months after inclusion between participants randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately (hereafter, “early ART”) or according to ongoing World Health Organization criteria. Group-specific HIV transmission rates were estimated on the basis of sexual behaviors and viral load–specific per-act HIV transmission probabilities. The ratio of transmission rates was computed to estimate the protective effect of early ART. Results. Among 957 participants (baseline median CD4+ T-cell count, 478 cells/mm3), 46.0% reported sexual activity in the past month; of these 46.0%, sexual activity for 41.5% involved noncohabiting partners. The proportion of subjects who engaged in risky sex was 10.0% in the early ART group, compared with 12.8% in the standard ART group (P = .17). After accounting for sexual behaviors and viral load, we estimated that the protective effect of early ART was 90% (95% confidence interval, 81%–95%). Conclusion. Twelve months after inclusion, patients in the early and standard ART groups reported similar sexual behaviors. Early ART decreased the estimated risk of HIV transmission by 90%, suggesting a major prevention benefit among seronegative sex partners in stable or casual relationships with seropositive individuals. PMID:23990567

  8. Comparing sexual risks and patterns of alcohol and drug use between injection drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs who report sexual partnerships with IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To date, the great majority of Russian HIV infections have been diagnosed among IDUs and concerns about the potential for a sexual transmission of HIV beyond the IDU population have increased. This study investigated differences in the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors between IDUs and non-IDUs in St. Petersburg, Russia and assessed associations between substance use patterns and sexual risks within and between those two groups. Methods Cross-sectional survey data and biological test results from 331 IDUs and 65 non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners were analyzed. Multivariate regression was employed to calculate measures of associations. Results IDUs were less likely than non-IDUs to report multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex with casual partners. The quantity, frequency and intensity of alcohol use did not differ between IDUs and non-IDUs, but non-IDUs were more likely to engage in alcohol use categorized as risky per the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C). Risky sexual practices were independently associated with monthly methamphetamine injection among IDUs and with risky alcohol use among non-IDUs. Having sex when high on alcohol or drugs was associated with unprotected sex only among IDUs. Conclusions Greater prevalence of sexual risk among non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners compared to IDUs suggests the potential for sexual transmission of HIV from the high-prevalence IDU population into the general population. HIV prevention programs among IDUs in St. Petersburg owe special attention to risky alcohol use among non-IDUs who have IDU sex partners and the propensity of IDUs to have sex when high on alcohol or drugs and forgo condoms. PMID:21054855

  9. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant

    PubMed Central

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R.; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D.; Mueller, Ulrich G.

    2011-01-01

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5–1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex. PMID:21768368

  10. Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ant.

    PubMed

    Rabeling, Christian; Gonzales, Omar; Schultz, Ted R; Bacci, Maurício; Garcia, Marcos V B; Verhaagh, Manfred; Ishak, Heather D; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2011-07-26

    Sex and recombination are central processes in life generating genetic diversity. Organisms that rely on asexual propagation risk extinction due to the loss of genetic diversity and the inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The fungus-growing ant species Mycocepurus smithii was thought to be obligately asexual because only parthenogenetic populations have been collected from widely separated geographic localities. Nonetheless, M. smithii is ecologically successful, with the most extensive distribution and the highest population densities of any fungus-growing ant. Here we report that M. smithii actually consists of a mosaic of asexual and sexual populations that are nonrandomly distributed geographically. The sexual populations cluster along the Rio Amazonas and the Rio Negro and appear to be the source of independently evolved and widely distributed asexual lineages, or clones. Either apomixis or automixis with central fusion and low recombination rates is inferred to be the cytogenetic mechanism underlying parthenogenesis in M. smithii. Males appear to be entirely absent from asexual populations, but their existence in sexual populations is indicated by the presence of sperm in the reproductive tracts of queens. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus suggests that M. smithii is monophyletic, rendering a hybrid origin of asexuality unlikely. Instead, a mitochondrial phylogeny of sexual and asexual populations suggests multiple independent origins of asexual reproduction, and a divergence-dating analysis indicates that M. smithii evolved 0.5-1.65 million years ago. Understanding the evolutionary origin and maintenance of asexual reproduction in this species contributes to a general understanding of the adaptive significance of sex. PMID:21768368

  11. Innovative Partnerships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szemraj, John

    2001-01-01

    A major responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is to ensure geospatial data availability. This includes the cooperative production of digital geospatial data through the National Mapping Program's Innovative Partnerships (IP) initiative, which began in October 1992.

  12. Sexual assault documentation program.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Vickie; Heger, Astrid; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Since 2001, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner has collaborated with Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center Violence Intervention Program and their Sexual Assault Center. The partnership was established at the suggestion of the district attorney's office to enhance the clinical recognition of sexual assault in the medical examiner's office using the extensive experience of experts in the field of sexual assault. As of December 2008, over 5 dozen victims of sexual assault have been evaluated with this collaboration. The partnership relied on the expertise of 2 pediatricians who are established clinical experts in the field of sexual abuse and assault, in collaboration with the staff of the medical examiner's office. In cases of suspected sexual assault, a joint evaluation by the clinical experts and the medical examiner was made. The goal of the project was for the medical examiners to become more confident in their observations and documentation of crimes of sexual abuse. Even though they are still available upon request, consultations with the sexual assault experts have decreased as the skills of the medical examiner to evaluate sexual assault cases have increased. PMID:22442832

  13. 48 CFR 1401.370 - Acquisition Managers' Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...' Partnership. 1401.370 Section 1401.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Acquisition Managers' Partnership. (a) The Acquisition Managers' Partnership (AMP) is a forum for DOI's senior... the partnership will meet and develops meeting agendas. The Chairperson will distribute the...

  14. Writing Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    In the writer's workshop, teachers are highly challenged after the minilesson during the independent writing time. In that segment, teachers are confronted by the demands of conferencing with numerous students and responding to writing in a limited amount of time. Writing partnerships link students in long-term pairs, resulting in two valuable…

  15. Impact of international laboratory partnerships on the performance of HIV/sexually transmitted infection testing in five resource-constrained countries.

    PubMed

    Gaydos, C A; Rizzo-Price, P A; Balakrishnan, P; Mateta, P; Leon, S R; Verevochkin, S; Yin, Y P; Quinn, T C; Strader, L C; Pequegnat, W

    2011-11-01

    To review a quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) model established to ensure the validity and reliability of collection, storage and analysis of biological outcome data, and to promote good laboratory practices (GLPs) and sustained operational improvements in international clinical laboratories, we conducted a two-arm randomized community-level HIV behavioural intervention trial in five countries: China, India, Peru, Russia and Zimbabwe. The trial was based on diffusion theory utilizing a Community Popular Opinion Leaders (CPOLs) intervention model with behavioural and biological outcomes. The QC/QA model was established by the Biological Outcome Workgroup, which collaborated with the Data Coordinating Center and John Hopkins University Reference Laboratory. Five international laboratories conducted chlamydia/gonorrhoea polymerase chain reaction (PRC)-based assays, herpes simplex virus type 2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA), syphilis serology (rapid plasma regain and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay, HIV serology (EIA/Western blot) and Trichomonas vaginalis culture. Data were collected at baseline, 12 and 24 months. Laboratory performance and infrastructure improved throughout the trial. Recommendations for improvement were consistently followed. Quality laboratories in resource-poor settings can be established, operating standards can be improved and certification can be obtained with consistent training, monitoring and technical support. Building collaborative partnership relations can establish a sustainable network for clinical trials, and can lead to accreditation and international laboratory development. PMID:22096049

  16. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. PMID:23178326

  17. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  18. An Evaluation of the Distribution of Sexual References Among “Top 8” MySpace Friends

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A.; Brockman, Libby; Rogers, Cara B.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether online friends of adolescents who display sexual references on a social networking site also display references. The method used was content analysis. The result of this study was that adolescents who displayed explicit sexual references were more likely to have online friends who displayed references. Thus, social networking sites present new opportunities to investigate adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:20864013

  19. Community Sexual Bridging Among Heterosexuals at High-Risk of HIV in New York City.

    PubMed

    Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel M; Reilly, Kathleen H; Youm, Yoosik; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpi-Acosta, Camila

    2016-04-01

    Community sexual bridging may influence the socio-geographic distribution of heterosexually transmitted HIV. In a cross-sectional study, heterosexual adults at high-risk of HIV were recruited in New York City (NYC) in 2010 for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. Eligible participants were interviewed about their HIV risk behaviors and sexual partnerships and tested for HIV. Social network analysis of the geographic location of participants' recent sexual partnerships was used to calculate three sexual bridging measures (non-redundant ties, flow-betweenness and walk-betweenness) for NYC communities (defined as United Hospital Fund neighborhoods), which were plotted against HIV prevalence in each community. The analysis sample comprised 494 participants and 1534 sexual partnerships. Participants were 60.1 % male, 79.6 % non-Hispanic black and 19.6 % Hispanic race/ethnicity; the median age was 40 years (IQR 24-50); 37.7 % had ever been homeless (past 12 months); 16.6 % had ever injected drugs; in the past 12 months 76.7 % used non-injection drugs and 90.1 % engaged in condomless vaginal or anal sex; 9.6 % tested HIV positive (of 481 with positive/negative results). Sexual partnerships were located in 33 (78.6 %) of 42 NYC communities, including 13 "high HIV-spread communities", 7 "hidden bridging communities", 0 "contained high HIV prevalence communities", and 13 "latent HIV bridging communities". Compared with latent HIV bridging communities, the population racial/ethnic composition was more likely (p < 0.0001) to be black or Hispanic in high HIV-spread communities and to be black in hidden bridging communities. High HIV-spread and hidden bridging communities may facilitate the maintenance and spread of heterosexually transmitted HIV in black and Hispanic populations in NYC. PMID:26558628

  20. Community Sexual Bridging Among Heterosexuals at High-Risk of HIV in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Jenness, Samuel M.; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Youm, Yoosik; Hagan, Holly; Wendel, Travis; Gelpi-Acosta, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Community sexual bridging may influence the socio-geographic distribution of heterosexually transmitted HIV. In a cross-sectional study, heterosexual adults at high-risk of HIV were recruited in New York City (NYC) in 2010 for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. Eligible participants were interviewed about their HIV risk behaviors and sexual partnerships and tested for HIV. Social network analysis of the geographic location of participants’ recent sexual partnerships was used to calculate three sexual bridging measures (non-redundant ties, flow-betweenness and walk-betweenness) for NYC communities (defined as United Hospital Fund neighborhoods), which were plotted against HIV prevalence in each community. The analysis sample comprised 494 participants and 1534 sexual partnerships. Participants were 60.1 % male, 79.6 % non-Hispanic black and 19.6 % Hispanic race/ethnicity; the median age was 40 years (IQR 24–50); 37.7 % had ever been homeless (past 12 months); 16.6 % had ever injected drugs; in the past 12 months 76.7 % used non-injection drugs and 90.1 % engaged in condomless vaginal or anal sex; 9.6 % tested HIV positive (of 481 with positive/negative results). Sexual partnerships were located in 33 (78.6 %) of 42 NYC communities, including 13 “high HIV-spread communities”, 7 “hidden bridging communities”, 0 “contained high HIV prevalence communities”, and 13 “latent HIV bridging communities”. Compared with latent HIV bridging communities, the population racial/ethnic composition was more likely (p < 0.0001) to be black or Hispanic in high HIV-spread communities and to be black in hidden bridging communities. High HIV-spread and hidden bridging communities may facilitate the maintenance and spread of heterosexually transmitted HIV in black and Hispanic populations in NYC. PMID:26558628

  1. Sexual differentiation in the distribution potential of northern jaguars (Panthera onca)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, Erin E.; Lopez Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated the potential geographic distribution of jaguars in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico by modeling the jaguar ecological niche from occurrence records. We modeled separately the distribution of males and females, assuming records of females probably represented established home ranges while male records likely included dispersal movements. The predicted distribution for males was larger than that for females. Eastern Sonora appeared capable for supporting male and female jaguars with potential range expansion into southeastern Arizona. New Mexico and Chihuahua contained environmental characteristics primarily limited to the male niche and thus may be areas into which males occasionally disperse.

  2. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Distribution and Sexual Behaviors across Gender and Age Group in an African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Djoba Siawaya, Joel Fleury

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon); (2) examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)-related risk behaviour. Methods The sampled population was people attending the “Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique”. Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013) who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. Results Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. Conclusions In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners. PMID:24594663

  4. Sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berner, Wolfgang; Berger, Peter; Hill, Andreas

    2003-08-01

    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism versus masochism. In forensic settings the diagnosis of a sadistic character disorder (sadistic personality disorder [SPD] according DSM-III-R) is found to a much higher degree than in other clinical samples (50-fold). Our own follow-up study on a forensic sample implies that sadism as a paraphilia is of relevance for relapse-rates of sex-offenders. Symptoms of SPD can be combined with sexual sadism, or occur independently. This may corroborate arguments in favor of a dimensional concept of sexual sadism. Symptoms of SPD may then be a sign of generalization of sadistic traits at least in some cases. A concept of two factors contributing to sadistic pleasure is suggested, one taking the aspect of bodily gratification by sexual-aggressive stimuli as decisive, and the other taking inner representation of hostile objects into consideration (stressing the antisocial-anger-rage aspect). PMID:12971180

  5. Men's reproductive and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Forrest, K A

    2001-05-01

    A broad definition of men's reproductive and sexual health (MRSH) includes medical (pathophysiological) matters such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), developmental anomalies, malignancy, trauma, and infertility. It also includes psychosocial concerns: sexuality, contraception, disease prophylaxis, developmental and lifecycle issues, tobacco and drug use, sexual identity and orientation, and partnership issues. College men, of whom a large majority are sexually active, have a range of MRSH needs, including some that are particular to their age and social environment. To reach men effectively requires approaches that are somewhat different from those used with women. Clinicians in college health services are in an excellent position to help young men recognize the importance of reproductive health and sexual responsibility. College health services therefore should offer men screening; clinical diagnosis and treatment for MRSH conditions; and information, education, and counseling services, in a manner designed to meet their unique needs. PMID:11413943

  6. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of...

  7. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of...

  8. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    PubMed

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture. PMID:10107083

  9. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... basis of partnership property. 1.754-1 Section 1.754-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... basis of partnership property. (a) In general. A partnership may adjust the basis of partnership... the basis of partnership property under sections 734(b) and 743(b), with respect to a distribution...

  10. Temporal changes and sexual differences in spatial distribution of Burbot in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Witzel, Larry D.; Cook, Andy

    2013-01-01

    We used GIS mapping techniques to examine capture data for Burbot Lota lota from annual gill-net surveys in Canadian waters of Lake Erie during late August and September 1994–2011. Adult males were captured over a larger area (3–17% for ≥20% maximum yearly catch [MYC]) than adult females. More males than females were caught in the gill nets in 14 of the 15 study years. Collectively, these results support a hypothesis of greater activity by adult males during summer, when Burbot are actively feeding. The area of capture contracted by more than 60% (for ≥20% MYC) for both sexes during the time period, which is consistent with the documented decrease of the Burbot population in the lake. The sex ratio (females: males) varied over the time series but declined steadily from 0.97 in 2001 to 0.59 in 2011. The overlap in the capture areas of adult males and females was scale dependent. The depth distribution at which adult Burbot were caught did not change over the time series, and there was no difference in the median depths (about 30 m) at which adult male and female Burbot were caught. The last results are consistent with the Burbot's reliance on coldwater habitats. Additional research is recommended, including telemetry to describe daily and seasonal movements and assessment of gender bias in active and passive capture gear.

  11. Choline incorporation by Schistosoma mansoni: distribution of choline metabolites during development and after sexual differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ancelin, M.L.; Torpier, G.; Vial, H.J.; Capron, A.

    1987-06-01

    Choline metabolism was investigated in Schistosoma mansoni during the main phases of its development, namely, schistosomula, 11- and 15-day-old worms, and adults. At the physiological choline concentration used in the assay (20 microM), betaine was, along with phosphatidylcholine, one of the most abundant choline metabolites, revealing considerable choline oxidation activity. Very little radioactivity was associated with CDP-choline, whereas a sustained incorporation into phosphocholine occurred. These results provide good evidence that CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase plays a regulatory role in the de novo pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. During development, the incorporation of choline into its various metabolites was maximal in 11-day-old worms. At this stage, the oxidative pathway predominated over the Kennedy pathway, whereas at all other stages the de novo phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis was predominant. Furthermore, choline incorporation into betaine was much more important in the adult female worm than in the male, indicating a major difference in choline incorporation and distribution between the 2 sexes of the adult worms.

  12. Sexuality and Physical Contact in National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project Wave 2

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Martha K.; Waite, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Wave 2 of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) includes new measures of sexual interest and behavior, as well as new measures of the context of sexual experience and the frequency and appeal of physical contact. This is the first time many of these constructs have been measured in a nationally representative sample. Method. We describe the new measures and compare the distributions of each across gender and age groups, in some cases by partnership status. Results. Two components of sexuality decrease with age among both men and women: frequency of finding an unknown person sexually attractive and receptivity to a partner’s sexual overtures. In contrast, the inclination to make one’s self sexually attractive to others was a more complicated function of partner status, gender, and age: partnered women and unpartnered men made the most effort, with the more effortful gender’s effort decreasing with age. Both men and women find nonsexual physical contact appealing but sexual physical contact is more appealing to men than women. Finally, two fifths of men and women report dissatisfaction with their partner’s frequency of caring behaviors that make later sexual interactions pleasurable, and a fifth of women and a quarter of men who had vaginal sex in the past year report dissatisfaction with amount of foreplay. Discussion. These data offer the opportunity to characterize sexual motivation in older adulthood more precisely and richly and to examine how the context of sexual experience and the nonsexual aspects of physical intimacy correlate with sexual behavior, enjoyment, and problems. PMID:25360027

  13. Trends in the Distribution of Teacher Effectiveness in the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching: Progress Report. Working Paper WR-1036-BMGF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Baird, Matthew; Engberg, John; Hunter, Gerald Paul

    2014-01-01

    As part of its effective teaching initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation partnered with three urban school districts across the U.S. and a group of four charter management organizations to undertake a strategic set of human capital reforms. A key objective of the "Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching" program was to…

  14. Partnership for Prescription Assistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... may use our name without our permission. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance will help you find the ... Us Blog Facebook Twitter Start living better. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance helps qualifying patients without prescription ...

  15. Collaboration to partnerships.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Sandra L; Kornet, Terese M; Lawson, Diane R; Major, Katherine; May, Linda; Rich, Victoria L; Riley-Wasserman, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Partnerships are at the center of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Nursing Excellence Professional Practice (HUP-NEPP) model. Through the use of collaboration, skilled communication, and respectful workplace, partnerships can be formed, leading ultimately to world-class patient care. At HUP, interdisciplinary partnerships are evidenced by the clinical nurses through shared governance. This article describes the components necessary to form successful partnerships. PMID:20023561

  16. Levels of Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Presents a typology of partnerships (service, exchange, cooperative, systemic/transformative) based on a philosophical analysis of trust relationships. An analysis of two major partnership projects in Virginia (the Manassas Park Educational Partnership and the Urban Alternative project at George Mason University) suggests rules and procedural…

  17. Using the Partnership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Bob

    This paper provides a case study of the use of the Partnership Model in the development of a film about female menopause. Not only are the film maker and the client involved in the trust based partnership relationship, but the film subjects and audience are also included in the information sharing process. Advantages of the Partnership Model…

  18. Partnerships for Service Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Defines service learning. Examines the nature of partnerships for service learning, profiles successful institutional partnerships, and provides guidance in establishing successful partnerships in a wide range of institutions. Profiles several service-learning programs, including programs at University of Utah, Chandler-Gilbert Community College,…

  19. Partnership for Successful Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchloe, William Marion

    1983-01-01

    Describes the "Catalyst" program in which principals from 10 schools formed a supportive partnership, resulting in improved academic achievement for handicapped and other students. Explains five primary partnerships that principals and faculty must form (student, parent, citizens, goals, and professionals) and the need for partnership valuation.…

  20. Partnerships That Work!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Don, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the monthly Partnerships in Education (PIE) journal focuses on new collaborations, new educational challenges, and some examples of exemplary partnership programs at work in school districts across the country. Each of the 22 chapters was written by those who either direct or coordinate a partnership program. Partnership…

  1. [Partnership relations of parents and parent-child relations of physical abuse and sexual abuse experiences in childhood from the viewpoint of young adults. Further results of the Hamburg Study (II)].

    PubMed

    Richter-Appelt, H; Tiefensee, J

    1996-12-01

    616 women and 452 men responded to the extensive questionnaire on body and sexual experiences in childhood of the Hamburg Study. 23% of the women and 4% of the men have been classified as sexually abused, 28% of the women and 14% of the men as physically maltreated. Beside testing group differences, the main purpose of this study was to test, which variables would predict sexual abuse and physical maltreatment in multivariate analysis. In the first part of the study, the relevance of socioeconomic and family factors for the prediction of sexual abuse and physical maltreatment have been presented. In this part, the relevance of the relationship between the parents and of the parent-child relationship are discussed. Multivariate analysis demonstrate the importance to differentiate between the early childhood and the time of elementary school. Especially in the group of sexually abused and physically maltreated children we found a deterioration of the socioeconomic circumstances over time as well as of the quality of the relationship between the parents, both of whom may be related to each other. With regard to the parent-child relationship, the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker 1975) and questions to rewards and punishments were presented. Especially in the groups of sexually abused children, lack of demarcation and intense control were univariate significant. Lack of welfare has been of importance in the multivariate models for the prediction of physical maltreatment. Rewards and appreciations were rare in the groups of physically maltreated children but especially frequent in sexually abused children. The importance of further research on specific problems of sexual abuse and physical maltreatment is discussed. PMID:9082469

  2. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  3. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  4. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  5. Partnerships with Academic Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes how professional and continuing higher education units can develop and sustain successful partnerships with academic departments in order to deliver educational programs effectively to students.

  6. Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…

  7. Social, structural and behavioral drivers of concurrent partnerships among African American men in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Rosengard, Cynthia; Kwakwa, Helena; Kim, Daniel; James, George; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-11-01

    African Americans face disproportionately higher risks of HIV infection. Concurrent sexual relationships, or sexual partnerships that overlap in time, are more common among African Americans than individuals of other races and may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. However, little is known about attitudes, norms and practices among individuals engaged in concurrent partnerships. Little is also known about the processes through which structural, behavioral, and social factors influence concurrent sexual relationships. We recruited 24 heterosexual African American men involved in concurrent sexual relationships from a public health clinic in Philadelphia. We conducted in-depth interviews exploring these men's sexual practices; social norms and individual attitudes about concurrency; perceived sexual health risks with main and non-main partners; and the social, structural, and behavioral factors contributing to concurrent sexual relationships. Twenty-two men reported having one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported having no main partners. Respondents generally perceived sexual relationships with non-main partners as riskier than relationships with main partners and used condoms far less frequently with main than non-main partners. Most participants commented that it is acceptable and often expected for men and women to engage in concurrent sexual relationships. Social factors influencing participants' concurrent partnerships included being unmarried and trusting neither main nor non-main partners. Structural factors influencing concurrent partnerships included economic dependence on one or more women, incarceration, unstable housing, and unemployment. Several men commented that individual behavioral factors such as alcohol and cocaine use contributed to their concurrent sexual partnerships. Future research and interventions related to sexual concurrency should address social and structural factors in addition to conventional HIV risk

  8. Ukraine Steam Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Gurvinder Singh

    2000-02-15

    The Ukraine Steam Partnership program is designed to implement energy efficiency improvements in industrial steam systems. These improvements are to be made by the private plants and local government departments responsible for generation and delivery of energy to end-users. One of the activities planned under this program was to provide a two-day training workshop on industrial steam systems focusing on energy efficiency issues related to the generation, distribution, and consumption of steam. The workshop was geared towards plant managers, who are not only technically oriented, but are also key decision makers in their respective companies. The Agency for Rational Energy Use and Ecology (ARENA-ECO), a non-governmental, not-for-profit organization founded to promote energy efficiency and environmental protection in Ukraine, in conjunction with the Alliance staff in Kiev sent out invitations to potential participants in all the regions of Ukraine. The purpose of this report is the describe the proceedings from the workshop and provide recommendations from the workshop's roundtable discussion. The workshop was broken down into two main areas: (1) Energy efficient boiler house steam generation; and Energy efficient steam distribution and consumption. The workshop also covered the following topics: (1) Ukrainian boilers; (2) Water treatment systems; (3) A profile of UKRESCO (Ukrainian Energy Services Company); (4) Turbine expanders and electricity generation; (5) Enterprise energy audit basics; and (6) Experience of steam use in Donetsk oblast.

  9. Strategic Education Research Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, M. S., Ed.; Wigdor, A. K., Ed.; Snow, C. E., Ed.

    This book is a proposal for the Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP), a large-scale coherent program of research and development carried out through a partnership between researchers and practitioners. The program would put the problems of educational practice at its center and focus on carrying research and development through all the…

  10. Partnership, Conflict and Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Government policy stresses partnership as a critical organizational form of the future to support the development of schooling. This article uses intergroup conflict and gaming theory to analyse data from one partnership. The views of young people and staff are explored to establish the nature and extent of conflict and its impact on the…

  11. The Santa Ana Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    One of the priority interests of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation is to connect the knowledge and resources of institutions with communities in order to improve the quality of life in community. Partnerships achieve uncommon results. In Santa Ana, California, an unusual partnership of public schools, community college, universities, community…

  12. Community College Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Marjorie

    Community colleges must assume a proactive leadership role to develop strategies that establish and maintain partnerships with business and other community organizations. San Juan College (SJC) has forged partnerships with a variety of local organizations, including governmental, civic, business, educational, medical, and cultural groups.…

  13. Influences on Sexual Partnering Among African American Adolescents With Concurrent Sexual Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah J.; Bangi, Audrey; Sheon, Nicolas; Harper, Gary W.; Catania, Joseph A.; Richards, Kimberly A. M.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents often engage in concurrent sexual partnerships as part of a developmental process of gaining experience with sexuality. The authors qualitatively examined patterns of concurrency and variation in normative and motivational influences on this pattern of sexual partnering among African American adolescents (31 males; 20 females), ages 15 to 17 years. Using content analysis, gender and contextual differences in social norms and motivations for concurrency were explored. Findings describe the normative influences on adolescent males and females with regard to sexual concurrency and the transfer of these norms from one generation to the next. PMID:22505843

  14. 20 CFR 638.512 - Sexual behavior and harassment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512 Section 638.512 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior and harassment. The Job Corps Director...

  15. Facilitating Dialogue on Religion and Sexuality Using a Descriptive Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    Dialogue on religion and sexuality is difficult because these topics consist of deeply seated concepts of self, as well as one's relationship to other selves in the world. This chapter offers practical steps for creating and navigating difficult dialogues with respect to sexuality and religion. It suggests that partnership with departments,…

  16. Modelling the Impact of Condom Distribution on the Incidence and Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections in an Adult Male Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nick; McBryde, Emma; Kirwan, Amy; Stoové, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of 1) a condom distribution program and 2) a condom distribution program combined with opt-out sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening on the transmission and prevalence of STIs in a prison system. Methods Using data from an implementation evaluation of a state-wide prison condom program and parameter estimates from available literature, a deterministic model was developed to quantify the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted HIV, hepatitis B, chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea across 14 Victorian prisons. The model included individual prison populations (by longer (>2 years) or shorter sentence lengths) and monthly prisoner transfers. For each STI, simulations were compared: without any intervention; with a condom distribution program; and with a combined condom and opt-out STI screening at prison reception intervention program. Results Condoms reduced the annual incidence of syphilis by 99% (N = 66 averted cases); gonorrhoea by 98% (N = 113 cases); hepatitis B by 71% (N = 5 cases); chlamydia by 27% (N = 196 cases); and HIV by 50% (N = 2 cases every 10 years). Condom availability changed the in-prison epidemiology of gonorrhoea and syphilis from self-sustaining to levels unlikely to result in infection outbreaks; however, condoms did not reduce chlamydia prevalence below a self-sustaining level due to its high infectiousness, high prevalence and low detection rate. When combined with a screening intervention program, condoms reduced chlamydia prevalence further, but not below a self-sustaining level. The low prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B in Australian prisons meant the effects of condoms were predicted to be small. Conclusion Condoms are predicted to effectively reduce the incidence of STIs in prison and are predicted to control syphilis and gonorrhoea transmission, however even combined with a screening on arrival program may be insufficient to reduce chlamydia prevalence below self-sustaining levels. To control

  17. School-University Partnerships in Music Education: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brophy, Timothy S.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was distributed to the members of the Music Educators National Conference (MENC)'s Society for Music Teacher Education that presented members with seven questions about the types and nature of their school-university partnerships. The majority of respondents (N = 251) reported that they engaged in multiple partnerships that included not…

  18. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  19. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease ...

  20. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...

  1. An examination of the characteristics, concentration, and distribution of androgen receptor in rat testis during sexual maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Buzek, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    In these studies a nuclear exchange assay was established in rat testis in which exchange after 86 hours at 4{degree}C was greater than 85% complete and receptor was stable. Receptor concentration per DNA measured by exchange declined between 15 and 25 days of age in the rat testis, then increased 4-fold during sexual maturation. Proliferation of germ cells which had low receptor concentration appeared to account for the early decline in testicular receptor concentration, whereas increase in receptor number per Sertoli cell between 25 and 35 days of age contributed to the later increase. Detailed studies showed that other possible explanations for changes in receptor number were not likely. Androgen receptor dynamics in testicular cells showed rapid, specific uptake of ({sup 3}H)-testosterone that was easily blocked by unlabeled testosterone, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, but not as well as by the anti-androgens cyproterone acetate and hydroxyflutamide.

  2. The Evolution of a Female Genital Trait Widely Distributed in the Lepidoptera: Comparative Evidence for an Effect of Sexual Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Víctor; Hernández-Baños, Blanca Estela; Cordero, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexual coevolution is considered responsible for the evolution of many male genital traits, but its effect on female genital morphology is poorly understood. In many lepidopterans, females become temporarily unreceptive after mating and the length of this refractory period is inversely related to the amount of spermatophore remaining in their genital tracts. Sperm competition can select for males that delay female remating by transferring spermatophores with thick spermatophore envelopes that take more time to be broken. These envelopes could select for signa, sclerotized sharp structures located within the female genital tract, that are used for breaking spermatophores. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that thick spermatophore envelopes and signa evolve in polyandrous species, and that these adaptations are lost when monandry evolves subsequently. Here we test the expected associations between female mating pattern and presence/absence of signa, and review the scant information available on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes. Methodology/Principal Findings We made a literature review and found information on female mating pattern (monandry/polyandry), presence/absence of signa and phylogenetic position for 37 taxa. We built a phylogenetic supertree for these taxa, mapped both traits on it, and tested for the predicted association by using Pagel's test for correlated evolution. We found that, as predicted by our hypothesis, monandry evolved eight times and in five of them signa were lost; preliminary evidence suggests that at least in two of the three exceptions males imposed monandry on females by means of specially thick spermatophore envelopes. Previously published data on six genera of Papilionidae is in agreement with the predicted associations between mating pattern and the characteristics of spermatophore envelopes and signa. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the hypothesis that signa are a product of sexually antagonistic

  3. Using the Partnership Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates how the Partnership Model can be utilized in the real world by showing how it served as a guide during the production of a film on female menopause for the College of Human Medicine. (MH)

  4. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  5. DOE climate partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Stoss, F.

    1995-12-31

    This article briefly describes US DOE partnerships, with electrical utilities and with US EPA and industry, which focus on reduction in greenhouse gasses. They are called `Climate Challenge` and `Climate Wise.`

  6. The Partnership Club.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Marlene

    1996-01-01

    Oregon's Business Education Compact is a clearinghouse for businesses and schools seeking to develop partnerships. Both groups pay membership fees and receive services that nurture mutually beneficial relationships. (SK)

  7. Partnership with the customer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trachta, Gregory S.

    1992-01-01

    This discussion will recount some historical observations about establishing partnerships with the customer. It suggests that such partnerships are established as the natural evolutionary product of a continuous improvement culture. Those are warm, ethereal terms about a topic that some people think already suffers from an excess of hot air. We will focus on some real-world activities and workplace artifacts to show there are substantive concepts behind the TQM buzzwords.

  8. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... partnership property. 1.734-1 Section 1.734-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.734-1 Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property. (a) General rule....

  9. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. PMID:26564549

  10. Sexuality, Sexual Practices, and HIV Risk among Incarcerated African-American Women in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410

  11. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  12. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  13. Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution

    PubMed Central

    Heid, Iris M; Jackson, Anne U; Randall, Joshua C; Winkler, Thomas W; Qi, Lu; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zillikens, M Carola; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Mägi, Reedik; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; White, Charles C; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Harris, Tamara B; Berndt, Sonja I; Ingelsson, Erik; Willer, Cristen J; Weedon, Michael N; Luan, Jian’An; Vedantam, Sailaja; Esko, Tõnu; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Kutalik, Zoltán; Li, Shengxu; Monda, Keri L; Dixon, Anna L; Holmes, Christopher C; Kaplan, Lee M; Liang, Liming; Min, Josine L; Moffatt, Miriam F; Molony, Cliona; Nicholson, George; Schadt, Eric E; Zondervan, Krina T; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Allen, Hana Lango; Weyant, Robert J; Wheeler, Eleanor; Wood, Andrew R; Estrada, Karol; Goddard, Michael E; Lettre, Guillaume; Mangino, Massimo; Nyholt, Dale R; Purcell, Shaun; Smith, Albert Vernon; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian; McCarroll, Steven A; Nemesh, James; Voight, Benjamin F; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Coin, Lachlan; Glazer, Nicole L; Hayward, Caroline; Heard-costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kapur, Karen; Ketkar, Shamika; Knowles, Joshua W; Kraft, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T; Lamina, Claudia; Leitzmann, Michael F; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B; Peters, Marjolein J; Polasek, Ozren; Prokopenko, Inga; Rayner, Nigel W; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robertson, Neil R; Sanna, Serena; Sovio, Ulla; Surakka, Ida; Teumer, Alexander; van Wingerden, Sophie; Vitart, Veronique; Zhao, Jing Hua; Cavalcanti-Proença, Christine; Chines, Peter S; Fisher, Eva; Kulzer, Jennifer R; Lecoeur, Cecile; Narisu, Narisu; Sandholt, Camilla; Scott, Laura J; Silander, Kaisa; Stark, Klaus; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Teslovich, Tanya M; Timpson, Nicholas John; Watanabe, Richard M; Welch, Ryan; Chasman, Daniel I; Cooper, Matthew N; Jansson, John-Olov; Kettunen, Johannes; Lawrence, Robert W; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Alavere, Helene; Almgren, Peter; Atwood, Larry D; Bennett, Amanda J; Biffar, Reiner; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Bornstein, Stefan R; Buchanan, Thomas A; Campbell, Harry; Day, Ian N M; Dei, Mariano; Dörr, Marcus; Elliott, Paul; Erdos, Michael R; Eriksson, Johan G; Freimer, Nelson B; Fu, Mao; Gaget, Stefan; Geus, Eco J C; Gjesing, Anette P; Grallert, Harald; Gräßler, Jürgen; Groves, Christopher J; Guiducci, Candace; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hassanali, Neelam; Havulinna, Aki S; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Hicks, Andrew A; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kinnunen, Leena; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Kroemer, Heyo K; Krzelj, Vjekoslav; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kvaloy, Kirsti; Laitinen, Jaana; Lantieri, Olivier; Lathrop, G Mark; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Luben, Robert N; Ludwig, Barbara; McArdle, Wendy L; McCarthy, Anne; Morken, Mario A; Nelis, Mari; Neville, Matt J; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N; Peden, John F; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Platou, Carl G P; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J; Saramies, Jouko; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Swift, Amy J; Teder-Laving, Maris; Thomson, Brian; Usala, Gianluca; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Vatin, Vincent; Volpato, Claudia B; Wallaschofski, Henri; Walters, G Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Witte, Daniel R; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Beilby, John P; James, Alan L; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Nieminen, Markku S; Ohlsson, Claes; Palmer, Lyle J; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Viikari, Jorma; Balkau, Beverley; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Bergman, Richard N; Boeing, Heiner; Smith, George Davey; Ebrahim, Shah; Froguel, Philippe; Hansen, Torben; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hveem, Kristian; Isomaa, Bo; Jørgensen, Torben; Karpe, Fredrik; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Laakso, Markku; Lawlor, Debbie A; Marre, Michel; Meitinger, Thomas; Metspalu, Andres; Midthjell, Kristian; Pedersen, Oluf; Salomaa, Veikko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Valle, Timo T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Arnold, Alice M; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark J; Collins, Francis S; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hofman, Albert; Hu, Frank B; Illig, Thomas; Iribarren, Carlos; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kao, W H Linda; Kaprio, Jaakko; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-01-01

    Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10−9 to P = 1.8 × 10−40) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10−3 to P = 1.2 × 10−13). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:20935629

  14. Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) 25th Anniversary Recognition "A Model for Government Partnerships". LP DAAC "History and a Look Forward"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behnke, Jeanne; Doescher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This presentation discusses 25 years of interactions between NASA and the USGS to manage a Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) for the purpose of providing users access to NASA's rich collection of Earth Science data. The presentation addresses challenges, efforts and metrics on the performance.

  15. Gay and Lesbian Partnership: Evidence from California

    PubMed Central

    CARPENTER, CHRISTOPHER; GATES, GARY J.

    2008-01-01

    Much recent research on sexual minorities has used couples-based samples, which—by construction—provide no information on nonpartnered individuals. We present the first systematic empirical analysis of partnership and cohabitation among self-identified gay men and lesbians using two independent, large, population-wwbased data sources from California. These data indicate that 37%–46% of gay men and 51%–62% of lesbians aged 18–59 are in cohabiting partnerships (compared with 62% of heterosexual individuals in coresidential unions at comparable ages). Unlike previous research, we find that white and highly educated gay men and lesbians are more likely to be partnered, and we confirm that same-sex cohabiting partners in our data have demographic characteristics that are similar to California same-sex couples from Census 2000. We also present the first detailed analysis of officially registered domestic partnerships in California. We find that almost half of partnered lesbians are officially registered with the local or state government, while less than a quarter of partnered gay men are officially registered. We conclude with implications of our findings for couples-based research on gay men and lesbians, as well as recommendations for survey data collection. PMID:18939662

  16. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  17. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  18. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  19. Emergency department naloxone distribution: a Rhode Island department of health, recovery community, and emergency department partnership to reduce opioid overdose deaths.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    In response to increasing rates of opioid overdose deaths in Rhode Island (RI), the RI Department of Health, RI emergency physicians, and Anchor Community Recovery Center designed an emergency department (ED) naloxone distribution and peer-recovery coach program for people at risk of opioid overdose. ED patients at risk for overdose are offered a take home naloxone kit, patient education video, and, when available, an Anchor peer recovery coach to provide recovery support and referral to treatment. In August 2014, the program launched at Kent, Miriam, and Rhode Island Hospital Emergency Departments. PMID:25271659

  20. Using a model of parallel distributed processing associated with data mining in the characterization of sexuality in a university population.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Simões, Priscyla Waleska Targino; Martins, Paulo João; Casagrandre, Rogério Antônio; Madeira, Kristian; de Mattos, Merisandra Côrtes; Manenti, Sandra Aparecida; da Rosa, Maria Inês; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Venson, Ramon; Coral, Leandro Natal; de Souza, Gabriel Scheffer; Pandini, Jeison Cleiton; Cassettari Junior, José Márcio; Moretti, Gustavo Pasquali; Cesconetto, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Using the framework for developing parallel applications Java Parallel Programming Framework were conducted performance analysis of an application for the clustering data by the method of fuzzy logic combined with Gustafson-Kessel algorithm. In addition to running in a distributed environment, for comparative purposes, were also conducted collections of processing time in environments with a single Personal Computer approach. With the results obtained by collecting time of application, there was a statistical analysis to validate the application and the algorithm as well as the use of computational clustering as a way to increase performance applications. PMID:23920909

  1. Strategic Partnerships in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of strategic partnerships between community colleges and key stakeholders; to specifically examine strategic partnerships; leadership decision-making; criteria to evaluate strategic partnerships that added value to the institution, value to the students, faculty, staff, and the local…

  2. The Promise of Transformative Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The promise, potential, and problems associated with school-university partnerships interested in better preparing teachers for the challenges they face teaching in today's schools rest in educators' ability to actualize transformative practices within partnership contexts. To date, most partnerships have focused on less complex forms of…

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    Sexuality is a big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. They also contribute to your sense of well-being. A number of disorders can affect the ability to have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Factors that ...

  4. Contracting with Teacher Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaten, Jessica; Kolderie, Ted

    This monograph describes the concept of school district contracts with teacher partnerships for educational services; taking the view of education as an industry, the document analyzes advantages, obstacles, and strategies of such a change. Section 1, "The Challenge," suggests that societal changes make an education industry outside the K-12…

  5. Partnerships in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakshul, Barbra

    1994-01-01

    Profiles 11 companies and government agencies that work in partnership with the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) to improve the science and math education of American Indian students. Support to AISES chapters, schools, colleges, and universities is given through scholarship monies, fellowships, internships, and goods and…

  6. Partnerships for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on cooperative partnership programs for the improvement of educational services to students with disabilities. The eight articles are: (1) "Partner-Based Prelinguistic Intervention: A Preliminary Report" by M. Jeanne Wilcox (which found the intervention procedures had a strong effect on mother-child dyads); (2) "Helping…

  7. Managing Movement as Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  8. Reframing Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Jerry Sue

    2013-01-01

    This chapter explores the evolving landscape of the urban college from the perspective of Cuyahoga Community College in Cleveland. It frames innovative and creative ways to develop unique partnerships with local high schools and employers, exemplified by the best collaborative practices of Cuyahoga and other community colleges.

  9. AMERICA 2000 Library Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    The United States Department of Education, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Library of Congress, the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, and the National Institute for Literacy have formed the AMERICA 2000 Library Partnership to support libraries in their work toward the six National Education Goals announced by…

  10. A Rewarding Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Cheryl; Swanson, Marc

    2006-01-01

    A collaborating scientist--a rewarding addition to any high school science program--can help students collect and analyze data that either replicates or parallels the work of the partnering scientist. This type of partnership is beneficial for both students and scientists, and perhaps there has never been a better time to consider such a…

  11. A Transforming Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Just a few years ago Jefferson Elementary School in San Diego County, California suffered from low test scores and a lackluster "science from workbooks approach" that was not motivating many in the 75% Hispanic and 50% learning-to-speak-English student body. A partnership program with the San Diego Natural History Museum called Communities Alive…

  12. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  13. Parks In Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Sally-Jo

    1998-01-01

    More than 50 National Park Service (NPS) sites interpret Native cultures or early Native contact with Europeans. In about 30 of those, American Indians, Alaska Natives, or Native Hawaiians, in partnership with the NPS, present their own heritage and issues. Describes Native-run aspects of Sitka National Historical Park, Glacier National Park, and…

  14. The California Partnership Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Marilyn

    The California Partnership Academies Program is a highly successful school/business collaboration that allows students who are at risk of not graduating from high school to see clearly the connection between school and the workplace. The following key components are discussed: (1) an at-risk student population made up largely of the educationally…

  15. Sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry. PMID:22994920

  16. Sexuality (and Lack Thereof) in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward. PMID:26999225

  17. Sexuality (and Lack Thereof) in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Boislard, Marie-Aude; van de Bongardt, Daphne; Blais, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Youth sexuality has been primarily studied with a focus on its potential public health issues, such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies, and its comorbidity with other risky behaviors. More recently, it has been studied as a normative step in romantic partnerships, either pre- or post-marital, as well as outside the context of romantic involvement. In this paper, we review the extensive literature on sexuality in adolescence and early adulthood both within and outside romantic relationships (i.e., casual sexual relationships and experiences; CSREs). Furthermore, the recent recognition of youth sexuality as a developmental task has led to a renewed interest from scholars in youth who abstain from sexual encounters, whether deliberately or not. A brief overview of the literature on cultural differences in sexuality, and sexual-minority youth sexual development is also provided. This paper concludes by suggesting future directions to bring the field of youth sexuality and romantic relationships forward. PMID:26999225

  18. The importance of light and photoperiod in sexual reproduction and geographical distribution in the green snow alga, Chloromonas sp.-D (Chlorophyceae, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoham, Ronald W.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Rogers, Haldre S.; Ragan, Michael D.; Petre, Benjamin M.; Ungerer, Michael D.; Barnes, Joseph M.; Francis, David O.

    2000-12-01

    The effects of premating light regimes on sexual reproduction and the production of spherical cells in Chloromonas sp.-D, a unicellular green snow alga, were studied using cross-mating strains 582C and 582D isolated from snowpacks associated with mixed hardwood- softwood forests in Whetstone Gulf State Park, Tughill Plateau, NY. Two pre-acclimation regimes were used, Vita-Lite as controls (530- 700 nm peak) and blue light as experimentals (430- 460 nm peak) prior to the mating experiments. In blue light, an increase in the number of matings and spherical cells (spheres) produced in the life cycle was observed as the photoperiod increased. This implies that longer photoperiods of blue light are more optimal for sexual reproduction in Chloromonas sp.-D than shorter ones. Under Vita-Lite, there was a significant increase in the number of matings and spheres with the extended 20 : 4 photoperiod compared with the shorter 14 : 10 photoperiod. Under blue light, significantly more matings and spheres occurred than under Vita-Lite using the same irradiance level of 95µmol photons m-2 s-1 (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR] of 400- 700 nm) for the 14 : 10 and 20 : 4 photoperiods. The results of these experiments suggest that Chloromonas sp.-D, known only from the Tughill Plateau, NY, is not reproducing optimally at this site where it grows and reproduces under an approximate 14 : 10 photoperiod in early April. However, in the upper 10 cm of snow in the Tughill Plateau, a blue light irradiance level of 95µmol photons m-2 s-1 occurs, which is optimal for this species. When these conditions are combined with a 14 : 10 photoperiod, the Tughill Plateau appears to be sub-optimal for mating and production of spherical cells. Since Chloromonas sp.-D does not appear to have a dependence on a dark cycle, this would allow it to expand its geographical distribution. It may reproduce more optimally under blue light (95µmol photons m-2 s-1) with an extended photoperiod (>20 : 4

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

  20. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Staff, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents’ self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys’ peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls’ peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys’ sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  1. THE SEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD AND ADOLESCENT PEER ACCEPTANCE.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Staff, Jeremy

    2009-06-01

    The belief that women and men are held to different standards of sexual conduct is pervasive in contemporary American society. According to the sexual double standard, boys and men are rewarded and praised for heterosexual sexual contacts, whereas girls and women are derogated and stigmatized for similar behaviors. Although widely held by the general public, research findings on the sexual double standard remain equivocal, with qualitative studies and early attitudinal surveys generally finding evidence of the double standard and more recent experimental vignette designs often failing to find similar results. In this study, we extend prior research by directly measuring the social status of sexually permissive youth. We use data collected from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to relate adolescents' self-reported numbers of sexual partners to a network measure of peer acceptance. Results suggest that the association between lifetime sexual partnerships and peer status varies significantly by gender, such that greater numbers of sexual partners are positively correlated with boys' peer acceptance, but negatively correlated with girls' peer acceptance. Moreover, the relationship between boys' sexual behaviors and peer acceptance is moderated by socioeconomic origins; sexually permissive boys from disadvantaged backgrounds are predicted to have more friendships than permissive boys from more advantaged backgrounds. Our results thus support the existence of an adolescent sexual double standard and suggest that sexual norms vary by both gender and socioeconomic origins. PMID:25484478

  2. Partnership in Computational Science

    SciTech Connect

    Huray, Paul G.

    1999-02-24

    This is the final report for the "Partnership in Computational Science" (PICS) award in an amount of $500,000 for the period January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993. A copy of the proposal with its budget is attached as Appendix A. This report first describes the consequent significance of the DOE award in building infrastructure of high performance computing in the Southeast and then describes the work accomplished under this grant and a list of publications resulting from it.

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Sexual Health Basic Facts & Information All adults, including older people, ... the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most of them do, even ...

  4. The Global Soil Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  5. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  6. Molecular Phylogeny of the Leafy Liverwort Lejeunea (Porellales): Evidence for a Neotropical Origin, Uneven Distribution of Sexual Systems and Insufficient Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Jochen; Dong, Shanshan; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Pócs, Tamás; Feldberg, Kathrin; Czumaj, Aleksandra; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Reitner, Joachim; Renner, Matt A. M.; Hentschel, Joern; Stech, Michael; Schneider, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background Lejeunea is a largely epiphytic, subcosmopolitan liverwort genus with a complex taxonomic history. Species circumscriptions and their relationships are subject to controversy; biogeographic history and diversification through time are largely unknown. Methodology and Results We employed sequences of two chloroplast regions (trnL-trnF, rbcL) and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region of 332 accessions to explore the phylogeny of the Harpalejeunea-Lejeunea-Microlejeunea complex. Lejeunea forms a well-supported clade that splits into two main lineages corresponding to L. subg. Lejeunea and L. subg. Crossotolejeunea. Neotropical accessions dominate early diverging lineages of both main clades of Lejeunea. This pattern suggests an origin in the Neotropics followed by several colonizations from the Neotropics into the Paleotropics and vice versa. Most Afro-Madagascan clades are related to Asian clades. Several temperate Lejeunea radiations were detected. Eighty two of the 91 investigated Lejeunea species could be identified to species level. Of these 82 species, 54 were represented by multiple accessions (25 para- or polyphyletic, 29 monophyletic). Twenty nine of the 36 investigated species of L. subg. Lejeunea were monoicous and 7 dioicous. Within L. subg. Crossotolejeunea, 15 of the 46 investigated species were monoicous and 31 dioicous. Some dioicous as well as some monoicous species have disjunct ranges. Conclusions/Significance We present the first global phylogeny of Lejeunea and the first example of a Neotropical origin of a Pantropical liverwort genus. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the Neotropics as a cradle of Lejeunea lineages and detect post-colonization radiations in Asia, Australasia, Afro-Madagascar and Europe. Dioicy/monoicy shifts are likely non-randomly distributed. The presented phylogeny points to the need of integrative taxonomical studies to clarify many Lejeunea binomials. Most importantly, it provides a framework for future studies on

  7. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  8. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe. PMID:21987019

  9. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Helen; Morris, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency.Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change. PMID:21406080

  10. Concurrent partnerships and HIV: an inconvenient truth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the evidence linking concurrency to HIV epidemic severity in southern and eastern Africa led the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and the Southern African Development Community in 2006 to conclude that high rates of concurrent sexual partnerships, combined with low rates of male circumcision and infrequent condom use, are major drivers of the AIDS epidemic in southern Africa. In a recent article in the Journal of the International AIDS Society, Larry Sawers and Eileen Stillwaggon attempt to challenge the evidence for the importance of concurrency and call for an end to research on the topic. However, their "systematic review of the evidence" is not an accurate summary of the research on concurrent partnerships and HIV, and it contains factual errors concerning the measurement and mathematical modelling of concurrency. Practical prevention-oriented research on concurrency is only just beginning. Most interventions to raise awareness about the risks of concurrency are less than two years old; few evaluations and no randomized-controlled trials of these programmes have been conducted. Determining whether these interventions can help people better assess their own risks and take steps to reduce them remains an important task for research. This kind of research is indeed the only way to obtain conclusive evidence on the role of concurrency, the programmes needed for effective prevention, the willingness of people to change behaviour, and the obstacles to change. PMID:21406080

  11. 26 CFR 1.47-6 - Partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partnerships. 1.47-6 Section 1.47-6 Internal... Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-6 Partnerships. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of partnership. If a partnership disposes of any partnership section...

  12. 26 CFR 1.47-6 - Partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Partnerships. 1.47-6 Section 1.47-6 Internal... Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-6 Partnerships. (a) In general—(1) Disposition or cessation in hands of partnership. If a partnership disposes of any partnership section...

  13. Partnership without Hierarchy: Postsecondary Outcomes from a Collaborative Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Janet Hart; Coomes, Jacqueline; Lindeblad, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe a secondary-postsecondary collaborative partnership that addressed the issue of students' frequent failures as they transition from high school to college mathematics courses. Although the partnership did not take place in a professional development school, secondary and postsecondary participants worked together as…

  14. Partnership Teaching: Our Own Growth; Partnership School Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirtle, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Strategies to implement partnership teaching in the classroom include considering unsuccessful attempts at negotiating social situations as mistakes rather than misbehavior, introducing Gandhi's concept of truthful love, and using nonviolent communication in conflict resolution. A partnership school council involves all students in school…

  15. Partnership 2000: Improving the Workforce through Partnerships. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Jack

    Partnership 2000 is a joint collaborative effort of labor, education, and industry in California created to address the needs of employees through vocational and technical education provided by community colleges and affiliated training institutions. Partnership 2000's long-range goals are to: (1) improve student access to vocational education…

  16. 31 CFR 306.87 - Partnerships (including nominee partnerships).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partnerships (including nominee partnerships). 306.87 Section 306.87 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Assignments in Behalf of Private or Public Organizations § 306.87...

  17. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  18. The Impact of Condom Use Negotiation Self-Efficacy and Partnership Patterns on Consistent Condom Use among College-Educated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesoff, Elizabeth D.; Dunkle, Kristin; Lang, Delia

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore the impact of condom negotiation self-efficacy, interpersonal factors, and sensational factors on condom use behavior among a population of college-educated women with different patterns and types of sexual partner. We administered an online questionnaire capturing sexual behavior, partnership patterns, perceived…

  19. NASA International Environmental Partnerships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan

    2010-01-01

    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  20. Strategic Partnerships in International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treat, Tod; Hartenstine, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides a framework and recommendations for development of strategic partnerships in a variety of cultural contexts. Additionally, this study elucidates barriers and possibilities in interagency collaborations. Without careful consideration regarding strategic partnerships' approaches, functions, and goals, the ability to…

  1. Interdependence through Partnerships: Transforming Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simone, Beverly S.

    At Wisconsin's Madison Area Technical College (MATC), both external and internal partnerships are a fundamental part of instructional programming. As the need for technological and mathematical competence in the workforce has increased, partnerships between the college and business and industry have become more important and represent an…

  2. Concluding Observations on Successful Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    States that most successful partnerships between community colleges and business and industry have several common elements, and that they also face certain consistent challenges that must be overcome if they are to persist and flourish. Discusses the types of challenges experienced and elements necessary for establishing a successful partnership.…

  3. Successful VET Partnerships in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, John; Kilpatrick, Sue

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports findings of the first phase of a study conducted to investigate the factors that contribute to the success of partnerships between vocational education and training (VET) providers and community/industry, and the processes partnerships employ to produce quality learning outcomes for individuals and other stakeholders, including…

  4. A Partnership Raises Healthier Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Rick; Banks, Patti; Eyres, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A school district in western Washington commits to developing physically fit and healthy students, not only as a means of enhancing learning but as a whole child goal in its own right. This is a report on how it does so in partnership with its community, believing that it is only through such a partnership that it can reach its goals. The central…

  5. A Drama Project about Older People's Intimacy and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish; Couchman, Wendy; Webster, Maxine; Avery, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an intergenerational project developed in partnership between a social work degree program and an Older People's Theatre group. Bringing together a small group of students, older actors, and film makers, methods from drama and the arts were utilised to explore the topic of intimacy and sexuality in later life. The project…

  6. HIV Serodisclosure and Sexual Behavior During International Travel.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Chen, Yea-Hung; Grasso, Michael; Robertson, Tyler; Tao, Luke; Fatch, Robin; Curotto, Alberto; McFarland, Willi; Grant, Robert M; Reznick, Olga; Raymond, H Fisher; Steward, Wayne T

    2016-07-01

    When traveling internationally, HIV serodisclosure and knowledge of partners' serostatus were hampered by the lack of a common language. Condomless anal intercourse was less likely to occur in partnerships where HIV serostatus was not disclosed or known. Taken together, these observations suggest that language barriers may affect sexual decision making. PMID:27322049

  7. Consistency of Self-Reported Sexual Behavior in Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Deven T.; Morris, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Accurate data on sexual behavior have become increasingly important for demographers and epidemiologists, but self-reported data are widely regarded as unreliable. We examined the consistency in the number of sexual partners reported by participants in seven population-based surveys of adults in the U.S. Differences between studies were quite modest and much smaller than those associated with demographic attributes. Surprisingly, the mode of survey administration did not appear to influence disclosure when the questions were similar. We conclude that there is more consistency in sexual partnership reporting than is commonly believed. PMID:19588240

  8. Sex, money, and premarital partnerships in southern Malawi.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Michelle

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, I argue two main points. First, in premarital, sexual partnerships in rural Malawi, the purpose of money exchange extends beyond the alleviation of female partners' economic constraints, and, second, by clarifying this broader purpose, it becomes possible to recognize where women exert control over their own sexual selves. These findings come from field observations and a rich set of in-depth interviews (N=54), bolstered on occasion by survey data, conducted with young women and men, aged 15-24 years, in the Balaka district in the southern region of the country. This research demonstrates that, contrary to typical expectations, money and gift transfers in sexual partnerships are part and parcel of the courting practices of young Malawian women and men. Transfers are as much about the expression of love and commitment as they are about meeting the financial needs of women or the acquisition of sex for men. Using narrative information to shed light on the semiotics of the sex-money link, these findings from Malawi offer a new perspective that broadens usual interpretations of transactional sex, the understanding of which is critical in fighting AIDS. PMID:17764797

  9. Rape, sex partnership, and substance use consequences in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Booth, Brenda M; Mengeling, Michelle; Torner, James; Sadler, Anne G

    2011-06-01

    The association of rape history and sexual partnership with alcohol and drug use consequences in women veterans is unknown. Midwestern women veterans (N = 1,004) completed a retrospective telephone interview assessing demographics, rape history, substance abuse and dependence, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One third met lifetime criteria for substance use disorder (SUD), half reported lifetime completed rape, a third childhood rape, one quarter in-military rape, 11% sex with women. Lifetime SUD was higher for women with rape history (64% vs. 44%). Women with women as sex partners had significantly higher rates of all measures of rape, and also lifetime substance use disorder. Postmilitary rape, sex partnership, and current depression were significantly associated with lifetime SUD in multivariate models (odds ratio = 2.3, 3.6, 2.1, respectively). Many women veterans have a high need for comprehensive mental health services. PMID:21567476

  10. The AMTEX Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.

    1993-03-01

    The American Textile Partnership, as its name implies, is a collaborative effort between the DOE national labs and industry-related R&D/educational institutions. The purpose of AMTEX is to promote R&D that enhance the competitiveness of the integrated textile industry (i.e., fibers, textiles, sewn/fabricated products). The industry-related organizations bring a vital perspective of industry needs in addition to their own R&D capabilities. The DOE labs bring broad R&D capabilities and perspectives from other areas of research application. The strong synergy between industry and DOE will enable this collaboration to significantly impact industry competitiveness while focusing and strengthening, the labs` capabilities consistent with DOE`s mission. There are three main components in AMTEX: DOE/ER oversight; the Operating Committee, which is composed a Laboratory Board and an Industry Board; and five Technology Area Coordination Teams (TACTs).

  11. The AMTEX Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The American Textile Partnership, as its name implies, is a collaborative effort between the DOE national labs and industry-related R D/educational institutions. The purpose of AMTEX is to promote R D that enhance the competitiveness of the integrated textile industry (i.e., fibers, textiles, sewn/fabricated products). The industry-related organizations bring a vital perspective of industry needs in addition to their own R D capabilities. The DOE labs bring broad R D capabilities and perspectives from other areas of research application. The strong synergy between industry and DOE will enable this collaboration to significantly impact industry competitiveness while focusing and strengthening, the labs' capabilities consistent with DOE's mission. There are three main components in AMTEX: DOE/ER oversight; the Operating Committee, which is composed a Laboratory Board and an Industry Board; and five Technology Area Coordination Teams (TACTs).

  12. An innovative partnership for national environmental assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, D.M.; Field, D.W.; Holm, T.M.; Jennings, M.D.; Sturdevant, J.A.; Thelin, G.P.; Worthy, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Four federal environmental programs: EMAP (USEPA), GAP (USFWS), C-CAP (NOAA), NAWQA (USGS) have formed a partnership with EROS Data Center (USGS) to facilitate the development of baseline land characteristics information for the conterminous U.S. Each of the respective programs brings to the group unique experience and expertise. Despite emphasis on different environmental issues, together we have identified common requirements for source satellite data, preprocessing, spectral clustering, ancillary data, data management and distribution. We are also developing a research agenda to support this initiative and future efforts of this partnership. The short-term goal of out effort is the joint acquisition and preprocessing of recent Landsat TM images for the conterminous U.S. To date, images have been identified for acquisition, and preliminary plans have been made for preprocessing. The long-term goal for this group is collaborative research and development of a flexible and functional land characteristics database for use by our programs and others. This partnership demonstrates that national environmental programs within multiple government agencies can work effectively together to achieve common goals and reduce overall cost.

  13. Scientific developments within the Global Flood Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groeve, Tom; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Thielen, Jutta

    2015-04-01

    More than 90 scientists, end users, and decision makers in the field of flood forecasting, remote sensing, hazard and risk assessment and emergency management collaborate in the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). The Partnership, launched in 2014, aims at the development of flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. Scientists collaborate in the GFP in different pillars, respectively focused on (1) development of tools and systems for global flood monitoring (Flood Toolbox), (2) applying the tools for publishing near real-time impact-based flood awareness information (Flood Observatory), and (3) collecting flood maps and impact information in a distributed database (Flood Record). The talk will focus on concrete collaboration results in 2014 and 2015, showing the added value of collaborating under a partnership. These include an overview of 10 services, 5 tools (algorithms or software) and 4 datasets related to global flood forecasting and observation. Through the various results (on interoperability, standards, visualization, integration and system design of integrated systems), it will be shown that a user-centric approach can lead to effective uptake of research results, rapid prototype development and experimental services that fill a gap in global flood response.

  14. 31 CFR 306.87 - Partnerships (including nominee partnerships).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appropriate for winding up partnership affairs. In those cases where assignments by or in behalf of all... dissolution. Upon voluntary dissolution, for any jurisdiction where a general partner may not act in...

  15. Sexuality and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  16. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships assist…

  17. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships assist…

  18. 27 CFR 22.60 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuing partnerships... Original Qualification § 22.60 Continuing partnerships. (a) Continuing partnerships. If, under the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not terminated on death or insolvency of a partner,...

  19. 27 CFR 22.60 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuing partnerships... Original Qualification § 22.60 Continuing partnerships. (a) Continuing partnerships. If, under the laws of a particular State, a partnership is not terminated on death or insolvency of a partner,...

  20. 27 CFR 478.55 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continuing partnerships... Licenses § 478.55 Continuing partnerships. Where, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership... partnership affairs is completed, and the surviving partner has the exclusive right to the control...

  1. 27 CFR 478.55 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuing partnerships... Licenses § 478.55 Continuing partnerships. Where, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership... partnership affairs is completed, and the surviving partner has the exclusive right to the control...

  2. 27 CFR 24.128 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuing partnerships... Establishment § 24.128 Continuing partnerships. If, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership is... partnership is completed, and the surviving partner has the exclusive right to the control and possession...

  3. 46 CFR 67.35 - Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partnership. 67.35 Section 67.35 Shipping COAST GUARD... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.35 Partnership. A partnership meets citizenship... recreational endorsement, at least 50 percent of the equity interest in the partnership is owned by...

  4. 27 CFR 555.58 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continuing partnerships... Continuing partnerships. Where, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership is not terminated on death or insolvency of a partner, but continues until the winding up of the partnership affairs...

  5. 27 CFR 555.58 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continuing partnerships... Continuing partnerships. Where, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership is not terminated on death or insolvency of a partner, but continues until the winding up of the partnership affairs...

  6. 46 CFR 67.35 - Partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Partnership. 67.35 Section 67.35 Shipping COAST GUARD... Citizenship Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.35 Partnership. A partnership meets citizenship... recreational endorsement, at least 50 percent of the equity interest in the partnership is owned by...

  7. 27 CFR 24.128 - Continuing partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Continuing partnerships... Establishment § 24.128 Continuing partnerships. If, under the laws of the particular State, the partnership is... partnership is completed, and the surviving partner has the exclusive right to the control and possession...

  8. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  9. Sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Tavara, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Gender-based violence is related to the power imbalance between men and women that is present, to a greater or lesser degree, in all societies. It was recognized as a human rights problem by the United Nations relatively recently. It includes emotional, physical and sexual violence. Sexual violence is the extreme form of gender-based violence, usually accompanied by the other types of violence. Its prevalence is difficult to determine, but it is likely to affect at least one-third of women at some time in their life. It has multiple effects on women's physical and gynaecological health, and these depend greatly on the quality of care that women receive immediately after the assault. Unfortunately, most emergency health services, including those in women's hospitals, are not prepared to provide the correct care for these women. Care should be multidisciplinary and should involve crisis treatment, meticulous clinical examination with complementary auxiliary methods, treatment of physical lesions, prevention of pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and follow-up for at least 6 months after the assault. PMID:16564226

  10. First descriptions of copepodid stages, sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variability of Mesocletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Argestidae), including the description of a new species with broad abyssal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mesocletodes Sars, 1909a encompasses 37 species to date. Initial evidence on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism has been verified for 77 specimens of Mesocletodes elmari sp. n. from various deep-sea regions, and ontogenetic development has been traced for the first time. Apomorphies are a strong spinule-like pinna on the mx seta that is fused to the basis, P2–P4 exp3 proximal outer seta lost, P1–P4 enp2 extremely elongated, furcal rami elongated, female body of prickly appearance, female P2–P4 enp2 proximal inner seta lost. Intraspecific variability involves spinulation, ornamentation and size of the body and setation and spinulation of pereiopods. Sexually dimorphic modifications of adult females include prickly appearance of the body, P1 enp exceeds exp in length, P1 coxa externally broadened, seta of basis arising from prominent protrusion, hyaline frills of body somites ornate. Sexual dimorphism in adult males is expressed in smaller body size, haplocer A1, 2 inner setae on P2–P4 enp2 and on P5 exp, P5 basendopodal lobe with 2 setae. Some modifications allow sexing of copepodid stages. The female A1 is fully developed in CV, the male A1 undergoes extensive modifications at the last molt. P1–P4 are fully developed in CV. Mesocletodes faroerensis and Mesocletodes thielei lack apomorphies of Mesocletodes and are excluded. PMID:21594073

  11. Adolescent sexuality: the gender gap.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Gruet, F; Ferron, C; Jeannin, A; Dubois-Arber, F

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine gender differences as regards adolescent sexuality, in order to improve the adjustment of prevention programmes to boys' and girls' specific needs. Data were collected as part of the Swiss Multicentric Adolescent Survey on Health. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed in school classes among a national representative sample of about 9,300 adolescents (15 to 20 years old). About 45% of the total sample reported a previous sexual experience. Differences between boys and girls were identified by means of bivariate and multivariate analyses. A higher proportion of Swiss girls report intra-family discussions about sexuality, having had a previous sexual experience, having sexual intercourse regularly, having had only one partner, and using contraception regularly. A higher proportion of Swiss boys report positive attitudes towards condoms and using condoms regularly. Variables independently associated with the occurrence of first sexual intercourse before 15 years old also show gender differences, notably as regards health behaviours and social adjustment. The findings suggest that prevention programmes should emphasize, among boys, responsibility in contraception and the need for protection in situations of multipartnership, and among girls, a positive attitude towards condom use and an increased familiarity with condoms presented both in a perspective of contraception and prevention of STDs. PMID:8993715

  12. Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that a Veteran ... make an estimate of the actual rates of sexual assault and harassment experiences among all individuals serving in ...

  13. Women and sexual problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000663.htm Women and sexual problems To use the sharing features on this page, ... feel better about your sex life. Common Sexual Problems You may have sexual dysfunction if you are ...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  15. The Healthy Homes Partnership: A Cooperative Extension Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Laura B.; Peek, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the accomplishments of the Healthy Homes Partnership, which recently celebrated its 10th anniversary. Since the program began in 1999, funds totaling $2.7 million have been distributed to 34 states and Virgin Islands Extension programs through a competitive process. Extension professionals have used the funds as seed grants…

  16. Realities of a School-University Partnership: Focus on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamler, Estelle; Szpara, Michelle; Dornisch, Michele; Goubeaud, Karleen; Levine, Gavrielle; Brechtel, Seth

    2009-01-01

    In this school-university partnership, university faculty team with high school teachers to advance content literacy for immigrant students. Using a narrative research design, we retell stories, chronologically structured by comentoring developmental phases, to retrace our individual teams' activities. With a distributive perspective of…

  17. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state

  18. Association between Increased Emergency Contraception Availability and Risky Sexual Practices

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Danielle N; Bradford, W David

    2015-01-01

    Objective We studied whether increased emergency contraception availability for women over age 18 was associated with a higher probability of risky sexual practices. Data A total of 34,030 individual/year observations on 3,786 women aged 18 and older were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 from October 1999 through November 2009. Study Design We modeled three binary outcome variables: any sexual activity; sexual activity with more than one partner; and any sex without a condom for women with multiple partners for women in states with state-level policy changes (prior to the 2006 FDA ruling) and for women in states subject to only the national policy change both jointly and separately. Findings We found different results when estimating the state and federal changes separately. The national change was associated with a reduction in the probability of sexual activity, a reduction in the likelihood of reporting multiple partnerships, and there was no relationship between the national policy change and unprotected sexual activity. There was no relationship between the probability of sexual activity or multiple partnerships for women in states with their own policy changes, but we did find that women in these states were more likely to report unprotected sex. PMID:25367046

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF MULTIPLE AND CONCURRENT PARTNERSHIPS AMONG WOMEN AT HIGH RISK FOR HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Adimora, Adaora A.; Hughes, James P.; Wang, Jing; Haley, Danielle F.; Golin, Carol E.; Magnus, Manya; Rompalo, Anne; Justman, Jessica; del Rio, Carlos; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Mannheimer, Sharon; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Hodder, Sally L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined parameters of sexual partnerships, including respondents’ participation in concurrency, belief that their partner had concurrent partnerships (partners’ concurrency), and partnership intervals, among the 2,099 women in HIV Prevention Trials Network 064, a study of women at high risk for HIV infection, in ten US communities. Methods We analyzed baseline survey responses about partnership dates to determine prevalence of participants’ and partners’ concurrency, intervals between partnerships, knowledge of whether recent partner(s) had undergone HIV testing, and intercourse frequency during the preceding 6 months. Results Prevalence of participants’ and partners’ concurrency was 40% and 36% respectively; 24% of respondents had both concurrent partnerships and non-monogamous partners. Among women with >1 partner and no concurrent partnerships themselves, the median gap between partners was one month. Multiple episodes of unprotected vaginal intercourse with >2 of their most recent partners was reported by 60% of women who had both concurrent partnerships and non-monogamous partners, 50% with only concurrent partners and no partners’ concurrency, and 33% with only partners’ concurrency versus 14% of women with neither type of concurrency (p<.0001). Women who had any involvement with concurrency were also more likely than women with no concurrency involvement to report lack of awareness of whether recent partners had undergone HIV testing (participants’ concurrency 41%, partners’ concurrency 40%, both participants’ and partners’ concurrency 48%, neither 17%; p<.0001). Conclusions These network patterns and short gaps between partnerships may create substantial opportunities for HIV transmission in this sample of women at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:24056163

  20. Factors Associated with Sexual Abstinence among Adolescents in Four Sub-Saharan African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Ezeh, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on nationally representative data collected from Burkinabé, Ghanaian, Malawian, and Ugandan adolescents, this study examines differences among four groups of never married, 15–19 year olds: primary abstainers (sexually inexperienced), secondary abstainers (last sex more than 12 months prior to the survey), recent abstainers (sexually active in last year but not in the last 3 months), and sexually active (had sexual intercourse in the last 3 months). The percentage of primary abstinent adolescents ranged from 42% (Malawian males) to 85% (Ghanaian males). In general, a greater proportion of females than males were primary abstainers. Primary abstainers were younger than sexually experienced adolescents. Current involvement in a romantic relationship was a significant predictor of sexual status with primary abstainers being the least likely to be romantically involved. Overall, findings suggest that adolescents’ gender, prior sexual experiences and contextual circumstances, such as romantic partnerships, should be considered when designing abstinence promotion programs. PMID:19122794

  1. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88) and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents. PMID:23153259

  2. Sexuality in Persons with Severe Physical Disability: A Guide to the Physician

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, George

    1989-01-01

    Persons with disabilities, as a group, may have distinctly fewer options for functioning sexually according to their own needs and goals than have able persons. Physicians have three special roles in providing sexual health care: identifying problems that are sexual; assessing these problems; and providing in-depth management. Assessment includes a review of the disabled person's sexual response abilities, fertility potential and capability to use birth control, and estimates of musculoskeletal functions for intimate physical contact and bowel and urinary continence. Other areas to assess include partnership capabilities, sexual self-esteem, and sexual interest levels. Management is a team effort. Psychological, medical, and surgical methods developed for sexually dysfunctional persons may be adapted for persons with disabling conditions. PMID:21248893

  3. The distribution of neuropeptide Y and dynorphin immunoreactivity in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, from birth to sexual maturity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cepriano, L. M.; Schreibman, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y and dynorphin have been localized in the brain and pituitary gland of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, at different ages and stages of development from birth to sexual maturity. Immunoreactive neuropeptide Y was found in perikarya and tracts of the nucleus olfactoretinalis, telencephalon, ventral tegmentum and in the neurohypophysis and in the three regions of the adenohypophysis. Immunoreactive dynorphin was found in nerve tracts in the olfactory bulb and in cells of the pars intermedia and the rostral pars distalis of the pituitary gland.

  4. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior. PMID:949223

  5. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  6. The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

    2011-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665

  7. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  8. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  9. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student in…

  10. Sexuality and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…