Science.gov

Sample records for sexual risk behaviour

  1. Sexual risk behaviour and donor deferral in Europe.

    PubMed

    Offergeld, R; Kamp, C; Heiden, M; Norda, R; Behr-Gross, M-E

    2014-11-01

    One of the most controversial policies in blood transfusion worldwide is the permanent deferral from donating blood of men with sexual contacts to other men (MSM). This policy was implemented for safety reasons as sex between men is known to be a high risk factor for acquiring severe infectious diseases transmissible by blood transfusion. Sexual contacts among heterosexual persons may hold similar risks but a clear-cut discrimination between different individual risks is impossible. Nevertheless, the current blood donor deferral periods defined by European Union (EU) legislation depend on a distinction of different grades of risk with respect to sexual behaviour. Under the aegis of the Steering Committee on Blood Transfusion (CD-P-TS) of the Council of Europe (CoE), an international working group evaluated epidemiological and behavioural data, modelling studies on residual risk and spread of infections, and studies on adherence to donor selection criteria. The aim was to distinguish sexual behaviour of different risk categories. It was concluded, that existing data confirm that MSM and commercial sex workers (CSW) are groups at high risk. Any further grading lacks a scientific data base. Modelling studies indicate that adherence to deferral policies is of major relevance suggesting that good donor adherence may outweigh the small negative effects on blood safety postulated for changing from permanent to temporary deferral periods for high risk sexual behaviours. The fact that a considerable percentage of donors are MSM - despite the permanent deferral policy - demonstrates the need to increase donor understanding and adherence. PMID:25040600

  2. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  3. Severity of heroin dependence and HIV risk. I. Sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M; Griffiths, P; Powis, B; Strang, J

    1993-01-01

    The HIV risks associated with the sexual behaviour of drug injectors have sometimes been overshadowed by the more obvious risks of injection behaviour. In this study, 408 heroin users were interviewed in the community; 50% were not currently in treatment and 42% had never had any treatment contact. In addition to data on drug use, information was collected on sexual risk behaviour by means of a linked anonymous questionnaire (96% returned). Eighty-nine per cent of the sample had had at least one sexual partner in the previous year and 58% had a regular sexual partner at the time of interview. Drug users who had a sexual partner who was injecting drugs were more severely dependent upon heroin. Twenty-three per cent of the men and 20% of the women reported having had anal intercourse in the previous year. Seventeen per cent of the women and 6% of the men had engaged in some form of prostitution. Severity of heroin dependence was positively related to the occurrence and to the frequency of sex-for-money transactions and to the less well recognized phenomenon of sex-for-drugs; this association with severity of dependence applied to the women and to the men who have sex with men. The overall level of condom use was low in this sample, though condom use was more frequent among those involved in sex-for-money or sex-for-drugs transactions. Low levels of condom use were reported even for such high risk activities as anal sex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8329480

  4. Recreational urethral sounding is associated with high risk sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. RESULTS There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED. CONCLUSIONS Urethral sounding is a sexual practice that is associated with higher risk sexual behaviour and carries the potential for morbidity. Research on means for risk reduction for men who choose to engage in recreational sounding requires further study. PMID:22221824

  5. Sexual Risk Behaviours and Sexual Abuse in Persons with Severe Mental Illness in Uganda: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18–49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting. PMID:22253770

  6. Parental Attitudes about Teenage Pregnancy: Impact on Sexual Risk Behaviour of African-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa

    2014-01-01

    African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of…

  7. Gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmissible infections among adolescents in mental health treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Braxton, Nikia D.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescents with a history of psychiatric disorder(s) are particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmissible infections (STIs) as a result of psychological and emotional states associated with higher rates of risky sexual behaviour. The present study examined gender differences in sexual risk behaviours and STI among adolescents in mental health treatment. Methods Three hundred and seventy nine sexually active adolescents, aged 13–18 years, from a larger multisite study, who received mental health treatment during the past year, completed an audio computer-assisted self interview assessing sociodemographics, psychiatric symptomatology and HIV/STI risk behaviours, and provided urine specimens tested for STI. Results After controlling for covariates, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that female adolescents were more likely to have had an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.2, P = 0.0001), obtain their HIV test results (AOR = 2.9, P = 0.03), refuse sex out of fear for STI acquisition (AOR = 1.7, P = 0.04), or avoid a situation that might lead to sex (AOR = 2.4, P = 0.001), and were less likely to have a casual sex partner (AOR = 0.40, P = 0.002). Additionally, females were more likely to report inconsistent condom use (AOR = 2.60, P = 0.001) and have a STI (AOR = 9.1, P = 0.0001) than their male counterparts. Conclusions Female adolescents receiving mental health treatment were more than nine times as likely to have an STI and more likely to use condoms inconsistently. The standard of care for mental health practice for adolescents should include referrals for STI screening and treatment as well as assessment and discussion of risky sexual behaviours as part of the treatment plan when indicated. Effective programs should address gender-specific communication and behavioural skills. PMID:22697141

  8. Clustering of substance use and sexual risk behaviour in adolescence: analysis of two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Haw, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points. Design Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study (‘earlier cohort’, surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study (‘later cohort’, surveyed 1999 and 2003). Setting Central Clydeside Conurbation around Glasgow City. Participants Young people who participated in the Twenty-07 and 11-16/16+ studies at ages 15 and 18–19. Primary and secondary outcomes measures The authors analysed data on risk behaviours in both early adolescence (started smoking prior to age 14, monthly drinking and ever used illicit drugs at age 15 and sexual intercourse prior to age 16) and late adolescence (age 18–19, current smoking, excessive drinking, ever used illicit drugs and multiple sexual partners) by gender and social class. Results Drinking, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour (but not smoking) increased between the earlier and later cohort, especially among girls. The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. Adjusted ORs for associations between each substance and sexual risk behaviour were around 2.00. The only significant between-cohort difference was a stronger association between female early adolescent smoking and early sexual initiation in the later cohort. Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort. Conclusions Despite changes in rates, relationships between adolescent risk behaviours remain strong, irrespective of gender and social class. This indicates a need for improved risk behaviour prevention in young people, perhaps through a

  9. Dilemmas in the Community Risk Management of Sexually Offensive Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, John; Clegg, Jennifer

    2002-01-01

    A study analyzed attribution statements of six community workers who provide risk management for men with mental retardation who sexually offend. Results highlight the effort participants made to obtain sufficient information. They focused on external factors for most effective risk management, but other staff undermined their confidence.…

  10. Sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. Methods A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Results Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. Conclusion The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change. PMID:26090007

  11. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4,311). Less than 10% of East Asian adolescents have ever had sexual intercourse. However, most of these sexually active adolescents have engaged in risky sexual behaviours, including multiple sexual partners and non-condom use at last intercourse. In particular, nearly half of sexually active girls reported not using a condom at last intercourse. Compared to immigrant students whose primary language at home was not English, immigrant and Canadian-born students speaking English at home were more likely to experience sexual intercourse. Among students who have never had sexual intercourse, two most common reasons for sexual abstinence were not feeling ready and waiting to meet the right person. Findings suggest the need for sexual health interventions tailored to gender and sociocultural contexts in which adolescents live. PMID:27087776

  12. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. Results The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. Conclusion There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended. PMID:25437631

  13. Sexual sensation seeking, sexual compulsivity, and high-risk sexual behaviours among gay/bisexual men in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Liu, Yong; Zheng, Yong

    2016-09-01

    High-risk sexual behaviours (HRSBs), such as having male casual sexual partners (MCSPs) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), are combined with a high prevalence of HIV infection among gay/bisexual men. Sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC), which are intrapersonal factors, were observed to have associations with HRSB among gay/bisexual men in Western nations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between SSS, SC, socio-demographic factors, and HRSB (defined as having MCSP and UAI with MCSP) among self-identified gay and bisexual men in Southwest China. The study was cross-sectional, with a sample of 436 respondents. And their mean age was 24.5 years. The results confirmed that SSS, SC, and sexual attitude are associated with both having MCSP and UAI with MCSP in the Chinese cultural context, among the subgroup of men who have sex with men. Being older, not a student, and having transactional sex in the last 6 months were independently associated with having MCSP. Lower educational level, unemployed, having a relationship with a man, and an unsure HIV status were independently associated with UAI with MCSP. This study indicates that SSS and SC are cross-cultural personality traits related to HRSB. The results of this study may shed light on HIV prevention among gay/bisexual men in China. PMID:26924809

  14. Risk-taking behaviour is more frequent in teenage girls with multiple sexual partners

    PubMed Central

    Kuortti, Marjo; Kosunen, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between sexual behaviour and risk-taking health behaviour among adolescent females in our changing sexual culture. Design A questionnaire study. Girls who had had multiple sexual partners (at least five in their lifetime or four during the last six months) were compared with those with fewer partners. Logistic regression was applied. Setting The Adolescent Clinic, a primary healthcare unit in the city of Tampere, Finland. Subjects A sample of 247 female clients aged 15–18 years who had experienced sexual intercourse. Main outcome measures Contraceptive practices, substance use, and sexual attitudes. Results Girls with multiple sexual partners (n = 69) and the reference group (n = 178) did not differ from each other significantly by age, age at menarche, or educational status. In univariate analysis, age at sexual debut, contraceptive practices, and various substance uses were strongly associated with having multiple sexual partners. Ever-use of emergency contraception was marginally associated, while ever-use of conventional hormonal contraception or condoms was not. In multivariate analysis, low age at sexual debut (OR 8.75 for age 11–13), omitting contraception at the most recent intercourse (OR 3.48), ever-use of withdrawal as a contraceptive method (OR 2.34), and repeated use of drugs (OR 4.10) were associated with having multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Different types of risk-taking behaviour are still interlinked. In discussions with adolescents showing one type of risk behaviour health service providers should make an effort to identify other modes of risk-taking. PMID:19221934

  15. Psychological Factors in Risk Assessment and Management of Inappropriate Sexual Behaviour by Men with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Mark; Willner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the responses of care managers and direct care staff to vignettes of inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) by a man with an intellectual disability. The aim was to identify psychological factors that influenced their assessment of risk and the perceived need for risk management strategies. Method: The vignettes varied in…

  16. Pre- to post-immigration sexual risk behaviour and alcohol use among recent Latino immigrants in Miami.

    PubMed

    Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, aged 18-34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model growth curve analysis, a six-level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. The mixed model growth curve was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest that individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and that those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at Time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at Time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at Time 1 - who seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women. PMID:27545840

  17. Migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV risk: a general population cohort in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Nuala; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Newell, Marie-Louise; Hosegood, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Increased sexual risk behaviour and HIV prevalence have been reported in migrants compared with non-migrants in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the association of residential and migration patterns with sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence in an open, general population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods In a mainly rural demographic surveillance area in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we collected longitudinal demographic, migration, sexual behaviour, and HIV status data through household surveillance twice per year and individual surveillance once per year. All resident household members and a sample of non-resident household members (stratified by sex and migration patterns) were eligible for participation. Participants reported sexual risk behaviours, including data for multiple, concurrent, and casual sexual partners and condom use, and gave a dried blood spot sample via fingerprick for HIV testing. We investigated population-level differences in sexual HIV risk behaviours and HIV prevalence with respect to migration indicators using logistic regression models. Findings Between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2011, the total eligible population at each surveillance round ranged between 21 129 and 22 726 women (aged 17–49 years) and between 20 399 and 22 100 men (aged 17–54 years). The number of eligible residents in any round ranged from 24 395 to 26 664 and the number of eligible non-residents ranged from 17 002 to 18 891 between rounds. The stratified sample of non-residents included between 2350 and 3366 individuals each year. Sexual risk behaviours were significantly more common in non-residents than in residents for both men and women. Estimated differences in sexual risk behaviours, but not HIV prevalence, varied between the migration indicators: recent migration, mobility, and migration type. HIV prevalence was significantly increased in current residents with a recent history of

  18. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behavior. Interventions in homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. Objectives To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, Medline, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Selection criteria Randomized studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behavior (biological, self-report sexual-risk behavior or health seeking behavior) in homeless youth (12–24 years). Data collection and analysis Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review and the reporting of self-report sexual risk behavior outcomes was highly variable across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. Results We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and

  19. Sexual HIV risk behaviour and associated factors among pregnant women in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV risk increases during pregnancy. The elevated risk of HIV acquisition in pregnant women may be explained by behavioural and other factors. The aim of this study was to assess sexual HIV risk behaviour and its associated factors among pregnant women in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1 502 pregnant women (age range 18–47 years, mean age 26.6 years, standard deviation (SD) 6.1, and the mean gestational age was 6.5 months (SD 1.6). Antenatal women were selected, using systematic sampling from 63 primary care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala District. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Results The majority (63%) of the participants had never used a condom with their primary sexual partner in the past 3 months, 60% were not aware of the HIV status of their sexual partner, 7.6% had a casual sexual partner in the past 3 months, 20% had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months and 17.3% reported to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (other than HIV) in the past 12 months. The various HIV risk behaviours were predicted, by being single and alcohol use for multiple sexual partners; by fewer antenatal visits, being HIV negative and not having used alcohol for lack of condom use; by being HIV positive, having experienced physical partner violence and psychological distress for having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (other than HIV); and by lower education, unplanned pregnancy, non-antenatal care attendance by expectant father, the belief that antiretrovirals can cure HIV and being HIV positive for having a partner with HIV positve or unknown status. Conclusion High levels of sexual HIV risk behaviour were found during pregnancy. Pregnant women need to be informed of their increased risk of HIV and the importance of sexual HIV risk reduction including the

  20. DEPRESSION AND SEXUAL RISK BEHAVIOURS AMONG PEOPLE WHO INJECT DRUGS: A GENDER-BASED ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Pettes, Tyler; Kerr, Thomas; Voon, Pauline; Nguyen, Paul; Wood, Evan; Hayashi, Kanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many people who inject drugs (PID) contend with comorbidities, including high rates of mental illness, limited attention has been given to the differences in comorbidities among men and women or the potential links between psychiatric disorders and HIV risk behaviours. We sought to longitudinally examine associations between depression and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among PID, stratified by gender. Methods Data were derived from a prospective cohort of PID in Vancouver, Canada between December 2005 and November 2009. Using generalised estimating equations, we examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and two types of sexual HIV risk behaviours: engaging in unprotected sex; and having multiple sexual partners. All analyses were stratified by self-reported gender. Results Overall, 1017 PID participated in this study, including 331 (32.5%) women. At baseline, women reported significantly higher depressive symptoms than men (P < 0.001). In multivariate generalised estimating equations analyses, after adjustment for potential social, demographic and behavioural confounders, more severe depressive symptomology remained independently associated with engaging in unprotected sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18 – 2.23] and having multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09 – 2.19) among women, but was only marginally associated with having multiple sexual partners among men (AOR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.98 – 1.41). Conclusions These findings call for improved integration of psychiatric screening and treatment services within existing public health initiatives designed for PID, particularly for women. Efforts are also needed to address sexual risk-taking among female PID contending with clinically significant depression. PMID:25982173

  1. South Africa youths' higher-risk sexual behaviour: an eco-developmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Makiwane, Monde; Mokomane, Zitha

    2010-04-01

    Despite their high levels of knowledge about HIV and AIDS, young people ages 15-24 years in South Africa remain disproportionately affected by the epidemic. Young people's continued susceptibility to HIV infection has been consistently linked to intractable higher-risk sexual behaviours. This paper uses multivariate techniques and secondary data from two nationally representative surveys to illuminate individual and socio-structural factors that play a significant role in youths' continued engagement in higher-risk behaviour, despite their high awareness about HIV and AIDS. The findings show that notwithstanding progress in terms of increased condom use and reduced incidence of other sexually transmitted infections, the average age of sexual debut remains low, multiple sexual partnerships are prevalent, and inconsistent condom use is widespread among young people. Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among youths by promoting affirmative, supportive interventions that emphasize the potentials of young people. PMID:25860409

  2. Physical and sexual violence, childhood sexual abuse and HIV/STI risk behaviour among alcohol-using women engaged in sex work in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Parcesepe, Angela M; Toivgoo, Aira; Chang, Mingway; Riedel, Marion; Carlson, Catherine; DiBennardo, Rebecca; Witte, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mongolia is low, it could increase without strategic prevention strategies. Female sex workers (FSWs) often experience barriers to prevention, including interpersonal violence. This study investigated if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or recent physical or sexual violence was associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours and if CSA modified associations between recent violence and HIV sexual risk behaviours. Two-hundred twenty-two women who (1) were at least 18 years old and clients at the National AIDS Foundation; (2) reported vaginal or anal sex in the past 90 days in exchange for money or goods and (3) met criteria for harmful alcohol use in the past year were enrolled. In-person interviews assessed sexual risk behaviours and violence in childhood and adulthood. Negative binomial regression, ordinary least squares regression and modified Poisson regression were performed. Sexual risk with paying partners was associated with penetrative CSA and sexual violence by paying partners. CSA and recent violence were not associated with sexual risk behaviours with intimate partners. CSA modified the association between recent sexual violence and unprotected sex with intimate partners. Findings highlight the need for integrated violence and sexual risk reduction services to ensure safe and effective prevention for FSWs. PMID:25383593

  3. Physical and sexual violence, childhood sexual abuse and HIV/STI risk behaviour among alcohol-using women engaged in sex work in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Parcesepe, Angela M.; Toivgoo, Aira; Chang, Mingway; Riedel, Marion; Carlson, Catherine; DiBennardo, Rebecca; Witte, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although low, HIV prevalence in Mongolia could increase without strategic prevention strategies. Female sex workers (FSWs) often experience barriers to prevention, including interpersonal violence. This study investigated if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or recent physical or sexual violence was associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours and if CSA modified associations between recent violence and HIV sexual risk behaviours. Methods Two-hundred twenty-two women who: (1) were at least 18 years old and clients at the National AIDS Foundation; (2) reported vaginal or anal sex in the past 90 days in exchange for money or goods; and (3) met criteria for harmful alcohol use in the past year were enrolled. In-person interviews assessed sexual risk behaviours and violence in childhood and adulthood. Negative binomial regression, ordinary least squares regression, and modified Poisson regression were performed. Results Sexual risk with paying partners was associated with penetrative CSA and sexual violence by paying partners. CSA and recent violence were not associated with sexual risk behaviours with intimate partners. CSA modified the association between recent sexual violence and unprotected sex with intimate partners. Conclusion Findings highlight the need for integrated violence and sexual risk reduction services to ensure safe and effective prevention for FSWs. PMID:25383593

  4. Sexual risk and HIV prevention behaviours among African-American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This study explores the feasibility of recruiting minority men who have sex with men Facebook users for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention studies and notes demographic and sexual risk behaviours. Facebook-registered men who have sex with men (MSM; N = 118) were recruited using online and offline methods. Participants validated Facebook-user status through using a Facebook Connect (computer science) application. Participants were primarily Latino (60.2%) and African-American (28.0%), with 33.1% using social media to find sex partners. Black MSM social networking users reported engaging in a lower frequency (coefficient = -0.48, p < 0.05) of unprotected receptive anal intercourse compared to Latino MSM. Results suggest that minority social media users can be recruited for HIV studies and that sexual risk behavioural differences exist among minority social networking users. Findings highlight the importance of incorporating technologies into population-focused HIV interventions. PMID:23970575

  5. Sexual and Alcohol Risk Behaviours of Immigrant Latino Men in the South-eastern USA

    PubMed Central

    RHODES, SCOTT D.; HERGENRATHER, KENNETH C.; GRIFFITH, DEREK; YEE, LELAND J.; ZOMETA, CARLOS S.; MONTAÑO, JAIME; VISSMAN, ARRON T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the intersections of immigration, masculinity, and sexual risk behaviours among recently arrived Latino men in the United States (USA). Nine immigrant Latino men from three urban housing communities in the South-eastern USA used photovoice to identify and explore their lived experiences. From the participants’ photographs and words, thirteen themes emerged within four domains. The immigration experience and sociocultural norms and expectations of masculinity were factors identified decreasing Latino men’s sense of power and increasing stress, which lead to sexual risk. Latino community strengths and general community strengths were factors that participants identified as promoting health and preventing risk. These themes influenced the development of a conceptual model to explain risk among immigrant Latino men. This model requires further exploration and may prove useful in intervention development. PMID:19234948

  6. Focus-on-Teens, sexual risk-reduction intervention for high-school adolescents: impact on knowledge, change of risk-behaviours, and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B

    2016-01-01

    Summary A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n = 1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards ‘safer’ sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (P < 0.05). Proportion of students with complete correct knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (P < 0.05). High prevalence of STDs was detected in 875 participants who reported for urine testing at time 1: trichomonas, 11.8%; chlamydia, 10.1% and gonorrhoea, 4.1%. Prevalence decreased significantly for 310 participants who re-tested; chlamydia: 27.4% to 6.1% and gonorrhoea: 11.3% to 3.2%. FOT was successfully implemented as an STDs/HIV risk-reduction intervention. Sustained improvements of knowledge about STDs/HIV/condom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:18824625

  7. Risk perceptions of STIs/HIV and sexual risk behaviours among sexually experienced adolescents in the Northern part of Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young people in Laos are more vulnerable to STIs/HIV due to their sexual risk behaviours, low perceptions of risk and their socio-cultural environments. Perceived risk of contracting STIs/HIV is crucial for the assessment of their risk regarding their actual sexual risk behaviors. Thus, the objective of this paper is to explore perceptions of risk related to STIs/HIV and identify factors associated with this perceived risk among adolescents. Methods This was a cross sectional study of sexually experienced adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old in the Luangnamtha province. The multistage sampling techniques were used for selecting 1008 adolescents aged 14-19 years old. Of these, 483 respondents reported having had sexual experience was selected for analysis. Univariate and Logistic regression were performed. Result Six per cent of respondents reported ever having had anal sex. Slightly less than two thirds initiated their first sexual intercourse before age 15. Two thirds of the sexually experienced males reported two or more sexual partners during their lifetime with the mean 3.1 + 3.65 while only twelve per cent of girls reported this cumulative number of partners. Slightly more than half (57.6%) regarded themselves to have no risk at all with 17.2 per cent considered themselves to have low risk. Respondents had poor knowledge on STIs/HIV. Factors associated with risk perception of getting STIs were: being male, high level of knowledge about STIs and having had symptoms of STIs in last six months. Perceived risk of getting HIV was significantly associated with being male, having more knowledge about STIs and HIV. Conclusion Adolescents in this study engaged in sexual risk behaviours, but they have low perception of risk getting STI/HIV. Socio-demographic factors, knowledge of STIs/HIV, and the level of exposure to STIs were the main determinants of the risk perception of STIs/HIV. Our finding supports the need to target adolescents in Luangnamtha

  8. Social determinants of syphilis in South China: the effect of sibling position on syphilis and sexual risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Young, Darwin; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Adimora, Adaora A

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China. Design A cross-sectional study examining sexual behaviours and syphilis infection. Setting 4 STI clinics in the Pearl River Delta of South China. Participants 1792 Chinese men and women attending STI clinics. Primary outcome measures STI history, syphilis infection defined as positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Results Among all clinic patients, 824 (46.3%) were first-born, 354 (19.9%) were middle-born and 602 (33.8%) were final-born. Middle-born individuals had a higher percentage of reported STI history (44.7% compared to 34.7%, p<0.001) and syphilis infection (9.7% compared to 4.9%, p=0.01) among men (n=1163) compared to other sibling positions in bivariate analyses, but not in the final multivariate model. The relationship between sibling position and syphilis was independent of income and education level. There was no trend observed between middle-born position and female sexual risk behaviours (n=626). Higher education was significantly associated with syphilis among women and men in respective multivariate models. Conclusions This study suggests that middle-born men in China may have an increased sexual risk compared to other sibling positions. As Chinese family and social structures change, a more thorough understanding of how demographic factors influence sexual risk behaviours is needed. PMID:23793689

  9. Coevolution of risk perception, sexual behaviour, and HIV transmission in an agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Tully, Stephen; Cojocaru, Monica; Bauch, Chris T

    2013-11-21

    Risk perception shapes individual behaviour, and is in turn shaped by the consequences of that behaviour. Here we explore this dynamics in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. We construct a simplified agent-based model based on a partner selection game, where individuals are paired with others in the population, and through a decision tree, agree on unprotected sex, protected sex, or no sex. An individual's choice is conditioned on their HIV status, their perceived population-level HIV prevalence, and the preferences expressed by the individual with whom they are paired. HIV is transmitted during unprotected sex with a certain probability. As expected, in model simulations, the perceived population-level HIV prevalence climbs along with actual HIV prevalence. During this time, HIV- individuals increasingly switch from unprotected sex to protected sex, HIV+ individuals continue practicing unprotected sex whenever possible, and unprotected sex between HIV+ and HIV- individuals eventually becomes rare. We also find that the perceived population-level HIV prevalence diverges according to HIV status: HIV- individuals develop a higher perceived HIV prevalence than HIV+ individuals, although this result is sensitive to how much information is derived from global versus local sources. This research illustrates a potential mechanism by which distinct groups, as defined by their sexual behaviour, HIV status, and risk perceptions, can emerge through coevolution of HIV transmission and risk perception dynamics. PMID:23988796

  10. Experiences of homonegativity and sexual risk behaviour in a sample of Latino gay and bisexual men

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Nadine; Zea, Maria Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between homonegativity, racism, and poverty on HIV risk related behaviour with an internet-based sample of 226 Latino gay and bisexual men. Participants had a median level of education at “graduate school level or higher” and a median monthly income in the $1600–$2400 range. Income and education in this sample are higher than participants in most other studies of Latino gay and bisexual men, providing information about HIV risk in a previously understudied segment of the population. Three negative binomial regressions were employed to predict unprotected receptive anal intercourse, unprotected insertive anal intercourse and unprotected sex under the influence of drugs in the past 30 days, with education, Latino acculturation, income, experiences of racism, and homonegativity as predictors. Greater experiences of homonegativity, fewer experiences of racism, lower income, and higher Latino acculturation predicted unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Only lower Latino acculturation predicted unprotected insertive anal intercourse. Greater experiences of homonegativity, higher income, and higher Latino acculturation predicted unprotected sex under the influence of drugs. This suggests that experiences of homonegativity have a detrimental impact on health behaviours. Future research should aim to further understand the relationship between experiencing homonegativity and engaging in risky sexual behaviour. PMID:19637067

  11. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Siu, Godfrey E; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    Regular male partners of female sex workers (FSWs) represent an important population to reach with HIV-prevention interventions. This paper discusses the relationship dynamics and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour of men involved with self-identified FSWs in Kampala. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 42 male partners of FSWs attending a clinic for women at high risk of HIV-infection in Kampala. Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that "being a man" demanded since they could not monitor all movements of their partners. Dealing with HIV disclosure was hard and seeking support was difficult for some of the men, leading to missed opportunities and guilt. Despite challenges, relationships with sex workers offered men some benefits such as access to much needed care and treatment. A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings suggest that effective interventions that are couple centred can be established to promote better health. PMID:27399044

  12. Enacted Stigma and HIV Risk Behaviours among Sexual Minority Indigenous Youth in Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth; Clark, Terryann; Barney, Lucy; Brunanski, Dana; Homma, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Enacted stigma has been linked to increased HIV risk behaviours among sexual minority youth, but despite higher rates of HIV and other STIs, there is very little research with Indigenous youth. In this study, secondary analyses of three population-based, school surveys were conducted to explore the associations between HIV risk and enacted stigma among sexual minority Indigenous youth in Canada, the US, and New Zealand. Data were analyzed and interpreted with guidance from Indigenous and sexual minority research team members, Indigenous advisory groups, and community consultations. In all three countries, Indigenous sexual minority youth were more likely to experience enacted stigma (such as bullying, discrimination, exclusion, harassment, or school-based violence) and report increased HIV risk behaviours (such as lack of condom use, multiple sexual partners, pregnancy involvement, and injection drug use) compared to heterosexual peers. Data were analyzed by age, gender, and sexual orientation, and for some groups, higher levels of enacted stigma was associated with higher HIV risk. The findings highlight the need for more research, including identifying protective factors, and developing interventions that focus on promoting resilience, addressing the levels of stigma and homophobic violence in school, and restoring historical traditions of positive status for Indigenous sexual minority people. PMID:26793243

  13. Sexual risk behaviour among Surinamese and Antillean migrants travelling to their countries of origin

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, M; van den Hoek, A; Coutinho, R; Prins, M

    2005-01-01

    Methods: People originating from Surinam (n = 798) and the Netherlands Antilles (n = 227) were recruited in order to study the heterosexual spread of HIV within ethnic groups. Log binomial regression was used to study determinants for homeland travel over the past 5 years; logistic regression was used to study determinants of unprotected sex on these visits. Results: Of the migrants, 38% of men and 42% of women visited their homeland. Visits were most likely among men who had lived ⩾7 years in the Netherlands, were employed, had a high educational level and were/had been married. For women, visiting was associated with older age and living in the Netherlands for ⩾8 years. Of migrants visiting their homeland, 47% of men and 11% of women acquired a local sexual partner. For male travellers, Surinamese origin (adjusted OR 10.66; 95% CI 1.72 to 104.48) and a history of ⩾1 sexually transmitted infection (STI) (adjusted OR 12.51; 95% CI 3.75 to 46.95) were associated with having unprotected sex with local partners. For women, having >1 partner in the past 5 years (OR 13.57; 95% CI 2.57 to 250.28) was associated with unprotected sex with local partners. Conclusion: Migrants are at substantial risk for HIV and STIs while visiting their homeland. It is important to reach migrants, who are likely to engage in unprotected sex during visits, for pretravel health education. Additional research on risk behaviour in the homeland and the Netherlands is needed to identify migrants with high risk behaviour. PMID:16326856

  14. (De)Constructing the Risk Categories in the Aim Assessment Model for Children with Sexually Harmful Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article critically analyses the AIM Assessment Model for children who have sexually harmful behaviour, exploring the underpinning knowledge and the processes involved. The model reflects current trends in the assessment of children, in child welfare and criminal justice services, producing categories of risk that lead to levels of…

  15. The theory of planned behaviour as a framework for predicting sexual risk behaviour in sub-Saharan African youth: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Protogerou, Cleo; Flisher, Alan J; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mathews, Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Amongst the psychological theories that have been used to help understand why people have unprotected sex, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB: Ajzen 1991) has earned a prominent position. This article is a critical review of 11 peer-reviewed studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa during 2001 to 2009, which used the TPB as a model of predicting sexual risk behaviour in young people. All the studies revealed the predictive ability of the TPB in urban, rural, and traditional African settings, with R (2) coefficients ranging between 0.14 and 0.67. With data comparing favourably to those obtained in the international literature, these studies indicate that the TPB can be used to study sexual risk intentions and behaviour in sub-Saharan African youth, and question arguments against the theory's use in non-Western settings. PMID:25865835

  16. Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities at Risk of Sexual Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Background: For non-disabled men, group cognitive-behaviour therapy is a successful form of treatment when men have committed sexual offences. However, men with intellectual disabilities and sexually abusive behaviour are rarely offered treatment for their sexual behaviour and little research data on the effectiveness of such treatment has been…

  17. Sexual risk and HIV-testing behaviour by gay and bisexual men in Canada.

    PubMed

    Myers, T; Godin, G; Lambert, J; Calzavara, L; Locker, D

    1996-06-01

    Behavioural epidemiology is an important aspect of HIV research, particularly among marginalized populations where measurement of rates of infection have not been conducted. This Canadian study provides a country-wide analysis of the characteristics and behaviours of gay and bisexual men, and examines the influence of geographic, socio-demographic and lifestyle influences on sexual behaviour and test-seeking. A purposive sample of 4,803 men was recruited through gay-identified venues. In order to provide national representation seven sampling strata were defined. Data were collected by self-completed questionnaire. A three-level hierarchical logistic regression analysis is used to model two behaviours, unprotected anal intercourse and test-seeking. The results showed that, nationally, 22.9% of respondents reported at least one episode of unprotected anal intercourse in the previous 3 months, and 63% had been tested. Characteristics and behaviours of men varied across the country. Geographic differences appear to be less important in explaining unprotected anal intercourse than test-seeking. In conclusion, policy, programmes and social environment appear to exert an important influence on test-seeking, whereas cultural and psychosocial dimensions appear to have a greater influence on sexual behaviour. PMID:8827122

  18. Concurrent sexual and substance-use risk behaviours among female sex workers in Kenya's Coast Province: findings from a behavioural monitoring survey.

    PubMed

    Tegang, S P; Abdallah, S; Emukule, G; Luchters, S; Kingola, N; Baras, M; Mucheke, S; Mwarogo, P

    2010-12-01

    While many studies confirm the association between HIV, alcohol and injecting drug use by female sex workers (FSWs), little is known about their use of marijuana, khat and other substances and the association of these substances with HIV, risky sexual behaviour, and sexual violence. To better understand this association, data were analysed from a cross-sectional, behavioural survey of 297 FSWs in Mombasa, a well-known tourist destination and the second largest port in Africa and capital city of the Coast Province in Kenya. Among the FSWs, lifetime use of different substances was reported by 91% for alcohol, 71% for khat, 34% for marijuana, and 6% for heroin, cocaine, glue or petrol. The majority (79%) used more than one substance, and multiple-substance use was reported by all respondents who ever used marijuana, heroin, cocaine, glue and petrol. The risk of HIV acquisition was perceived as medium to high by 41% of respondents, 75% of whom attributed this risk to multiple partners. Sexual violence was reported by 48% of respondents, and 30% indicated that this happened several times. Despite HIV prevention programmes targeting FSWs in Mombasa, most of them continue to engage in risky sexual behaviours. This suggests that harm reduction strategies for substance use should be coupled with efforts to promote consistent condom use and partner reduction. PMID:21409306

  19. Sexual risk behaviour among people living with HIV according to the biomedical risk of transmission: results from the ANRS-VESPA2 survey

    PubMed Central

    Suzan-Monti, Marie; Lorente, Nicolas; Demoulin, Baptiste; Marcellin, Fabienne; Préau, Marie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction People living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with sustained undetectable viral load (sUVL) and no history of sexually transmitted infections for at least six months, are considered to have a low risk of HIV transmission (LRT). We aimed to characterize, in a representative sample of French PLHIV, the sexual behaviour of LRT PLHIV compared with non-LRT PLHIV. Methods The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. The LRT PLHIV group included participants with sUVL and no sexually transmitted infection for at least 12 months. Socio-behavioural and medical data were collected. Chi-square tests helped compare sexual risk indicators between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV. The survey's retrospective nature allowed us to perform complementary category-based analyses of LRT PLHIV according to whether they had sUVL for at least 18, 24 or 36 months in three socio-epidemiological groups: men who have sex with men (MSM), other men and women. Results Analysis included 2638 PLHIV diagnosed >12 months with available viral load data. The proportion of LRT PLHIV varied from 58% (≥12 months sUVL) to 38% (≥36 months sUVL). Irrespective of sUVL duration, we found the following: 1) LRT men (MSM and other men) were more likely to report having no sexual partner than their non-LRT counterparts. Among men having sexual partners in the previous 12 months, no significant difference was seen between LRT and non-LRT men in the number of sexual partners. LRT women were less likely to report having more than one sexual partner than non-LRT women; 2) LRT MSM were more likely to report being in sexually inactive couples than their non-LRT counterparts; 3) among sexually active participants, no difference was observed between LRT and non-LRT PLHIV concerning condom use with their serodiscordant steady partner or with their most recent casual sexual partners. Conclusions LRT PLHIV with sUVL ≥12 months did not

  20. HIV sexual transmission risks in the context of clinical care: a prospective study of behavioural correlates of HIV suppression in a community sample, Atlanta, GA, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Moira O; Washington, Christopher; Grebler, Tamar; Merely, Cindy; Welles, Brandi; Pellowski, Jennifer; Kegler, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the health of people living with HIV and has the potential to reduce HIV infectiousness, thereby preventing HIV transmission. However, the success of ART for HIV prevention hinges on sustained ART adherence and avoiding sexually transmitted infections (STI). Objectives To determine the sexual behaviours and HIV transmission risks of individuals with suppressed and unsuppressed HIV replication (i.e., viral load). Methods Assessed HIV sexual transmission risks among individuals with clinically determined suppressed and unsuppressed HIV. Participants were 760 men and 280 women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, USA, who completed behavioural assessments, 28-daily prospective sexual behaviour diaries, one-month prospective unannounced pill counts for ART adherence, urine screening for illicit drug use and medical record chart abstraction for HIV viral load. Results Individuals with unsuppressed HIV demonstrated a constellation of behavioural risks for transmitting HIV to uninfected sex partners that included symptoms of STI and substance use. In addition, 15% of participants with suppressed HIV had recent STI symptoms/diagnoses, indicating significant risks for sexual infectiousness despite their HIV suppression in blood plasma. Overall, 38% of participants were at risk for elevated sexual infectiousness and just as many engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse with non-HIV-infected partners. Conclusions Implementation strategies for using HIV treatments as HIV prevention requires enhanced behavioural interventions that extend beyond ART to address substance use and sexual health that will otherwise undermine the potential preventive impact of early ART. PMID:26249127

  1. Sexual risk behaviour and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Christine L.; Freedman, Mark; Fagan, Jennifer L.; Frazier, Emma L.; Beer, Linda; Huang, Ping; Valverde, Eduardo E.; Johnson, Christopher; Sanders, Catherine; McNaghten, A.D.; Sullivan, Patrick; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan; Heffelfinger, James; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence and association of sexual risk behaviours and viral suppression among HIV-infected adults in the United States. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of weighted data from a probability sample of HIV-infected adults receiving outpatient medical care. The facility and patient response rates were 76 and 51%, respectively. Methods: We analysed 2009 interview and medical record data. Sexual behaviours were self-reported in the past 12 months. Viral suppression was defined as all viral load measurements in the medical record during the past 12 months less than 200 copies/ml. Results: An estimated 98 022 (24%) HIV-infected adults engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex; 50 953 (12%) engaged in unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least one partner of negative or unknown HIV status; 23 933 (6%) did so while not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in vaginal or anal sex [prevalence ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82–0.93]; unprotected vaginal or anal sex (prevalence ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.73–0.98); and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a partner of negative or unknown HIV status (prevalence ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64–0.99). Conclusion: The majority of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the U.S. did not engage in sexual risk behaviours that have the potential to transmit HIV, and of the 12% who did, approximately half were not virally suppressed. Persons who were virally suppressed were less likely than persons who were not suppressed to engage in sexual risk behaviours. PMID:25000558

  2. Safe-sex belief and sexual risk behaviours among adolescents from three developing countries: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13–18. Results One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. Conclusions This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. PMID:25916489

  3. Attitudes and perceived impact of antiretroviral therapy on sexual risk behaviour among young people in Kahe, Moshi Rural District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, M J; Talle, A; Juma, J M; Mnyika, K S; Klepp, K-I

    2008-10-01

    Free antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been provided through the public health system in Tanzania since 2004. The success of national ART roll out programme is premised upon collaborative efforts of health systems, communities and policy environment. However, community perceptions of ART and its implications on sexual behaviours and HIV/AIDS prevention remain largely unknown. Drawing on focus group discussions with young people, this paper examines perception about ART and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy on risk sexual behaviour in rural Tanzania. Participants included a purposively selected sample of males and females aged 14-24 years. Results show that young people were both optimistic and concerned regarding availability of ART. Positive attitudes toward ART were associated with public health significance of therapy in managing opportunistic infections and extending lives of HIV infected persons. However, the positive outcomes of therapy were considered to be short lived, unsustainable and potentially threatening to the sexual health and wellbeing of HIV negative members in the community. ART was considered to empower infected persons to intentionally spread HIV to uninfected individuals in the community through deliberate unprotected sexual activities. The study highlights the significance of reinforcing HIV prevention while underscoring the need to provide appropriate information and increasing access to ART in rural areas of Tanzania. In conclusion, creating a therapy friendly atmosphere through information delivery is crucial in promoting social acceptability of antiretroviral therapy among youths. Efforts to improve access to antiretroviral drugs should re-emphasize prevention counselling to minimize sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:19402581

  4. Parental Communication and Youth Sexual Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; McLeroy, Ken

    2007-01-01

    The role of parental communication and instruction concerning sexual behaviour were studied in a community-based sample of 1083 youth aged 13-17 (mean age of 15 years; 51% girls, 49% White). The Youth Asset Survey was administered along with items measuring demographics and youth risk behaviours. After controlling for demographic factors,…

  5. Unsafe sexual behaviour in South African youth.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Liberty; Flisher, Alan J; Aarø, Leif E

    2003-01-01

    A growing body of evidence points to the complexity of sexual behaviour. HIV risk behaviour is influenced by factors at three levels: within the person, within the proximal context (interpersonal relationships and physical and organisational environment) and within the distal context (culture and structural factors). This paper presents the findings of a review of research on the factors promoting and perpetuating unsafe sexual behaviour in South African youth. Papers included in the review were dated between 1990 and 2000 and addressed sexual behaviour of youth between the ages of 14 and 35 years. Both published works and unpublished reports and dissertations/theses were included. The review concluded that at least 50% of young people are sexually active by the age of 16 years; the majority of school students who had ever experienced sexual intercourse reported at the most one partner in the previous year, with a persistent minority of between 1% and 5% of females and 10-25% of males having more than four partners per year; and between 50% and 60% of sexually active youth report never using condoms. In terms of explanations for unsafe sexual behaviour among South African youth, the findings illustrate the powerful impact of the proximal and distal contexts, and in particular, the pervasive effect of poverty and social norms that perpetuate women's subordination within sexual relationships. Personal factors and the proximal and distal contexts interact to encourage HIV risk behaviour in ways that are not fully captured by social-cognitive models. The findings will be of interest to researchers and practitioners in the fields of adolescent sexual behaviour and HIV prevention in developing countries. PMID:12435558

  6. Sexual Behaviour of Men and Women within Age-Disparate Partnerships in South Africa: Implications for Young Women's HIV Risk

    PubMed Central

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Evans, Meredith; George, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-disparate partnerships are hypothesized to increase HIV-risk for young women. However, the evidence base remains mixed. Most studies have focused only on unprotected sex among women in the partnership. Consequently, little is known about other risky behaviours, such as transactional sex, alcohol use, and concurrency, as well as the behaviours of the men who partner with young women. We therefore examined differences in various sexual behaviours of both young women and their male partners by partnership age difference. Methods We used nationally representative data from South Africa (2012) on partnerships reported by 16–24 year old black African women (n = 818) and by black African men in partnerships with 16–24 year old women (n = 985). We compared sexual behaviours in age-disparate partnerships and age-similar partnerships, using multiple logistic regression to control for potential confounders and to assess rural/urban differences. Results Young women in age-disparate partnerships were more likely to report unprotected sex than young women in similar-aged partnerships (aOR:1.51; p = 0.014; 95%CI:1.09–2.11). Men in partnerships with young women were more likely to report unprotected sex (aOR:1.92; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.31–2.81), transactional sex (aOR:2.73; p<0.01; 95%CI:1.64–4.56), drinking alcohol before sex (aOR:1.60; p = 0.062; 95%CI:0.98–2.61), and concurrency (aOR:1.39; p = 0.097; 95%CI:0.94–2.07) when their partners were five or more years younger. The association between age-disparate partnerships and transactional sex (aOR:4.14; p<0.01; 95%CI: 2.03–8.46) and alcohol use (aOR:2.24; p<0.013; 95%CI:1.20–4.19) was only found in urban areas. Conclusions Results provide evidence that young women’s age-disparate partnerships involve greater sexual risk, particularly through the risky behaviours of their male partners, with the risk amplified for young women in urban areas. PMID:27526116

  7. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001) and condomless sex with sex workers (OR = 1.33, p < 0.001), while general friendship network ties reduce such risks (OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; OR = 0.84, p < 0.01) even after controlling for demographic background, housing conditions, length of stay, health beliefs and behaviours, and spousal companionship. Our findings suggest that native-place networks among Chinese male rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ. PMID:26582759

  8. Prospective Dynamic Assessment of Risk of Sexual Reoffending in Individuals with an Intellectual Disability and a History of Sexual Offending Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofthouse, Rachael E.; Lindsay, William R.; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Boer, Douglas P.; Haaven, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to add to the literature on the predictive accuracy of a dynamic intellectual disability specific risk assessment tool. Method: A dynamic risk assessment for sexual reoffending (ARMIDILO-S), a static risk assessment for sexual offending (STATIC-99), and a static risk assessment for violence…

  9. The social dynamics of selling sex in Mombasa, Kenya: a qualitative study contextualizing high risk sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hampanda, Karen M

    2013-06-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa have one of the highest HIV seroprevelance rates of any population. Effective safe sex interventions are urgently needed to stop the transmission of HIV during commercial sex. Despite widespread education, counselling, and condom distribution interventions among FSWs, unprotected sexual intercourse remains a large behavioural challenge. Research on this topic has been limited primarily to establishing the frequency of high risk sexual behaviour without a comprehensive analysis of the social environment creating these factors, especially gender inequality. Through qualitative indepth interviews and focus group discussions with FSWs, this article contextualizes the selling of sex in one large urban city of Kenya. The results of this study indicate that FSWs will never be able to enforce safe sex among male clients in such settings without structural interventions that address gendered socioeconomic power imbalances. Policy implications based on these findings include re-evaluating laws against the selling of sex and prioritizing female education and economic opportunities. PMID:24069759

  10. Sexual risk behaviour among migrant tribals living in urban slums of an eastern Indian city: implications on the spread of HIV.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Suchismita; Swain, Basanta Kumar; Babu, Bontha Veerraju

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports the sexual risk behaviour among migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city. The age at marriage is very low in this community and 54% of women had first intercourse before the age of 15 years with the mean of 15.8 years and it is 19.5 years for men. Pre and extramarital relations, including multi-partnered sex is prevalent. Safe sexual practices are not reported and the risk perception is very low. High prevalence of behavioral risk factors leaves a potential risk for rapid spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) both in slums as well as in remote tribal areas. PMID:18494181

  11. Decrease in sexual risk behaviours after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a 24-month prospective study in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; N'takpe, Jean-Baptiste; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Badjé, Anani; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. Methods We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136). Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0) to 12-month (M12) and 24-month (M24) visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART) or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART). Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1) sexual activity in the past year, 2) multiple partnership in the past year, 3) unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4) risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status) at last intercourse. Results Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm3). Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57–0.92), multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.79), unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47–0.75) and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.76). Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. Conclusions In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry into HIV

  12. Gym exercising patterns, lifestyle and high-risk sexual behaviour in men who have sex with men and in heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Z; Parfionov, K; Davidovitch, N; Grotto, I

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle may be associated with risk behaviours. This study compares gym exercise and sexual risk behaviour between men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men. The research was based on the assumption that men who become muscular and physically attractive increase their number of sex partners and consequently their risk of HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Setting Five gyms in central Tel Aviv, Israel. Participants In 2012, a sample of 182 (48%) MSM and 197 (52%) heterosexual men who train in gyms completed anonymous questionnaires regarding their training, health and sexual behaviours. Outcomes Participants in this cross-sectional study who exercised more than the median number of anaerobic training hours were defined as performing intensive anaerobic training (IAT), and those who had performed more than one act of unprotected anal/vaginal intercourse in the preceding 6 months with a partner whose HIV status was unknown were defined as high risk. Results MSM showed a stronger desire to become muscular than heterosexual men, were more likely to perform IAT, and used protein powders or anabolic steroids. They reported that improving their body shape and increasing their self-confidence were their main reasons for training, whereas heterosexual men indicated weight loss and health improvement as the main reasons for training. MSM engaged in riskier sexual behaviour than heterosexual men. Of all the high-risk men, 61.9% (N=70) performed IAT, while 38.1% (N=43) performed moderate anaerobic training (p<0.01). The association between IAT and sexual risk was stronger in MSM than in heterosexual men (p<0.01 vs p=0.05, respectively). The interaction between MSM and IAT in high-risk participants was multiplicative. Conclusions MSM practised more IAT than heterosexual men, and their interaction between IAT and sexual risk was multiplicative. The MSM community could benefit from a holistic approach to sexual health and its association

  13. Sexual risk behaviours and barriers to HIV testing among clients of female sex workers in Guatemala: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lahuerta, Maria; Torrens, Míriam; Sabidó, Meritxell; Batres, Anabella; Casabona, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Few interventions have targeted clients of female sex workers in Central America, despite their potential role in HIV/STI prevention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 clients of female sex workers on attitudes towards prevention of HIV/STIs, barriers to condom use and behaviour towards HIV/STI testing and treatment in Escuintla, Guatemala. Despite high knowledge of condoms as an HIV/STI preventive measure, the decision to use them was often based on the client's social judgment of the woman's sexual conduct. Regular clients reported lower condom use. Clients' risk perception diminished with the awareness of the public HIV/STI clinic addressed to female sex workers. Most preferred private clinics to increase confidentiality and were reluctant to take the HIV test for fear of a positive result. Outreach programmes offering HIV/STI counselling and testing to clients of female sex workers could increase their test uptake and health-seeking behaviour and reduce potential transmission to the general population. PMID:23627770

  14. The Fallacy of Intimacy: Sexual Risk Behaviour and Beliefs about Trust and Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Justin; Yi, Huso; Reddy, Vasu; Maimane, Senkhu; Sandfort, Theo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess (1) whether beliefs about trust and condom use affect sexual risk behaviour, and (2) if beliefs about trust and condom use impact sexual risk behaviour directly or if this relationship is mediated by other determinants. The Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills model was used as a framework for the mediation analysis. A diverse cohort of three hundred 18–40 year old men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in Pretoria, South Africa, were recruited and surveyed for this project. Findings indicate that men who report a high frequency of past unprotected anal intercourse are more likely to believe that it is not necessary to use condoms with a trusted or steady partner regardless of their current partnership status. This fallacy of intimacy appears to affect sexual risk behaviour through intentions and attitudes regarding safer sex practices. Based on these findings, we recommend that more attention be given to gaining a better understanding of how beliefs about trust and condom use are formed and how they can be changed among MSM in South Africa. PMID:21154019

  15. Patterns of risk behaviour for patients with sexually transmitted diseases and surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lye, M S; Archibald, C; Ghazali, A A; Low, B T; Teoh, B H; Sinniah, M; Rus, S C; Singh, J; Nair, R C

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a sentinel human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system involving patients with sexually transmitted diseases attending private clinics and a government sexually transmitted disease clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Information on risk behaviours for HIV infection were also collected. A total of 84 female and 91 male patients were interviewed and tested for HIV infection; 41.7% of the women reported working as prostitutes, other occupations included masseuses, hairdressers, waitresses, salesgirls, receptionists, factory workers, and others. The most common diagnosis was gonorrhoea. Other diagnoses included non-specific genital infection, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital herpes and syphilis. 58.3% of the women had a hundred or more sex partners during the previous month; 99% had 6 or more sex partners. Only 4.8% of female patients had their male partners using condoms most of the time, 11.9% hardly used condoms at all. Of the males, 93.3% were heterosexual, while 6.7% were bisexuals, 41.1% had between 6-20 different partners in the previous year. 78.0% of them had prostitutes as their sex partners most of the time. 41.8% had experiences in Thailand and the Philippines. 73.6% never used condoms, while 19.8% only used condoms rarely. Although all patients were tested negative for HIV antibodies, lot quality assurance sampling methods indicate that the upper limits of prevalences for females and males were 3.5% and 3.3% respectively, at a 5% type I error. The study has shown that it is feasible to carry out a sentinel surveillance programme among STD patients and provided useful baseline data for future comparisons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8031914

  16. Exposure to Pornographic Videos and Its Effect on HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviours among Male Migrant Workers in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007–08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. Results Two-fifths (40%) of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25–29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7–4.8) and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7–4.7), report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7–3.0) and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5–1.8) than their counterparts. Conclusions The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours. PMID:25423311

  17. NEUROSIS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN MEN

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Agarwal, A.K.; Trivedi, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Relationship of neurosis and sexual behaviour has been a matter of dispute till date. In the present study sexual behaviour of 40 married neurotics and 22 matched healthy control males was studied. Sexual behaviour of neurotics was similar to control subjects before the commencement of neurotic illness. But after the onset of the neurotic illness subjects showed significant decrease in frequency of coitus, sexual satisfaction and sexual adequacy in comparison to their pre illness behaviour as well as from healthy controls. PMID:21847285

  18. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia – a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence

  19. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support. PMID:25589438

  20. A multilevel analysis of the determinants of high-risk sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Uchudi, Joseph; Magadi, Monica; Mostazir, Mohammod

    2012-05-01

    A number of authors have identified multiple concurrent sexual partnerships by both men and women to lie at the root of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applies multilevel models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003-2008 in 20 sub-Saharan African countries to examine the influence of social and cultural context on involvement with multiple sexual partnerships in the region, above and beyond the effects of individual characteristics. The findings provide support for the ecological argument that health behaviours are shaped and determined by societal conditions, in addition to the effects of individual and household characteristics. Involvement with multiple sex partners is most prevalent in societies in which sexual norms are widely permissive and where polygyny is common. Individual autonomy is substantial and attitudes towards sexuality are more liberal among men and women who live in communities in which sexual norms are widely permissive. Men and women who are most likely to have multiple sex partners in the sub-Saharan region are those who initiated sexual activity earlier and those who have the individual attributes (e.g. young age, urban residence, education, media exposure and working for cash and away from home) that bring to them more rights and/or decision-making autonomy, but not necessarily more financial resources and economic security (mostly among women). On the other hand, involvement with multiple partners is determined by cultural norms (i.e. permissive sexual norms) and social change (i.e. mass education, expansion of cash employment). The findings suggest a number of opportunities for more effective policy and programmatic responses to curb the prevalence of multiple partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22067066

  1. Decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among trucking company workers in Kenya: results of a behavioural risk-reduction programme.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D J; Rakwar, J P; Richardson, B A; Mandaliya, K; Chohan, B H; Bwayo, J J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Martin, H L; Moses, S; Kreiss, J K

    1997-06-01

    556 male HIV-seronegative male employees of trucking companies in Mombasa, Kenya, were exposed to HIV serological testing, individual counseling, condom promotion, and sexually transmitted disease (STD) diagnosis and management, and returned for at least one follow-up visit in a prospective study to measure changes in sexual behavior and STD incidence after the intervention. There was a significant decrease in sex with high-risk partners over the 1-year period of follow-up, but no change in condom use among study participants; 30% of men reported consistent condom use during extramarital sex throughout the study period. The change in heterosexual risk behavior was accompanied by a significant decrease in the incidence of gonorrhea, nongonococcal urethritis, and genital ulcer disease. The percentage of men reporting extramarital sex decreased from 49% to 36%, while contact with female prostitutes declined from 12% to 6%. PMID:9189216

  2. Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Berthiller, Julien; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Winn, Deborah M; Smith, Elaine M; Shan'gina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Purdue, Mark P; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael D; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl T; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernández, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsagué, Xavier; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case–control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral–anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8). Conclusions Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection. PMID:20022926

  3. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. PMID:23395507

  4. Anticipated changes in sexual risk behaviour following vaccination with a low-efficacy HIV vaccine: survey results from a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, K M; Vardas, E; Niccolai, L M; Van Niekerk, R M; Mogale, M M; Holdsworth, I M; Bogoshi, M; McIntyre, J A; Gray, G E

    2013-01-01

    Summary We assessed the potential for anticipated changes in sexual risk-taking behaviour following hypothetical administration of a low-efficacy preventive HIV vaccine. We developed a survey and collected self-reported data from 158 HIV-negative volunteers in a cohort undergoing prescreening for Phase I/II HIV vaccine trials in Soweto. Overall, 22% reported they might use condoms less frequently; 9% reported that they might increase their frequency of sex with casual/anonymous partners; and 55% reported their sexual partners might want to use condoms less frequently knowing they were vaccinated. Multivariate analyses revealed that anticipated decrease in condom use was predicted by poor comprehension and by young age. Individuals may increase their risk-taking behaviour knowing that a vaccine would provide only incomplete protection against HIV transmission. In HIV vaccine trials and future vaccination programmes, education and risk-reduction counselling will be needed for vaccinated individuals and their partners, and mass media education campaigns may be necessary. PMID:23104749

  5. Effect of emergency oral contraceptive use on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among university students, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years are both the most at risk of HIV and the greatest hope for turning the tide against HIV/AIDS. Although various surveys have been done on sexual behaviour of youth in Ethiopia, studies assessing the effect of emergency oral contraceptives on condom utilization of university students are lacking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in two major universities of Ethiopia from January to May 2011 using structured self administered questionnaire with the aim to assess the effect of introducing oral emergency contraceptive pills on condom utilization and sexual risk taking behaviours among female university students. Study participants were selected by simple random sampling using the list from the associate registrars of each University. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with condom utilization. Results a total of 623 students out of 660 were included giving response rate of 94.4%. A total of 103(16.5%) had history of sexual intercourse and nearly half (45.6%) of them had sex before the age of 20 years. Forty (6.4%) students had history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Sixty seven percent of students had heard about emergency oral contraceptives. One hundred and ninety one (45.7%) of students believe that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy. Believing that EOC is effective in preventing pregnancy (adjusted Odds ratio, AOR = 0.22 95% CI 0.06, 0.87), condom prevents STI (AOR = 10.37, 95% CI 1.73, 62.24) and younger age below 20 years (AOR = 11.68 95% CI 1.25, 109.19) were statistically significantly associated with condom use. Conclusion a significant number of students had history of sexual intercourse and used emergency contraception. The belief in the effectiveness of EOC negatively affects condom use. The preference for the pill may make

  6. Social and psychosocial factors associated with high-risk sexual behaviour among university students in the United Kingdom: a web-survey.

    PubMed

    Chanakira, E; Goyder, E C; Freeman, J V; O'Cathain, A; Kinghorn, G; Jakubovic, M

    2015-05-01

    In the UK there are limited data about university students' risky sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional web-survey was conducted to investigate factors associated with high-risk sex among students at two UK universities. High-risk sex was reported by 25% of 1108. High personal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk perception and permissive attitudes towards casual sex were associated with high-risk sex for both men (odds ratio [OR]: 12.12; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.10-35.81; OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.11-5.56, respectively) and women (OR: 22.31; 95% CI: 9.34-53.26; OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.82-5.01, respectively). For men, drinking alcohol (OR: 17.67; 95% CI: 1.90-164.23) and for women age and frequent drinking (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.05-3.89; OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.08-3.31, respectively) were associated with high-risk sex. However, perceiving an average student as more likely to contract STIs (men, OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16-0.75) or HIV (men, OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.20-0.96; women, OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28-0.63) and finding it difficult to discuss sexual matters (women, OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39-0.91) were negatively associated with high-risk sex. Most of the factors found were similar to other populations, but some psychosocial factors showed complex patterns of association that require further investigation. PMID:24912538

  7. Parental Non-verbal Sexual Communication: Its Relationship to Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Guilt.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H; Franca-Koh, A C

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One hundred and thirty-seven young adults completed questionnaires measuring remembered parental non-verbal sexual communication, current sexual behaviour and sexual guilt. Higher levels of parental non-verbal sexual communication were found to be linked to: earlier onset of sexual activity, fewer sexual partners and lower feelings of aspects of sexual guilt. The findings are discussed in terms of how to advance this area of study. PMID:22049235

  8. Sexual risk behaviour for women working in recreational venues in Mwanza, Tanzania: considerations for the acceptability and use of vaginal microbicide gels.

    PubMed

    Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola; Allen, Caroline; Bugeke, Gilbert; Vallely, Andrew; Ross, David

    2009-08-01

    Qualitative research was conducted to explore the social context of sexual-risk behaviour among women working in recreational occupations, during a feasibility study in preparation for the Phase III clinical trial of vaginal microbicides in Mwanza, Tanzania. Participant observation was conducted in 68 recreational venues. Six focus group discussions were conducted with women working in recreational occupations and two with male customers at these venues. Findings revealed that these women are at risk of HIV due their dependence on sexual transactions to improve their economic circumstances, which take place in environments and relationships where condom use is difficult. However, the findings revealed that, in spite of constraints, women did take actions to prevent HIV by negotiating for condom use or avoiding perceived risky practices or partnerships, in particular moving to more casual partnerships where condom negotiation is more acceptable. This indicates that, given their perception of their own risk, women working in recreational occupations will welcome an effective microbicide. However, sustained use will depend on how formulations overcome the difficulties women currently experience with condom negotiation and the specific environments and relationships in which they engage in sex. PMID:19444689

  9. Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151

  10. Vulnerability to high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) following exposure to war trauma as seen in post-conflict communities in eastern uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Much of the literature on the relationship between conflict-related trauma and high risk sexual behaviour (HRSB) often focuses on refugees and not mass in-country displaced people due to armed conflicts. There is paucity of research about contexts underlying HRSB and HIV/AIDS in conflict and post-conflict communities in Uganda. Understanding factors that underpin vulnerability to HRSB in post-conflict communities is vital in designing HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. We explored the socio-cultural factors, social interactions, socio-cultural practices, social norms and social network structures that underlie war trauma and vulnerability to HRSB in a post-conflict population. Methods We did a cross-sectional qualitative study of 3 sub-counties in Katakwi district and 1 in Amuria in Uganda between March and May 2009. We collected data using 8 FGDs, 32 key informant interviews and 16 in-depth interviews. We tape-recorded and transcribed the data. We followed thematic analysis principles to manage, analyse and interpret the data. We constantly identified and compared themes and sub-themes in the dataset as we read the transcripts. We used illuminating verbatim quotations to illustrate major findings. Results The commonly identified HRSB behaviours include; transactional sex, sexual predation, multiple partners, early marriages and forced marriages. Breakdown of the social structure due to conflict had resulted in economic destruction and a perceived soaring of vulnerable people whose propensity to HRSB is high. Dishonour of sexual sanctity through transactional sex and practices like incest mirrored the consequence of exposure to conflict. HRSB was associated with concentration of people in camps where idleness and unemployment were the norm. Reports of girls and women who had been victims of rape and defilement by men with guns were common. Many people were known to have started to display persistent worries, hopelessness, and suicidal ideas and to abuse

  11. Reckless Behaviour and Sexual Practices of Emerging Adult Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Byno, Lucy H.; Shriner, Michael; Mullis, Ann K.

    2009-01-01

    Relations between reckless behaviour and sexual practices of emerging adult women (ages 18-25) within a social cognitive theoretical perspective were examined. In addition, relations between self esteem, sexual attitudes and sexual behaviour were also examined. The Sexual Experience Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hendrick Sexual Attitude…

  12. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed

    Willcox, R R

    1981-06-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. PMID:6894558

  13. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted disease patterns in male homosexuals.

    PubMed Central

    Willcox, R R

    1981-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour is not simply either "active" or "passive", since penile-anal, mouth-penile, and hand-anal sexual contact is usual for both partners, and mouth-anal contact is not infrequent. A simplified method for recording sexual behaviour--a "sexual behaviour record (SBR)"--can be of value in determining the sites to be investigated and as a basis for further epidemiological questioning. Mouth-anal contact is the reason for the relatively high incidence of diseases caused by bowel pathogens in male homosexuals. Trauma may encourage the entry of micro-organisms and thus lead to primary syphilitic lesions occurring in the anogenital area. Similarly, granuloma inguinale, condylomata acuminata, and amoebiasis may be spread from the bowel of the passive homosexual contact. In addition to sodomy, trauma may be caused by foreign bodies, including stimulators of various kinds, penile adornments, and prostheses. Images PMID:6894558

  14. Sexual behaviour in a group of Swedish homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Håkansson, C

    1990-01-01

    Using self-administered questionnaires, sexual behaviour was assessed among 181 male homosexuals who were members of a 'gay' organization. Eighty-seven out of 181 (48%) had a regular partner and 14% reported their relationship as monogamous. The number of different sexual partners among the studied men was found to be low. Anal intercourse with non-steady partners in the past year had been practised by 43%, 79% of whom had generally used a condom. Use of condoms during oral intercourse was less common. Most of the men (86%) had made some risk-reducing behavioural changes (since a mean of 2.8 years) because of perceived risk of HIV/AIDS. 73% had had an HIV antibody test performed. Adoption of safer sexual practices seems to have occurred among the gay men studied. PMID:1967867

  15. [Cerebral dysfunction and disorders of sexual behaviour (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gautier-Smith, P C

    1980-01-01

    The effects of epilepsy and focal brain lesions on sexual behaviour are described. Fits may be provoked by hypervenilation in epileptics during sexual activity, but also by orgasm and other sexual stimuli. Epileptic auras consisting of tactile genital sensations and sexual feelings, including orgasm, also occur. Post-ictal sexual automatisms consist of masturbation or other poorly structured activity, imitating the gestures of sexual intercourse. Focal brain lesions most commonly produce a reduction in sexual activity. However, frontal lobe lesions may produce disinhibition with inappropriate sexual behaviour and temporal lobe lesions may be associated with true hypersexuality, transvestite and transsexual behaviour. Eleven cases, which illustrate the various associations, are described. PMID:7423084

  16. Sexual risk behaviour, marriage and ART: a study of HIV-positive people in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of intimate partner transmission of HIV remains an important component of comprehensive HIV prevention strategies. In this paper we examine the sexual practices of people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Method In 2008, a total of 374 HIV-positive people over the age of 16 and on ART for more than two weeks were recruited using a non-probability, convenience sampling methodology. This accounted for around 18% of adults on ART at the time. A further 36 people participated in semi-structured interviews. All interviews were thematically analysed using NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Results Less than forty per cent (38%) of participants reported having had sexual intercourse in the six months prior to the survey. Marital status was by far the most important factor in determining sexual activity, but consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse with a regular partner was low. Only 46% reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse with a regular partner in the last six months, despite 77% of all participants reporting that consistent condom use can prevent HIV transmission. Consistent condom use was lowest amongst married couples and those in seroconcordant relationships. The vast majority (91.8%) of all participants with a regular heterosexual partner had disclosed their status to their partner. Qualitative data reinforced low rates of sexual activity and provided important insights into sexual abstinence and condom use. Conclusions Considering the importance of intimate partner transmission of HIV, these results on the sexual practices of people with HIV on ART in PNG suggest that one-dimensional HIV prevention messages focussing solely on condom use fail to account for the current practices and needs of HIV-positive people, especially those who are married and know their partners’ HIV status. PMID:23805823

  17. Sexuality, sexual behaviour and contraception in East Germany.

    PubMed

    Starke, K; Visser, A P

    1994-07-01

    Social factors may influence sexual health and its related behaviour. The political changes in East Germany have revealed a positive attitude towards sexuality and the use of family planning methods. A study on sexual behaviour and the use of contraceptives was undertaken recently, at the end of the old regime and the beginning of the new one. The survey was performed among 3103 male and female respondents (pupils, students and workers) of between 16 and 48 years of age. The results show a decreased number of stable partner relationships among young people, however, love and sexuality are considered to be central values. Before the age of 19 years, the majority of girls (80%) and boys (68%) had had sexual intercourse for the first time, a rate which has not changed during the last decade. There is a tendency to postpone having a first child. Modern contraception is widely accepted and used. There is a growing number of condom users, however, the pill is still the most popular method. Family planning is much more advanced than in the other countries of Eastern Europe. Sex education and counselling should sustain this situation. PMID:7971550

  18. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  19. Urbanisation, poverty and sexual behaviour: the tale of five African cities.

    PubMed

    Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:21744541

  20. Increases in sexually transmitted infections and sexual risk behaviour without a concurrent increase in HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: a suggestion of HIV serosorting?

    PubMed Central

    Truong, H M; Kellogg, T; Klausner, J D; Katz, M H; Dilley, J; Knapper, K; Chen, S; Prabhu, R; Grant, R M; Louie, B; McFarland, W

    2006-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) have been increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco. However, HIV incidence has stabilised. Objectives To describe recent trends in sexual risk behaviour, STI, and HIV incidence among MSM in San Francisco and to assess whether increases in HIV serosorting (that is, selective unprotected sex with partners of the same HIV status) may contribute to preventing further expansion of the epidemic. Methods The study applies an ecological approach and follows the principles of second generation HIV surveillance. Temporal trends in biological and behavioural measures among MSM were assessed using multiple pre‐existing data sources: STI case reporting, prevention outreach programmatic data, and voluntary HIV counselling and testing data. Results Reported STI cases among MSM rose from 1998 through 2004, although the rate of increase slowed between 2002 and 2004. Rectal gonorrhoea cases increased from 157 to 389 while early syphilis increased from nine to 492. UAI increased overall from 1998 to 2004 (p<0.001) in community based surveys; however, UAI with partners of unknown HIV serostatus decreased overall (p<0.001) among HIV negative MSM, and among HIV positive MSM it declined from 30.7% in 2001 to a low of 21.0% in 2004 (p<0.001). Any UAI, receptive UAI, and insertive UAI with a known HIV positive partner decreased overall from 1998 to 2004 (p<0.001) among MSM seeking anonymous HIV testing and at the STI clinic testing programme. HIV incidence using the serological testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS) peaked in 1999 at 4.1% at the anonymous testing sites and 4.8% at the STI clinic voluntary testing programme, with rates levelling off through 2004. Conclusions HIV incidence among MSM appears to have stabilised at a plateau following several years of resurgence. Increases in the selection of sexual partners of concordant HIV serostatus may be

  1. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures. PMID:9883305

  2. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  3. A Risky Boundary: Unwanted Sexual Behaviour among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Paula; Burrie, Ingrid; van Wel, Frits

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongst young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: "verbal", "non-verbal/intimidating" and "physically violent". A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of possible determinants of unwanted sexual behaviour:…

  4. Early sexual debut among young men in rural South Africa: heightened vulnerability to sexual risk?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, A; Cleland, J; Gouws, E; Frohlich, J

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Analysis of sexual behaviour data for men 15–24 years (n = 314) from representative cross sectional household survey. Results: 13.1% of 15–24 year old men experienced sexual debut before age 15. Men with sexual debut at less than age 15 were more likely to report risk behaviours at first sexual experience: no condom use (19%), a casual partner (26.8%), and not feeling they had been "ready and wanted to have sex" (19.5%). In multivariate analysis, early sexual debut was strongly associated with ⩾3 partners in the past 3 years (OR = 10.26, p<0.01). Conclusions: Men who initiate sex before age 15 form a distinct risk group in this setting. Specific interventions are needed for young men in the preteen years, before sexual debut. PMID:15923298

  5. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  6. Youths Who Sexually Harm: A Multivariate Model of Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Louise; Canter, David

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the variations in behaviour displayed by young people who sexually harm, as previous research has shown that they are not a homogeneous sample. Three conceptually distinct sets of behaviour were hypothesized, relating to various modes of interaction between the young people with harmful sexual behaviour (HSB) and their…

  7. Is Location of Sex Associated with Sexual Risk Behaviour in Men Who Have Sex with Men? Systematic Review of Within-Subjects Studies.

    PubMed

    Melendez-Torres, G J; Nye, Elizabeth; Bonell, Chris

    2016-06-01

    To understand associations between location of sex and sexual risk, it is most helpful to compare sexual encounters within persons. We systematically reviewed within-subjects comparisons of sexual encounters reported by men who have sex with men (MSM) with respect to location of sex. Within-subjects comparisons of sexual risk and location of sex were eligible if they collected data post-1996 from samples of MSM. We independently screened results and full-text records in duplicate. Of 6,336 deduplicated records, we assessed 138 full-text studies and included six, most of which compared unprotected anal intercourse against other anal intercourse. This small, but high quality, body of evidence suggests that associations between attendance at sex-on-premises venues and person-level sexual risk may be due to overall propensity towards unprotected sex. However, there may be some location factors that promote or are associated with serononconcordant unprotected anal intercourse. Health promoters may wish to focus on person-level characteristics. PMID:25972073

  8. No evidence that HPV vaccination leads to sexual risk compensation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bo T

    2016-06-01

    Uptake of the HPV vaccine has been lower than the uptake of most other childhood vaccines offered in public programs. Since the HPV vaccine protects against a sexually transmitted virus, one barrier to uptake specific to the HPV vaccine may be the concern that vaccination may encourage risky sexual behaviour. Unanimous findings from recent studies show that HPV vaccination does not lead to sexual risk compensation, which is an important message to parents, clinicians and other decision-makers regarding HPV vaccination. Some issues remain to be investigated, like HPV vaccination and sexual risk compensation among boys. PMID:27003447

  9. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly. PMID:20679329

  10. Audio computer-assisted survey instrument versus face-to-face interviews: optimal method for detecting high-risk behaviour in pregnant women and their sexual partners in the south of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K

    2016-01-01

    Summary Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use. PMID:23970659

  11. Influence of sexual sensation-seeking on factors associated with risky sexual behaviour among African-American female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Penn, Dolly C.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve S.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The identification of antecedents to sexual risk among youth is critical to the development and dissemination of multilevel interventions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sexual sensation-seeking on partner age, partner communication, and the sexual attitudes and behaviours of African-American female youth. Methods This study examined survey data collected by audio computer-assisted self-interviews from 701 young African-American females between 14 and 20 years of age. The survey consisted of items designed to measure adolescents’ sexual risk and preventive behaviours. Results The results of this study suggest that sexual sensation-seeking is associated with condom use among adolescent African-American females. For adolescents who reported greater sexual sensation-seeking, lower levels of sexual happiness were associated with a decreased likelihood of condom use at last intercourse (β = 1.01, P ≤ 0.05). For those reporting lower levels of sexual sensation-seeking, greater sexual enjoyment was associated with a greater likelihood of condom use at last intercourse (β = 0.93, P ≤ 0.01). Adolescents with younger sexual partners and lower levels of sexual sensation-seeking reported a higher proportion of condom use in the past 6 months (β = 0.70, P = 0.01). Higher partner communication self-efficacy and decreasing levels of sexual sensation-seeking were associated with fewer lifetime sexual partners (β = –0.54, P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions Future research should address the impact of these variables on adolescent relationship dynamics and sexual decision-making. PMID:25355174

  12. Sexual Risk Taking: For Better or Worse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…

  13. Managing Sexually Harmful Behaviour in a Residential Special School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Duncan; Graham, Nicola; Ikin, Annette; Penney, Heather; Kovacs, Lisa; Mercer, Dawn; Edwards, Richard; Jones, Dylan; Mace, Floyd Charles

    2012-01-01

    Children and young people with learning disabilities who present sexually harmful behaviour are marginalised and do not always participate in community activities. This case study describes a multi-component intervention that successfully reduced the sexually harmful behaviour of a 16-year-old boy with a mild learning disability. The intervention…

  14. Interventions for encouraging sexual behaviours intended to prevent cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Frampton, Geoff K; Harris, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the key risk factor for cervical cancer. Continuing high rates of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in young people demonstrate the need for effective behavioural interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions for young women to encourage safer sexual behaviours to prevent transmission of STIs (including HPV) and cervical cancer. Search methods Systematic literature searches were performed on the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 4, 2009) Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group (CGCRG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Social Science Citation Index and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI) up to the end of 2009. All references were screened for inclusion against selection criteria. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural interventions for young women up to the age of 25 years that included, amongst other things, information provision about the transmission and prevention of STIs. Trials had to measure behavioural outcomes (e.g. condom use) and/or biological outcomes (e.g. incidence of STIs, cervical cancer). Data collection and analysis A narrative synthesis was conducted. Meta-analysis was not considered appropriate due to heterogeneity between the interventions and trial populations. Main results A total of 5271 references were screened and of these 23 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most were conducted in the USA and in health-care clinics (e.g. family planning). The majority of interventions provided information about STIs and taught safer sex skills (e.g. communication), occasionally supplemented with provision of resources (e.g. free sexual health services). They were heterogeneous in duration, contact time, provider, behavioural aims and outcomes. A variety of STIs were addressed including HIV and chlamydia. None of the trials explicitly

  15. Neurological control of human sexual behaviour: insights from lesion studies

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Amee D; Wilson, Sarah J; Bladin, Peter F; Saling, Michael M; Reutens, David C

    2007-01-01

    We review the human literature examining the effects of neurological insult on human sexual behaviour. We provide a synthesis of the findings to date, and identify key brain regions associated with specific aspects of human sexual behaviour. These include subcortical and cortical regions, with the mesial temporal lobe and the amygdala in particular being a crucial structure in the mediation of human sexual drive. PMID:17189299

  16. Treatment of adult sexual offenders: a therapeutic cognitive-behavioural model of intervention.

    PubMed

    Yates, Pamela M

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual arousal, and relapse prevention. More recently, treatment has targeted cognitive processes more generally, management of other emotional states in addition to anger, intimacy deficits, and risk self-management (Marshall, Anderson, & Fernandez, 1999; Yates, Goguen, Nicholaichuk, Williams, & Long, 2000). This article describes the components of cognitive-behavioural treatment with sexual offenders, including recent developments, assessment, treatment methods, and the importance of therapist characteristics on the therapeutic process and on treatment outcome. PMID:15308452

  17. [Sexual exposure to HIV, sexual behaviour and use of pharmacological post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)].

    PubMed

    Franco, Alfredo; Starace, Fabrizio; Aprea, Lucia; Faella, Francesco Saverio; Giordano, Antonio; Maiorino, Cosimo; Manzillo, Elio; Marocco, Alessandro; Martucci, Fiorella; Pizzella, Teresa; Simioli, Francesco; Izzo, Crescenzo Maria

    2009-06-01

    In this study we examined the characteristics of 60 subjects (49 M and 11 F, average age 32.3) out of 195 post-exposure pharmacological prophylaxis (PEP) to HIV, taken in our hospital from 2001 to 2008. The above-mentioned subjects are sexually exposed (or presumably exposed) to HIV. We considered both their sexual intercourse behaviour and protective measures, and sought to infer some trends in sexual behaviour in Italy. All the subjects were monitored until 180 days after exposure, as established by the national guidelines. Only one of the 60 people presented a seroconversion (he dropped out after a 15-day follow-up and after an inadequate 19-day prophylaxis). Another subject, a homosexual male, never previously tested, resulted positive at time 0 both for HIV-Ab and syphilis tests (due to previous risk-sexual exposure), which caused the suspension of the prophylaxis. No HBV, HCV or syphilis seroconversion occurred. Two other homosexual males showed a previously latent positivity to syphilis tests at time 0. PMID:19602921

  18. Reported physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adult HIV risk behaviour in three African countries: findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR -0.6 (CI: -0.9, -0.4, p < 0.003)-among men, OR -0.7 (CI: -0.9, -0.5, p < 0.001)-among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p < 0.001)-men, OR 1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p < 0.001)-women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p < 0.001)-women) and two forms of partner violence-recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p < 0.001)-men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p < 0.001)-women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p < 0.001)-men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p < 0.001)-women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  19. Reported Physical and Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Adult HIV Risk Behaviour in Three African Countries: Findings from Project Accept (HPTN-043)

    PubMed Central

    Komárek, Arnošt; Desmond, Chris; Celentano, David; Morin, Steve; Sweat, Michael; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Chingono, Alfred; Gray, Glenda; Mbwambo, Jessie; Coates, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked to adolescent and adult risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debut, an increased number of sexual partners, unprotected sex, alcohol and drug use during sex and sexual violence. This paper explores these relationships among both men and women who report histories of childhood abuse from representative samples of communities in three countries in southern and eastern Africa (South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tanzania). Data were collected as part of a 3-year randomized community trial to rapidly increase knowledge of HIV status and to promote community responses through mobilisation, mobile testing, provision of same-day HIV test results and post-test support for HIV. The results indicate that reported childhood sexual and physical abuse is high in all three settings, also among men, and shows strong relationships with a range of sexual risk behaviors, including age at first sex (OR −0.6 (CI: −0.9, −0.4, p<0.003)—among men, OR −0.7 (CI: −0.9, −0.5, p<0.001)—among women), alcohol (OR 1.43 (CI: 1.22, 1.68, p<0.001)—men,OR1.83 (CI: 1.50, 2.24, p<0.001)— women) and drug use (OR 1.65 (CI: 1.38, 1.97, p<0.001)— men, OR 3.14 (CI: 1.95, 5.05, p<0.001)—women) and two forms of partner violence—recent forced sex (OR 2.22 (CI: 1.66, 2.95, p<0.001)—men, OR 2.76 (CI: 2.09, 3.64, p<0.001)—women) and ever being hurt by a partner (OR 3.88 (CI: 2.84, 5.29, p<0.001)—men, OR 3.06 (CI: 2.48, 3.76, p<0.001)—women). Individuals abused in childhood comprise between 6 and 29 % of young adult men and women living in these African settings and constitute a population at high risk of HIV infection. PMID:23474641

  20. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R

    2005-10-01

    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  1. Researching sexual and reproductive behaviour: a peer ethnographic approach.

    PubMed

    Price, Neil; Hawkins, Kirstan

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, ethnographic research has challenged the notion within demography that fertility-related behaviour is the outcome of individualistic calculations of the costs and benefits of having children. Anthropology has further criticised the abstraction in demographic analysis of sexual behaviour and fertility decision-making from the socio-cultural and political context in which the individual or couple is located. Within demography itself, institutional and political-economic analyses have argued strongly that sexual and reproductive behaviour must be understood within locally specific social, cultural, economic and political contexts. Positivist and empiricist research methods, such as the sample survey and focus groups, which continue to dominate demographic inquiry and applied research into sexual and reproductive behaviour, have been shown to be limited in their ability to inform about the process of behaviour change and contexts within which different behaviours occur. The article introduces a new methodology for researching sexual and reproductive behaviour, called the peer ethnographic approach, which the authors have developed in an attempt to address some of the limitations of the methods which currently dominate research into sexual and reproductive behaviour. The peer ethnographic methodology is discussed in detail and the results of recent field-testing are reported, which show that, although the approach has limitations, it also has the potential to make a significant contribution to our understanding of sexual and reproductive behaviour. PMID:12231012

  2. Effects of PREPARE, a Multi-component, School-Based HIV and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programme on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviour and IPV: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein

    2016-09-01

    Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV. PMID:27142057

  3. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation. PMID:10669962

  4. The Role of HIV Serostatus Disclosure on Sexual Risk Behaviours among People Living with HIV in Steady Partnerships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lana; Bastos, Francisco I.; Bertoni, Neilane; Malta, Monica; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding partnership dynamics is a crucial step in the process of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners. This study examines the relational characteristics associated with HIV serostatus disclosure and the role of disclosure on sexual behaviours within steady partnerships among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Study participants from 6 large public health facilities were surveyed to investigate psychosocial and relational factors associated with sexual health and well-being. Among 489 individuals in steady partnerships, 86% reported HIV serostatus disclosure to steady partners. After adjusting for demographic variables, attitudes towards disclosure, having an HIV-positive partner, living with partner, and longer relationships were significantly associated with reported disclosure using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Living with partner was negatively associated with partner concurrency. However, having an HIV-positive partner, sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol, and experiencing physical aggression by a steady partner were negatively associated with consistent condom use. Interventions supporting PLHIV to safely and voluntarily disclose to partners may be an effective prevention approach between steady partners, however addressing partner violence and substance use are important considerations for future work. PMID:25223980

  5. The role of HIV serostatus disclosure on sexual risk behaviours among people living with HIV in steady partnerships in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lana; Bastos, Francisco I; Bertoni, Neilane; Malta, Monica; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding partnership dynamics is a crucial step in the process of HIV serostatus disclosure to partners. This study examines the relational characteristics associated with HIV serostatus disclosure and the role of disclosure on sexual behaviours within steady partnerships among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The overall study surveyed 900 participants from six large public health facilities to investigate psychosocial and structural factors associated with sexual health and well-being. This analysis focuses on 489 individuals reporting being in steady partnerships, 86% of whom reported HIV serostatus disclosure to steady partners. After adjusting for demographic variables, attitudes towards disclosure, having an HIV-positive partner, living with partner and longer relationships were significantly associated with reported disclosure in multivariable logistic regression. Living with partner was negatively associated with partner concurrency. However, having an HIV-positive partner, sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol and experiencing physical aggression by a steady partner were negatively associated with consistent condom use. Interventions supporting PLHIV to safely and voluntarily disclose to partners may be an effective prevention approach between steady partners; however, partner violence and substance use should be addressed in future work. PMID:25223980

  6. Prevalence of syphilis infection and associations with sexual risk behaviours among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    He, Huan; Wang, Min; Zaller, Nickolas; Wang, Jun; Song, Dandan; Qu, Yuhuang; Sui, Xin; Dong, Zhengxin; Operario, Don; Zhang, Hongbo

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to understand the prevalence and correlates of syphilis infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shanghai, China. A total of 200 HIV-positive MSM participants were recruited using "snowball" sampling. Participants were tested for syphilis and completed a one-time questionnaire which included demographic characteristics, sexual behaviours with male and female sexual partners, substance use, and use of antiretroviral medications. Prevalence of syphilis infection was 16.5%. Among HIV/syphilis co-infected participants, 63.6% reported having anal sex with male partners and 24.2% did not use condoms consistently during the past six months; 66.7% reported having oral sex with male partners and 51.5% reported unprotected oral sex during the past six months. Factors associated with testing seropositive for syphilis infection included receptive anal sex with a male partner in the past six months (AOR = 12.61, 90% CI = 2.38-66.89), illicit drug use in the past six months (AOR = 11.47, 90% CI = 2.47-53.45), and use of antiretroviral medication (AOR = 4.48, 90% CI = 1.43-14.05). These data indicate a need for "positive prevention" interventions targeting HIV-positive MSM in China. PMID:24285600

  7. Social and Sexual Risk Factors among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…

  8. Disentangling Adolescent Pathways of Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the authors aimed to describe the pathways of risk within sexual risk taking, alcohol use, and delinquency, and then identify how the trajectory of sexual risk is linked to alcohol use and delinquency. Risk trajectories were measured with adolescents aged 15-24 years (N = 1,778). Using…

  9. A cross-sectional seroprevalence survey for HIV-1 and high risk sexual behaviour of seropositives in a prison in India.

    PubMed

    Sundar, M; Ravikumar, K K; Sudarshan, M K

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to know whether prisoners constitute a "high risk group" for HIV transmission in India today. A sero-epidemiological period prevalence survey was conducted in Central Prison, Bangalore, South India covering 1007 undertrials and 107 permanent convicts during January to December 1993. Twenty (1.98%) undertrials and none of the permanent convicts were seropositive for HIV infection. All of them were males and 1.6(80%) of them were in the age group of 20-30 years. Low literacy, poor income, sexual promiscuity and low condom usage were observed among the seropositives. Thus, prisoners constitute a high risk group and routine screening and counselling are recommended. PMID:8690491

  10. Gendered perceptions of sexual behaviour in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndinda, C; Uzodike, U O; Chimbwete, C; Mgeyane, M T M

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts. PMID:22295199

  11. Gendered Perceptions of Sexual Behaviour in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndinda, C.; Uzodike, U. O.; Chimbwete, C.; Mgeyane, M. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses sexual behaviour findings collected through eleven homogenous focus group discussions conducted among women and men in a predominantly Zulu population in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The objective of this paper is to shed light on sexual behaviour in a rural community. The findings suggest that sex is a taboo subject and the discussion around it is concealed in the use of polite language, euphemisms, and gestures. There are gender and generational dimensions to the discussion of sex. The contribution of this paper lies in the identification of what rural people discuss about sex and the influence of cultural practices and urban or global forces on sexual behaviour in rural areas. The paper adds to the growing body of literature on the use of focus groups in understanding sexual behaviour in rural contexts. PMID:22295199

  12. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  13. SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND DYSFUNCTION IN DIVORCE SEEKING COUPLES

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Shiv; Batra, Lalit

    1996-01-01

    50 divorce seeking couples, when compared with 30 well adjusted couples, showed that sex-related factors and sexual dysfunctions were related to divorce seeking behaviour. A significantly high number of couples in the study group, reported a bad honeymoon, unsatisfactory coital experience, lack of cooperation from the spouse and variant sexual habits. The findings emphasis the importance of imparting adequate knowledge about sex and management of sexual dysfunctions, as part of marital therapy. PMID:21584156

  14. Parental Influences on Young People's Sexual Behaviour: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…

  15. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  16. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie L.; Kydd, Robyn M.; Dickson, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO) frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs), from 26–32 and 32–38 years of age. Methods Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years. Results Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported “usually/always”), and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to “use alcohol to make it easier to have sex” and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32–38. Conclusions Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour. PMID:26267272

  17. Sexually Inappropriate or Abusive Behaviour among Pupils in Special Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, Rachel Fyson of the Centre for Social Work in the School of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Nottingham reports the findings of a study into sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviour occurring between pupils in special schools in four local authorities in England. The behaviours identified ranged from relatively…

  18. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528

  19. Penile cancer: is there an epidemiological role for smoking and sexual behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Hellberg, D; Valentin, J; Eklund, T; Nilsson, S

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to determine whether penile cancer, like cervical cancer, was associated with smoking and sexual behaviour. Altogether 244 men with penile cancer and 232 matched controls completed a questionnaire by post or telephone. Data on marital state, socioeconomic group, occupation, history of phimosis and balanitis, sexual behaviour, and smoking were obtained. The results of statistical analyses confirmed that phimosis and balanitis were risk factors for penile cancer, but there was no epidemiological evidence for it being a sexually transmitted disease. Smoking was a risk factor with a dose-response relation and remained associated with penile cancer even after adjustment for confounding factors. Penile cancer is associated with smoking independently of phimosis; treatment of phimosis alone does not remove the risk caused by smoking. PMID:3120988

  20. [Sexual risk factors among European young people].

    PubMed

    Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

    2012-05-01

    The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth. PMID:22015005

  1. Stress Mediates the Relationship Between Past Drug Addiction and Current Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Low-income Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24985341

  2. Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life

    PubMed Central

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviour, such as being violent, lying, stealing and running away from home. Girls with an early sexual debut had significantly more experience of sexual abuse. Boys with an early sexual debut were more likely to have a weak sense of coherence, low self-esteem and poor mental health, together with experience of sexual abuse, selling sex and physical abuse. A multiple logistic regression model showed that a number of antisocial acts and health behaviours remained significant, but early sexual debut did not increase the risk of psychiatric symptoms, low self-esteem or low sense of coherence at 18 years of age. Conclusion Early sexual debut was associated with problematic behaviours during later adolescence, and this vulnerability requires attention from parents and healthcare providers. PMID:25213099

  3. The Role of Sexual Images in Online and Offline Sexual Behaviour With Minors.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Ethel; Newman, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Sexual images have long been associated with sexual interest and behaviour with minors. The Internet has impacted access to existing content and the ability to create content which can be uploaded and distributed. These images can be used forensically to determine the legality of the behaviour, but importantly for psychiatry, they offer insight into motivation, sexual interest and deviance, the relationship between image content and offline sexual behaviour, and how they might be used in online solicitation and grooming with children and adolescents. Practitioners will need to consider the function that these images may serve, the motivation for their use and the challenges of assessment. This article provides an overview of the literature on the use of illegal images and the parallels with existing paraphilias, such as exhibitionism and voyeurism. The focus is on recent research on the Internet and sexual images of children, including the role that self-taken images by youth may play in the offending process. PMID:25894354

  4. High-risk sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Troussier, Thierry; Benghozi, Pierre; Ganem, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of life characterized by danger because of the many changes that occur, the many ties that are severed: ties to childhood, ties to the child's body as it begins to take on an adult appearance, ties to a once-familiar body image and psyche as hormones complete the transformation to adulthood, ties to an unconscious that is struggling to restructure itself anew. The creation of the romantic couple is a danger inherent in any human society. This text was written from the professional practices of each author in a multidisciplinary approach combining the approaches of public health, risk reduction, and sexual, psychological and clinical care of adolescents. How to help anticipate the dangers is to use preventive insurance verifying that security is guaranteed before committing. Risk-taking is accepting all the challenges that boost the self with oneself and with others. The risk is therefore also the commitment in love. It is still the risk to speak, to feel, to express feelings, choices, and refusal of unwanted sex. The ability of adolescents to play and defeat the risk by learning the ethical value not only to protect themselves from contracting AIDS, but also to protect others is part of the pedagogy of risk. This pedagogy of risk, as we have seen, includes three areas: information, care and initiation into love. Adolescents must be supported in their emergence by responsible people to protect them from the dangers ahead. The support is not only to prevent them from engaging in risky behavior, but to help them better manage their anxieties and support the fragility of their families in a network approach. Not knowing how to confront the risk stifles the chance of allowing the child to grow up to be independent and helps reassure parents who may resent being removed from the empowerment of their children. PMID:22846539

  5. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  6. Social basis of deviant sexual behaviour: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1999-01-01

    Sexual perversions are often a product of civilized life. Most societies permit some degree of deviant sexual behaviour as a relief from stress of routine life. Criteria for labelling such behaviour have changed over a period of time. There have been instances of normalizing deviant sexual behaviour by formation of pressure groups by the deviants e.g. homosexual clubs, particularly in Western countries. Attitude of church on masturbation & homosexuality has fluctuated from forbidding these activities to accepting these as harmless acts. Extra marital sex, premarital sex, homosexuality, fellatio, masturbation have been reported from almost all societies. Swinging and mate-swapping is more prevalent in the West. Social factors associated with deviant sexual behaviour are discussed. Incest lobbies have come up in U. S. Prostitution has also been there in all societies since antiquity. Earlier, prostitutes enjoyed a relatively higher social status. Their degradation started with the dawn of Christianity. In 1960s there was sexual revolution in U. S. with emphasis on free sex. There is evidence of slowing down of sexual revolution with the advent of AIDS. Safe-sex and fidelity are now being emphasized. PMID:12585287

  7. Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a "behavioural" addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions. PMID:25013940

  8. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  9. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  10. Sexually explicit racialised media targeting men who have sex with men online: a content analysis of high-risk behaviour depicted in online advertisements.

    PubMed

    White, Jaclyn M; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, using a detailed codebook, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics and sexual acts depicted. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a 'thug' theme (a style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme and 44% featured condomless sex. Advertisements featuring only Black men, advertisements featuring Black men with men of other skin tones and advertisements depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit advertisements featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted condomless sex than advertisements with White men alone. Future research should examine whether depictions of Black men engaging in condomless sex in online advertisements influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners. PMID:25891135

  11. Sexually explicit racialised media targeting men who have sex with men online: A content analysis of high-risk behaviour depicted in online advertisements

    PubMed Central

    White, Jaclyn M.; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics, and sexual acts depicted using a detailed codebook. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts, and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a ‘thug’ theme (style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme, and 44% featured condomless sex. Ads featuring only Black men, ads featuring Black men with men of other skin tones, and ads depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit ads featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted risky sex than ads with White men alone. Future research should examine whether risky depictions of Black men in online ads influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners. PMID:25891135

  12. Sexual Compulsivity and Sexual Risk in Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Much of our understanding of the association between the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS; Kalichman et al., 1994) and sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been limited to samples of HIV positive MSM only. Using data from a community-based survey of gay and bisexual men (n = 1214), this analysis sought to further evaluate the association between the SCS and sexual risk behavior. The SCS was significantly associated with a variety of sexual risk behaviors, including having sex under the influence of club drugs, engaging in unprotected anal sex (receptive or insertive) with partners of the same and/or different HIV serostatus, identity as a barebacker, intentions to have bareback sex, number of recent sex partners, and temptation for unsafe sex. The SCS was also significantly associated with having engaged in a variety of specialized sexual behaviors (i.e., fetishes), many of which can increase HIV transmission risks. Finally, in multivariate analyses, the SCS significantly predicted unprotected sex with a non-main partner even when controlling for race, HIV serostatus, age, identity as a barebacker, and club drug use. These data indicate that the SCS may be able to serve as an indicator to detect HIV-associated sexual risk behavior in community-based samples of gay and bisexual men. PMID:19308715

  13. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  14. Recidivism Risk Assessment for Adult Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Holoyda, Brian J; Newman, William J

    2016-02-01

    Sexual offending is a significant public health problem in the USA due to its prevalence and the substantial impact it has on victims, victims' families, and the legal and mental health systems. The assessment of sexual offender recidivism risk is an important aspect of developing effective management strategies for sexual offenders in terms of placement, treatment, and other interventions. Researchers have developed numerous tools to aid in the assessment of sexual violence recidivism risk, including actuarial measures, structured professional judgment methods, and psychophysiologic assessment of sexual interests. The Static-99R and Sexual Violence Risk-20 are two instruments that have received substantial research attention for their ability to accurately compare offenders' risk of recidivism to normative group data. Penile plethysmography and visual reaction time are used to evaluate subjects' responses to sexual stimuli in an effort to characterize offenders' sexual arousal and interest, respectively. Though current research has focused on risk assessment tools' predictive utility, future research will need to examine the impact that actuarial and structured professional judgment tools have on reducing recidivism if they are to have relevance in the management of sexual offenders. PMID:26781555

  15. Illegal yet developmentally normative: a descriptive analysis of young, urban adolescents’ dating and sexual behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Africa, it is illegal for adolescents under age 16 years to engage in any sexual behaviour whether kissing, petting, or penetrative sex, regardless of consent. This cross-sectional study investigated the extent to which young adolescents engage in various sexual behaviours and the associations between dating status and sexual behaviours. Method Grade 8 adolescents (N = 474, ages 12–15 years, mean = 14.14 years) recruited from Cape Town schools completed surveys providing information about their sociodemographic backgrounds, dating experience, sexual behaviour, and substance use. Results Lower hierarchy sexual behaviours, such as kissing (71.4% of girls; 88.4% of boys), were more common than oral (3.9% of girls; 13.8% of boys), vaginal (9.3% of girls; 30.0% of boys), or anal (1.4% of girls; 10.5% of boys) sex. Currently dating girls and boys were more likely to engage in sexual behaviours including several risk behaviours in comparison to their currently non-dating counterparts. These risk behaviours included penetrative sex (21.1% of dating vs. 4.5% of non-dating girls; 49.4% of dating vs. 20.2% of non-dating boys), sex with co-occurring substance use (22.2% of dating vs. 0 non-dating girls; 32.1% of dating vs. 40% of non-dating boys), and no contraceptive use (26.1% of sexually experienced girls; 44.4% of sexually experienced boys). Among girls, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and SES (OR = 2.592, p = 0.017) and never dating (OR = 0.330, p = 0.016). Among boys, there were significant associations between ever having penetrative sex and never dating (OR = 0.162, p = 0.008). Although the currently dating group of young adolescents appear to be a precocious group in terms of risk behaviour relative to the currently non-dating group, teenagers in both groups had experience in the full range of sexual behaviours. Conclusions Many young adolescents are engaging in a variety

  16. Sexual and health behaviour of commercial sex workers in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asowa-Omorodion, F I

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, examined are the sexual and health behaviours of commercial sex workers in Nigeria, a high-risk group in this era of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The aim is to provide in-depth knowledge of their sexual networking and the prevalence rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). This analysis is intended to highlight their implications in the spread and control of AIDS and HIV infection. The results of the study show the extensive sexual networking of these commercial sex workers, the health implications, and the utilisation of nonorthodox health services in diagnosing STDs. The implications of these results are the likely drain on the limited health resources of the Nigerian government and the harmful effects on the women, fetuses, children, and other sexual partners of clients of these commercial sex workers. PMID:11813779

  17. Demographic changes and trends in risk behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Bangalore, India involved in a focused HIV preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kumar, Shiv; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Gowda, Pushpalatha Rama Narayana; Raghunathan, N; Gowda, Chandra Shekhar; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2013-12-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the changing demographic characteristics of female sex workers (FSWs) in the urban Bangalore district, India, and trends in programme coverage, HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevalence rates and condom use. Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural and biological assessments of FSWs were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to describe trends over time. The results indicate the mean age of initiation into sex work has increased (26.9 years in 2006 vs 27.6 years in 2011, p<0.01), a higher proportion of FSWs reported being in 'stable' relationships in 2011 (70.2% vs 43.2% in 2006, p<0.01) and having conducted sex work outside the district in the past 6 months (10.0% in 2011 vs 16.0% in 2006 p=0.01). There was an increase in the proportion of FSWs using cellphones to solicit clients (4.4% in 2006 vs 57.5% in 2011, p<0.01) and their homes for sex work (61.4% in 2006 vs 77.8% in 2011, p<0.01). Reactive syphilis prevalence declined (12.6% in 2006 to 4% in 2011, p=0.02), as did high-titre syphilis prevalence (9.5% in 2006 to 2.5% in 2011, p=0.01). HIV prevalence declined but not significantly (12.7% in 2006 and 9.3% in 2011, p=0.39). Condom use remained above 90% increasing significantly among repeat (paying) clients (66.6% in 2006 to 93.6% in 2011, p<0.01). However, condom use remained low with non-paying partners when compared with occasional paying partners (17.6% vs 97.2% in 2011, p<0.01). Given the changing dynamics in the FSW population at multiple levels, there is a need to develop and customise strategies to meet local needs. PMID:24045090

  18. Sexual risk taking among Taiwanese youth.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hsing

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand sexual risk-taking behavior among Taiwanese youth. Thirty-six participants were purposively selected for two to three semistructured, in-depth individual interviews. The constant comparative method and coding process were used for data analysis. The core category of preserving the fantasy of romantic innocence emerged from the initial data analysis to explain how and why young people engage in sexual risk taking. Accordingly, the subcategories of suppressing carnal knowledge and being swept away by love were developed. Suppressing carnal knowledge consisted of keeping silent, having an inadequate sexual education, and having stereotypical thinking and was identified as an explanation as to why young people cannot relate knowledge to actual practice. Being swept away by love included a false knowledge of one's sexual partner, shifting levels of intimacy, and nonacceptance of one's own sexuality. This conceptualization emphasizes the reasons why young people engage in sexual risk taking; that is, cultural reluctance to discuss sexuality openly. The implication of this theorizing is that interventions to reduce sexual risk taking should be done on an individual basis and should consider one's developmental context in order to increase one's skills in effectively discussing sex and sexuality. PMID:11841684

  19. Sexual health and life experiences: Voices from behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the Midwestern USA

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Schnarrs, Philip; Rhodes, Scott; Goncalves, Gabriel; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Kelle, Guadalupe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research on behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the USA has not yet examined sexual health issues among men living in diverse areas of the nation, including the Midwest. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to engage a diverse sample of 75 behaviourally bisexual men (25 White, 25 Black, and 25 Latino). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and, in this paper, standard qualitative analysis procedures were used to explore data from the 25 Latino participants. Men described their unique migration experiences as behaviourally bisexual men in this area of the USA, as well as related sexual risk behaviours and health concerns. Lack of culturally congruent public health and community resources for behaviourally bisexual men in the Midwestern USA were identified as significant barriers. As in other studies, familial and community relationships were significant for the participants, especially in terms of the decision to disclose or not disclose their bisexuality. Additionally, alcohol and other drugs were often used while engaging in sexual behaviours particularly with male and transgender, as well as female, partners. Behaviourally bisexual Latino men may benefit from receiving positive and affirmative individual- and structural-level support in regards to their unique experiences in this and other settings. PMID:21815839

  20. Cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress is greater in sexual risk takers

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Claire; Ratcliffe, Joanne M.; Mitchell, Melanie; Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between deviant behaviour and cortisol reactivity to stress. However, relatively few studies have investigated the relationship between psychobiological stress reactivity and sexual risk-taking behaviours. In this study, cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was measured in 26 healthy young adults prior to the administration of a sexual health and behaviour questionnaire. The cortisol response to the TSST was greater in those individuals who reported that at least one of their previous two sexual partners was someone whom they had just met. Results are discussed in the context of a model which suggests that early life stress dysregulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and increases the likelihood of later life risk-taking behaviour. The findings have implications in terms of improving our understanding of psychobiological factors which predispose individuals to engage in adverse sexual health behaviours. PMID:25750779

  1. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  2. Prevalence of HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Risk Behaviours Among Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya: Results of a Respondent Driven Sampling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Timothy A.; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Raymond, H. Fisher; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7–34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25–38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8–17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4–18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at ‘great risk’ for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population. PMID:25428282

  3. Sexual differentiation of behaviour in monkeys: role of prenatal hormones.

    PubMed

    Wallen, K; Hassett, J M

    2009-03-01

    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to the sexual differentiation of behaviour has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation that requires both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about the sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other's reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affect individual gender socialisation. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing the potential underlying biological contributions in favour of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioural sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioural sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy's pioneering work with rhesus monkeys, which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviours are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that, for a variety of behaviours, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behaviour more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalisations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother's response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioural biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioural sex

  4. Teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in China: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juping

    2012-11-01

    China is the most populated of any country in the world. Social norms and values pertaining to love and marriage have changed considerably since the launch of its open-door policy and economic reforms of the 1980s. Attitudes to sex have become more open, while the negative consequences of early sexual intercourse have become issues of health and social concern. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the teenage sexual attitudes and behaviour in contemporary China. A literature review was conducted between 2000 and 2010, using both English (Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA) and Chinese language databases (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database). Thirty-six studies were included and reviewed. It was found that young people reported poor sexual knowledge, especially in relation to reproductive matters and sexually transmitted infections. The media, such as television, magazines and the Internet, were seen as their main sources of information on sex. Despite the frequently reported liberal attitudes to sexual behaviour, only a small number of young people had already lost their virginity or been involved in pregnancies. Young men were more likely than young women to report having had sex, while respondents at vocational high schools were less likely to remain virgins than those at common/key high schools. Although the prevalence of sexual intercourse among Chinese teenagers was still lower than that reported in studies conducted in most western countries, the findings do reflect some changes in sexual values and behaviour of young people within the country. They also suggest the need to develop more comprehensive sex education programmes in co-operation with young people, schools, health organisations, families and communities and to make sexual and reproductive health services accessible to teenagers and unmarried young people throughout China. PMID:22404303

  5. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  6. Alcohol and drug usage; and adolescents' sexual behaviour in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwagu, Evelyn N

    2016-06-01

    This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. PMID:25661666

  7. Problematic Sexual Behaviour in a Secure Psychiatric Setting: Challenges and Developing Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Gareth V.; Hebb, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Sexually abusive behaviours are common in a forensic psychiatric population, both before admission and while hospitalized. A survey of our medium security facility found that 41% of patients had a history of sexually abusive behaviours, ranging from convictions for sexual assault through to current episodes of sexual harassment. Most forensic…

  8. The epidemiology of bacterial vaginosis in relation to sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been most consistently linked to sexual behaviour, and the epidemiological profile of BV mirrors that of established sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It remains a matter of debate however whether BV pathogenesis does actually involve sexual transmission of pathogenic micro-organisms from men to women. We therefore made a critical appraisal of the literature on BV in relation to sexual behaviour. Discussion G. vaginalis carriage and BV occurs rarely with children, but has been observed among adolescent, even sexually non-experienced girls, contradicting that sexual transmission is a necessary prerequisite to disease acquisition. G. vaginalis carriage is enhanced by penetrative sexual contact but also by non-penetrative digito-genital contact and oral sex, again indicating that sex per se, but not necessarily coital transmission is involved. Several observations also point at female-to-male rather than at male-to-female transmission of G. vaginalis, presumably explaining the high concordance rates of G. vaginalis carriage among couples. Male antibiotic treatment has not been found to protect against BV, condom use is slightly protective, whereas male circumcision might protect against BV. BV is also common among women-who-have-sex-with-women and this relates at least in part to non-coital sexual behaviours. Though male-to-female transmission cannot be ruled out, overall there is little evidence that BV acts as an STD. Rather, we suggest BV may be considered a sexually enhanced disease (SED), with frequency of intercourse being a critical factor. This may relate to two distinct pathogenetic mechanisms: (1) in case of unprotected intercourse alkalinisation of the vaginal niche enhances a shift from lactobacilli-dominated microflora to a BV-like type of microflora and (2) in case of unprotected and protected intercourse mechanical transfer of perineal enteric bacteria is enhanced by coitus. A similar mechanism of mechanical

  9. Pharmacological interventions for those who have sexually offended or are at risk of offending

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Smailagic, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions on target sexual behaviour for people who have been convicted or at risk of sexual offending. PMID:25267896

  10. The association of human papillomavirus vaccination with sexual behaviours and human papillomavirus knowledge: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coles, Victoria A H; Patel, Ajay S; Allen, Felicity L; Keeping, Sam T; Carroll, Stuart M

    2015-10-01

    Since the 2008 introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for adolescent girls in the UK, parents and other groups have expressed fears that immunisation condones sexual activity, promotes promiscuity and encourages risky sexual behaviour. This study aimed to explore whether HPV vaccination programmes have increased knowledge surrounding HPV and associated disease and whether uptake has influenced sexual behaviour. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO electronic databases were interrogated. Studies of behaviour, attitudes and knowledge associated with HPV vaccination (or vaccination intent) in subjects of any age and gender in programmes reflective of UK practice were included in the review (n = 58). The evidence regarding the association of HPV vaccination with high-risk sexual behaviour was varied, primarily due to the heterogeneous nature of the included studies. Young females typically exhibited better knowledge than males, and vaccinated respondents (or those with vaccination intent) had higher levels of knowledge than the unvaccinated. However, knowledge surrounding HPV and genital warts was generally poor. This review highlights the need to provide effective education regarding the HPV vaccine and HPV-associated disease to adolescents of vaccination age, nurses, teachers, parents and guardians to ultimately allow informed decisions to be made regarding receipt of the HPV vaccine. PMID:25300588

  11. Protocol of a cluster randomised stepped-wedge trial of behavioural interventions targeting amphetamine-type stimulant use and sexual risk among female entertainment and sex workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen S; Carrico, Adam W; Evans, Jennifer L; Sokunny, Muth; Nil, Ean; Ngak, Song; Sophal, Chhit; McCulloch, Charles; Maher, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV risk among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remains high and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) significantly increases this risk. We designed a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial (The Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study) to test sequentially delivered behavioural interventions targeting ATS use. Methods and analysis The trial combines a 12-week Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) intervention with 4 weeks of cognitive-behavioural group aftercare (AC) among FESW who use ATS. The primary goal is to reduce ATS use and unprotected sex among FESW. The CCT+AC intervention is being implemented in 10 provinces where order of delivery was randomised. Outcome assessments (OEs) including biomarkers and self-reported measures of recent sexual and drug use behaviours are conducted prior to implementation, and at three 6-month intervals after completion. Consultation with multiple groups and stakeholders on implementation factors facilitated acceptance and operationalisation of the trial. Statistical power and sample size calculations were based on expected changes in ATS use and unprotected sex at the population level as well as within subjects. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals were granted by the Cambodia National Ethics Committee; University of New Mexico; University of California, San Francisco; and FHI360. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Dissemination of process indicators during the multiyear trial is carried out through annual in-country Stakeholder Meetings. Provincial ‘Close-Out’ forums are held at the conclusion of data collection in each province. When analysis is completed, dissemination meetings will be held in Cambodia with stakeholders, including community-based discussion sessions, policy briefs and results published and presented in the HIV prevention scientific journals and conferences. Conclusions CIPI is the first trial of an intervention to reduce ATS use

  12. Reproductive Behaviour Evolves Rapidly When Intralocus Sexual Conflict Is Removed

    PubMed Central

    Bedhomme, Stéphanie; Prasad, Nagaraj G.; Jiang, Pan-Pan; Chippindale, Adam K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Intralocus sexual conflict can inhibit the evolution of each sex towards its own fitness optimum. In a previous study, we confirmed this prediction through the experimental removal of female selection pressures in Drosophila melanogaster, achieved by limiting the expression of all major chromosomes to males. Compared to the control populations (C1-4) where the genomes are exposed to selection in both sexes, the populations with male-limited genomes (ML1-4) showed rapid increases in male fitness, whereas the fitness of females expressing ML-evolved chromosomes decreased [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we examine the behavioural phenotype underlying this sexual antagonism. We show that males expressing the ML genomes have a reduced courtship level but acquire the same number of matings. On the other hand, our data suggest that females expressing the ML genomes had reduced attractiveness, stimulating a lower rate of courtship from males. Moreover, females expressing ML genomes tend to display reduced yeast-feeding behaviour, which is probably linked to the reduction of their fecundity. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that reproductive behaviour is shaped by opposing selection on males and females, and that loci influencing attractiveness and foraging were polymorphic for alleles with sexually antagonistic expression patterns prior to ML selection. Hence, intralocus sexual conflict appears to play a role in the evolution of a wide range of fitness-related traits and may be a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness. PMID:18478127

  13. Personality, sexuality, and substance use as predictors of sexual risk taking in college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P; Probst, Danielle R; Irvin, Clinton R

    2010-09-01

    Sexual risk taking among college students is common and can lead to serious consequences, such as unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. This study utilized responses from 310 undergraduate psychology students aged 18 to 23 to examine personality, sexuality, and substance use predictors of sexual risk behaviors over a six-month period. Data were collected from 2005 to 2006 at a medium-sized Midwestern U.S. university. Results indicated that greater alcohol and recreational drug use, higher extraversion, and lower agreeableness were related to sexual risk taking in men. For women, greater alcohol and drug use, higher sexual excitation, and lower sexual inhibition were predictive of sexual risk taking. Among women, but not men, sensation seeking was found to mediate the relationship between the four significant substance use, personality, and sexuality variables and sexual risk taking. Implications for sexual risk behavior prevention and intervention programming are discussed. PMID:19711220

  14. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men. PMID:26786739

  15. Experimentals, bottoms, risk-reducers and clubbers: exploring diverse sexual practice in an Internet-active high-risk behaviour group of men who have sex with men in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Persson, Kristina Ingemarsdotter; Tikkanen, Ronny; Bergström, Jakob; Berglund, Torsten; Thorson, Anna; Forsberg, Birger C

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify sub-groups of men who have sex with men at high risk of HIV infection. Data from the Swedish MSM2013 survey were analysed with a focus on respondents (n = 714) who reported having had unprotected anal intercourse with male casual partner(s) in the past 12 months. Weighted Latent Class Analysis with covariates and distal outcomes was conducted to identify sub-groups of men sharing the same sexual practice characteristics. Four latent classes emerged: experimentals, bottoms, risk-reducers and clubbers. Experimentals appeared to differ most from the other classes. They had extensive experience of barebacking, the use of poppers and fisting. Higher number of casual male sex partners and reporting having HIV were predictors for belonging to experimentals. No evidence for an association between self-rated HIV prevention knowledge and taking less part in risky practices was found. Hence, knowledge-intensive interventions may not be the best fit for reducing HIV transmission. This diversity of men based on similar sexual practice patterns should be taken into account when designing future HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26569463

  16. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as ‘client’ or ‘partner’ is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men. PMID:26786739

  17. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  18. Neural Correlates of Sexual Cue Reactivity in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Mole, Thomas B.; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Morris, Laurel; Mitchell, Simon; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Karr, Judy; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Irvine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) has been conceptualized as a “behavioural” addiction and common or overlapping neural circuits may govern the processing of natural and drug rewards, little is known regarding the responses to sexually explicit materials in individuals with and without CSB. Here, the processing of cues of varying sexual content was assessed in individuals with and without CSB, focusing on neural regions identified in prior studies of drug-cue reactivity. 19 CSB subjects and 19 healthy volunteers were assessed using functional MRI comparing sexually explicit videos with non-sexual exciting videos. Ratings of sexual desire and liking were obtained. Relative to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects had greater desire but similar liking scores in response to the sexually explicit videos. Exposure to sexually explicit cues in CSB compared to non-CSB subjects was associated with activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate, ventral striatum and amygdala. Functional connectivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate-ventral striatum-amygdala network was associated with subjective sexual desire (but not liking) to a greater degree in CSB relative to non-CSB subjects. The dissociation between desire or wanting and liking is consistent with theories of incentive motivation underlying CSB as in drug addictions. Neural differences in the processing of sexual-cue reactivity were identified in CSB subjects in regions previously implicated in drug-cue reactivity studies. The greater engagement of corticostriatal limbic circuitry in CSB following exposure to sexual cues suggests neural mechanisms underlying CSB and potential biological targets for interventions. PMID:25013940

  19. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  1. Exploring the internet's role in sexual compulsivity and out of control sexual thoughts/behaviour: a qualitative study of gay and bisexual men in New York City.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Bamonte, Anthony; Fuentes, Armando; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Bimbi, David S; Morgenstern, Jon

    2008-02-01

    Sexual compulsivity and the internet have been investigated separately among gay and bisexual men for their connection to sexual risk behaviour, yet little research has addressed the intersection. This analysis explored qualitative interview data from 111 gay and bisexual men experiencing out of control sexual thoughts and/or behaviours, about the role of the internet in their lives. For some it facilitated their problematic sexual thoughts and behaviours and, to some extent, was a distraction from important facets of their lives. Equally, men identified strategies to limit their internet use and reduce these negative consequences. For some, the internet was attributed to being less discriminating about partners. In contrast, other men compared the internet to other venues for meeting sex partners (e.g. bars) and described the internet as a medium for reducing physical (cruising online versus cruising a dark alley) and sexual (multiple partners at bathhouses versus cyber-sex only) risk. Clinically, service providers should conduct more thorough assessments regarding the role of the internet in the lives of patients who experience sexual compulsivity, as many individual differences exist, and there may be positive benefits that stem from internet use. PMID:18247206

  2. Treatment of Adult Sexual Offenders: A Therapeutic Cognitive-Behavioural Model of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research indicates that, of the various forms of treatment available to sexual offenders, cognitive-behavioural methods are likely to have the greatest impact in reducing rates of sexual re-offending. Cognitive-behavioural treatment typically targets attitudes that support sexual offending, anger management, victim empathy, deviant sexual…

  3. The evolution of risky behaviour in the presence of a sexually transmitted disease.

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Michael; Knell, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are widespread in nature, often sterilizing their hosts or causing other pathogenic effects. Despite this, there is a widespread occurrence of behaviours that are likely to increase the risk to an individual of contracting an STD. Here, we examine the evolution of behaviours such as promiscuity or mate choice that increase the risk of contracting an STD, but also provide a fitness benefit. As might be expected, the balance between risk and fitness benefit defines the optimal strategy, but this relationship is not straightforward. In particular, we often predict the coexistence of highly risky and highly risk-averse individuals. Surprisingly, very safe strategists that only suffer a small cost will tend to coexist with highly risky strategists rather than outcompete them as might have been expected. Rather than selecting for monogamy or for reduced mate choice, therefore, the presence of an STD may often lead to variability in either promiscuity or mate choice. PMID:11916474

  4. Factors Influencing Sexual Behaviour Between Tourists and Tourism Employees: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aditi; van Teijlingen, Edwin R; Beanland, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased travel abroad has a significant impact on the incidence and prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Previous reviews have focused on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of tourists and acquisition of STIs. Less is known about the impact on tourism operators in countries visited by tourists. The aim of this review is to ascertain factors influencing sexual behaviour between workers in the tourism industry and tourists; exploring the prevalence of sexual behaviour between the two populations, their perceptions of sexual risk while engaging in sexual activities and the knowledge of tourism operators regarding STIs. Methods: A systematic review was conducted. Database searches were performed in Medline/Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane library and CINAHL for studies published between 2000 and March 2016. Grey literature searches were completed in the NHS database and Google Scholar between 2000 and December 2013. Papers were independently selected by two researchers. Data were extracted and critically appraised using a pre-designed extraction form and adapted CASP checklist. Results: The search identified 1,602 studies and 16 were included after review of the full text. Studies were conducted in nine countries. Findings suggest that STI knowledge, attitude and practice were fairly good among tourists and tourism workers, but there is a need for pre-travel advice for travellers, especially those travelling to low and middle-income countries. Greater importance was given to tourists than to tourism operators and locals interacting with tourists. Studies suggest that as a group both tourist and tourist workers were likely to engage in sexual activities. Overall, both condom use and STI screening were low, among tourists as well as tourism operators. Furthermore, studies reported links between drug and alcohol use and sexual behaviour and risk taking. Conclusion: Although less research appeared to have been conducted among tourism workers than

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality.

    PubMed

    Zietsch, B P; Verweij, K J H; Bailey, J M; Wright, M J; Martin, N G

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed that personality is related to sexual behaviour via biological underpinnings of both. Here we test the viability of this perspective by analysing data from identical and non-identical twins (N = 4,904) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attitudes and behaviour as well as personality. Using genetic modelling of the twin data, we found that risky sexual behaviour was significantly positively correlated with Impulsivity (r = .27), Extraversion (r = .24), Psychoticism (r = .20), and Neuroticism (r = .09), and that in each case the correlation was due primarily to overlapping genetic influences. These findings suggest that the genetic influences that shape our personality may also predispose us to risky sexual behaviour. PMID:19813084

  6. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  7. The Drinkers Degree: Risk Taking Behaviours amongst Undergraduate Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Gillian; Martin, Neil; Birch, Jennifer; Oldam, Alison; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine risk taking behaviours associated with alcohol consumption amongst UK undergraduate students. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional web survey was used to assess attitudes and health behaviours. The survey included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Students were also asked about why they drank alcohol; about their preferred alcoholic beverage; and if they had experienced any consequences associated with drinking alcohol as well as questions relating to sexual risk taking, drug use, and smoking. Results. 2779 (65% female; 84% White British) students completed some part of the survey. Of these, 98% (n = 2711) completed the AUDIT. Of the 92% that drank 66% (n = 1,643) were categorised as being AUDIT positive. 8% (n = 224) were categorised as probably alcohol dependent. Higher AUDIT scores were significantly associated with negative consequences such as unplanned sexual activity, physical injuries, and arguments. Other risk taking behaviours such as drug use and smoking were also found to be positively correlated with higher AUDIT scores; drug use; and smoking. Conclusions. The results from this study provide insight into students' alcohol consumption and associated risk taking. University policies need to protect students' overall health and wellbeing to ensure academic potential is maximised. PMID:26713168

  8. Seasonal variations in socially and legally unacceptable sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bicakova-Rocher, A; Smolensky, M; Reinberg, A; De Prins, J

    1985-01-01

    The calendar dates, over the 15-year span 1966-1980, of committed rapes by eight male recidivists and offences of sexually indecent or immoral behaviour by eight other male recidivists were gathered from the files of the Préfecture de Police, Paris, France. Each offender of the first group had committed from two to six rapes, while each offender of the second had committed from two to 16 incidences of indecent behaviour. Although the reported rapes took place during several calendar years, almost all, 18 out of 22 offences, were committed by the eight rape-recidivists during the 4-month span of July-October. Single cosinor analysis of these data revealed a circannual rhythmicity (P less than 0.03) with luminal diameter being 10 August +/- 34 days (the 95% CL). The peak time of indecent sexual behaviour, exclusive of rape, against females occurred during September with secondary peaks in February and June; such offences directed against males peaked in October. 'Bootstrap' and 'Jackknife' methods confirmed seasonality within all data sets, except for the offences of indecent behaviour. PMID:3870851

  9. Associations between relational sexual behaviour, pornography use, and pornography acceptance among US college students.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J; Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, Larry J; Padilla-Walker, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    Pornography use among emerging adults in the USA has increased in recent decades, as has the acceptance of such consumption. While previous research has linked pornography use to both positive and negative outcomes in emerging adult populations, few studies have investigated how attitudes toward pornography may alter these associations, or how examining pornography use together with other sexual behaviours may offer unique insights into the outcomes associated with pornography use. Using a sample of 792 emerging adults, the present study explored how the combined examination of pornography use, acceptance, and sexual behaviour within a relationship might offer insight into emerging adults' development. Results suggested clear gender differences in both pornography use and acceptance patterns. High male pornography use tended to be associated with high engagement in sex within a relationship and was associated with elevated risk-taking behaviours. High female pornography use was not associated with engagement in sexual behaviours within a relationship and was general associated with negative mental health outcomes. PMID:25023726

  10. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S C

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16-29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported "binge" drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  11. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  12. Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence. PMID:22810165

  13. Trajectories of Sexual Risk from Middle Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Kristin L.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Jones, Bobby L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories of risky sexual behavior were identified in a multiethnic sample of 1,121 youth drawn from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data set (NLSY79). Group-based trajectory modeling of a composite index of sexual risk taking revealed four sexual risk groups from ages 16 to 22: low risk, decreasing risk,…

  14. Measurement of sexual risk taking among college students.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P

    2009-12-01

    Current measures of sexual risk taking are either too narrowly focused to be used with college students or do not have adequate psychometric properties. The goal of the current study was to develop a broad and psychometrically sound measure of sexual risk taking. A total of 613 undergraduate students (302 men, 311 women) at a mid-sized Midwestern university in the U.S. were surveyed to develop and gather reliability and validity information on a new measure of sexual risk, the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS). The measure was found to be multifactorial with five factors. The measure was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SRS also demonstrated evidence of convergent and concurrent validity by its relationships with reported number of sexual partners and history of infidelity as well as measures of sensation seeking, sexual desire, substance use, sexual excitation and inhibition, and sexual health consequences. Social desirability was not found to be related to sexual risk taking scores and threat of sexual disclosure was only weakly related. An investigation of sex differences revealed that men reported greater intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors and greater overall sexual risk taking behavior compared to women. The SRS provides researchers with a valid and comprehensive measure of sexual risk taking that can be used to clarify inconsistent findings in the literature and to assess outcome in programs designed to prevent and reduce sexual risk behaviors among college students. PMID:18563548

  15. Acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the relationship between acculturation and HIV-related sexual behaviours among international migrants. Seventy-nine articles published in English-language journals prior to July 2012 met the criteria for inclusion. We conducted a systematic review and subset meta-analysis of correlations between acculturation and five types of sexual behaviours including condom use, multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and other unsafe sexual practices. Immigrants high in mainstream acculturation were more likely to have multiple partnerships, early sexual initiation, STDs and unsafe sex (rs ranged from 0.10 to 0.16), but acculturation was not associated with condom use (r = 0.02). Gender moderated the relationships between acculturation and multiple partnerships, STDs and unsafe sex. The relationship between acculturation and unsafe sex also varied across ethnicity. These findings suggest that acculturation may serve as a risk factor towards immigrants' HIV-related sexual health. We offered a theoretical framework and suggested applying cross-cultural and longitudinal designs in future research on acculturation and health behaviours. PMID:25793493

  16. Factors Associated with Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Small, Stephen A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation examining factors that distinguish between sexually active adolescents who are at risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases and those who are at lower risk for these outcomes. Suggests factors associated with sexual risk taking include low GPA, frequent alcohol consumption, and low levels of parental…

  17. Enhanced attentional bias towards sexually explicit cues in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours.

    PubMed

    Mechelmans, Daisy J; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B; Lapa, Tatyana R; Harrison, Neil A; Potenza, Marc N; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance 'behavioural' addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB. PMID:25153083

  18. Sexuality and obesity, a gender perspective: results from French national random probability survey of sexual behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Wellings, Kaye; Laborde, Caroline; Moreau, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the association between body mass index (BMI) and sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, unintended pregnancies, and abortions in obese people and to discuss the implications for public health practices, taking into account the respondents’ and their partners’ BMI. Design Random probability survey of sexual behaviours. Setting National population based survey of 12 364 men and women aged 18-69 living in France in 2006. Participants Random selection of 5535 women and 4635 men, of whom 3651 women and 2725 men were normal weight (BMI 18.5-<25), 1010 women and 1488 men were overweight (BMI 25-<30), and 411 women and 350 men were obese (BMI >30). Results Obese women were less likely than normal weight women to report having a sexual partner in the past 12 months (odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.97). Obese men were less likely than normal weight men to report more than one sexual partner in the same period (0.31, 0.17 to 0.57, P<0.001) and more likely to report erectile dysfunction (2.58, 1.09 to 6.11, P<0.05). Sexual dysfunction was not associated with BMI among women. Obese women aged under 30 were less likely to seek healthcare services for contraception (0.37, 0.18 to 0.76) or to use oral contraceptives (0.34, 0.15 to 0.78). They were also more likely to report an unintended pregnancy (4.26, 2.21 to 8.23). Conclusion There is a link between BMI and sexual behaviour and adverse sexual health outcomes, with obese women less likely to access contraceptive healthcare services and having more unplanned pregnancies. Prevention of unintended pregnancies among these women is a major reproductive health challenge. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of sensitivities related to weight and gender in the provision of sexual health services. PMID:20551118

  19. Social Environment and Sexual Risk-Taking among Gay and Transgender African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin; Bernadini, Stephen; Jemmott, John B.

    2014-01-01

    More prevention effort is required as the HIV epidemic increases among gay and transgender African American youth. Using ecological systems theory and an integrative model of behaviour change, this study examines the sexual behaviour of gay and transgender African American young people as embedded within the unique social and structural environments affecting this population. Also examined is the important role played by mobile technology in the social and sexual lives of individuals. Seven focus groups were conducted with 54 African American young adults in a northeastern U.S. city. The findings provide a rich examination of the social and sexual lives of gay and transgender African American youth, focusing on the social environment and the impact of the environment on sexual risk behaviour. PMID:23889233

  20. Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-03-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432

  1. HIV vaccine efficacy trial participation: men who have sex with men's experiences of risk reduction counselling and perceptions of risk behaviour change.

    PubMed

    Guest, G; McLellan-Lemal, E; Matia, D M; Pickard, R; Fuchs, J; McKirnan, D; Neidig, J L

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were conducted with 35 men who have sex with men, enrolled in the world's first phase III HIV vaccine efficacy trial at five US sites, regarding their risk reduction counselling experiences and their perceptions of its impact on risk behaviour. Respondents ranged in age from 20 to 58 years and were predominately white (71.4%) in racial/ethnic origin. Systematic qualitative analysis revealed that a positive counselling experience meant having good rapport with clinic staff. Differences in attitudes toward counselling were related to either a personal approach of balancing an enjoyable sex life with safe sex behaviours (balancing risks) or accepting the consequences of risky sexual behaviour rather than making changes (risk homeostasis). Respondents seeking to balance risks indicated that they saw themselves engaging in safer sexual behaviour almost twice as often as in riskier behaviours. They perceived counselling and behavioural risk assessments to help increase their awareness of personal risk-taking behaviours. Conversely, those with a risk homeostasis approach reported that they had established sexual boundaries prior to trial participation that had thus far proven to be effective in avoiding HIV infection, and that they were comfortable with the level of risk taken. Thus, risk reduction counselling had little to no influence on their sexual practices. Some of these men also indicated that while they had not found the risk reduction information imparted to them by clinic staff to be novel, counselling was beneficial in reinforcing their HIV/AIDS and safe sex knowledge base. PMID:15832833

  2. Nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behavior: a study in Finland, Estonia, and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Staniuliene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Aro, Ilme; Kisper-Hint, Ima-Riina; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-10-01

    The continuing escalation of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic has changed our perceptions of sexual health. This article reports on a study of nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania and of how these perceptions are associated with background variables. Questionnaire data were collected in year 2006 with a modified version of Chng and Moore's Safer Sex Scale (1993), which consists of 12 background questions and 10 items exploring nurses' and nursing students' perceptions of sexual risk behaviour. Responses were obtained from 1152 nurses and nursing students. Their perceptions of sexual risk behaviour appeared to be quite cautious. The results revealed statistically significant country differences, with Finnish and Estonian respondents showing more cautious perceptions of sexual risk behavior than Lithuanian respondents. Some background variables were found to be associated with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses' perceptions differed from those of nursing students: the latter were less cautious in their perceptions. The most important background factor was previous experience of nursing an HIV/AIDS patient: nurses and students who had such experience reported more cautious perceptions than those who did not. In addition, age was found to correlate with perceptions of sexual risk behavior. Nurses and nursing students need to be more aware of their own perceptions of sexual risk behavior and the impact of those perceptions on their clinical practice. Interventions need to be developed in order to promote safer sex practices. Health care personnel should have the opportunity in their training to work with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:18847386

  3. Risk communication in sexually violent predator hearings.

    PubMed

    Scott, Sarah; Gilcrist, Brett; Thurston, Nicole; Huss, Matthew T

    2010-01-01

    Sexually violent predator (SVP) laws use the civil commitment process to confine mentally disordered and dangerous offenders who are at high risk to reoffend. Few studies have examined how jurors decide SVP cases. As a result, a pilot study and three experimental studies were conducted, in which victim type, risk communication, and juror education were manipulated to assess juror response. Results continually illustrated that victim type was the most salient manipulation across studies and that the manner of risk communication and juror education had little impact on jurors. PMID:19908210

  4. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Results Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8–7.7, p < 0.000), less than 10 years of schooling (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.3, p < 0.000), being exposed to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0–7.7, p < 0.000) and being a migrant (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p < 0.002). Factors significantly associated with exclusive homosexual behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16–22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8–40.7, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 8.8, 95% CI: 3.0–26.0, p = 0.000), having had exposure to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2, p = 0.002). Conclusions To prevent the spread of STI’s in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated

  5. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…

  7. Sexual risk behavior in young adulthood: broadening the scope beyond early sexual initiation.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A; Manhart, Lisa E; Hill, Karl G; Hawkins, J David

    2014-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation was a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10 to 15) and sexual risk taking (ages 21 to 24 and 30 to 33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  8. Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Adulthood: Broadening the Scope Beyond Early Sexual Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10–15) and sexual risk-taking (ages 21–24 and 30–33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058

  9. Sexual risk-reduction strategies among HIV-infected men receiving ART in Kibera, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, Anders; Thorson, Anna; Dover, Paul; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Indalo, Dorcas; Ekstrom, Anna Mia

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores motivational factors and barriers to sexual behaviour change among men receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Twenty in-depth interviews were undertaken with male patients enrolled at the African Medical and Research Foundation clinic in Africa's largest urban informal settlement, Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya. All participants experienced prolonged and severe illness prior to the initiation of ART. Fear of symptom relapse was the main trigger for sexual behaviour change. Partner reduction was reported as a first option for behaviour change since this decision could be made by the individual. Condom use was perceived as more difficult as it had to be negotiated with female partners. Cultural norms regarding expectations for reproduction and marriage were not supportive of sexual risk-reduction strategies. Thus, local sociocultural contexts of HIV-infected people must be incorporated into the contextual adaptation and design of ART programmes and services as they have an over-riding influence on sexual behaviour and programme effectiveness. Also, HIV-prevention interventions need to address both personal, micro- and macro-level factors of behaviour to encourage individuals to take on sexual risk-reduction strategies. In order to achieve the anticipated preventive effect of ART, these issues are important for the donor community and policy-makers, who are the major providers of ART programme support within weak health systems in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21347894

  10. Comparison of Measures of Risk for Recidivism in Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…

  11. Examining links between sexual risk behaviors and dating violence involvement as a function of sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, A.E.; Stepp, S.D.; Keenan, K.; Allen, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Rottingen, L.; McAloon, R.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Design Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors and risk-taking, and their use of and experience with dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Setting Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. Participants 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one third of the sample lived in poverty. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measure Sexual risk-taking. Results Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model, and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Conclusions Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. PMID:23726138

  12. A Comparison Between Girls' and Boys' Experiences of Unwanted Sexual Behaviour in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmerman, Greetje

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examines gender differences (and similarities) in the context, meaning and effects of unwanted sexual behaviour in secondary schools. Purpose First, the study's purpose is exploration of variables that discriminate between girls' and boys' experiences of unwanted sexual behaviour. Secondly, the aim is to find empirical…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  14. Enhanced Attentional Bias towards Sexually Explicit Cues in Individuals with and without Compulsive Sexual Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Mechelmans, Daisy J.; Irvine, Michael; Banca, Paula; Porter, Laura; Mitchell, Simon; Mole, Tom B.; Lapa, Tatyana R.; Harrison, Neil A.; Potenza, Marc N.; Voon, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive sexual behaviour (CSB) is relatively common and has been associated with significant distress and psychosocial impairments. CSB has been conceptualized as either an impulse control disorder or a non-substance ‘behavioural’ addiction. Substance use disorders are commonly associated with attentional biases to drug cues which are believed to reflect processes of incentive salience. Here we assess male CSB subjects compared to age-matched male healthy controls using a dot probe task to assess attentional bias to sexually explicit cues. We show that compared to healthy volunteers, CSB subjects have enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues but not neutral cues particularly for early stimuli latency. Our findings suggest enhanced attentional bias to explicit cues possibly related to an early orienting attentional response. This finding dovetails with our recent observation that sexually explicit videos were associated with greater activity in a neural network similar to that observed in drug-cue-reactivity studies. Greater desire or wanting rather than liking was further associated with activity in this neural network. These studies together provide support for an incentive motivation theory of addiction underlying the aberrant response towards sexual cues in CSB. PMID:25153083

  15. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. PMID:26564549

  16. Sexual power and HIV risk, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pettifor, Audrey E; Measham, Diana M; Rees, Helen V; Padian, Nancy S

    2004-11-01

    Gender power inequities are believed to play a key role in the HIV epidemic through their effects on women's power in sexual relationships. We hypothesized that lack of sexual power, measured with a four-point relationship control scale and by a woman's experience of forced sex with her most recent partner, would decrease the likelihood of consistent condom use and increase the risk for HIV infection among sexually experienced, 15- to 24-year-old women in South Africa. While limited sexual power was not directly associated with HIV, it was associated with inconsistent condom use: women with low relationship control were 2.10 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-3.78), and women experiencing forced sex were 5.77 times more likely to use condoms inconsistently (95% CI 1.86-17.91). Inconsistent condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio 1.58, 95% CI 1.10-2.27). PMID:15550214

  17. Evaluation of a sexual health approach to reducing HIV/STD risk in the transgender community.

    PubMed

    Bockting, W O; Robinson, B E; Forberg, J; Scheltema, K

    2005-04-01

    Despite reports of high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among the transgender community, very little prevention education has targeted this population. To fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a transgender-specific intervention, All Gender Health, which incorporates prevention strategies into comprehensive sexuality education. Transgender participants (N=181) attended the two-day seminar in community-based venues. The curriculum was delivered via lectures, panel discussions, videos, music, exercises and small group discussions. Attitudes toward condom use, safer sex self-efficacy and sexual risk behaviour were evaluated before participation in the intervention (pre-test), immediately after participation (post-test) and at three-month follow-up. Compared to pre-test values, significant improvements were seen in attitudes toward condom use and in safer sex self-efficacy at post-test, and in attitudes toward condom use, increased monogamy and decreased sexual risk behaviour at three-month follow-up. Pre-test data identified unprotected anal, vaginal and oral sex as the most commonly reported risk behaviours. Many respondents also indicated problems with social discrimination, depression, suicidal ideation and sexual functioning. Future interventions should address these risk co-factors. Alternative interventions need to be developed to target those who, as a result of social marginalization, are less likely to be reached with an intensive seminar-based intervention. PMID:15832877

  18. The control of deviant sexual behaviour by drugs. I. Behavioural changes following oestrogens and anti-androgens.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, J; Tennent, G; Loucas, K; Cass, J

    1974-09-01

    Using attitudinal, behavorial, and physiological measures, the effects of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol on the sexual behavior of sexual offenders was assessed. The effects of the drugs did not differ significantly on any measure. Compared to no treatment, both drugs lowered sexual interest and sexual activity. Sexual attitudes were not changed. No important side effects were noted. These studies do not indicate what long-term side effects might be expected. Further research will be needed to determine these. Since estrogens carry the risk of serious and irreversible side effects, cyproterone acetate seems to be more desirable for controlling sexual behavior. PMID:4607733

  19. HIV risk of transmission behaviour amongst HIV-infected prisoners and its correlates.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, P; Barry, M

    1992-11-01

    Thirty-eight from a total of 42 known HIV-positive prisoners in the Irish prison system voluntarily cooperated in a survey of psychological attitudes, knowledge of risk behaviour, intentions with respect to future risk behaviour, and actual past risk behaviour. Of this group, 65% reported that they had put others at risk of HIV, since they became aware of their own HIV+ status. Only 16% stated that they would definitely not share their drug-taking equipment in the future and 32% that they would always use a condom in sexual intercourse. In general, psychological and biographical variables were not strongly related to whether or not the respondents had put others at risk of HIV. Nor were there any significant differences in knowledge of at risk behaviour between those who had and those who had not put others at risk. However, there was some evidence for considerable independence between risk-taking behaviour in the sexual and in the drug-taking domains, in that risk-taking in one area was not highly predictive of risk-taking in the other. PMID:1458034

  20. Sexual Self-Concept and Sexual Risk-Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakwell, Glynis M.; Millward, Lynne J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents data from a survey of randomly selected adolescents (N=474) which examined differences between male and female sexual identities. Results indicate two main dimensions in male sexual self-concept: socioemotional and the relational. Female sexual self-concept revolved around concerns with assertiveness, such as controlling when sex occurs.…

  1. Investigating the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviour in young people in Britain: findings from a national probability survey

    PubMed Central

    Khadr, S N; Jones, K G; Mann, S; Hale, D R; Johnson, A M; Viner, R M; Mercer, C H; Wellings, K

    2016-01-01

    Background Health risk behaviours are prominent in late adolescence and young adulthood, yet UK population-level research examining the relationship between drug or alcohol use and sexual health and behaviour among young people is scarce, despite public health calls for an integrated approach to health improvement. Our objective was to further our understanding of the scale of and nature of any such relationship, using contemporary data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3). Methods Analyses of data from Natsal-3, a stratified probability survey of 15 162 men and women (3869 aged 16–24 years), undertaken in 2010–2012, using computer-assisted personal interviewing, were carried out. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between reporting (1) frequent binge drinking (≥weekly), (2) recent drug use (within past 4 weeks) or (3) multiple (both types of) substance use, and key sexual risk behaviours and adverse sexual health outcomes. We then examined the sociodemographic profile, health behaviours and attitudes reported by ‘risky’ young people, defined as those reporting ≥1 type of substance use plus non-condom use at first sex with ≥1 new partner(s), last year. Results Men and women reporting frequent binge drinking or recent drug use were more likely to report: unprotected first sex with ≥1 new partner(s), last year; first sex with their last partner after only recently meeting; emergency contraception use (last year) and sexually transmitted infection diagnosis/es (past 5 years). Associations with sexual risk were frequently stronger for those reporting multiple substance use, particularly among men. The profile of ‘risky’ young people differed from that of other 16–24 years old. Conclusions In this nationally representative study, substance use was strongly associated with sexual risk and adverse sexual health outcomes among young people. Qualitative or event-level research is

  2. Influence of risk-taking health behaviours of adolescents on cervical cancer prevention: a Hungarian survey.

    PubMed

    Marek, E; Berenyi, K; Dergez, T; Kiss, I; D'Cruz, G

    2016-01-01

    An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among the Hungarian adolescents to establish their use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in relation to sexual behaviours, knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, and beliefs and attitudes towards screening and vaccination. Results indicated that adolescent risk-taking health behaviours correlate with risky sexual behaviours. As risk-taking behaviours do not correlate with a better awareness of the risk associated with HPV infection, it is of crucial importance that HPV/cervical cancer preventing educational programmes shall be sensitive to this 'vulnerable' population and draw the attention of these adolescents to their increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases and undesired pregnancies. Well-designed behavioural change interventions may be effective when in addition to providing adolescents (both men and women) with clear information about the implications of an HPV infection, they also aim to improve safer sex behaviours: consistent condom usage, limiting the number of sex partners, as well as encouraging regular participation in gynaecological screenings and uptake of the HPV vaccine. As this study population demonstrated positive attitudes towards the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer, the free HPV vaccination for the 12-13-year-old girls in Autumn 2014 will hopefully increase the currently low uptake of the vaccine in Hungary. PMID:26059166

  3. Perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in rural Uganda: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Musoke, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Medical male circumcision is currently recognized as an additional important HIV preventive intervention to reduce the risk of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men. However, sexual behaviours after medical circumcision can potentially reduce the expected benefits of the practice. This study explored the perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours of adults in Kayunga district, Uganda. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 393 respondents using a semi structured questionnaire. In addition, four focus group discussions were conducted. Quantitative data was analysed using STATA 12. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Qualitative data was analysed thematically. Results The study established various perceptions about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviours. Majority 247 (64.5%) did not perceive circumcision as a practice that can lead men to have multiple sexual partners. Males were 3 times more likely to think that circumcision would lead to having multiple sexual partners than females (AOR=2.99, CI: 1.93-4.61). Only 89 (23.2%) believed that circumcision would lead to complacency and compromise the use of condoms to prevent against infection with HIV. Respondents who had education above primary were less likely to think that circumcision would compromise the use of condoms (AOR=0.49, CI: 0.31- 0.79). The perception that circumcised youths were less likely to abstain from sexual intercourse was less held among those with education above primary (AOR=0.58, CI: 0.37-0.91) and those older than 30 years (AOR=0.59, CI: 0.38-0.92). Conclusion There were gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions about MMC in the study community. Measures are needed to avert the negative perceptions by equipping communities with sufficient, accurate and consistent information about medical male circumcision and sexual behaviour. PMID:26985272

  4. Preliminary study of the sexual behaviour of three aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Winn, R M

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the process of mating among captive aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Data on sexual behaviour of 3 wild-caught aye-ayes were collected over a period of 3 years (1986-1989). The group of 2 adult females and a young male was housed at the Vincennes Zoo, Paris. The seasonal poly-oestrous sexual cycle was found to be marked by four clear phases of the females' vulval tumescence and coincided with sexual interest shown by both sexes. The external genitalia of the females are described, as are marking behaviour and sexual behaviour patterns before, during and after copulation. The behaviour and sexual cycles of these 2 females were compared with records from other lemurs. PMID:7721211

  5. Sexual Assertiveness Mediates the Effect of Social Interaction Anxiety on Sexual Victimization Risk among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…

  6. Poverty, Food Insufficiency and HIV Infection and Sexual Behaviour among Young Rural Zimbabwean Women

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Sophie J. S.; Langhaug, Lisa F.; Mavhu, Webster; Hargreaves, James; Jaffar, Shabbar; Hayes, Richard; Cowan, Frances M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a recent decline, Zimbabwe still has the fifth highest adult HIV prevalence in the world at 14.7%; 56% of the population are currently living in extreme poverty. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey of 18–22 year olds, conducted in 30 communities in south-eastern Zimbabwe in 2007. Objective To examine whether the risk of HIV infection among young rural Zimbabwean women is associated with socio-economic position and whether different socio-economic domains, including food sufficiency, might be associated with HIV risk in different ways. Methods Eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a finger-prick blood sample tested for antibodies to HIV and HSV-2. The relationship between poverty and HIV was explored for three socio-economic domains: ability to afford essential items; asset wealth; food sufficiency. Analyses were performed to examine whether these domains were associated with HIV infection or risk factors for infection among young women, and to explore which factors might mediate the relationship between poverty and HIV. Results 2593 eligible females participated in the survey and were included in the analyses. Overall HIV prevalence among these young females was 7.7% (95% CI: 6.7–8.7); HSV-2 prevalence was 11.2% (95% CI: 9.9–12.4). Lower socio-economic position was associated with lower educational attainment, earlier marriage, increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders and increased reporting of higher risk sexual behaviours such as earlier sexual debut, more and older sexual partners and transactional sex. Young women reporting insufficient food were at increased risk of HIV infection and HSV-2. Conclusions This study provides evidence from Zimbabwe that among young poor women, economic need and food insufficiency are associated with the adoption of unsafe behaviours. Targeted structural interventions that aim to tackle social and economic constraints including insufficient food should

  7. Hypothalamic inhibition of socio-sexual behaviour by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tobari, Yasuko; Narihiro, Misato; Ishikawa, Kei; Hayashi, Takanori; Harada, Nobuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion and socio-sexual behaviours. Oestrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized in the brain from androgen by aromatase regulates male socio-sexual behaviours. Here we show that GnIH directly activates aromatase and increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA) and inhibits socio-sexual behaviours of male quail. Aromatase activity and neuroestrogen concentration in the POA are low in the morning when the birds are active, but neuroestrogen synthesis gradually increases until the evening when the birds become inactive. Centrally administered GnIH in the morning increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA and decreases socio-sexual behaviours. Centrally administered 17β-oestradiol at higher doses also inhibits socio-sexual behaviours in the morning. These results suggest that GnIH inhibits male socio-sexual behaviours by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of socio-sexual behaviours. This is the first demonstration of any hypothalamic neuropeptide that directly regulates neuroestrogen synthesis.

  8. Hypothalamic inhibition of socio-sexual behaviour by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tobari, Yasuko; Narihiro, Misato; Ishikawa, Kei; Hayashi, Takanori; Harada, Nobuhiro; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion and socio-sexual behaviours. Oestrogen (neuroestrogen) synthesized in the brain from androgen by aromatase regulates male socio-sexual behaviours. Here we show that GnIH directly activates aromatase and increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the preoptic area (POA) and inhibits socio-sexual behaviours of male quail. Aromatase activity and neuroestrogen concentration in the POA are low in the morning when the birds are active, but neuroestrogen synthesis gradually increases until the evening when the birds become inactive. Centrally administered GnIH in the morning increases neuroestrogen synthesis in the POA and decreases socio-sexual behaviours. Centrally administered 17β-oestradiol at higher doses also inhibits socio-sexual behaviours in the morning. These results suggest that GnIH inhibits male socio-sexual behaviours by increasing neuroestrogen synthesis beyond its optimum concentration for the expression of socio-sexual behaviours. This is the first demonstration of any hypothalamic neuropeptide that directly regulates neuroestrogen synthesis. PMID:24430094

  9. Sexual Behaviour and Interest in Using a Sexual Health Mobile App to Help Improve and Manage College Students' Sexual Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Alice R.; Webb, Monica C.; Brinkley, Jason; Martin, Ryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Many US college students are reported to engage in risky sexual behaviour. Smartphone applications are a popular way to provide users with information in real time. We explored the potential for mobile technology to be used in promoting the sexual health of college students. Using findings from an online survey among a random sample of 5000…

  10. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  11. Youth "At Risk"? Young People, Sexual Health and Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…

  12. School Sexuality Education and Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecilia Dine; Wolf, Eve M.

    1995-01-01

    Examines and critiques research that measures the effects of school sexuality education programs on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior. Discusses common methodological problems and examines studies measuring program effectiveness. Research suggests participation in school sexuality education does not promote increased or earlier sexual…

  13. Associations among Adolescent Risk Behaviours and Self-Esteem in Six Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study investigated associations among adolescents' self-esteem in 6 domains (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image and global self-worth) and risk behaviours related to substance use, bullying, suicidality and sexuality. Method: A multistage stratified sampling strategy was used to select a representative sample of…

  14. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  15. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools. PMID:27089354

  16. Sexual abuse and subsequent suicidal behaviour. Exacerbating factors and implications for recovery.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Cate

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a cause for concern among many western countries; in general, it is most common among young women. This research used qualitative methods to explore the narratives of 24 women, to contextualise their insights, and to examine the meanings of events leading to and implicated in the recovery from suicidal behaviour. The research confirms sexual abuse as a common precursor to suicidal behaviour; several women asserted that they would not have attempted suicide if they did not have a sexual abuse history. The women noted that the effects of sexual abuse were exacerbated by problems with disclosure, linking to issues of control, with implications for intervention and recovery. PMID:16702144

  17. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Behaviors as Mediators of the Sexual Victimization - Revictimization Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent and college victimization is mediated via two types of risk exposure in the first semester of college: alcohol-related and sexual risk behaviors. Method: Female adolescents (N = 469) were recruited from the community at the time of high school graduation. They completed baseline assessments as well as follow-ups at the end of the first and second semesters of college. Results: Consistent with hypotheses, adolescent sexual victimization was associated indirectly, via high school risk behaviors, with increased first semester college risk behaviors (i.e., sexual partners, hookups, heavy episodic drinking and heavy drinking contexts), which were, in turn, strongly predictive of sexual victimization experiences in the first year of college. College risk behaviors partially mediated the significant association between adolescent and first year college victimization; however, even women without prior victimization faced elevated risk of college victimization with higher levels of college risk behaviors. Conclusions: Women who have experienced adolescent sexual victimization engage in higher levels of risk-taking in college, thereby increasing vulnerability to college victimization. Intervention to reduce these primarily alcohol-related risk-taking behaviors may reduce vulnerability to college sexual victimization. PMID:20350035

  18. Sexual behaviour in pregnancy, after childbirth and during breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Alder, E M

    1989-12-01

    Sexual and marital relationships change throughout marriage and the transition to parenthood can be seen as a psychosocial crisis. Recent studies do not support the finding of Masters and Johnson (1966) that there is a mid-trimester rise in sexual responsiveness. Sexual behaviour decreases towards the end of pregnancy and a number of studies have found that in the majority of mothers there is only a slow return to pre-pregnancy levels in the first postnatal year. Some of the factors influencing the rate of return are discussed. Breast-feeding is important because of the hormonal changes it produces and it has been said to stimulate sexual feelings in both mother and baby. There is some evidence that breast-feeding has an adverse effect on sexuality in the first postnatal year. It is not clear whether this could be related to differences in hormone levels or differences in feeding behaviour. Fatigue and contraception have largely been ignored in studies of factors influencing postnatal sexual behaviour. Women who went on to breast-feed were found to be very similar on antenatal measures of sexual behaviour to those who went on to bottle-feed. The method of feeding is the major influence on the hormonal status, and the experience of painful intercourse reported by breast-feeding mothers may be related to low oestrogen levels. Breast-feeding persistence is influenced by both social and psychological factors and its effect on sexual behaviour is discussed. PMID:2700144

  19. Adolescents’ emotions prior to sexual activity and associations with sexual risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Christopher; Swenson, Rebecca; Donenberg, Geri; Papino, Andrew; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the link between the emotional context of sexual situations and sexual risk, specifically by examining the relationship of teens’ recall of their affective states prior to sex with their sexual risk behaviors and attitudes. Adolescents (ages 13-19) attending therapeutic schools due to emotional and behavioral difficulties (n=247) completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews regarding sexual behavior, including ratings of their emotions prior to last sexual activity. Positive emotions were most commonly endorsed (43-57% of participants), however, significant proportions (8-23%) also endorsed negative emotions prior to last sex. Both positive and negative emotions were significantly related to risk attitudes and behavior in regression analyses. The affective contexts of sexual experiences may be important predictors of risk in adolescence. PMID:24558097

  20. Adapting the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model: Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk among Sexual Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…

  1. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kipping, Ruth R; Smith, Michèle; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inactivity were assessed in mid-adolescence (age 15–16 years). Associations between three measures of SES (maternal education, household income and parental social class) and (i) individual risk behaviours and (ii) the total number of risk behaviours were examined. Results. For a one-category reduction in social class, maternal education or income, the odds of having a greater number of multiple risk behaviours increased by 22, 15 and 12%, respectively. At the individual level, there was evidence of a strong relationship with decreasing SES across all three measures of SES and criminality, car passenger risk, TV viewing, scooter risk, early sexual behaviour and weekly tobacco use but insufficient evidence of a relationship for physical inactivity, cycling without a helmet and illicit substance use. There was weak evidence of association between SES and hazardous drinking, self-harm, cannabis use and unprotected sex, but this was not consistent across the SES measures. Conclusion. The association between multiple risk behaviours and SES suggests that prevention strategies should apply the principal of proportionate universalism with a focus on more deprived populations, within a population-wide strategy, to prevent widening of social inequalities. PMID:24963150

  2. Regulation of human sexual behaviour, sex revolution and emergence of AIDS: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, A

    1997-01-01

    No Society in the World permits fully free sexual behaviour. All societies utilize a variety of ways for regulation of sexual behaviour. This has been happening since antiquity. Culture also affects sexual behaviour. In western civilization there was a healthly outlook towards sexuality during Greco-Roman era. In Indian civilization also human sexuality was considered an inseparable part of life and was given a higher place in human life. Many treatises on human sexuality were written. Sex was considered as an art and was given an exalted status through the medium of sculpture work in temples of Konark & Khajuraho. But in Christian civilization sexual acts and related areas were considered immoral, debasing, dirty and abhoring. Sex-related ideas/thoughts were considered immoral in Churches and were given low status in society. Rapidly occurring social changes in 20th century- World wars I & II, urbanization, modernization, industrialization, women emancipation and strong reaction to unprecedented suppression of 19th century suppression of sexuality led to advent of sexual revolution in America & other western countries. Liberal-sex spread throughout the society. Sexual promiscuity, prostitution, homosexuality, group-sex were socially accepted on a wide scale. Presumably as a result of these tendencies a disease like AIDS has now spread from America to the whole world. Present article is an effort of analysis of historical perspective of this problem. PMID:12575704

  3. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; Khani, Ali; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Suhrabi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life, self esteem and interpersonal relationships and it may often be responsible for psychopathological disturbances. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors for Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women with Kurdish culture from western Iran . Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey which included 400 women aged 18–50 years old, married, from Ilam-IR, who were interviewed as per the Iranian version of Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The subjects were randomly selected from 4 primary health centres. Results: According to the findings, 185 (46.2%) women reported FSD. Prevalence of FSD increased with age, from 22% in women aged <20 years to 75.7% in women aged 40-50 years. FSD was detected as a desire problem in 45.3% of women, an arousal problem in 37.5%, a lubrication problem in 41.2%, an orgasm problem in 42.0%, a satisfaction problem in 44.5% and a pain problem in 42.5%. The educational level was inversely correlated with the risk of FSD (OR: 1.54 ,95% CI: 1.09-2.13). Patients with FSD were significantly more likely to be older than 40 years (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.12-2.68), who had sexual intercourse fewer than 3 times a week (OR:1.85, 95% CI: 1.23-1.99), who had been married for 10 years or more (OR:1.76, 95% CI: 1.04-1.97), who had 3 children or more (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.97-1.24), who had husbands aged 40 years or more (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.35-2.37) and who were unemployed (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63). No significant differences were detected in smoking history, residences and contraception methods used (p>0.05). Conclusion: FSD needs to be recognized as a significant public health problem in Kurd women. Further research, particularly studies on awareness and competency of physicians in the management of FSD, is required. PMID:24551663

  4. Attitudes, Knowledge, and Sexual Behavior of High-Risk Adolescents: Implications for Counseling and Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melchert, Tim; Burnett, Kent F.

    1990-01-01

    Examined high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents (N=212) involved in juvenile justice system. Found that youth were at high risk for unintended pregnancy, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and other sexually transmitted disease. Compared to national norms, sample reported very early mean age at first intercourse and high rate of pregnancy. Most…

  5. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  6. Internet use and risk behaviours: an online survey of visitors to three gay websites in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, D; Bi, P; Lv, F; Tang, H; Zhang, J; Hiller, J E

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To describe the risk behaviours of visitors to gay websites and to explore the role of the internet in the HIV transmission among the Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Between May and August 2006, visitors of three Chinese gay websites were invited to complete an online questionnaire about the use of the internet and risk sexual behaviours. Results The median age of the online sample was 25 years old (range 18 to 64). Over three‐quarters (77.6%) had an education of college or higher. Less than 44% of the online sample reported little or no risk for HIV transmission. These men had either had no anal intercourse (28.0%) or had always used a condom for anal intercourse (15.8%). Although only about half of the participants reported that their main purpose of visiting the gay websites was to look for sexual partners, most participants (86.1%) had used the internet to seek partners. Compared with men seeking sexual partners only on the internet, men seeking partners both in traditional gay venues and on the internet were older, less likely to be students and more likely to have unprotected anal intercourse, more than six sexual partners in the past 6 months and commercial sex behaviours. Conclusion The users of the gay websites are relatively young and well educated, and highly vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, given their low prevalence of consistent condom use and multiple‐risk sexual behaviours. Effective intervention programmes should be implemented and strengthened in China, especially for those who seek sexual partners both on the internet and in traditional gay venues. PMID:17971376

  7. Clustering of Risk Behaviours among African American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, M.; Addy, C. L.; Wilcox, S.; Dowda, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Individuals may engage in more than one risk behaviour at any given time. The extent to which risk behaviours cluster among African American adults has been largely unexplored. This study examined the prevalence and clustering of three risk behaviours among African American church members: smoking; low moderate-to-vigorous intensity…

  8. Is High Sexual Desire a Risk for Women's Relationship and Sexual Well-Being?

    PubMed

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bergeron, Sophie; Jurin, Tanja

    2016-09-01

    Historically, women's sexual desire has been deemed socially problematic. The growing popularity of the concept of hypersexuality-which lists high sexual desire among its core components-poses a risk of re-pathologizing female sexual desire. Data from a 2014 online survey of 2,599 Croatian women aged 18-60 years was used to examine whether high sexual desire is detrimental to women's relationship and sexual well-being. Based on the highest scores on an indicator of sexual desire, 178 women were classified in the high sexual desire (HSD) group; women who scored higher than one standard deviation above the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory mean were categorized in the hypersexuality (HYP) group (n = 239). Fifty-seven women met the classification criteria for both groups (HYP&HSD). Compared to other groups, the HSD was the most sexually active group. Compared to controls, the HYP and HYP&HSD groups-but not the HSD group-reported significantly more negative consequences associated with their sexuality. Compared to the HYP group, women with HSD reported better sexual function, higher sexual satisfaction, and lower odds of negative behavioral consequences. The findings suggest that, at least among women, hypersexuality should not be conflated with high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity. PMID:26579557

  9. Sexual behaviour and sexual and reproductive health education: a cross-sectional study in Romania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    sexual activity and poor SRH education from schools, experts and parents require a multidisciplinary approach within prevention programmes, especially among the populations at risk: rural residents, those with low levels of education and youth. PMID:24957900

  10. The behavioural toxicity of antidepressants: effects on cognition and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Hindmarch, I

    1998-07-01

    The cognitive system is structured from sets of schema, patterns of neural activity that allow the assimilation or accommodation of new experiences and so, by a process of consolidation, the gradual development of knowledge and understanding. As well as schema for purely cognitive processes, there are similar structures that enable individuals to deal with sexual behaviour and affectual relationships (e.g. hedonia, self-esteem, personal preferences and body image). In depression, there is a well established disruption of cognitive function that results in anhedonia and a loss of pleasure, including that from sexual activities. Many antidepressants also have a direct pharmacological action on the central nervous system and disrupt cognitive function, so increasing anhedonia and impairing sexual function. Drug actions on cognitive structures, which in turn increase anhedonia and reduce sexual libido, are over and above any direct pharmacological effects on the more overt behavioural activities associated with sex, including orgasm, erectile function, potency and ejaculation. The tricyclic antidepressants, for example, destroy the cognitive structures that are vital to maintain normal libido as well as disturbing overt sexual behaviours. Some selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; paroxetine and sertraline) are associated with behavioural activation that is also responsible for an impairment of sexual function. However, there are clear differences between the SSRIs, and fluvoxamine (relative to the other SSRIs) has little effect on objective measures of cognition or on cerebral and behavioural components of sexual function. PMID:9728668

  11. Sexual Behaviour Profiles of HIV-Positive Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Knaap, Linda; Jedeloo, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Young people living with HIV are challenged when it comes to exploring their sexuality. Their sex education is hampered by the fact that their preferences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour are little known about. In this study from the Netherlands, Q-methodology was used to identify sizeable and meaningful sub-groups sharing common attitudes…

  12. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  13. Group Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disability and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: Service User Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Sarah-Jane; Murphy, Glynis H.; Langdon, Peter E.; Rose, David; Reed, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Men with intellectual disability (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour are a disempowered and marginalised group. Nevertheless, as service users, they can be consulted and involved in a variety of different ways, including ascertaining their views of the services they receive. Method: A group of 16 men with ID and sexually abusive…

  14. Sexually Abusive Behaviour in Juveniles: Deviant and Non-Deviant Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Outsem, Ron

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a theoretical framework is presented in an attempt to find an answer to the question of why some juveniles display sexually abusive behaviour and others do not. Until recently, this question has been approached mainly in terms of the presence of psychiatric illness, deviant sexual interests and/or impaired psychosocial development.…

  15. [Convicted sexual offenders. The risk of recidivism?].

    PubMed

    Grünfeld, B; Noreik, K; Sivertsen, E A

    1998-01-10

    332 persons, who in 1987 received sanctions for sexual offences, were observed in freedom for five years, or until recidivism at an earlier stage. 82 (24.7%) committed new crimes during the observation period. Sexual offences comprised about 1/3 (8.4%) of the crimes committed. Rapists had the highest degree of recidivism. There was no significant difference between the various subgroups of sexual offenders (sexual offences against minors, rapists and other offenders) with regard to the frequency of recidivism into sexual offences. Registered sanctions for sexual offences before 1987, and sexual abuse and obscene conduct toward minors registered i 1987, were found to be significantly correlated to sexual recidivism after 1987. Problems regarding the evaluation of the effects of treatment to forestall recidivism into sexual crimes are discussed. PMID:9481914

  16. Sexual Risk Avoidance and Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions For Middle School Youth: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Christine M.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Shegog, Ross; Thiel, Melanie; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Reininger, Belinda; Robin, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of two, theory-based, multi-media, middle school sexual education programs in delaying sexual initiation. Methods Three-armed, randomized controlled trial comprising fifteen urban middle schools; 1,258 predominantly African-American and Hispanic 7th grade students followed into 9th grade. Both programs included group and individualized, computer-based activities addressing psychosocial variables. The risk avoidance (RA) program met federal abstinence education guidelines; the risk reduction (RR) program emphasized abstinence and included computer-based condom skills-training. The primary outcome assessed program impact on delayed sexual initiation; secondary outcomes assessed other sexual behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Results Participants were 59.8% female, mean age 12.6 years. Relative to controls, the RR program delayed any type of sexual initiation (oral, vaginal or anal sex) in the overall sample (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.54–0.77), among females (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.31–0.60) and African-Americans (AOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18–0.79). RR students also reduced unprotected sex at last intercourse (AOR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.47–0.96), past three months’ frequency of anal sex (AOR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.33–0.84) and unprotected vaginal sex (AOR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.36–0.95). The RA program delayed any sexual initiation among Hispanics (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19–0.86), reduced unprotected sex at last intercourse (AOR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52–0.93) but increased the number of recent vaginal sex partners (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.01–2.82). Both programs positively impacted psychosocial outcomes. Conclusions The RR program positively impacted sexually inexperienced and experienced youth; the RA program delayed initiation among Hispanics and had mixed effects among sexually experienced youth. PMID:22325134

  17. A juvenile mouse pheromone inhibits sexual behaviour through the vomeronasal system.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, David M; Moeller, Lisa M; Osakada, Takuya; Horio, Nao; Li, Qian; Roy, Dheeraj S; Cichy, Annika; Spehr, Marc; Touhara, Kazushige; Liberles, Stephen D

    2013-10-17

    Animals display a repertoire of different social behaviours. Appropriate behavioural responses depend on sensory input received during social interactions. In mice, social behaviour is driven by pheromones, chemical signals that encode information related to age, sex and physiological state. However, although mice show different social behaviours towards adults, juveniles and neonates, sensory cues that enable specific recognition of juvenile mice are unknown. Here we describe a juvenile pheromone produced by young mice before puberty, termed exocrine-gland secreting peptide 22 (ESP22). ESP22 is secreted from the lacrimal gland and released into tears of 2- to 3-week-old mice. Upon detection, ESP22 activates high-affinity sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ, and downstream limbic neurons in the medial amygdala. Recombinant ESP22, painted on mice, exerts a powerful inhibitory effect on adult male mating behaviour, which is abolished in knockout mice lacking TRPC2, a key signalling component of the vomeronasal organ. Furthermore, knockout of TRPC2 or loss of ESP22 production results in increased sexual behaviour of adult males towards juveniles, and sexual responses towards ESP22-deficient juveniles are suppressed by ESP22 painting. Thus, we describe a pheromone of sexually immature mice that controls an innate social behaviour, a response pathway through the accessory olfactory system and a new role for vomeronasal organ signalling in inhibiting sexual behaviour towards young. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding how a sensory system can regulate behaviour. PMID:24089208

  18. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  19. Intimacy revealed: sexual experimentation and the construction of risk among young people in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Karlyn, A S

    2005-05-01

    The expanding AIDS epidemic in Mozambique is fuelled principally by heterosexual transmission, with young people identified as a key group for prevention efforts. However, little is known about the sexual behaviour of young people in Mozambique and the protective practices they adopt. This paper seeks to identify the contexts and rules governing sexual risk-taking among young people in Maputo. In doing so, the paper affirms the importance of context in understanding risk practices, but highlights the fluidity of practice as an important limitation for the use of contextual analysis in prevention interventions. By focusing on one innovation, the saca cena one-night stand, this paper shows how a subgroup of young people in Maputo has redefined a "risky" sexual practice to include exclusive condom use. As a risk context, the saca cena dictates a set of implicit rules emphasizing anonymity, discretion, verbal and non-verbal cues, and for a set of select innovators, condom use. The saca cena challenges the hegemonic gender roles found among many young people in Maputo of male dominance through sexual conquest and female acquiescence. Instead, the practice allows young people to be both adventurous and responsible. The discourse demonstrates how sexual identities have been redefined to combine risk reduction with sexual experimentation and the satiation of desire. PMID:16864203

  20. A Revised Sexual Knowledge Assessment Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities: Is Sexual Knowledge Related to Sexual Offending Behaviour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, T. J.; Langdon, Peter E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The aim of the current study was to update an existing short measure of sexual knowledge and generate some initial reliability and normative data. Comparisons of sexual knowledge across several groups were made to examine whether or not a lack of sexual knowledge is related to sexual offending. Methods: The Bender Sexual Knowledge…

  1. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  2. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. PMID:26606864

  3. [Quality of relations between gay couples and high-risk sexual behavior].

    PubMed

    Julien, D; Pizzamiglio, M T; Brault, M; Léveillé, S

    1992-01-01

    This study examines the hypotheses by which quality relationships among gay couples is closely related to the adoption of low-risk sexual behaviours, in monogamous and non-monogamous situations. Data was collected from 29 homosexual couples (58 men) of the Montréal area. The survey, which graded sexual conduct as well as adjustments made within the relationship, confirmed the author's hypothesis. Indeed, the distribution of couples according to a multifactorial risk index does in fact establish a connection between the couple's happiness and the level of risk during sexual relations within and outside the couple. These conclusions are discussed in light of existing data pertaining to the link between health and the quality of a relationship among heterosexual couples. PMID:1515524

  4. The impact of migration on the sexual health, behaviours and attitudes of Central and East European gay/bisexual men in London

    PubMed Central

    Mole, Richard C.M.; Parutis, Violetta; Gerry, Christopher J.; Burns, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Building on an earlier quantitative study which found that gay/bisexual men from Central and Eastern Europe were at greater risk of sexual ill health following migration to the UK, the aim of this qualitative study is to explore how the process of migration itself may have influenced the migrants’ sexual behaviour and attitudes. Methods To address these questions, we conducted 17 in-depth interviews in London with gay/bisexual male migrants from Central and Eastern Europe, drawing on Fisher and Fisher's Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model as an interpretive framework. Results We find that the sexual behaviours of our respondents have been significantly influenced by the process of migration itself. In particular, extricating themselves from the traditional systems of social control in their home societies and having greater access to gay venues in London resulted in their increased sexual activity, particularly in the first phase of migration. High-risk sexual behaviour was found to be a factor of sexual mixing, the use of commercial sex and perceptions of risk in the UKvis-á-vis Central and Eastern Europe, with each of these factors also influenced by the process of migration. Risk-prevention behaviour depended upon the possession of appropriate risk-prevention information, motivation to use condoms and appropriate behavioural skills, with the latter two factors in particular influenced by social mores in the home country and the UK. Conclusions The interviews suggested a number of migration-related factors that increased the STI and HIV risk for these migrants. A number of potentially important policy recommendations stem from our analysis. PMID:23597207

  5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Teens at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascola, Laurene

    1987-01-01

    Parents of preteens need to be aware of the rapidly increasing incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers and to begin talking to their preteens to help prevent or modify risky sexual experimentation during middle adolescence. (MT)

  6. Risk Indicators of Depressed Mood Among Sex-Trade Workers and Implications for HIV Risk Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Marla Rochelle; Lemstra, Mark Edgar; Moraros, John Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of depressed mood among people who have traded sex for money in the Saskatoon Health Region (SHR), the adjusted risk factors for depressed mood among this sample, and if depressed mood was associated with decreased self-efficacy for safe sexual practices and injection drug use. Methods: Two-hundred ninety-nine people who have traded sex for money were surveyed with validated instruments for measuring risk behaviours, depressed mood, and self-efficacy for safe sexual practices. Results: The sample consisted primarily of low-income, poorly educated Aboriginal women, many of whom also indicated using injection drugs. Using the 16-point score cut-off for the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 84.6% of participants had depressed mood. When the cut-off score was 23 points or higher, 65.9% had depressed mood. After multivariate analysis, covariates that had an independent association with depressed mood included injecting a drug in the past 4 weeks (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8), suffering the death or permanent separation from a parent before the age of 18 (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.15), and physical assault or abuse by a partner in adult life (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.38 to 5.64). Depressed mood was associated with lower self-efficacy scores for safe sexual behaviours. Conclusions: Our study suggests that high rates of depressed mood among people who have traded sex for money is associated with injection drug use and low self-efficacy for safe sexual health practices. These findings are important and may help explain the high rates of human immunodeficiency virus within the SHR. PMID:26720823

  7. Transsexual attractions and sexual reassignment surgery: Risks and potential risks.

    PubMed

    P Fitzgibbons, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Transsexual issues and sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) are receiving a great deal of attention and support in the media, schools, and government. Given the early age at which youth seek treatment for transsexual attractions (TSA) and gender dysphoria and given the serious risks associated with such treatment, it is essential that family and youth be advised about these risks and alternative treatment options. Physicians and mental-health professionals have a professional responsibility to know and communicate the serious risks, in particular risk of suicide, that are associated with SRS; the spontaneous resolution of TSA in youth; the psychological conflicts that have been identified in such patients and in their parents; the successful treatment of conflicts associated TSA and the regrets of those who have been through SRS. SRS and gender theory are also viewed from the faith perspective of Pope Francis and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI. Lay summary: Transsexuals and sex-change operations are receiving a great deal of attention. Young people may seek treatment for transsexual attractions at an early age even though these attractions may go away on their own. Psychological conflicts have been identified in these patients and their parents and may be successfully treated. There are serious risks associated with sex change. They include the risk of depressive illness and suicide. Physicians and mental-health professionals should know these risks and the regrets of those who have been through sex-change operations. These patients and their families also should be informed of other treatment options. PMID:26997675

  8. Are Children More at Risk of Being Sexually Abused if Their Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savich, Nancy L.

    Due to the increase in child sexual abuse allegations, it is essential to know possible predictors or risk factors to aid in prevention. This study examines the correlation between a mother who was sexually abused as a child and the increased risk of her children being sexually abused. The sample consisted of 60 child sexual abuse investigations…

  9. Risk factors for criminal recidivism in older sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms. PMID:16633906

  10. Generalizing a model of health behaviour change and AIDS stigma for use with sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Cain, Demetria; Jooste, Sean; Skinner, Donald; Cherry, Charsey

    2006-04-01

    We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of AIDS preventive behaviour in South Africa. Prospective path analyses were performed on measures collected from 131 men and 60 women with sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Cape Town. Results showed that IMB constructs collected at baseline predicted risk reduction behaviour 3 months later. Risk reduction intentions were positively associated with risk reduction self-efficacy and self-efficacy was in turn positively associated with protective behaviour 3 months later. In a second model, AIDS-related stigmas correlated inversely with AIDS knowledge and there was a trend toward AIDS stigmas correlating inversely with behavioural intentions. Accounting for AIDS-related stigmas did not improve model fit. These findings parallel similar tests of the IMB model in US samples and suggest that the IMB model may generalize to South Africa and may therefore be useful in guiding HIV risk reduction interventions. PMID:16546776