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Sample records for sexually reproducing species

  1. Elastic, not plastic species: Frozen plasticity theory and the origin of adaptive evolution in sexually reproducing organisms

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Darwin's evolutionary theory could easily explain the evolution of adaptive traits (organs and behavioral patterns) in asexual but not in sexual organisms. Two models, the selfish gene theory and frozen plasticity theory were suggested to explain evolution of adaptive traits in sexual organisms in past 30 years. Results The frozen plasticity theory suggests that sexual species can evolve new adaptations only when their members are genetically uniform, i.e. only after a portion of the population of the original species had split off, balanced on the edge of extinction for several generations, and then undergone rapid expansion. After a short period of time, estimated on the basis of paleontological data to correspond to 1-2% of the duration of the species, polymorphism accumulates in the gene pool due to frequency-dependent selection; and thus, in each generation, new mutations occur in the presence of different alleles and therefore change their selection coefficients from generation to generation. The species ceases to behave in an evolutionarily plastic manner and becomes evolutionarily elastic on a microevolutionary time-scale and evolutionarily frozen on a macroevolutionary time-scale. It then exists in this state until such changes accumulate in the environment that the species becomes extinct. Conclusion Frozen plasticity theory, which includes the Darwinian model of evolution as a special case - the evolution of species in a plastic state, not only offers plenty of new predictions to be tested, but also provides explanations for a much broader spectrum of known biological phenomena than classic evolutionary theories. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Rob Knight, Fyodor Kondrashov and Massimo Di Giulio (nominated by David H. Ardell). PMID:20067646

  2. The hawk–dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colourful polymorphism of an endangered bird

    PubMed Central

    Kokko, Hanna; Griffith, Simon C.; Pryke, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The hawk–dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive ‘hawks’ and peaceful ‘doves’, with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) provides a real-life example. The aggressive red morph is behaviourally dominant and successfully invades black populations, but when red ‘hawks’ become too common, their fitness is severely compromised (via decreased parental ability). We also investigate the effects of real-life deviations, particularly sexual reproduction, from the simple original game, which assumed asexual reproduction. A protected polymorphism requires mate choice to be sufficiently assortative. Assortative mating is adaptive for individuals because of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybrid offspring fitness, but by allowing red ‘hawks’ to persist, it also leads to significantly reduced population sizes. Because reductions in male contributions to parental care are generally known to lead to lower population productivity in birds, we expect zero-sum competition to often have wide ranging population consequences. PMID:25209943

  3. The hawk-dove game in a sexually reproducing species explains a colourful polymorphism of an endangered bird.

    PubMed

    Kokko, Hanna; Griffith, Simon C; Pryke, Sarah R

    2014-10-22

    The hawk-dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive 'hawks' and peaceful 'doves', with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-theoretic arguments to real populations might be contested. Here, we show that the head-colour polymorphism of red and black Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae) provides a real-life example. The aggressive red morph is behaviourally dominant and successfully invades black populations, but when red 'hawks' become too common, their fitness is severely compromised (via decreased parental ability). We also investigate the effects of real-life deviations, particularly sexual reproduction, from the simple original game, which assumed asexual reproduction. A protected polymorphism requires mate choice to be sufficiently assortative. Assortative mating is adaptive for individuals because of genetic incompatibilities affecting hybrid offspring fitness, but by allowing red 'hawks' to persist, it also leads to significantly reduced population sizes. Because reductions in male contributions to parental care are generally known to lead to lower population productivity in birds, we expect zero-sum competition to often have wide ranging population consequences. PMID:25209943

  4. Social and ethical determinants of human sexuality: 1. The need to reproduce.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, G; Carrara, S; Filippi, V

    2010-08-01

    Aims of this study was to review the many and diverse factors conditioning human sexual behavior; starting with the first and still most important: the need to reproduce and to analyse these factors and how they have changed over time in order to better understand the interplay between the major determinants of human sexuality. For this aim the authors made a literature review of relevant scientific papers and books, including religious websites. At the dawn of humanity, sexuality was focused on reproduction; this, however, did not exclude other important meanings in sexual relationships, since non-conceptive copulations have been a constant aspect of human behavior, becoming an almost unique feature of genus homo. In this respect, the characteristics of a female continuously accessible to her male set the stage for a trend towards monogamy and created the substrate for closed families. Anthropologists have justified conceptive sexuality because sexual activity is costly in terms of energy consumption; for this reason, in the early days, restricting sexual activity made sense for the survival of the species. Traditional ethical considerations and ancient norms by the three major monotheistic religions have favored conceptive sexuality, restricting sexual activity to sanctioned unions and insisting that the major scope of sexuality is procreation. In spite of this, among humans sexuality has always had a wider meaning to the point that for millennia, humans have tried to separate its unitive and procreative meanings. Today much has changed since reproduction can be achieved without intercourse, further separating it from sexual activity. In humans sexuality always possessed multiple meanings, first and foremost reproduction and the creation of a bond between a man and one or several women. PMID:20827251

  5. Host-associated differentiation in a highly polyphagous, sexually reproducing insect herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Antwi, Josephine B; Sword, Gregory A; Medina, Raul F

    2015-01-01

    Insect herbivores may undergo genetic divergence on their host plants through host-associated differentiation (HAD). Much of what we know about HAD involves insect species with narrow host ranges (i.e., specialists) that spend part or all their life cycle inside their hosts, and/or reproduce asexually (e.g., parthenogenetic insects), all of which are thought to facilitate HAD. However, sexually reproducing polyphagous insects can also exhibit HAD. Few sexually reproducing insects have been tested for HAD, and when they have insects from only a handful of potential host-plant populations have been tested, making it difficult to predict how common HAD is when one considers the entire species’ host range. This question is particularly relevant when considering insect pests, as host-associated populations may differ in traits relevant to their control. Here, we tested for HAD in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) pest, the cotton fleahopper (CFH) (Pseudatomoscelis seriatus), a sexually reproducing, highly polyphagous hemipteran insect. A previous study detected one incidence of HAD among three of its host plants. We used Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to assess HAD in CFH collected from an expanded array of 13 host-plant species belonging to seven families. Overall, four genetically distinct populations were found. One genetically distinct genotype was exclusively associated with one of the host-plant species while the other three were observed across more than one host-plant species. The relatively low degree of HAD in CFH compared to the pea aphid, another hemipteran insect, stresses the likely importance of sexual recombination as a factor increasing the likelihood of HAD. PMID:26257868

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of a sexually reproducing colony of the booklouse Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocodea: Liposcelididae) found in Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qianqian; Kučerová, Zuzana; Perlman, Steve J.; Opit, George P.; Mockford, Edward L.; Behar, Adi; Robinson, Wyatt E.; Stejskal, Václav; Li, Zhihong; Shao, Renfu

    2015-01-01

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila, is a worldwide pest of stored products. For decades, only thelytokous parthenogenetic reproduction was documented in L. bostrychophila. Male L. bostrychophila were first found in Hawaii in 2002. In 2009, a sexual strain was found in Arizona. We examined the morphology of both males and females of the Arizona strain and compared the Arizona sexual strain with the Hawaii sexual strain and the parthenogenetic strains of L. bostrychophila. The sexual and parthenogenetic strains show some differences in eye morphology. To examine the relationship between sexual and asexual lineages, we sequenced the mitochondrial 12S and 16S ribosomal RNA genes of males and females from the Arizona strain. Phylogenetic analyses of L. bostrychophila individuals revealed that: 1) the sexually reproducing colony found in Arizona contains two closely related mitochondrial DNA haplotypes – one present in only females and the other in both males and females; and 2) the Arizona sexual strain was most closely related to a parthenogenetic strain in Illinois. We detected Rickettsia in all of the parthenogenetic individuals we checked but not in any Arizona sexual individuals. Further evidence is required to establish whether the presence of Rickettsia is linked to asexual reproduction in Liposcelis. PMID:26013922

  7. Analysis of polymorphisms in milk proteins from cloned and sexually reproduced goats.

    PubMed

    Xing, H; Shao, B; Gu, Y Y; Yuan, Y G; Zhang, T; Zang, J; Cheng, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The milk protein components were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results indicated that despite the genetic fingerprints being identical, the milk protein composition differed between the two cloned goats. The casein content of cloned goat C-50 was significantly higher than that of cloned goat C-4. Conversely, although the genetic fingerprints of the normal white goats N-1, N-2, and N-3 were not identical, the milk protein profiles did not differ significantly in their milk samples (obtained on postpartum day 15, 20, 25, 30, and 150). These results indicated an association between milk protein phenotypes and genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic regulation, and/or non-chromosomal factors. This study extends the knowledge of goat milk protein polymorphisms, and provides new strategies for the breeding of high milk-yielding goats. PMID:26662412

  8. Assessment of possible ecological risks and hazards of transgenic fish with implications for other sexually reproducing organisms.

    PubMed

    Muir, William M; Howard, Richard D

    2002-04-01

    extreme risk. Although we limit our discussion to aquacultural applications, our methods can easily be adapted to other sexually reproducing organisms with suitable adjustments of terminology. PMID:12054344

  9. A virtual species set for robust and reproducible species distribution modelling tests

    PubMed Central

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X.; Bastin, Lucy; Foody, Giles M.; Rocchini, Duccio

    2016-01-01

    Predicting species potential and future distribution has become a relevant tool in biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this data article we present the suitability map of a virtual species generated based on two bioclimatic variables, and a dataset containing more than 700,000 random observations at the extent of Europe. The dataset includes spatial attributes such as: distance to roads, protected areas, country codes, and the habitat suitability of two spatially clustered species (grassland and forest species) and a wide-spread species. PMID:27014734

  10. A virtual species set for robust and reproducible species distribution modelling tests.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X; Bastin, Lucy; Foody, Giles M; Rocchini, Duccio

    2016-06-01

    Predicting species potential and future distribution has become a relevant tool in biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this data article we present the suitability map of a virtual species generated based on two bioclimatic variables, and a dataset containing more than 700,000 random observations at the extent of Europe. The dataset includes spatial attributes such as: distance to roads, protected areas, country codes, and the habitat suitability of two spatially clustered species (grassland and forest species) and a wide-spread species. PMID:27014734

  11. [The selection of sexual partners of different species by mammals].

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H

    1990-06-01

    It appears biologically sensible that every animal seeks its mating partner within its own species. Sexual contact with alien species may occur when animals are isolated from members of their own species, particularly, however, after they have been raised in the environment of alien species. Copulations of this nature do not, as a rule, result in offspring, although an entire series of bastards among closely related species is known. Among domestic animals bastardization is partly planned systematically as this has advantages in comparison to original forms. Sodomy, i.e. interspecific sexual contact between a human being and an animal, was already described in ancient times. PMID:2383225

  12. SEXUAL SPECIES ARE SEPARATED BY LARGER GENETIC GAPS THAN ASEXUAL SPECIES IN ROTIFERS

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cuong Q; Obertegger, Ulrike; Fontaneto, Diego; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2014-01-01

    Why organisms diversify into discrete species instead of showing a continuum of genotypic and phenotypic forms is an important yet rarely studied question in speciation biology. Does species discreteness come from adaptation to fill discrete niches or from interspecific gaps generated by reproductive isolation? We investigate the importance of reproductive isolation by comparing genetic discreteness, in terms of intra- and interspecific variation, between facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers and obligately asexual bdelloid rotifers. We calculated the age (phylogenetic distance) and average pairwise genetic distance (raw distance) within and among evolutionarily significant units of diversity in six bdelloid clades and seven monogonont clades sampled for 4211 individuals in total. We find that monogonont species are more discrete than bdelloid species with respect to divergence between species but exhibit similar levels of intraspecific variation (species cohesiveness). This pattern arises because bdelloids have diversified into discrete genetic clusters at a faster net rate than monogononts. Although sampling biases or differences in ecology that are independent of sexuality might also affect these patterns, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that bdelloids diversified at a faster rate into less discrete species because their diversification does not depend on the evolution of reproductive isolation. PMID:24975991

  13. Biological species is the only possible form of existence for higher organisms: the evolutionary meaning of sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Consistent holistic view of sexual species as the highest form of biological existence is presented. The Weismann's idea that sex and recombination provide the variation for the natural selection to act upon is dominated in most discussions of the biological meaning of the sexual reproduction. Here, the idea is substantiated that the main advantage of sex is the opposite: the ability to counteract not only extinction but further evolution as well. Living systems live long owing to their ability to reproduce themselves with a high fidelity. Simple organisms (like bacteria) reach the continued existence due to the high fidelity of individual genome replication. In organisms with a large genome and complex development, the achievable fidelity of DNA replication is not enough for the precise reproduction of the genome. Such species must be capable of surviving and must remain unchanged in spite of the continuous changes of their genes. This problem has no solution in the frame of asexual ("homeogenomic") lineages. They would rapidly degrade and become extinct or blurred out in the course of the reckless evolution. The core outcome of the transition to sexual reproduction was the creation of multiorganismic entity - biological species. Individual organisms forfeited their ability to reproduce autonomously. It implies that individual organisms forfeited their ability to substantive evolution. They evolve as a part of the biological species. In case of obligatory sexuality, there is no such a thing as synchronic multi-level selection. Natural selection cannot select anything that is not a unit of reproduction. Hierarchy in biology implies the functional predestination of the parts for the sake of the whole. A crucial feature of the sexual reproduction is the formation of genomes of individual organisms by random picking them over from the continuously shuffled gene pool instead of the direct replication of the ancestor's genome. A clear anti-evolutionary consequence of

  14. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    PubMed Central

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  15. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    PubMed

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  16. Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Choleva, Lukas; Musilova, Zuzana; Kohoutova-Sediva, Alena; Paces, Jan; Rab, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers - hybrids with Mendelian heredity - are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis) of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species. PMID:24971792

  17. Sexual systems in scleractinian corals: an unusual pattern in the reef-building species Diploastrea heliopora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, J. R.; Baird, A. H.; Goh, B. P. L.; Chou, L. M.

    2012-09-01

    The sexual system in corals refers to the spatial and temporal pattern of sexual function within an individual coral polyp, colony or population. Although information on sexual systems now exists for over 400 scleractinian species, data are still lacking for some important reef-building taxa. The vast majority of scleractinians are either simultaneous hermaphrodites or gonochoric with other sexual systems rarely occurring. Diploastrea heliopora is one of the most ubiquitous and easily recognised reef-building species in the Indo-West Pacific; however, surprisingly little is known about its reproductive biology. The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive biology of D. heliopora colonies on chronically impacted, equatorial reefs south of Singapore. Here we show that in Singapore, D. heliopora is a broadcast spawner with predominantly gonochoric polyps. Colonies, however, contained male, female and a low proportion of cosexual polyps during the 14-month sampling period. The most plausible explanation for this is that polyps switch sexes with oogenic and spermatogenic cycles occasionally overlapping. This leads to colony level alternation of sex function within and between breeding seasons. While this sexual system is atypical for scleractinians, it supports molecular evidence that D. heliopora is phylogenetically distinct from species formerly in the family Faviidae.

  18. Species Detection and Identification in Sexual Organisms Using Population Genetic Theory and DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Birky, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees of DNA sequences of a group of specimens may include clades of two kinds: those produced by stochastic processes (random genetic drift) within a species, and clades that represent different species. The ratio of the mean pairwise sequence difference between a pair of clades (K) to the mean pairwise sequence difference within a clade (θ) can be used to determine whether the clades are samples from different species (K/θ≥4) or the same species (K/θ<4) with probability ≥0.95. Previously I applied this criterion to delimit species of asexual organisms. Here I use data from the literature to show how it can also be applied to delimit sexual species using four groups of sexual organisms as examples: ravens, spotted leopards, sea butterflies, and liverworts. Mitochondrial or chloroplast genes are used because these segregate earlier during speciation than most nuclear genes and hence detect earlier stages of speciation. In several cases the K/θ ratio was greater than 4, confirming the original authors' intuition that the clades were sufficiently different to be assigned to different species. But the K/θ ratio split each of two liverwort species into two evolutionary species, and showed that support for the distinction between the common and Chihuahuan raven species is weak. I also discuss some possible sources of error in using the K/θ ratio; the most significant one would be cases where males migrate between different populations but females do not, making the use of maternally inherited organelle genes problematic. The K/θ ratio must be used with some caution, like all other methods for species delimitation. Nevertheless, it is a simple theory-based quantitative method for using DNA sequences to make rigorous decisions about species delimitation in sexual as well as asexual eukaryotes. PMID:23308113

  19. Reproducible Science▿

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2010-01-01

    The reproducibility of an experimental result is a fundamental assumption in science. Yet, results that are merely confirmatory of previous findings are given low priority and can be difficult to publish. Furthermore, the complex and chaotic nature of biological systems imposes limitations on the replicability of scientific experiments. This essay explores the importance and limits of reproducibility in scientific manuscripts. PMID:20876290

  20. Expression of sexual ornaments in a polymorphic species: phenotypic variation in response to environmental risk.

    PubMed

    Winandy, L; Denoël, M

    2015-05-01

    Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are differently expressed in alternative phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such phenotypes exhibit phenotypic plasticity of seasonal ornamentations in response to environmental pressures such as in the presence of fish (predation risk). This is an important question to understand the evolution of polyphenisms. We used facultative paedomorphosis in newts as a model system because it involves the coexistence of paedomorphs that retain gills in the adult stage with metamorphs that have undergone metamorphosis, but also because newts exhibit seasonal sexual traits. Our aim was therefore to determine the influence of fish on the development of seasonal ornamentation in the two phenotypes of the palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus). During the entire newt breeding period, we assessed the importance of phenotype and fish presence with an information-theoretic approach. Our results showed that paedomorphs presented much less developed ornamentation than metamorphs and those ornamentations varied over time. Fish inhibited the development of sexual traits but differently between phenotypes: in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs lack the phenotypic plasticity of sexual traits to environmental risk. This study points out that internal and external parameters act in complex ways in the expression of seasonal sexual ornamentations and that similar environmental pressure can induce a contrasted evolution in alternative phenotypes. PMID:25847588

  1. Male secondary sexual structures and the systematics of the Thereus oppia species group (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Eumaeini)

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Robert K.; Heredia, María Dolores; Busby, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Thereus oppia species group includes species with and without a scent pad, which is a histologically and morphologically characterized male secondary sexual structure on the dorsal surface of the forewing. To assess the hypothesis that these structures are lost evolutionarily, but not regained (Dollo’s Law), the taxonomy of this species group is revised. Thereus lomalarga sp. n., and Thereus brocki sp. n., are described. Diagnostic traits, especially male secondary structures, within the Thereus oppia species group are illustrated. Distributional and biological information is summarized for each species. Three species have been reared, and the caterpillars eat Loranthaceae. An inferred phylogeny is consistent with the hypothesis that scent pads in the Thereus oppia species group have been lost evolutionarily twice (in allopatry), and not re-gained. PMID:26448715

  2. Niche dynamics of alien species do not differ among sexual and apomictic flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Dellinger, Agnes S; Essl, Franz; Hojsgaard, Diego; Kirchheimer, Bernhard; Klatt, Simone; Dawson, Wayne; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, Mark; Weber, Ewald; Winter, Marten; Hörandl, Elvira; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Biological invasions can be associated with shifts of the species' climatic niches but the incidence of such shifts is under debate. The reproductive system might be a key factor controlling such shifts because it influences a species' evolutionary flexibility. However, the link between reproductive systems and niche dynamics in plant invasions has been little studied so far. We compiled global occurrence data sets of 13 congeneric sexual and apomictic species pairs, and used principal components analysis (PCA) and kernel smoothers to compare changes in climatic niche optima, breadths and unfilling/expansion between native and alien ranges. Niche change metrics were compared between sexual and apomictic species. All 26 species showed changes in niche optima and/or breadth and 14 species significantly expanded their climatic niches. However, we found no effect of the reproductive system on niche dynamics. Instead, species with narrower native niches showed higher rates of niche expansion in the alien ranges. Our results suggest that niche shifts are frequent in plant invasions but evolutionary potential may not be of major importance for such shifts. Niche dynamics rather appear to be driven by changes of the realized niche without adaptive change of the fundamental climatic niche. PMID:26508329

  3. Sexual and asexual states of some endophytic Phialocephala species of Picea.

    PubMed

    Tanney, Joey B; Douglas, Brian; Seifert, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Unidentified DNA sequences in isolation-based or culture-free studies of conifer endophytes are a persistent problem that requires a field approach to resolve. An investigation of foliar endophytes of Picea glauca, P. mariana, P. rubens and Pinus strobus in eastern Canada, using a combined field, morphological, cultural and DNA sequencing approach, resulted in the frequent isolation of Phialocephala spp. and the first verified discovery of their mollisia-like sexual states in the field. Phialocephala scopiformis and Ph. piceae were the most frequent species isolated as endophytes from healthy conifer needles. Corresponding Mollisia or mollisioid sexual states for Ph. scopiformis, Ph. piceae and several undescribed species in a clade containing Ph. dimorphospora were collected in the sampling area and characterized by analysis of the nuc internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS) and gene for the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1) loci. Four novel species and one new combination in a clade containing Ph. dimorphospora, the type of Phialocephala, are presented, accompanied by descriptions of apothecia and previously undocumented synanamorphs. An epitype culture and corresponding reference sequences for Phialocephala dimorphospora are proposed. The resulting ITS barcodes linked with robust taxonomic species concepts are an important resource for future research on forest ecosystems and endophytes. PMID:26740545

  4. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching about environmental conservation. Topics of these games, puzzles include pollution, rainforests, endangered species, habitat destruction, and solid waste. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  5. Elusive reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Gori, Gio Batta

    2014-08-01

    Reproducibility remains a mirage for many biomedical studies because inherent experimental uncertainties generate idiosyncratic outcomes. The authentication and error rates of primary empirical data are often elusive, while multifactorial confounders beset experimental setups. Substantive methodological remedies are difficult to conceive, signifying that many biomedical studies yield more or less plausible results, depending on the attending uncertainties. Real life applications of those results remain problematic, with important exceptions for counterfactual field validations of strong experimental signals, notably for some vaccines and drugs, and for certain safety and occupational measures. It is argued that industrial, commercial and public policies and regulations could not ethically rely on unreliable biomedical results; rather, they should be rationally grounded on transparent cost-benefit tradeoffs. PMID:24882687

  6. Sexual dimorphism in immune response: testing the hypothesis in an insect species with two male morphs.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Guzmán, Gloria; Canales-Lazcano, Jorge; Jiménez-Cortés, Jesús Guillermo; Contreras-Garduño, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that given that males should invest in sexual traits at the expense of their investment in immune response, females are better immunocompetent than males. Typically, this idea has been tested in monomorphic species, but rarely has been evaluated in polymorphic male species. We used Paraphlebia zoe, a damselfly with two male morphs: the black-winged morph (Black-W) develop black spots as sexual traits and the hyaline-winged morph (Hyaline-W) resembles a female in size and wings color. We predicted that Black-W should have a lower immune response than Hyaline-W, but that the latter males should not differ from females in this respect. Nitric oxide (NO) and phenoloxidase (PO) production, as well as hemolymph protein content, were used as immune markers. Body size (wing length) was used as an indicator of the male condition. The results show that, as we predicted, females and Hyaline-W had higher values of NO than Black-W, corresponding to differences in size. However, the opposite was found in relation to PO production. Females had the highest levels of hemolymph protein content, whereas no differences were found between Black-W and Hyaline-W. These results partially support the sexual selection hypothesis and are discussed in the context of the life history of this species. Black-W, Hyaline-W, and females could express the immune markers that are prioritized by their particular condition, and probably neither of them could express all immune markers in an elevated manner, as this would result in an excessive accumulation of free radicals. PMID:23956189

  7. An in vitro biofilm model system maintaining a highly reproducible species and metabolic diversity approaching that of the human oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our knowledge of microbial diversity in the human oral cavity has vastly expanded during the last two decades of research. However, much of what is known about the behavior of oral species to date derives from pure culture approaches and the studies combining several cultivated species, which likely does not fully reflect their function in complex microbial communities. It has been shown in studies with a limited number of cultivated species that early oral biofilm development occurs in a successional manner and that continuous low pH can lead to an enrichment of aciduric species. Observations that in vitro grown plaque biofilm microcosms can maintain similar pH profiles in response to carbohydrate addition as plaque in vivo suggests a complex microbial community can be established in the laboratory. In light of this, our primary goal was to develop a robust in vitro biofilm-model system from a pooled saliva inoculum in order to study the stability, reproducibility, and development of the oral microbiome, and its dynamic response to environmental changes from the community to the molecular level. Results Comparative metagenomic analyses confirmed a high similarity of metabolic potential in biofilms to recently available oral metagenomes from healthy subjects as part of the Human Microbiome Project. A time-series metagenomic analysis of the taxonomic community composition in biofilms revealed that the proportions of major species at 3 hours of growth are maintained during 48 hours of biofilm development. By employing deep pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate this biofilm model with regards to bacterial taxonomic diversity, we show a high reproducibility of the taxonomic carriage and proportions between: 1) individual biofilm samples; 2) biofilm batches grown at different dates; 3) DNA extraction techniques and 4) research laboratories. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that we now have the capability to grow stable oral microbial in vitro

  8. Genetic Structure of Two Protist Species (Myxogastria, Amoebozoa) Suggests Asexual Reproduction in Sexual Amoebae

    PubMed Central

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Novozhilov, Yuri K.; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodial slime molds (Myxogastria or Myxomycetes) are common and widespread unicellular organisms that are commonly assumed to have a sexual life cycle culminating with the formation of often macroscopic fruiting bodies that efficiently disseminate spores. However, laboratory studies based on mating compatibility revealed the coexistence of asexual as well as sexual strains. To test this hypothesis in natural populations, we investigated the genetic variability of two species of the genus Lamproderma. Detailed ecological relevés were carried out in 2007 and 2009 in several deep ravines in the Elbsandsteingebirge (Saxony, south-eastern Germany). Morphological characters of 93 specimens of Lamproderma were recorded and genetic analyses, based on the small subunit ribosomal gene, the internal transcribed spacer 1 and partial elongation factor 1α sequences were carried out for 52 specimens. Genetic analyses showed the existence of two major clades, each composed of several discrete lineages. Most of these lineages were composed of several identical sequences (SSU, ITS 1 and EF-1α) which is explained best by an asexual mode of reproduction. Detrended Correspondence Analysis of morphological characters revealed two morphospecies that corresponded to the two major clades, except for one genotype (Lc6), thus challenging the morphospecies concept. Genetic patterns were not related to the geographical distribution: specimens belonging to the same genotype were found in distinct ravines, suggesting effective long-distance dispersal via spores, except for the Lc6 genotype which was found only in one ravine. Implications for the morphological and biological species concept are discussed. PMID:21829662

  9. Polyploids with different origins and ancestors form a single sexual polyploid species.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Alisha K; Cannatella, David C; Gerhardt, H Carl; Hillis, David M

    2006-04-01

    Polyploidization is one of the few mechanisms that can produce instantaneous speciation. Multiple origins of tetraploid lineages from the same two diploid progenitors are common, but here we report the first known instance of a single tetraploid species that originated repeatedly from at least three diploid ancestors. Parallel evolution of advertisement calls in tetraploid lineages of gray tree frogs has allowed these lineages to interbreed, resulting in a single sexually interacting polyploid species despite the separate origins of polyploids from different diploids. Speciation by polyploidization in these frogs has been the source of considerable debate, but the various published hypotheses have assumed that polyploids arose through either autopolyploidy or allopolyploidy of extant diploid species. We utilized molecular markers and advertisement calls to infer the origins of tetraploid gray tree frogs. Previous hypotheses did not sufficiently account for the observed data. Instead, we found that tetraploids originated multiple times from extant diploid gray tree frogs and two other, apparently extinct, lineages of tree frogs. Tetraploid lineages then merged through interbreeding to result in a single species. Thus, polyploid species may have complex origins, especially in systems in which isolating mechanisms (such as advertisement calls) are affected directly through hybridization and polyploidy. PMID:16670990

  10. Altering sexual reproductive mode by interspecific exchange of MAT loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual fungi can be self-sterile (heterothallic, requiring genetically distinct partners) or selffertile (homothallic, no partner required). In most ascomycetes, a single mating type locus (MAT) controls the ability to reproduce sexually. In the genus Cochliobolus, all heterothallic species have eit...

  11. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Ximena E; Pinto, C Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%). This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes. PMID:26977404

  12. Sexual differences in prevalence of a new species of trypanosome infecting túngara frogs

    PubMed Central

    Bernal, Ximena E.; Pinto, C. Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomes are a diverse group of protozoan parasites of vertebrates transmitted by a variety of hematophagous invertebrate vectors. Anuran trypanosomes and their vectors have received relatively little attention even though these parasites have been reported from frog and toad species worldwide. Blood samples collected from túngara frogs (Engystomops pustulosus), a Neotropical anuran species heavily preyed upon by eavesdropping frog-biting midges (Corethrella spp.), were examined for trypanosomes. Our results revealed sexual differences in trypanosome prevalence with female frogs being rarely infected (<1%). This finding suggests this protozoan parasite may be transmitted by frog-biting midges that find their host using the mating calls produced by male frogs. Following previous anuran trypanosome studies, we examined 18S ribosomal RNA gene to characterize and establish the phylogenetic relationship of the trypanosome species found in túngara frogs. A new species of giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma tungarae n. sp., is described in this study. Overall the morphometric data revealed that the trypomastigotes of T. tungarae n. sp. are similar to other giant trypanosomes such as Trypanosoma rotatorium and Trypanosoma ranarum. Despite its slender and long cell shape, however, 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that T. tungarae n. sp. is sister to the rounded-bodied giant trypanosome, Trypanosoma chattoni. Therefore, morphological convergence explains similar morphology among members of two non-closely related groups of trypanosomes infecting frogs. The results from this study underscore the value of coupling morphological identification with molecular characterization of anuran trypanosomes. PMID:26977404

  13. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ramji K; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Jandegian, Caitlin M; Kassotis, Christopher D; Nagel, Susan C; Tillitt, Donald E; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2015-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered. PMID:25277515

  14. Effects of the environmental estrogenic contaminants bisphenol A and 17α-ethinyl estradiol on sexual development and adult behaviors in aquatic wildlife species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhandari, Ramji K.; Deem, Sharon L.; Holliday, Dawn K.; Jandegian, Caitlin M.; Kassotis, Christopher D.; Nagel, Susan C.; Tillitt, Donald E.; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, well-described estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.

  15. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  16. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  17. An unusual suite of sexual characters in three new species of Hymenorus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alleculinae) from Guatemala and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two species, Hymenorus bifurcatus, and H. excavatus are described as new from Guatemala and the new species H. balli from both the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico and Guatemala. These three species are unique among the species of Hymenorus Mulsant, 1851 in the unusual and highly modified fifth ventrites of the male and the modified shape of the female ninth tergites. The unusual sexual characters of the males and females are illustrated with photographs. The usage of the generic names Hymenorus Mulsant versus Hymenophorus Mulsant is discussed. PMID:25009431

  18. An unusual suite of sexual characters in three new species of Hymenorus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Alleculinae) from Guatemala and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J M

    2014-01-01

    Two species, Hymenorus bifurcatus, and H. excavatus are described as new from Guatemala and the new species H. balli from both the state of Chiapas in southern Mexico and Guatemala. These three species are unique among the species of Hymenorus Mulsant, 1851 in the unusual and highly modified fifth ventrites of the male and the modified shape of the female ninth tergites. The unusual sexual characters of the males and females are illustrated with photographs. The usage of the generic names Hymenorus Mulsant versus Hymenophorus Mulsant is discussed. PMID:25009431

  19. Multigene Assessment of the Species Boundaries and Sexual Status of the Basidiomycetous Yeasts Cryptococcus flavescens and C. terrestris (Tremellales)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Lav; Carvalho, Cláudia; Fonseca, Álvaro

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus flavescens and C. terrestris are phenotypically indistinguishable sister species that belong to the order Tremellales (Tremellomycetes, Basidiomycota) and which may be mistaken for C. laurentii based on phenotype. Phylogenetic separation between C. flavescens and C. terrestris was based on rDNA sequence analyses, but very little is known on their intraspecific genetic variability or propensity for sexual reproduction. We studied 59 strains from different substrates and geographic locations, and used a multilocus sequencing (MLS) approach complemented with the sequencing of mating type (MAT) genes to assess genetic variation and reexamine the boundaries of the two species, as well as their sexual status. The following five loci were chosen for MLS: the rDNA ITS-LSU region, the rDNA IGS1 spacer, and fragments of the genes encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1) and the p21-activated protein kinase (STE20). Phylogenetic network analyses confirmed the genetic separation of the two species and revealed two additional cryptic species, for which the names Cryptococcus baii and C. ruineniae are proposed. Further analyses of the data revealed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity within C. flavescens as well as evidence for recombination between lineages detected for this species. Strains of C. terrestris displayed higher levels of similarity in all analysed genes and appear to make up a single recombining group. The two MAT genes (STE3 and SXI1/SXI2) sequenced for C. flavescens strains confirmed the potential for sexual reproduction and suggest the presence of a tetrapolar mating system with a biallelic pheromone/receptor locus and a multiallelic HD locus. In C. terrestris we could only sequence STE3, which revealed a biallelic P/R locus. In spite of the strong evidence for sexual recombination in the two species, attempts at mating compatible strains of both species on culture media were

  20. Floral odour chemistry defines species boundaries and underpins strong reproductive isolation in sexually deceptive orchids

    PubMed Central

    Peakall, Rod; Whitehead, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The events leading to speciation are best investigated in systems where speciation is ongoing or incomplete, such as incipient species. By examining reproductive barriers among incipient sister taxa and their congeners we can gain valuable insights into the relative timing and importance of the various barriers involved in the speciation process. The aim of this study was to identify the reproductive barriers among sexually deceptive orchid taxa in the genus Chiloglottis. Methods The study targeted four closely related taxa with varying degrees of geographic overlap. Chemical, morphological and genetic evidence was combined to explore the basis of reproductive isolation. Of primary interest was the degree of genetic differentiation among taxa at both nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers. To objectively test whether or not species boundaries are defined by the chemistry that controls pollinator specificity, genetic analysis was restricted to samples of known odour chemistry. Key Results Floral odour chemical analysis was performed for 600+ flowers. The three sympatric taxa were defined by their specific chiloglottones, the semiochemicals responsible for pollinator attraction, and were found to be fully cross-compatible. Multivariate morphometric analysis could not reliably distinguish among the four taxa. Although varying from very low to moderate, significant levels of genetic differentiation were detected among all pairwise combinations of taxa at both nuclear and chloroplast loci. However, the levels of genetic differentiation were lower than expected for mature species. Critically, a lack of chloroplast DNA haplotype sharing among the morphologically indistinguishable and most closely related taxon pair confirmed that chemistry alone can define taxon boundaries. Conclusions The results confirmed that pollinator isolation, mediated by specific pollinator attraction, underpins strong reproductive isolation in these taxa. A combination of large

  1. Comparison of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) as test species in the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT).

    PubMed

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin L; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Bjerregaard, Poul; Petersen, Gitte I; Norrgren, Leif; Orn, Stefan; Braunbeck, Thomas; Baumann, Lisa; Bomke, Christiane; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Ruehl-Fehlert, Christine; Green, John W; Springer, Timothy A; Gourmelon, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Results are presented from a validation (with 5 laboratories) of the Fish Sexual Development Test (FSDT) developed to detect endocrine disrupters (EDs) and included in the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) working program. The aromatase-inhibiting fungicide prochloraz was tested in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). The fish were exposed during sexual differentiation and development from 0 to 60 days post hatch (dph). After exposure, the vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations were quantified in head/tail homogenate and the sex ratio was determined (defined as female, male, intersex or undifferentiated). NOEC/LOEC and EC(x) designs were compared to optimize the test approach. Results show that both species are highly sensitive to prochloraz during sexual development. They respond by skewing of the sex ratio towards male phenotype and by a VTG decline in females. The NOEC/LOEC approach is preferred because sex ratio is difficult to analyze with a regression model. The mean NOEC/LOEC for prochloraz on the sex ratio was 43.3/134 μg/L and 101/293 μg/L for zebrafish and fathead minnow, respectively. The mean NOEC/LOEC on the decline in female VTG concentration was 65/110 μg/L and ~30/68 μg/L respectively. In conclusion, zebrafish and fathead minnow are suitable species in the FSDT and their sexual differentiation is equally labile to EDs. PMID:22115822

  2. Molecular and Morphological Data Support the Existence of a Sexual Cycle in Species of the Genus Paracoccidioides

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Theodoro, Raquel Cordeiro; Derengowski, Lorena da Silveira; Nicola, André Moraes; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Paracoccidioides includes the thermodimorphic species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii, both of which are etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis that affects humans in Latin America. Despite the common occurrence of a sexual stage among closely related fungi, this has not been observed with Paracoccidioides species, which have thus been considered asexual. Molecular evolutionary studies revealed recombination events within isolated populations of the genus Paracoccidioides, suggesting the possible existence of a sexual cycle. Comparative genomic analysis of all dimorphic fungi and Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated the presence of conserved genes involved in sexual reproduction, including those encoding mating regulators such as MAT, pheromone receptors, pheromone-processing enzymes, and mating signaling regulators. The expression of sex-related genes in the yeast and mycelial phases of both Paracoccidioides species was also detected by real-time PCR, with nearly all of these genes being expressed preferentially in the filamentous form of the pathogens. In addition, the expression of sex-related genes was responsive to the putative presence of pheromone in the supernatants obtained from previous cocultures of strains of two different mating types. In vitro crossing of isolates of different mating types, discriminated by phylogenetic analysis of the α-box (MAT1-1) and the high-mobility-group (HMG) domain (MAT1-2), led to the identification of the formation of young ascocarps with constricted coiled hyphae related to the initial stage of mating. These genomic and morphological analyses strongly support the existence of a sexual cycle in species of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:23125354

  3. Tree of Sex: A database of sexual systems

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Bachtrog, Doris; Blackmon, Heath; Goldberg, Emma E; Hahn, Matthew W; Kirkpatrick, Mark; Kitano, Jun; Mank, Judith E; Mayrose, Itay; Ming, Ray; Otto, Sarah P; Peichel, Catherine L; Pennell, Matthew W; Perrin, Nicolas; Ross, Laura; Valenzuela, Nicole; Vamosi, Jana C

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of eukaryotic organisms reproduce sexually, yet the nature of the sexual system and the mechanism of sex determination often vary remarkably, even among closely related species. Some species of animals and plants change sex across their lifespan, some contain hermaphrodites as well as males and females, some determine sex with highly differentiated chromosomes, while others determine sex according to their environment. Testing evolutionary hypotheses regarding the causes and consequences of this diversity requires interspecific data placed in a phylogenetic context. Such comparative studies have been hampered by the lack of accessible data listing sexual systems and sex determination mechanisms across the eukaryotic tree of life. Here, we describe a database developed to facilitate access to sexual system and sex chromosome information, with data on sexual systems from 11,038 plant, 705 fish, 173 amphibian, 593 non-avian reptilian, 195 avian, 479 mammalian, and 11,556 invertebrate species. PMID:25977773

  4. Discovery of a Modified Tetrapolar Sexual Cycle in Cryptococcus amylolentus and the Evolution of MAT in the Cryptococcus Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, James A.; Hsueh, Yen-Ping; Averette, Anna Floyd; Li, Wenjun; Dietrich, Fred S.; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in fungi is governed by a specialized genomic region called the mating-type locus (MAT). The human fungal pathogenic and basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans has evolved a bipolar mating system (a, α) in which the MAT locus is unusually large (>100 kb) and encodes >20 genes including homeodomain (HD) and pheromone/receptor (P/R) genes. To understand how this unique bipolar mating system evolved, we investigated MAT in the closely related species Tsuchiyaea wingfieldii and Cryptococcus amylolentus and discovered two physically unlinked loci encoding the HD and P/R genes. Interestingly, the HD (B) locus sex-specific region is restricted (∼2 kb) and encodes two linked and divergently oriented homeodomain genes in contrast to the solo HD genes (SXI1α, SXI2a) of C. neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. The P/R (A) locus contains the pheromone and pheromone receptor genes but has expanded considerably compared to other outgroup species (Cryptococcus heveanensis) and is linked to many of the genes also found in the MAT locus of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species. Our discovery of a heterothallic sexual cycle for C. amylolentus allowed us to establish the biological roles of the sex-determining regions. Matings between two strains of opposite mating-types (A1B1×A2B2) produced dikaryotic hyphae with fused clamp connections, basidia, and basidiospores. Genotyping progeny using markers linked and unlinked to MAT revealed that meiosis and uniparental mitochondrial inheritance occur during the sexual cycle of C. amylolentus. The sexual cycle is tetrapolar and produces fertile progeny of four mating-types (A1B1, A1B2, A2B1, and A2B2), but a high proportion of progeny are infertile, and fertility is biased towards one parental mating-type (A1B1). Our studies reveal insights into the plasticity and transitions in both mechanisms of sex determination (bipolar versus tetrapolar) and sexual reproduction (outcrossing versus inbreeding) with

  5. Anthropogenic ecosystem fragmentation drives shared and unique patterns of sexual signal divergence among three species of Bahamian mosquitofish

    PubMed Central

    Giery, Sean T; Layman, Craig A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    When confronted with similar environmental challenges, different organisms can exhibit dissimilar phenotypic responses. Therefore, understanding patterns of phenotypic divergence for closely related species requires considering distinct evolutionary histories. Here, we investigated how a common form of human-induced environmental alteration, habitat fragmentation, may drive phenotypic divergence among three closely related species of Bahamian mosquitofish (Gambusia spp.). Focusing on one phenotypic trait (male coloration), having a priori predictions of divergence, we tested whether populations persisting in fragmented habitats differed from those inhabiting unfragmented habitats and examined the consistency of the pattern across species. Species exhibited both shared and unique patterns of phenotypic divergence between the two types of habitats, with shared patterns representing the stronger effect. For all species, populations in fragmented habitats had fewer dorsal-fin spots. In contrast, the magnitude and trajectory of divergence in dorsal-fin color, a sexually selected trait, differed among species. We identified fragmentation-mediated increased turbidity as a possible driver of these trait shifts. These results suggest that even closely related species can exhibit diverse phenotypic responses when encountering similar human-mediated selection regimes. This element of unpredictability complicates forecasting the phenotypic responses of wild organisms faced with anthropogenic change – an important component of biological conservation and ecosystem management. PMID:26240605

  6. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention.

    PubMed

    Brask, Josefine B; Croft, Darren P; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K

    2012-05-01

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non-receptive females still showed this preference, suggesting that they use information from chemical cues to assess the sexual attractiveness of potential female partners. Receptive females in contrast showed no such preferences. Our results demonstrate that females can decrease male harassment by associating with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others to their advantage; in this case, to reduce the sexual harassment they experience. PMID:22158959

  7. Species-specific loss of sexual dimorphism in vocal effectors accompanies vocal simplification in African clawed frogs (Xenopus)

    PubMed Central

    Leininger, Elizabeth C.; Kitayama, Ken; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic studies can reveal patterns of evolutionary change, including the gain or loss of elaborate courtship traits in males. Male African clawed frogs generally produce complex and rapid courtship vocalizations, whereas female calls are simple and slow. In a few species, however, male vocalizations are also simple and slow, suggesting loss of male-typical traits. Here, we explore features of the male vocal organ that could contribute to loss in two species with simple, slow male calls. In Xenopus boumbaensis, laryngeal morphology is more robust in males than in females. Larynges are larger, have a more complex cartilaginous morphology and contain more muscle fibers. Laryngeal muscle fibers are exclusively fast-twitch in males but are both fast- and slow-twitch in females. The laryngeal electromyogram, a measure of neuromuscular synaptic strength, shows greater potentiation in males than in females. Male-specific physiological features are shared with X. laevis, as well as with a species of the sister clade, Silurana tropicalis, and thus are likely ancestral. In X. borealis, certain aspects of laryngeal morphology and physiology are sexually monomorphic rather than dimorphic. In both sexes, laryngeal muscle fibers are of mixed-twitch type, which limits the production of muscle contractions at rapid intervals. Muscle activity potentiation and discrete tension transients resemble female rather than male X. boumbaensis. The de-masculinization of these laryngeal features suggests an alteration in sensitivity to the gonadal hormones that are known to control the sexual differentiation of the larynx in other Xenopus and Silurana species. PMID:25788725

  8. Sexual dimorphism in sister species of Leucoraja skate and its relationship to reproductive strategy and life history.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Christopher M; Rohlf, F James; Frisk, Michael G

    2016-03-01

    Instances of sexual dimorphism occur in a great variety of forms and manifestations. Most skates (Batoidea: Rajoidei) display some level of body shape dimorphism in which the pectoral fins of mature males develop to create a distinct bell-shaped body not found in females. This particular form of dimorphism is present in each of the sister species Leucoraja erinacea and Leucoraja ocellata, but differences between sexes are much greater in the former. In order to understand the nature and potential causes of pectoral dimorphism, we used geometric morphometrics to investigate allometry of fin shape in L. erinacea and L. ocellata and its relationship to the development of reproductive organs, based on previous work on the bonnethead shark, Sphyrna tiburo. We found that allometric trajectories of overall pectoral shape were different in both species of skate, but only L. erinacea varied significantly with respect to endoskeleton development. Male maturation was characterized by a number of sex-specific morphological changes, which appeared concurrently in developmental timing with elongation of cartilage-supported claspers. We suggest that external sexual dimorphism of pectoral fins in skates is a byproduct of skeletal growth needed for clasper development. Further, the magnitude of male shape change appears to be linked to the differential life histories of species. This work reports for the first time that pectoral dimorphism is a persistent feature in rajoid fishes, occurring in varying degrees across several genera. Lastly, our results suggest that pectoral morphology may be useful as a relative indicator of reproductive strategy in some species. PMID:26771079

  9. Differential Annual Movement Patterns in a Migratory Species: Effects of Experience and Sexual Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Paulo E.; Sowter, David; Marques, Paulo A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Some animals migrate long distances to exploit important seasonal food resources in the northern regions of the northern hemisphere, whilst avoiding winter starvation. Changes in the individual's age and navigational skills are likely to affect migration, which in turn influences the geographic distribution of individuals. Processes such as sexual maturation and navigational abilities are affected by age, and age is thus a key factor in understanding migration patterns and differences in distribution ranges. In the present study, we investigated the effects of age on the geographic distribution of a population of Lesser Black-backed Gulls Larus fuscus throughout its annual cycle, by analyzing a dataset of 19,096 records from 10,000 color-ringed gulls. In contrast to previous assumptions, the results showed that gulls were geographically segregated by age throughout the entire annual cycle, rather than showing a geographic age-related cline only in the wintering areas. This asymmetric distribution results from a reduction in the annual range of sexually mature gulls, and the differential distribution of mature and immature individuals (mature birds remained in more northern areas, compared to immature birds, throughout the annual cycle). Furthermore, although immature gulls travelled longer distances than adults, they initiated their fall migration with short movements, in contrast to adults that migrated using longer movements. The effects identified in this study explain the non-homogenous distribution of populations throughout the annual cycle, with wide implications for the development of effective human health policies and/or wildlife management strategies. PMID:21799853

  10. Novel microRNAs and microsatellite-like small RNAs in sexual and apomictic Boechera species.

    PubMed

    Amiteye, Samuel; Corral, Jose M; Vogel, Heiko; Kuhlmann, Markus; Mette, Michael F; Sharbel, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    Apomixis refers to plant asexual reproduction through seeds that give rise to progeny which are genotypically identical to the maternal parent. It has evolved from many different sexual taxa although the underlying genetic factors remain unknown. Previous analyses of the over-representation of transcription factors, in a comparison of microdissected ovules from apomictic and sexual Boechera, showed that many transcription factor mRNAs possessed microRNA (miRNAs) binding sites, thus pointing to miRNAs as potentially important factors that may be involved in the regulatory switch from sexual to apomictic reproduction. A microarray-based approach was used to identify (1) 673 microsatellitelike small RNAs (misRNAs) containing predominantly 2-7 repeats of (GAA)n/(CUU)n, (GCA)n/(CGU)n, (GGA)n/(CCU)n, (GGU)n/(CCA)n and (UGA)n/(ACU)n, and (2) 166 more typical non-repeat small RNAs. In total, 87 small RNAs were found to be located in cDNAs that could fold into stem-loop structures and thus represent miRNA molecules. In addition, 109 Boechera small RNAs including both misRNAs and non-repeat small RNAs, showed significant homology to 407 Arabidopsis thaliana small RNAs including the A. thaliana pollen-specific ath-miR5021. This indicates that only a fraction of the identified small RNAs are unique to Boechera. Ten small RNAs were validated using a Northern blot assay on flower and leaf tissues, eight of which showed flower-specific expression with varying abundance. The potential binding sites of many of the misRNAs and non-repeat small RNAs occur predominantly in exonic regions. This feature coupled with their flower-specific pattern of expression is suggestive of their probable role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. We propose that quantitative variation for misRNA target binding (and hence post-transcriptional gene regulation) could arise via microsatellite length polymorphisms occurring either in misRNA precursors or in their gene targets. PMID:25070713

  11. Larval feeding substrate and species significantly influence the effect of juvenile hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The juvenile hormone analog methoprene reduces the amount of time it takes laboratory-reared Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly) males to reach sexual maturity by almost half. Here, we examined if methoprene exerted a similar effect on four other species of Anastrepha (A. ludens, A. obliqua, ...

  12. The evolutionary dynamics of major regulators for sexual development among Hymenoptera species

    PubMed Central

    Biewer, Matthias; Schlesinger, Francisca; Hasselmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    All hymenopteran species, such as bees, wasps and ants, are characterized by the common principle of haplodiploid sex determination in which haploid males arise from unfertilized eggs and females from fertilized eggs. The underlying molecular mechanism has been studied in detail in the western honey bee Apis mellifera, in which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) acts as primary signal of the sex determining pathway, initiating female development by csd-heterozygotes. Csd arose from gene duplication of the feminizer (fem) gene, a transformer (tra) ortholog, and mediates in conjunction with transformer2 (tra2) sex-specific splicing of fem. Comparative molecular analyses identified fem/tra and its downstream target doublesex (dsx) as conserved unit within the sex determining pathway of holometabolous insects. In this study, we aim to examine evolutionary differences among these key regulators. Our main hypothesis is that sex determining key regulators in Hymenoptera species show signs of coevolution within single phylogenetic lineages. We take advantage of several newly sequenced genomes of bee species to test this hypothesis using bioinformatic approaches. We found evidences that duplications of fem are restricted to certain bee lineages and notable amino acid differences of tra2 between Apis and non-Apis species propose structural changes in Tra2 protein affecting co-regulatory function on target genes. These findings may help to gain deeper insights into the ancestral mode of hymenopteran sex determination and support the common view of the remarkable evolutionary flexibility in this regulatory pathway. PMID:25914717

  13. Non-developing ascospores in apothecia of asexually reproducing lichen-forming fungi.

    PubMed

    Molina, M Carmen; Divakar, Pradeep K; Zhang, Ning; González, Natalia; Struwe, Lena

    2013-09-01

    The presence of apothecia in mixed species (vegetatively reproducing lichens, occasionally producing ascomata) has been interpreted as a mechanism to increase genetic variability in mostly clonal populations. However, spore viability from these apothecia has not been studied. We asked whether ascospores of the mixed species Physconia grisea are viable and thereby contribute to increasing the genetic diversity within populations of this species. An ontogenetic study of spores in cultures of P. grisea and a related sexual species (P. distorta), showed that although mature apothecia from both species produced and discharged meiospores capable of germination, spores from P. grisea were only rarely (0.43%) able to continue development whereas those from P. distorta germinated and developed successfully. The strongly reduced viability of P. grisea spores suggested that they do not have a strong reproductive function, at least in the two local populations analyzed. Additionally, we show that the segregation of Physconia grisea ssp. lilacina does not have molecular support. PMID:24568030

  14. Sexual comparisons in immune ability, survival and parasite intensity in two damselfly species.

    PubMed

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Contreras-Garduño, J; Peralta-Vázquez, H; Luna-González, A; Campa-Córdova, A I; Ascencio, F

    2006-08-01

    Recent evolutionary studies have suggested that females have a more robust immune system than males. Using two damselfly species (Hetaerina americana and Argia tezpi), we tested if females produced higher immune responses (as phenoloxidase and hydrolytic enzymes), had a higher survival (using a nylon implant inserted in the abdomen and measuring survival after 24h) and fewer parasites (gregarines and water mites) than males. We also tested whether immune differences should emerge in different body areas (thorax vs. abdomen) within each sex with the prediction that only females will differ with the abdomen having a higher immune response than their thorax since the former area, for ecological and physiological reasons, may be a target zone for increased immune investment. Animals were adults of approximately the same age. In both species, females were more immunocompetent than males, but only in H. americana females were immune responses greater in the abdomen than in the thorax. However, there were no differences in survival and parasite intensity or the probability of being parasitised between the sexes in either of the two species. Thus, this study lends partial support to the principle that females are better at defending than males despite the null difference in parasitism and survival. PMID:16843483

  15. Interspecific somatic hybrids between Cyclamen persicum and C. coum, two sexually incompatible species.

    PubMed

    Prange, Anika Nadja Sabine; Bartsch, Melanie; Meiners, Julia; Serek, Margrethe; Winkelmann, Traud

    2012-04-01

    By applying polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated protoplast fusion, the first somatic hybrids were obtained between Cyclamen persicum (2n = 2x = 48) and C. coum (2n = 2x = 30)-two species that cannot be combined by cross breeding. Heterofusion was detected by double fluorescent staining with fluorescein diacetate and scopoletin. The highest heterofusion frequencies (of about 5%) resulted from a protocol using a protoplast density of 1 × 10(6)/mL and 40% PEG. The DNA content of C. coum was estimated for the first time by propidium iodide staining to be 14.7 pg/2C and was 4.6 times higher than that of C. persicum. Among 200 in vitro plantlets regenerated from fusion experiments, most resembled the C. coum parent, whereas only 5 plants showed typical C. persicum phenotypes and 46 had a deviating morphology. By flow cytometry, six putative somatic hybrids were identified. A species-specific DNA marker was developed based on the sequence of the 5.8S gene in the ribosomal nuclear DNA and its flanking internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2. The hybrid status of only one plant could be verified by the species-specific DNA marker as well as sequencing of the amplification product. RAPD markers turned out to be less informative and applicable for hybrid identification, as no clear additivity of the parental marker bands was observed. Chromosome counting in root tips of four hybrids revealed the presence of the 30 C. coum chromosomes and 2-41 additional ones indicating elimination of C. persicum chromosomes. PMID:22108718

  16. Extensive variation in chromosome number and genome size in sexual and parthenogenetic species of the jumping-bristletail genus Machilis (Archaeognatha)

    PubMed Central

    Gassner, Melitta; Dejaco, Thomas; Schönswetter, Peter; Marec, František; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Steiner, Florian M

    2014-01-01

    Parthenogenesis in animals is often associated with polyploidy and restriction to extreme habitats or recently deglaciated areas. It has been hypothesized that benefits conferred by asexual reproduction and polyploidy are essential for colonizing these habitats. However, while evolutionary routes to parthenogenesis are manifold, study systems including polyploids are scarce in arthropods. The jumping-bristletail genus Machilis (Insecta: Archaeognatha) includes both sexual and parthenogenetic species, and recently, the occurrence of polyploidy has been postulated. Here, we applied flow cytometry, karyotyping, and mitochondrial DNA sequencing to three sexual and five putatively parthenogenetic Eastern-Alpine Machilis species to investigate whether (1) parthenogenesis originated once or multiply and (2) whether parthenogenesis is strictly associated with polyploidy. The mitochondrial phylogeny revealed that parthenogenesis evolved at least five times independently among Eastern-Alpine representatives of this genus. One parthenogenetic species was exclusively triploid, while a second consisted of both diploid and triploid populations. The three other parthenogenetic species and all sexual species were diploid. Our results thus indicate that polyploidy can co-occur with parthenogenesis, but that it was not mandatory for the emergence of parthenogenesis in Machilis. Overall, we found a weak negative correlation of monoploid genome size (Cx) and chromosome base number (x), and this connection is stronger among parthenogenetic species alone. Likewise, monoploid genome size decreased with elevation, and we therefore hypothesize that genome downsizing could have been crucial for the persistence of alpine Machilis species. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary consequences of intraspecific chromosomal rearrangements and the presence of B chromosomes. In doing so, we highlight the potential of Alpine Machilis species for research on chromosomal and genome-size alterations

  17. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  18. Reproducible research in palaeomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurcock, Pontus; Florindo, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The reproducibility of research findings is attracting increasing attention across all scientific disciplines. In palaeomagnetism as elsewhere, computer-based analysis techniques are becoming more commonplace, complex, and diverse. Analyses can often be difficult to reproduce from scratch, both for the original researchers and for others seeking to build on the work. We present a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program designed to make reproducibility easier. Part of the problem is the divide between interactive and scripted (batch) analysis programs. An interactive desktop program with a graphical interface is a powerful tool for exploring data and iteratively refining analyses, but usually cannot operate without human interaction. This makes it impossible to re-run an analysis automatically, or to integrate it into a larger automated scientific workflow - for example, a script to generate figures and tables for a paper. In some cases the parameters of the analysis process itself are not saved explicitly, making it hard to repeat or improve the analysis even with human interaction. Conversely, non-interactive batch tools can be controlled by pre-written scripts and configuration files, allowing an analysis to be 'replayed' automatically from the raw data. However, this advantage comes at the expense of exploratory capability: iteratively improving an analysis entails a time-consuming cycle of editing scripts, running them, and viewing the output. Batch tools also tend to require more computer expertise from their users. PuffinPlot is a palaeomagnetic plotting and analysis program which aims to bridge this gap. First released in 2012, it offers both an interactive, user-friendly desktop interface and a batch scripting interface, both making use of the same core library of palaeomagnetic functions. We present new improvements to the program that help to integrate the interactive and batch approaches, allowing an analysis to be interactively explored and refined

  19. Magnetogastrography (MGG) Reproducibility Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Roca-Chiapas, J. M.; Córdova, T.; Hernández, E.; Solorio, S.; Solís Ortiz, S.; Sosa, M.

    2006-09-01

    Seven healthy subjects underwent a magnetic pulse of 32 mT for 17 ms, seven times in 90 minutes. The procedure was repeated one and two weeks later. Assessments of the gastric emptying were carried out for each one of the measurements and a statistical analysis of ANOVA was performed for every group of data. The gastric emptying time was 19.22 ± 5 min. Reproducibility estimation was above 85%. Therefore, magnetogastrography seems to be an excellent technique to be implemented in routine clinical trials.

  20. Opening Reproducible Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Open access is not only a form of publishing such that research papers become available to the large public free of charge, it also refers to a trend in science that the act of doing research becomes more open and transparent. When science transforms to open access we not only mean access to papers, research data being collected, or data being generated, but also access to the data used and the procedures carried out in the research paper. Increasingly, scientific results are generated by numerical manipulation of data that were already collected, and may involve simulation experiments that are completely carried out computationally. Reproducibility of research findings, the ability to repeat experimental procedures and confirm previously found results, is at the heart of the scientific method (Pebesma, Nüst and Bivand, 2012). As opposed to the collection of experimental data in labs or nature, computational experiments lend themselves very well for reproduction. Some of the reasons why scientists do not publish data and computational procedures that allow reproduction will be hard to change, e.g. privacy concerns in the data, fear for embarrassment or of losing a competitive advantage. Others reasons however involve technical aspects, and include the lack of standard procedures to publish such information and the lack of benefits after publishing them. We aim to resolve these two technical aspects. We propose a system that supports the evolution of scientific publications from static papers into dynamic, executable research documents. The DFG-funded experimental project Opening Reproducible Research (ORR) aims for the main aspects of open access, by improving the exchange of, by facilitating productive access to, and by simplifying reuse of research results that are published over the Internet. Central to the project is a new form for creating and providing research results, the executable research compendium (ERC), which not only enables third parties to

  1. Reproducing in cities.

    PubMed

    Mace, Ruth

    2008-02-01

    Reproducing in cities has always been costly, leading to lower fertility (that is, lower birth rates) in urban than in rural areas. Historically, although cities provided job opportunities, initially residents incurred the penalty of higher infant mortality, but as mortality rates fell at the end of the 19th century, European birth rates began to plummet. Fertility decline in Africa only started recently and has been dramatic in some cities. Here it is argued that both historical and evolutionary demographers are interpreting fertility declines across the globe in terms of the relative costs of child rearing, which increase to allow children to outcompete their peers. Now largely free from the fear of early death, postindustrial societies may create an environment that generates runaway parental investment, which will continue to drive fertility ever lower. PMID:18258904

  2. Reproducible Experiment Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Baranov, Alexander; Khairullin, Egor; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    Data analysis in fundamental sciences nowadays is an essential process that pushes frontiers of our knowledge and leads to new discoveries. At the same time we can see that complexity of those analyses increases fast due to a) enormous volumes of datasets being analyzed, b) variety of techniques and algorithms one have to check inside a single analysis, c) distributed nature of research teams that requires special communication media for knowledge and information exchange between individual researchers. There is a lot of resemblance between techniques and problems arising in the areas of industrial information retrieval and particle physics. To address those problems we propose Reproducible Experiment Platform (REP), a software infrastructure to support collaborative ecosystem for computational science. It is a Python based solution for research teams that allows running computational experiments on shared datasets, obtaining repeatable results, and consistent comparisons of the obtained results. We present some key features of REP based on case studies which include trigger optimization and physics analysis studies at the LHCb experiment.

  3. First descriptions of copepodid stages, sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variability of Mesocletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Argestidae), including the description of a new species with broad abyssal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mesocletodes Sars, 1909a encompasses 37 species to date. Initial evidence on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism has been verified for 77 specimens of Mesocletodes elmari sp. n. from various deep-sea regions, and ontogenetic development has been traced for the first time. Apomorphies are a strong spinule-like pinna on the mx seta that is fused to the basis, P2–P4 exp3 proximal outer seta lost, P1–P4 enp2 extremely elongated, furcal rami elongated, female body of prickly appearance, female P2–P4 enp2 proximal inner seta lost. Intraspecific variability involves spinulation, ornamentation and size of the body and setation and spinulation of pereiopods. Sexually dimorphic modifications of adult females include prickly appearance of the body, P1 enp exceeds exp in length, P1 coxa externally broadened, seta of basis arising from prominent protrusion, hyaline frills of body somites ornate. Sexual dimorphism in adult males is expressed in smaller body size, haplocer A1, 2 inner setae on P2–P4 enp2 and on P5 exp, P5 basendopodal lobe with 2 setae. Some modifications allow sexing of copepodid stages. The female A1 is fully developed in CV, the male A1 undergoes extensive modifications at the last molt. P1–P4 are fully developed in CV. Mesocletodes faroerensis and Mesocletodes thielei lack apomorphies of Mesocletodes and are excluded. PMID:21594073

  4. Sexual Preferences in Nutrient Utilization Regulate Oxygen Consumption and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Schistosoma mansoni: Potential Implications for Parasite Redox Biology

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Matheus P.; Correa Soares, Juliana B. R.; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, has a unique antioxidant network that is key to parasite survival and a valuable chemotherapeutic target. The ability to detoxify and tolerate reactive oxygen species increases along S. mansoni development in the vertebrate host, suggesting that adult parasites are more exposed to redox challenges than young stages. Indeed, adult parasites are exposed to multiple redox insults generated from blood digestion, activated immune cells, and, potentially, from their own parasitic aerobic metabolism. However, it remains unknown how reactive oxygen species are produced by S. mansoni metabolism, as well as their biological effects on adult worms. Here, we assessed the contribution of nutrients and parasite gender to oxygen utilization pathways, and reactive oxygen species generation in whole unpaired adult S. mansoni worms. We also determined the susceptibilities of both parasite sexes to a pro-oxidant challenge. We observed that glutamine and serum importantly contribute to both respiratory and non-respiratory oxygen utilization in adult worms, but with different proportions among parasite sexes. Analyses of oxygen utilization pathways revealed that respiratory rates were high in male worms, which contrast with high non-respiratory rates in females, regardless nutritional sources. Interestingly, mitochondrial complex I-III activity was higher than complex IV specifically in females. We also observed sexual preferences in substrate utilization to sustain hydrogen peroxide production towards glucose in females, and glutamine in male worms. Despite strikingly high oxidant levels and hydrogen peroxide production rates, female worms were more resistant to a pro-oxidant challenge than male parasites. The data presented here indicate that sexual preferences in nutrient metabolism in adult S. mansoni worms regulate oxygen utilization and reactive oxygen species production, which may differently contribute

  5. Sexual Preferences in Nutrient Utilization Regulate Oxygen Consumption and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Schistosoma mansoni: Potential Implications for Parasite Redox Biology.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Matheus P; Correa Soares, Juliana B R; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni, one of the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, has a unique antioxidant network that is key to parasite survival and a valuable chemotherapeutic target. The ability to detoxify and tolerate reactive oxygen species increases along S. mansoni development in the vertebrate host, suggesting that adult parasites are more exposed to redox challenges than young stages. Indeed, adult parasites are exposed to multiple redox insults generated from blood digestion, activated immune cells, and, potentially, from their own parasitic aerobic metabolism. However, it remains unknown how reactive oxygen species are produced by S. mansoni metabolism, as well as their biological effects on adult worms. Here, we assessed the contribution of nutrients and parasite gender to oxygen utilization pathways, and reactive oxygen species generation in whole unpaired adult S. mansoni worms. We also determined the susceptibilities of both parasite sexes to a pro-oxidant challenge. We observed that glutamine and serum importantly contribute to both respiratory and non-respiratory oxygen utilization in adult worms, but with different proportions among parasite sexes. Analyses of oxygen utilization pathways revealed that respiratory rates were high in male worms, which contrast with high non-respiratory rates in females, regardless nutritional sources. Interestingly, mitochondrial complex I-III activity was higher than complex IV specifically in females. We also observed sexual preferences in substrate utilization to sustain hydrogen peroxide production towards glucose in females, and glutamine in male worms. Despite strikingly high oxidant levels and hydrogen peroxide production rates, female worms were more resistant to a pro-oxidant challenge than male parasites. The data presented here indicate that sexual preferences in nutrient metabolism in adult S. mansoni worms regulate oxygen utilization and reactive oxygen species production, which may differently contribute

  6. New species of Ophiostomatales from Scolytinae and Platypodinae beetles in the Cape Floristic Region, including the discovery of the sexual state of Raffaelea.

    PubMed

    Musvuugwa, Tendai; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Dreyer, Léanne L; Oberlander, Kenneth C; Roets, Francois

    2015-10-01

    Olea capensis and Rapanea melanophloeos are important canopy trees in South African Afromontane forests. Dying or recently dead individuals of these trees are often infested by Scolytinae and Platypodinae (Curculionidae) beetles. Fungi were isolated from the surfaces of beetles emerging from wood samples and their galleries. Based on micro-morphological and phylogenetic analyses, four fungal species in the Ophiostomatales were isolated. These were Sporothrix pallida and three taxa here newly described as Sporothrix aemulophila sp. nov., Raffaelea vaginata sp. nov. and Raffaelea rapaneae sp. nov. This study represents the first collection of S. pallida, a species known from many environmental samples from across the world, from Scolytinae beetles. S. aemulophila sp. nov. is an associate of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus aemulus. R. rapaneae sp. nov. and R. vaginata sp. nov. were associated with a Lanurgus sp. and Platypodinae beetle, respectively, and represent the first Raffaelea spp. reported from the Cape Floristic Region. Of significance is that R. vaginata produced a sexual state analogous with those of Ophiostoma seticolle and O. deltoideosporum that also grouped in our analyses in Raffaelea s. str., to date considered an asexual genus. The morphology of the ossiform ascospores and anamorphs of the three species corresponded and the generic circumscription of Raffaelea is thus emended to accommodate sexual states. The two known species are provided with new combinations, namely Raffaelea seticollis (R.W. Davidson) Z.W. de Beer and T.A. Duong comb. nov. and Raffaelea deltoideospora (Olchow. and J. Reid) Z.W. de Beer and T.A. Duong comb. nov. PMID:26275876

  7. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

    PubMed

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation. PMID:23796773

  8. Epigenetic variation in asexually reproducing organisms.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; Preite, Veronica

    2014-03-01

    The role that epigenetic inheritance can play in adaptation may differ between sexuals and asexuals because (1) the dynamics of adaptation differ under sexual and asexual reproduction and the opportunities offered by epigenetic inheritance may affect these dynamics differently; and (2) in asexual reproduction epigenetic reprogramming mechanisms that are associated with meiosis can be bypassed, which could promote the buildup of epigenetic variation in asexuals. Here, we evaluate current evidence for an epigenetic contribution to adaptation in asexuals. We argue that two aspects of epigenetic variation should have particular relevance for asexuals, namely epigenetics-mediated phenotypic plasticity within and between generations, and heritable variation via stochastic epimutations. An evaluation of epigenetic reprogramming mechanisms suggests that some, but not all, forms of asexual reproduction enhance the likelihood of stable transmission of epigenetic marks across generations compared to sexual reproduction. However, direct tests of these predicted sexual-asexual differences are virtually lacking. Stable transmission of DNA methylation, transcriptomes, and phenotypes from parent to clonal offspring are demonstrated in various asexual species, and clonal genotypes from natural populations show habitat-specific DNA methylation. We discuss how these initial observations can be extended to demonstrate an epigenetic contribution to adaptation. PMID:24274255

  9. Reproducibility in a multiprocessor system

    DOEpatents

    Bellofatto, Ralph A; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W; Eisley, Noel A; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M; Haring, Rudolf A; Heidelberger, Philip; Kopcsay, Gerard V; Liebsch, Thomas A; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-11-26

    Fixing a problem is usually greatly aided if the problem is reproducible. To ensure reproducibility of a multiprocessor system, the following aspects are proposed; a deterministic system start state, a single system clock, phase alignment of clocks in the system, system-wide synchronization events, reproducible execution of system components, deterministic chip interfaces, zero-impact communication with the system, precise stop of the system and a scan of the system state.

  10. Analysis of potential factors allowing coexistence in a sexual/asexual minnow complex.

    PubMed

    Barron, James N; Lawson, Troy J; Jensen, Philip A

    2016-03-01

    The northern redbelly dace (Chrosomus eos) and the finescale dace (C. neogaeus) have hybridized to produce an all-female, asexual hybrid (C. eos-neogaeus) that reproduces by sperm-limited parthenogenesis (gynogenesis). However, in this system, gynogenesis is not 100 % efficient; triploid females are occasionally formed which reproduce as sexuals, producing nuclear males and females of the paternal species (generally C. eos). Thus, the asexual lineage continually produces occasional males that can serve as a sperm source. Because (almost) all hybrid offspring are females, the hybrid population has the potential to grow more quickly and even outcompete the sexuals, thus eliminating their own sperm source. The current research uses behavioral testing, ovarian analyses, and modeling to examine three hypotheses for the maintenance of the sexual/asexual complex: male discrimination against hybrid females, fecundity differences between sexual and asexual females, and production of nuclear male sexuals from the asexual lineage. Results suggest that males do not discriminate against asexual females, and that both sexual and asexual females have similar fecundities, eliminating these hypotheses as potential coexistence mechanisms. However, computer simulations of population growth support the hypothesis that occasional triploidy within the hybrid population supplies enough breeding males to maintain the sexual/asexual complex. PMID:26650583

  11. Non-coding RNAs in mammalian sexual development.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, L; Wilhelm, D

    2009-01-01

    The present decade is witnessing a paradigm shift in our understanding of gene regulation. RNA, once relegated to an intermediary between DNA and protein, has emerged as a key contributor in the coordination of complex developmental pathways. For sexually reproducing organisms, propagation of the species is accomplished via an elaborate sexual phenotype. In mammals this consists of a highly complex cell lineage that has the capacity for intricate self-differentiation whilst maintaining the potential to generate all cell types upon fertilization. In addition, mammals possess a diverse range of somatic reproductive tissues and organs that often undergo dynamic morphological changes in response to a variety of external and internal cues. Although the protein component required to mediate these processes continues to be vigorously investigated, it is becoming increasingly apparent that an understanding of the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) component is required to develop a comprehensive picture of mammalian sexual development. PMID:20197714

  12. Spontaneous hybrids between native and exotic Rubus in the Western United States produce offspring both by apomixis and by sexual recombination.

    PubMed

    Clark, L V; Jasieniuk, M

    2012-11-01

    Facultative asexual reproduction is a trait commonly found in invasive species. With a combination of sexual and asexual reproductive modes, such species may adapt to new environments via sexual recombination during range expansion, while at the same time having the benefits of asexuality such as the maintenance of fitness effects that depend upon heterozygosity. In the Western United States, native species of Rubus (Rosaceae) reproduce sexually whereas exotic naturalized Rubus species reproduce by pseudogamous apomixis. We hypothesized that new asexual lineages of Rubus could arise from hybridization in this range. To detect hybridization between native and exotic Rubus, we genotyped 579 individuals collected across California, Oregon and Washington with eight nuclear microsatellites and two chloroplast markers. Principal Coordinate Analysis and Bayesian clustering revealed a limited amount of hybridization of the native R. ursinus with the exotic R. armeniacus and R. pensilvanicus, as well as cultivated varieties. Genetic distances between these hybrids and their offspring indicated that both R. ursinus × R. armeniacus and R. ursinus × R. pensilvanicus produced a mix of apomictic and sexual seeds, with sexual seeds being more viable. Although neither of these hybrid types is currently considered invasive, they model the early stages of evolution of new invasive lineages, given the potential for fixed heterosis and the generation of novel genotypes. The hybrids also retain the ability to increase their fitness via sexual recombination and natural selection. Mixed reproductive systems such as those described here may be an important step in the evolution of asexual invasive species. PMID:22850699

  13. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Rulon W.; Schuett, Gordon W.; Repp, Roger A.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F.; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  14. Mating systems, reproductive success, and sexual selection in secretive species: a case study of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rulon W; Schuett, Gordon W; Repp, Roger A; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Charles F; Herrmann, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa. PMID:24598810

  15. Sexually Coercive Male Chimpanzees Sire More Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Joseph T.; Wroblewski, Emily E.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict [1]. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice [2, 3], but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior [4-11]. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success [12]. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female’s swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal. PMID:25454788

  16. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  17. Sexual reproduction in three hermaphroditic deep-sea Caryophyllia species (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from the NE Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Rhian G.; Tyler, Paul A.; Gage, John D.

    2005-12-01

    The reproductive biology and gametogenesis of three species of Caryophyllia were examined using histological techniques. Caryophyllia ambrosia, Alcock 1898, C. cornuformis, Pourtales 1868, and C. sequenzae, Duncan 1873, were collected from the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough in the NE Atlantic Ocean. These three ahermatypic solitary corals inhabit different depth ranges: C. cornuformis - 435-2000 m, C. sequenzae - 960-1900 m, and C. ambrosia - 1100-3000 m. All three species are hermaphroditic. Hermaphroditism in these species was found to be cyclical, with only one sex of gametes viable in any individual at any point in time, although gametes of both sexes were found together within a single mesentery. Once the viable gametes are spawned, the next sex of gametes continues to grow until mature, and so gametogenesis is a continuous cycle. Oocytes and spermacysts in all species increased in density towards the actinopharynx. Maximum fecundity for C. sequenzae was 940 oocytes per polyp, and for C. ambrosia 2900 oocytes per polyp. Fecundity could not be established for C. cornuformis. In all three species, individuals were asynchronous within populations, and production of gametes was quasi-continuous throughout the year. All species are hypothesised to have lecithotrophic larvae owing to their large oocyte sizes ( C. cornuformis max - 350 μm; C. sequenzae max - 430 μm; C. ambrosia max - 700 μm). Both the average oocyte size and fecundity increased in species going down the depth gradient of the NE Atlantic.

  18. Open Science and Research Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists, journals and funders are concerned about the low reproducibility of many scientific findings. One approach that may serve to improve the reliability and robustness of research is open science. Here I argue that the process of pre-registering study protocols, sharing study materials and data, and posting preprints of manuscripts may serve to improve quality control procedures at every stage of the research pipeline, and in turn improve the reproducibility of published work. PMID:27350794

  19. Open Science and Research Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Munafò, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists, journals and funders are concerned about the low reproducibility of many scientific findings. One approach that may serve to improve the reliability and robustness of research is open science. Here I argue that the process of pre-registering study protocols, sharing study materials and data, and posting preprints of manuscripts may serve to improve quality control procedures at every stage of the research pipeline, and in turn improve the reproducibility of published work. PMID:27350794

  20. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  1. Towards Reproducibility in Computational Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Christopher; Wagener, Thorsten; Freer, Jim; Han, Dawei

    2016-04-01

    The ability to reproduce published scientific findings is a foundational principle of scientific research. Independent observation helps to verify the legitimacy of individual findings; build upon sound observations so that we can evolve hypotheses (and models) of how catchments function; and move them from specific circumstances to more general theory. The rise of computational research has brought increased focus on the issue of reproducibility across the broader scientific literature. This is because publications based on computational research typically do not contain sufficient information to enable the results to be reproduced, and therefore verified. Given the rise of computational analysis in hydrology over the past 30 years, to what extent is reproducibility, or a lack thereof, a problem in hydrology? Whilst much hydrological code is accessible, the actual code and workflow that produced and therefore documents the provenance of published scientific findings, is rarely available. We argue that in order to advance and make more robust the process of hypothesis testing and knowledge creation within the computational hydrological community, we need to build on from existing open data initiatives and adopt common standards and infrastructures to: first make code re-useable and easy to find through consistent use of metadata; second, publish well documented workflows that combine re-useable code together with data to enable published scientific findings to be reproduced; finally, use unique persistent identifiers (e.g. DOIs) to reference re-useable and reproducible code, thereby clearly showing the provenance of published scientific findings. Whilst extra effort is require to make work reproducible, there are benefits to both the individual and the broader community in doing so, which will improve the credibility of the science in the face of the need for societies to adapt to changing hydrological environments.

  2. Reproducibility and imputation of air toxics data.

    PubMed

    Le, Hien Q; Batterman, Stuart A; Wahl, Robert L

    2007-12-01

    Ambient air quality datasets include missing data, values below method detection limits and outliers, and the precision and accuracy of the measurements themselves are often unknown. At the same time, many analyses require continuous data sequences and assume that measurements are error-free. While a variety of data imputation and cleaning techniques are available, the evaluation of such techniques remains limited. This study evaluates the performance of these techniques for ambient air toxics measurements, a particularly challenging application, and includes the analysis of intra- and inter-laboratory precision. The analysis uses an unusually complete-dataset, consisting of daily measurements of over 70 species of carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) collected over a one year period in Dearborn, Michigan, including 122 pairs of replicates. Analysis was restricted to compounds found above detection limits in > or =20% of the samples. Outliers were detected using the Gumbell extreme value distribution. Error models for inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility were derived from replicate samples. Imputation variables were selected using a generalized additive model, and the performance of two techniques, multiple imputation and optimal linear estimation, was evaluated for three missingness patterns. Many species were rarely detected or had very poor reproducibility. Error models developed for seven carbonyls showed median intra- and inter-laboratory errors of 22% and 25%, respectively. Better reproducibility was seen for the 16 VOCs meeting detection and reproducibility criteria. Imputation performance depended on the compound and missingness pattern. Data missing at random could be adequately imputed, but imputations for row-wise deletions, the most common type of missingness pattern encountered, were not informative. The analysis shows that air toxics data require significant efforts to identify and mitigate errors, outliers and missing observations

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basic HIV/AIDS information and resources for prevention LGBT Health Information for lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) individuals Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health ...

  4. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)). PMID:25999593

  5. Rotary head type reproducing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Takayama, Nobutoshi; Edakubo, Hiroo; Kozuki, Susumu; Takei, Masahiro; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    1986-01-01

    In an apparatus of the kind arranged to reproduce, with a plurality of rotary heads, an information signal from a record bearing medium having many recording tracks which are parallel to each other with the information signal recorded therein and with a plurality of different pilot signals of different frequencies also recorded one by one, one in each of the recording tracks, a plurality of different reference signals of different frequencies are simultaneously generated. A tracking error is detected by using the different reference signals together with the pilot signals which are included in signals reproduced from the plurality of rotary heads.

  6. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkan, Colm; Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-01

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  7. Towards reproducible, scalable lateral molecular electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Durkan, Colm Zhang, Qian

    2014-08-25

    An approach to reproducibly fabricate molecular electronic devices is presented. Lateral nanometer-scale gaps with high yield are formed in Au/Pd nanowires by a combination of electromigration and Joule-heating-induced thermomechanical stress. The resulting nanogap devices are used to measure the electrical properties of small numbers of two different molecular species with different end-groups, namely 1,4-butane dithiol and 1,5-diamino-2-methylpentane. Fluctuations in the current reveal that in the case of the dithiol molecule devices, individual molecules conduct intermittently, with the fluctuations becoming more pronounced at larger biases.

  8. Reproducible Bioinformatics Research for Biologists

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the current Big Data problem in Bioinformatics and the resulting issues with performing reproducible computational research. The core of the chapter provides guidelines and summaries of current tools/techniques that a noncomputational researcher would need to learn to pe...

  9. Sexual Harassment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…

  10. Performance reproducibility index for classification

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mohammadmahdi R.; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: A common practice in biomarker discovery is to decide whether a large laboratory experiment should be carried out based on the results of a preliminary study on a small set of specimens. Consideration of the efficacy of this approach motivates the introduction of a probabilistic measure, for whether a classifier showing promising results in a small-sample preliminary study will perform similarly on a large independent sample. Given the error estimate from the preliminary study, if the probability of reproducible error is low, then there is really no purpose in substantially allocating more resources to a large follow-on study. Indeed, if the probability of the preliminary study providing likely reproducible results is small, then why even perform the preliminary study? Results: This article introduces a reproducibility index for classification, measuring the probability that a sufficiently small error estimate on a small sample will motivate a large follow-on study. We provide a simulation study based on synthetic distribution models that possess known intrinsic classification difficulties and emulate real-world scenarios. We also set up similar simulations on four real datasets to show the consistency of results. The reproducibility indices for different distributional models, real datasets and classification schemes are empirically calculated. The effects of reporting and multiple-rule biases on the reproducibility index are also analyzed. Availability: We have implemented in C code the synthetic data distribution model, classification rules, feature selection routine and error estimation methods. The source code is available at http://gsp.tamu.edu/Publications/supplementary/yousefi12a/. Supplementary simulation results are also included. Contact: edward@ece.tamu.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22954625

  11. Long-Term Species, Sexual and Individual Variations in Foraging Strategies of Fur Seals Revealed by Stable Isotopes in Whiskers

    PubMed Central

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cazelles, Bernard; Arnould, John P. Y.; Richard, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Cherel, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Background Individual variations in the use of the species niche are an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. A challenge in testing consistency of individual foraging strategy is the repeated collection of information on the same individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings The foraging strategies of sympatric fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis) were examined using the stable isotope signature of serially sampled whiskers. Most whiskers exhibited synchronous δ13C and δ15N oscillations that correspond to the seal annual movements over the long term (up to 8 years). δ13C and δ15N values were spread over large ranges, with differences between species, sexes and individuals. The main segregating mechanism operates at the spatial scale. Most seals favored foraging in subantarctic waters (where the Crozet Islands are located) where they fed on myctophids. However, A. gazella dispersed in the Antarctic Zone and A. tropicalis more in the subtropics. Gender differences in annual time budget shape the seal movements. Males that do not perform any parental care exhibited large isotopic oscillations reflecting broad annual migrations, while isotopic values of females confined to a limited foraging range during lactation exhibited smaller changes. Limited inter-individual isotopic variations occurred in female seals and in male A. tropicalis. In contrast, male A. gazella showed large inter-individual variations, with some males migrating repeatedly to high-Antarctic waters where they fed on krill, thus meaning that individual specialization occurred over years. Conclusions/Significance Whisker isotopic signature yields unique long-term information on individual behaviour that integrates the spatial, trophic and temporal dimensions of the ecological niche. The method allows depicting the entire realized niche of the species, including some of its less well-known components such as age-, sex-, individual- and migration-related changes. It

  12. Reproducibility of NIF hohlraum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Turnbull, D. P.; Casey, D. T.; Albert, F.; Bachmann, B. L.; Doeppner, T.; Divol, L.; Grim, G. P.; Hoover, M.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Michel, P. A.; Moore, A. S.; Pino, J. E.; Schneider, M. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Strozzi, D. J.; Widmann, K.; Hohenberger, M.

    2015-11-01

    The strategy of experimentally ``tuning'' the implosion in a NIF hohlraum ignition target towards increasing hot-spot pressure, areal density of compressed fuel, and neutron yield relies on a level of experimental reproducibility. We examine the reproducibility of experimental measurements for a collection of 15 identical NIF hohlraum experiments. The measurements include incident laser power, backscattered optical power, x-ray measurements, hot-electron fraction and energy, and target characteristics. We use exact statistics to set 1-sigma confidence levels on the variations in each of the measurements. Of particular interest is the backscatter and laser-induced hot-spot locations on the hohlraum wall. Hohlraum implosion designs typically include variability specifications [S. W. Haan et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051001 (2011)]. We describe our findings and compare with the specifications. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  13. Increased reproductive effort results in male-biased offspring sex ratio: an experimental study in a species with reversed sexual size dimorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Kalmbach, E.; Nager, R. G.; Griffiths, R.; Furness, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive sex-ratio theory predicts that parents should overproduce the more beneficial offspring sex. Based on a recent experimental study of lesser black-backed gulls, we tested this hypothesis with the great skua, Catharacta skua, a bird species closely related to gulls but where females are the larger sex. When in poor body condition, the gulls overproduced daughters, the smaller and more viable sex under those circumstances. To discriminate between a mandatory physiological overproduction of female (i.e. non-male) eggs versus the overproduction of the smaller and presumably more viable sex, we conducted an egg-removal experiment with the great skua. Since the males are smaller, larger size and being male are separated. Through egg removal we induced females to increase egg production effort. Eggs were sexed using a DNA-based technique. Manipulated pairs produced a significant male bias at the end of the extended laying sequence, while the sex ratio in the control group did not differ from unity. Our results present an example of facultative sex-ratio manipulation and support the hypothesis that in sexually dimorphic birds parents overproduce the smaller sex under adverse conditions. PMID:11600083

  14. Rare gene capture in predominantly androgenetic species

    PubMed Central

    Hedtke, Shannon M.; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Hillis, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The long-term persistence of completely asexual species is unexpected. Although asexuality has short-term evolutionary advantages, a lack of genetic recombination leads to the accumulation over time of deleterious mutations. The loss of individual fitness as a result of accumulated deleterious mutations is expected to lead to reduced population fitness and possible lineage extinction. Persistent lineages of asexual, all-female clones (parthenogenetic and gynogenetic species) avoid the negative effects of asexual reproduction through the production of rare males, or otherwise exhibit some degree of genetic recombination. Another form of asexuality, known as androgenesis, results in offspring that are clones of the male parent. Several species of the Asian clam genus Corbicula reproduce via androgenesis. We compared gene trees of mitochondrial and nuclear loci from multiple sexual and androgenetic species across the global distribution of Corbicula to test the hypothesis of long-term clonality of the androgenetic species. Our results indicate that low levels of genetic capture of maternal nuclear DNA from other species occur within otherwise androgenetic lineages of Corbicula. The rare capture of genetic material from other species may allow androgenetic lineages of Corbicula to mitigate the effects of deleterious mutation accumulation and increase potentially adaptive variation. Models comparing the relative advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction should consider the possibility of rare genetic recombination, because such events seem to be nearly ubiquitous among otherwise asexual species. PMID:21606355

  15. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about infertility Sexually transmitted diseases Chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease ...

  16. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  17. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ... to anyone of any age, race or ethnicity, religion, ability, appearance, sexual orientation, or gender identity. However, ...

  18. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems. PMID:9385085

  19. Identification of the meiotic toolkit in diatoms and exploration of meiosis-specific SPO11 and RAD51 homologs in the sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Patil, Shrikant; Moeys, Sara; von Dassow, Peter; Huysman, Marie J. J.; Mapleson, Daniel; De Veylder, Lieven; Sanges, Remo; Vyverman, Wim; Montresor, Marina; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata

    2015-11-14

    Sexual reproduction is an obligate phase in the life cycle of most eukaryotes. Meiosis varies among organisms, which is reflected by the variability of the gene set associated to the process. Diatoms are unicellular organisms that belong to the stramenopile clade and have unique life cycles that can include a sexual phase. The exploration of five diatom genomes and one diatom transcriptome led to the identification of 42 genes potentially involved in meiosis. While these include the majority of known meiosis-related genes, several meiosis-specific genes, including DMC1, could not be identified. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses supported gene identification and revealed ancestralmore » loss and recent expansion in the RAD51 family in diatoms. The two sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta were used to explore the expression of meiosis-related genes: RAD21, SPO11-2, RAD51-A, RAD51-B and RAD51-C were upregulated during meiosis, whereas other paralogs in these families showed no differential expression patterns, suggesting that they may play a role during vegetative divisions. An almost identical toolkit is shared among Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Fragilariopsis cylindrus, as well as two species for which sex has not been observed, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, suggesting that these two may retain a facultative sexual phase. Lastly, our results reveal the conserved meiotic toolkit in six diatom species and indicate that Stramenopiles share major modifications of canonical meiosis processes ancestral to eukaryotes, with important divergences in each Kingdom.« less

  20. Clock genes and their genomic distributions in three species of salmonid fishes: Associations with genes regulating sexual maturation and cell cycling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clock family genes encode transcription factors that regulate clock-controlled genes and thus regulate many physiological mechanisms/processes in a circadian fashion. Clock1 duplicates and copies of Clock3 and NPAS2-like genes were partially characterized (genomic sequencing) and mapped using family-based indels/SNPs in rainbow trout (RT)(Oncorhynchus mykiss), Arctic charr (AC)(Salvelinus alpinus), and Atlantic salmon (AS)(Salmo salar) mapping panels. Results Clock1 duplicates mapped to linkage groups RT-8/-24, AC-16/-13 and AS-2/-18. Clock3/NPAS2-like genes mapped to RT-9/-20, AC-20/-43, and AS-5. Most of these linkage group regions containing the Clock gene duplicates were derived from the most recent 4R whole genome duplication event specific to the salmonids. These linkage groups contain quantitative trait loci (QTL) for life history and growth traits (i.e., reproduction and cell cycling). Comparative synteny analyses with other model teleost species reveal a high degree of conservation for genes in these chromosomal regions suggesting that functionally related or co-regulated genes are clustered in syntenic blocks. For example, anti-müllerian hormone (amh), regulating sexual maturation, and ornithine decarboxylase antizymes (oaz1 and oaz2), regulating cell cycling, are contained within these syntenic blocks. Conclusions Synteny analyses indicate that regions homologous to major life-history QTL regions in salmonids contain many candidate genes that are likely to influence reproduction and cell cycling. The order of these genes is highly conserved across the vertebrate species examined, and as such, these genes may make up a functional cluster of genes that are likely co-regulated. CLOCK, as a transcription factor, is found within this block and therefore has the potential to cis-regulate the processes influenced by these genes. Additionally, clock-controlled genes (CCGs) are located in other life-history QTL regions within salmonids suggesting that

  1. Sexual cannibalism as a manifestation of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-11-01

    Sexual cannibalism is a well-known example for sexual conflict and has many facets that determine the costs and benefits for the cannibal and the victim. Here, I focus on species in which sexual cannibalism is a general component of a mating system in which males invest maximally in mating with a single (monogyny) or two (bigyny) females. Sexual cannibalism can be a male strategy to maximize paternity and a female strategy to prevent paternity monopolization by any or a particular male. Considerable variation exists between species (1) in the potential of males to monopolize females, and (2) in the success of females in preventing monopolization by males. This opens up exciting future possibilities to investigate sexually antagonistic coevolution in a largely unstudied mating system. PMID:25213095

  2. Sexually transmitted diphtheria.

    PubMed

    Berger, Anja; Lensing, Carmen; Konrad, Regina; Huber, Ingrid; Hogardt, Michael; Sing, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Diphtheria is caused by diphtheria toxin-producing Corynebacterium species. While classical respiratory diphtheria is transmitted by droplets, cutaneous diphtheria often results from minor trauma. This report concerns the first case of sexually transmitted diphtheria in a patient with non-gonococcal urethritis after orogenital contact. PMID:22628666

  3. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  4. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  5. Reproducibility of muscle oxygen saturation.

    PubMed

    Thiel, C; Vogt, L; Himmelreich, H; Hübscher, M; Banzer, W

    2011-04-01

    The present study evaluated the reproducibility of tissue oxygenation in relation to oxygen consumption (VO2) across cycle exercise intensities in a test-retest design. 12 subjects (25.7±2.1 years; 24.7±1.9 kg · m(-2)) twice performed an incremental bicycle exercise protocol, while tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in the vastus lateralis muscle was monitored by a commercially available NIRS unit and VO2 determined by an open-circuit indirect calorimetric system. Coefficients of variation across rest, workloads corresponding to 25, 50 and 75% of individual maximum capacity, and maximum load were 5.8, 4.6, 6.1, 8.0, 11.0% (StO2) and 7.6, 6.0, 3.7, 3.4, 3.1% (VO2), respectively. 95 % CI of relative test-retest differences ranged from -5.6 to +5.4% at 25% load to -17.2 to +7.5% at maximum load for StO2 and from -7.3 to +7.7% at rest to -3.3 to +3.2% at maximum load for VO2. With advancing exercise intensity, within-subject variability of StO2 was augmented, whereas VO2 variability slightly attenuated. NIRS measurements at higher workloads need to be interpreted with caution. PMID:21271493

  6. Positive correlation of trophic level and proportion of sexual taxa of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in alpine soil systems.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Barbara M; Meyer, Erwin; Maraun, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We investigated community structure, trophic ecology (using stable isotope ratios; (15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) along an altitudinal gradient (2,050-2,900 m) in the Central Alps (Obergurgl, Austria). We hypothesized that (1) the community structure changes with altitude, (2) oribatid mites span over four trophic levels, (3) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with altitude, and (4) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with trophic level, i.e. is positively correlated with the δ(15)N signatures. Oribatid mite community structure changed with altitude indicating that oribatid mites occupy different niches at different altitudes. Oribatid mites spanned over 12 δ(15)N units, i.e. about four trophic levels, which is similar to lowland forest ecosystems. The proportion of sexually reproducing taxa increased from 2,050 to 2,900 m suggesting that limited resource availability at high altitudes favors sexual reproduction. Sexual taxa more frequently occurred higher in the food web indicating that the reproductive mode is related to nutrition of oribatid mites. Generally, oribatid mite community structure changed from being decomposer dominated at lower altitude to being dominated by fungal and lichen feeders, and predators at higher altitude. This supports the view that resources from dead organic material become less available with increasing altitude forcing species to feed on living resources such as fungi, lichens and nematodes. Our findings support the hypothesis that limited resource accessibility (at high altitudes) favors sexually reproducing species whereas ample resource supply (at lower altitudes) favors parthenogenetic species. PMID:24687174

  7. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  8. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  9. Sexual circuitry in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Auer, Thomas O; Benton, Richard

    2016-06-01

    The sexual behavior of Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding paradigm to understand the molecular and neuronal basis of sophisticated animal actions. We discuss recent advances in our knowledge of the genetic hardwiring of the underlying neuronal circuitry, and how pertinent sensory cues are differentially detected and integrated in the male and female brain. We also consider how experience influences these circuits over short timescales, and the evolution of these pathways over longer timescales to endow species-specific sexual displays and responses. PMID:26851712

  10. Sexual reproduction of the pentaploid, short-styled Oxalis pes-caprae allows the production of viable offspring.

    PubMed

    Costa, J; Ferrero, V; Loureiro, J; Castro, M; Navarro, L; Castro, S

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is a key factor for the successful establishment and spread of introduced species. Oxalis pes-caprae is a tristylous species with a self- and morph-incompatibility sexual system that, in the invaded range of the western Mediterranean Basin, has been found to reproduce asexually because only the pentaploid, short-styled morph (5x S-morph) was introduced. The objective of this study was to test the ability of the 5x S-morph of O. pes-caprae to produce viable offspring in the absence of compatible mates, exploring the hypothesis that new morphs could have emerged by sexual reproduction events of the initially introduced morph. Pollen germination, pollen tube development, fruit and seed production, seed germination and offspring ploidy levels were analysed after controlled hand-pollinations to assess self- and morph-incompatibility and production of viable gametes by the 5x S-morph. The self-incompatibility system is still operating, but a partial breakdown in the morph-incompatibility system combined with the production of viable gametes was observed, allowing sexual reproduction of the 5x S-morph in the invaded range. The ability of the 5x S-morph to reproduce sexually may have major consequences for the dynamics of invasive populations of O. pes-caprae and could be one of the factors involved in the occurrence of new floral morphs in this invaded range. PMID:23594049

  11. Sex in Cheese: Evidence for Sexuality in the Fungus Penicillium roqueforti

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Dupont, Joëlle; Fontanillas, Eric; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; Malagnac, Fabienne; Coton, Monika; Giraud, Tatiana; López-Villavicencio, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Although most eukaryotes reproduce sexually at some moment of their life cycle, as much as a fifth of fungal species were thought to reproduce exclusively asexually. Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed the occurrence of sex in some of these supposedly asexual species. For industrially relevant fungi, for which inoculums are produced by clonal-subcultures since decades, the potentiality for sex is of great interest for strain improvement strategies. Here, we investigated the sexual capability of the fungus Penicillium roqueforti, used as starter for blue cheese production. We present indirect evidence suggesting that recombination could be occurring in this species. The screening of a large sample of strains isolated from diverse substrates throughout the world revealed the existence of individuals of both mating types, even in the very same cheese. The MAT genes, involved in fungal sexual compatibility, appeared to evolve under purifying selection, suggesting that they are still functional. The examination of the recently sequenced genome of the FM 164 cheese strain enabled the identification of the most important genes known to be involved in meiosis, which were found to be highly conserved. Linkage disequilibria were not significant among three of the six marker pairs and 11 out of the 16 possible allelic combinations were found in the dataset. Finally, the detection of signatures of repeat induced point mutations (RIP) in repeated sequences and transposable elements reinforces the conclusion that P. roqueforti underwent more or less recent sex events. In this species of high industrial importance, the induction of a sexual cycle would open the possibility of generating new genotypes that would be extremely useful to diversify cheese products. PMID:23185400

  12. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    Sexuality is a big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. They also contribute to your sense of well-being. A number of disorders can affect the ability to have or enjoy sex in both men and women. Factors that ...

  13. Progesterone and prostaglandin F2α induce species-typical female preferences for male sexual displays in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica L; Love, Elliot K; Baugh, Alexander T; Gordon, Noah M; Tanner, Jessie C; Bee, Mark A

    2015-12-01

    Endocrine systems play critical roles in facilitating sexual behavior in seasonally breeding vertebrates. Much of the research exploring this topic has focused on the endocrine correlates of signaling behavior in males and sexual proceptivity in females. What is less understood is how hormones promote the expression of the often complex and highly selective set of stimulus-response behaviors that are observed in naturally breeding animals. In female frogs, phonotaxis is a robust and sensitive bioassay of mate choice and is exhibited by gravid females during the breeding season. In stark contrast, females exhibit low phonotactic responsiveness outside the breeding season, but the administration of hormones can induce sexual proceptivity. Here we test the hypothesis that manipulation of a minimal set of reproductive hormones-progesterone and prostaglandin F2α-are capable of evoking not only proceptive behavior in non-breeding females, but also the patterns of intraspecific selectivity for male sexual displays observed in gravid females tested during the breeding season. Specifically, we investigated whether preferences for faster call rates, longer call durations, and higher call efforts were similar between breeding and hormone-treated females of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Hormone injections induced patterns of selective phonotaxis in non-breeding females that were remarkably similar to those observed in breeding females. These results suggest that there may be an important contribution of hormonal pleiotropy in regulating this complex, acoustically-guided sexual behavior. Our findings also support the idea that hormonal induction could be used to evaluate hypotheses about selective mate choice, and its underlying mechanisms, using non-breeding females. PMID:26454212

  14. Sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Herek, Gregory M; McLemore, Kevin A

    2013-01-01

    Despite shifts toward greater acceptance in U.S. public opinion and policy, lesbian, gay, and bisexual people remain widely stigmatized. This article reviews empirical research on sexual prejudice, that is, heterosexuals' internalization of cultural stigma, manifested in the form of negative attitudes toward sexual minorities and same-sex desires and behaviors. After briefly reviewing measurement issues, we discuss linkages between sexual prejudice and religion, gender, sexuality, and related variables, and consider how the cultural institutions encompassing these domains create a social context within which individual expressions of prejudice can meet important psychological needs. These include needs for securing social acceptance, affirming values that are central to one's self-concept, and avoiding anxiety and other negative emotions associated with threats to self-esteem. We conclude by discussing factors that may motivate heterosexuals to reduce their own sexual prejudice, including intergroup contact, as well as avenues for future empirical inquiry. PMID:22994920

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, D.; de Oliveira, P. M. C.; de Oliveira, S. Moss; dos Santos, R. M. Zorzenon

    1996-02-01

    Modifying the Redfield model of sexual reproduction and the Penna model of biological aging, we compare reproduction with and without recombination in age-structured populations. In constrast to Redfield and in agreement with Bernardes we find sexual reproduction to be preferred to asexual one. In particular, the presence of old but still reproducing males helps the survival of younger females beyond their reproductive age.

  17. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Sexual Health Basic Facts & Information All adults, including older people, ... the opportunity to enjoy a satisfying and fulfilling sex life. In fact, most of them do, even ...

  18. Apomictic and sexual pearl millet X Pennisetum squamulatum hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Dujardin, M.; Hanna, W.W.

    1983-01-01

    Pennisetum squamulatum Fresen, an apomictic East African grass (2n = 54) was crossed to tetraploid (2n = 28) sexual pearl millet, P. americanum L. Leeke to study the potential for germplasm exchange. Twenty interspecific hybrids (2n = 41) with 14 pearl millet and 27 P. squamulatum chromosomes were obtained. All resembled P. squamulatum in perennial growth habit and inflorescence characteristics and resembled pearl millet in leafiness and pencillate anther tips. Seventeen of these hybrids were more vigorous than either parent. The most common chromosome association at metaphase I was 18 bivalents plus 5 univalents. At anaphase I and telophase I laggards, fragments, and unequal chromosome distribution were observed. Fifteen of 17 interspecific hybrids reproduced by facultative apomixis, one was sexual and one was an obligate apomict. Ovules with aposporous embryo sacs ranged from 1 to 93% in facultative apomictic plants. Morphological characteristics and chromosome numbers of open-pollinated progeny from the apomictic interspecific hybrid were identical to those of the seed parent indicating obligate apomictic reproduction. Both sexual and apomictic hybrids were partially male fertile with pollen stainability ranging from 29 percent to 79 percent and seed-set ranging from 1 to 60 seed per inflorescence under open-pollination. Development of fertile apomictic pearl millet-P. squamulatum interspecific hybrids appears to be a very useful tool for the transfer of genes for apomixis from the wild species to pearl millet.

  19. Sexual sadism in sexual offenders and sexually motivated homicide.

    PubMed

    Briken, Peer; Bourget, Dominique; Dufour, Mathieu

    2014-06-01

    This article gives a clinically oriented overview of forensically relevant forms of sexual sadism disorder and its specific relationship to sexual homicide. In sexual homicide perpetrators, peculiar patterns of sexual sadism may be a motivational pathway to kill. Sexual sadism increases the risk for reoffending in sexual offenders. Through psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions, treatment of sadistic sex offenders has to consider special characteristics that may be different from those of nonsadistic sex offenders. Many of these offenders share a combination of sexual sadistic motives and an intact self-regulation, sometimes combined with a high level of sexual preoccupation. PMID:24877708

  20. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters.

    PubMed

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin's bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world's toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female's age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  1. Spider behaviors include oral sexual encounters

    PubMed Central

    Gregorič, Matjaž; Šuen, Klavdija; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Several clades of spiders whose females evolved giant sizes are known for extreme sexual behaviors such as sexual cannibalism, opportunistic mating, mate-binding, genital mutilation, plugging, and emasculation. However, these behaviors have only been tested in a handful of size dimorphic spiders. Here, we bring another lineage into the picture by reporting on sexual behavior of Darwin’s bark spider, Caerostris darwini. This sexually size dimorphic Madagascan species is known for extreme web gigantism and for producing the world’s toughest biomaterial. Our field and laboratory study uncovers a rich sexual repertoire that predictably involves cannibalism, genital mutilation, male preference for teneral females, and emasculation. Surprisingly, C. darwini males engage in oral sexual encounters, rarely reported outside mammals. Irrespective of female’s age or mating status males salivate onto female genitalia pre-, during, and post-copulation. While its adaptive significance is elusive, oral sexual contact in spiders may signal male quality or reduce sperm competition. PMID:27126507

  2. Numerical reproducibility for implicit Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, M.; Brunner, T.; Gentile, N.

    2013-07-01

    We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. In [1], a way of eliminating this roundoff error using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. A non-arbitrary precision approaches required a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step. (authors)

  3. Sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Berner, Wolfgang; Berger, Peter; Hill, Andreas

    2003-08-01

    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism versus masochism. In forensic settings the diagnosis of a sadistic character disorder (sadistic personality disorder [SPD] according DSM-III-R) is found to a much higher degree than in other clinical samples (50-fold). Our own follow-up study on a forensic sample implies that sadism as a paraphilia is of relevance for relapse-rates of sex-offenders. Symptoms of SPD can be combined with sexual sadism, or occur independently. This may corroborate arguments in favor of a dimensional concept of sexual sadism. Symptoms of SPD may then be a sign of generalization of sadistic traits at least in some cases. A concept of two factors contributing to sadistic pleasure is suggested, one taking the aspect of bodily gratification by sexual-aggressive stimuli as decisive, and the other taking inner representation of hostile objects into consideration (stressing the antisocial-anger-rage aspect). PMID:12971180

  4. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  5. Thou Shalt Be Reproducible! A Technology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article elaborates on reproducibility in psychology from a technological viewpoint. Modern open source computational environments are shown and explained that foster reproducibility throughout the whole research life cycle, and to which emerging psychology researchers should be sensitized, are shown and explained. First, data archiving platforms that make datasets publicly available are presented. Second, R is advocated as the data-analytic lingua franca in psychology for achieving reproducible statistical analysis. Third, dynamic report generation environments for writing reproducible manuscripts that integrate text, data analysis, and statistical outputs such as figures and tables in a single document are described. Supplementary materials are provided in order to get the reader started with these technologies. PMID:27471486

  6. Sexual Education and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiecker, Ben

    1992-01-01

    Distinguishes five interpretations of sexual education including factual knowledge; self-control; stressing love; sexual training; and sexual morality. Suggests that sexual education should be understood as teaching children the moral tendencies relevant to sexual conduct. Argues that infantile sexual desire is based on a contradiction in terms…

  7. Optimal seeding of self-reproducing systems.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Kabamba, Pierre T

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the need to minimize the number of elements required to establish a self-reproducing system. One such system is a self-reproducing extraterrestrial robotic colony, which reduces the launch payload mass for space exploration compared to current mission configurations. In this work, self-reproduction is achieved by the actions of a robot on available resources. An important consideration for the establishment of any self-reproducing system is the identification of a seed, for instance, a set of resources and a set of robots that utilize them to produce all of the robots in the colony. This article outlines a novel algorithm to determine an optimal seed for self-reproducing systems, with application to a self-reproducing extraterrestrial robotic colony. Optimality is understood as the minimization of a cost function of the resources and, in this article, the robots. Since artificial self-reproduction is currently an open problem, the algorithm is illustrated with a simple robotic self-replicating system from the literature and with a more complicated self-reproducing example from nature. PMID:22035080

  8. Sexual Reproduction in a Simple Growth Population Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, Carlos Gentil Oro; Santos, Marcio

    2012-05-01

    One of the most important characteristics in the survival of a species is related to the kind of reproduction responsible for the offspring generation. However, only in the last years the role played by sexual reproduction has been investigated. Then, for a better understanding of this kind of process we introduce, in this work, a surface reaction model that describes the role of the sexual reproduction. In our model two different elements of the species, representing male and female, can interact to reproduce a new element. The sex of this new element is chosen with a given probability and in order to take into account the mortality rate we introduce another kind of individual. The value of the spatial density of this element remains constant during the time evolution of the system. The model is studied using Monte Carlo simulations and mean field approximation. Depending on the values of the control parameters of the model, the system can attain two stationary states: In one of them the population survives and in the other it can be extinguished. Besides, accordingly to our results, the phase diagram of the model shows a discontinuous transition between these two states.

  9. Assessing the reproducibility of discriminant function analyses

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Rose L.; Albert, Arianne Y.K.; Renaut, Sebastien; Rennison, Diana J.; Bock, Dan G.

    2015-01-01

    Data are the foundation of empirical research, yet all too often the datasets underlying published papers are unavailable, incorrect, or poorly curated. This is a serious issue, because future researchers are then unable to validate published results or reuse data to explore new ideas and hypotheses. Even if data files are securely stored and accessible, they must also be accompanied by accurate labels and identifiers. To assess how often problems with metadata or data curation affect the reproducibility of published results, we attempted to reproduce Discriminant Function Analyses (DFAs) from the field of organismal biology. DFA is a commonly used statistical analysis that has changed little since its inception almost eight decades ago, and therefore provides an opportunity to test reproducibility among datasets of varying ages. Out of 100 papers we initially surveyed, fourteen were excluded because they did not present the common types of quantitative result from their DFA or gave insufficient details of their DFA. Of the remaining 86 datasets, there were 15 cases for which we were unable to confidently relate the dataset we received to the one used in the published analysis. The reasons ranged from incomprehensible or absent variable labels, the DFA being performed on an unspecified subset of the data, or the dataset we received being incomplete. We focused on reproducing three common summary statistics from DFAs: the percent variance explained, the percentage correctly assigned and the largest discriminant function coefficient. The reproducibility of the first two was fairly high (20 of 26, and 44 of 60 datasets, respectively), whereas our success rate with the discriminant function coefficients was lower (15 of 26 datasets). When considering all three summary statistics, we were able to completely reproduce 46 (65%) of 71 datasets. While our results show that a majority of studies are reproducible, they highlight the fact that many studies still are not the

  10. Effects of genotoxicity and its consequences at the population level in sexual and asexual Artemia assessed by analysis of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR).

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, Sandhya; Grant, Alastair

    2013-09-18

    There is considerable evidence that genetic damage in organisms occurs in the environment as a result of exposure to genotoxins and ionising radiation, but we have limited understanding of the extent to which this results in adverse consequences at a population level. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to quantify genotoxic effects of the mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) on a sexual (Artemia franciscana) and an asexual (Artemia parthenogenetica) species of brine shrimp. The method provides information similar to that obtained with assessment of RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) but is more robust. Genetic damage was transmitted to the F1 generation in both Artemia species, but the sexual species showed a greater degree of recovery, as shown by higher values of genomic template stability. There was a strong correlation between DNA damage and effects on individual fitness parameters: size, survival, reproduction and population growth. These effects persisted into the F2 generation in A. parthenogenetica, but in the sexual A. franciscana only effects on fecundity continued beyond the exposed generation, even though there were substantial alterations in ISSR patterns in the F1 generation. Genetic biomarkers can thus be indicative of effects at the population level, but sexually reproducing species have a considerable assimilative capacity for the effects of genotoxins. PMID:23872504

  11. Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science. PMID:27231259

  12. Relevance relations for the concept of reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Atmanspacher, H.; Bezzola Lambert, L.; Folkers, G.; Schubiger, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of reproducibility is widely considered a cornerstone of scientific methodology. However, recent problems with the reproducibility of empirical results in large-scale systems and in biomedical research have cast doubts on its universal and rigid applicability beyond the so-called basic sciences. Reproducibility is a particularly difficult issue in interdisciplinary work where the results to be reproduced typically refer to different levels of description of the system considered. In such cases, it is mandatory to distinguish between more and less relevant features, attributes or observables of the system, depending on the level at which they are described. For this reason, we propose a scheme for a general ‘relation of relevance’ between the level of complexity at which a system is considered and the granularity of its description. This relation implies relevance criteria for particular selected aspects of a system and its description, which can be operationally implemented by an interlevel relation called ‘contextual emergence’. It yields a formally sound and empirically applicable procedure to translate between descriptive levels and thus construct level-specific criteria for reproducibility in an overall consistent fashion. Relevance relations merged with contextual emergence challenge the old idea of one fundamental ontology from which everything else derives. At the same time, our proposal is specific enough to resist the backlash into a relativist patchwork of unconnected model fragments. PMID:24554574

  13. Reproducibility responsibilities in the HPC arena

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R; McLay, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Expecting bit-for-bit reproducibility in the HPC arena is not feasible because of the ever changing hardware and software. No user s application is an island; it lives in an HPC eco-system that changes over time. Old hardware stops working and even old software won t run on new hardware. Further, software libraries change over time either by changing the internals or even interfaces. So bit-for-bit reproducibility should not be expected. Rather a reasonable expectation is that results are reproducible within error bounds; or that the answers are close (which is its own debate.) To expect a researcher to reproduce their own results or the results of others within some error bounds, there must be enough information to recreate all the details of the experiment. This requires complete documentation of all phases of the researcher s workflow; from code to versioning to programming and runtime environments to publishing of data. This argument is the core statement of the Yale 2009 Declaration on Reproducible Research [1]. Although the HPC ecosystem is often outside the researchers control, the application code could be built almost identically and there is a chance for very similar results with just only round-off error differences. To achieve complete documentation at every step, the researcher, the computing center, and the funding agencies all have a role. In this thesis, the role of the researcher is expanded upon as compared to the Yale report and the role of the computing centers is described.

  14. Sexual Reproductive Biology of a Colonial Rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Rotifera: Monogononta): Do mating strategies vary between colonial and solitary rotifer species?

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Walsh, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    In many aquatic invertebrates including monogonont rotifers, sex provides genetic variation and dormant stages that allows dispersal in time and space. While the reproductive biology of some solitary monogonont rotifer species is known, little is known concerning mating behaviors in colonial rotifers. Coloniality poses unique challenges to the typical mating behavior of solitary rotifers. For instance, most species engage in circling behavior, where the male swims in close proximity to the female. In colonial forms, access to a particular female may be hindered by nearby colony mates. Here we provide descriptions of (1) male morphology, (2) mating behavior, and (3) types of eggs of the widespread colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis, and discuss modifications in mating strategies as a consequence of coloniality. Two important differences from mating patterns documented in solitary rotifers were found in S. socialis. First, duration of circling phase of mating is protracted for males encountering small colonies of females as compared to solitary females. Males encountering single females removed from their colonies behave similarly to those of solitary species. Second, duration of copulation in S. socialis is the shortest reported for any rotifer species. Endogamy might occur in this species as sons copulate with their sisters and mothers, at least under laboratory conditions. Examples of behaviour in linked video clips. PMID:24932095

  15. Sexual Reproductive Biology of a Colonial Rotifer Sinantherina socialis (Rotifera: Monogononta): Do mating strategies vary between colonial and solitary rotifer species?

    PubMed

    Rico-Martínez, Roberto; Walsh, Elizabeth J

    2013-12-01

    In many aquatic invertebrates including monogonont rotifers, sex provides genetic variation and dormant stages that allows dispersal in time and space. While the reproductive biology of some solitary monogonont rotifer species is known, little is known concerning mating behaviors in colonial rotifers. Coloniality poses unique challenges to the typical mating behavior of solitary rotifers. For instance, most species engage in circling behavior, where the male swims in close proximity to the female. In colonial forms, access to a particular female may be hindered by nearby colony mates. Here we provide descriptions of (1) male morphology, (2) mating behavior, and (3) types of eggs of the widespread colonial rotifer Sinantherina socialis, and discuss modifications in mating strategies as a consequence of coloniality. Two important differences from mating patterns documented in solitary rotifers were found in S. socialis. First, duration of circling phase of mating is protracted for males encountering small colonies of females as compared to solitary females. Males encountering single females removed from their colonies behave similarly to those of solitary species. Second, duration of copulation in S. socialis is the shortest reported for any rotifer species. Endogamy might occur in this species as sons copulate with their sisters and mothers, at least under laboratory conditions. Examples of behaviour in linked video clips. PMID:24932095

  16. A neural circuit encoding sexual preference in humans.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Timm B; Langguth, Berthold; Rupprecht, Rainer; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Sexual preference determines mate choice for reproduction and hence guarantees conservation of species in mammals. Despite this fundamental role in human behavior, current knowledge on its target-specific neurofunctional substrate is based on lesion studies and therefore limited. We used meta-analytic remodeling of neuroimaging data from 364 human subjects with diverse sexual interests during sexual stimulation to quantify neural regions associated with sexual preference manipulations. We found that sexual preference is encoded by four phylogenetically old, subcortical brain structures. More specifically, sexual preference is controlled by the anterior and preoptic area of the hypothalamus, the anterior and mediodorsal thalamus, the septal area, and the perirhinal parahippocampus including the dentate gyrus. In contrast, sexual non-preference is regulated by the substantia innominata. We anticipate the identification of a core neural circuit for sexual preferences to be a starting point for further sophisticated investigations into the neural principles of sexual behavior and particularly of its aberrations. PMID:27339689

  17. A Reproducible Oral Microcosm Biofilm Model for Testing Dental Materials

    PubMed Central

    Rudney, J.D.; Chen, R.; Lenton, P.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Jones, R.S.; Reilly, C.; Fok, A.S.; Aparicio, C.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Most studies of biofilm effects on dental materials use single-species biofilms, or consortia. Microcosm biofilms grown directly from saliva or plaque are much more diverse, but difficult to characterize. We used the Human Oral Microbial Identification Microarray (HOMIM) to validate a reproducible oral microcosm model. Methods and Results Saliva and dental plaque were collected from adults and children. Hydroxyapatite and dental composite disks were inoculated with either saliva or plaque, and microcosm biofilms were grown in a CDC biofilm reactor. In later experiments, the reactor was pulsed with sucrose. DNA from inoculums and microcosms were analyzed by HOMIM for 272 species. Microcosms included about 60% of species from the original inoculum. Biofilms grown on hydroxyapatite and composites were extremely similar. Sucrose-pulsing decreased diversity and pH, but increased the abundance of Streptococcus and Veilonella. Biofilms from the same donor, grown at different times, clustered together. Conclusions This model produced reproducible microcosm biofilms that were representative of the oral microbiota. Sucrose induced changes associated with dental caries. Significance and Impact of the Study This is the first use of HOMIM to validate an oral microcosm model that can be used to study the effects of complex biofilms on dental materials. PMID:22925110

  18. Reproducible measurements of MPI performance characteristics.

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.

    1999-06-25

    In this paper we describe the difficulties inherent in making accurate, reproducible measurements of message-passing performance. We describe some of the mistakes often made in attempting such measurements and the consequences of such mistakes. We describe mpptest, a suite of performance measurement programs developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that attempts to avoid such mistakes and obtain reproducible measures of MPI performance that can be useful to both MPI implementers and MPI application writers. We include a number of illustrative examples of its use.

  19. The Economics of Reproducibility in Preclinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, Leonard P.; Cockburn, Iain M.; Simcoe, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Low reproducibility rates within life science research undermine cumulative knowledge production and contribute to both delays and costs of therapeutic drug development. An analysis of past studies indicates that the cumulative (total) prevalence of irreproducible preclinical research exceeds 50%, resulting in approximately US$28,000,000,000 (US$28B)/year spent on preclinical research that is not reproducible—in the United States alone. We outline a framework for solutions and a plan for long-term improvements in reproducibility rates that will help to accelerate the discovery of life-saving therapies and cures. PMID:26057340

  20. Sexual selection and the evolution of visually conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits in male monkeys, apes, and human beings.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Alan; Dixson, Barnaby; Anderson, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Striking secondary sexual traits, such as brightly colored "sexual skin," capes of hair, beards, and other facial adornments occur in adult males of many anthropoid primate species. This review focuses upon the role of sexual selection in the evolution of these traits. A quantitative approach is used to measure sexually dimorphic characters and to compare their development in the monogamous, polygynous, and multimale-multifemale mating systems of monkeys, apes, and human beings. PMID:16913285

  1. Data quality in predictive toxicology: reproducibility of rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Gottmann, E; Kramer, S; Pfahringer, B; Helma, C

    2001-01-01

    We compared 121 replicate rodent carcinogenicity assays from the two parts (National Cancer Institute/National Toxicology Program and literature) of the Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) to estimate the reliability of these experiments. We estimated a concordance of 57% between the overall rodent carcinogenicity classifications from both sources. This value did not improve substantially when additional biologic information (species, sex, strain, target organs) was considered. These results indicate that rodent carcinogenicity assays are much less reproducible than previously expected, an effect that should be considered in the development of structure-activity relationship models and the risk assessment process. PMID:11401763

  2. Reproducibility, Controllability, and Optimization of Lenr Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2006-02-01

    Low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) measurements are significantly and increasingly reproducible. Practical control of the production of energy or materials by LENR has yet to be demonstrated. Minimization of costly inputs and maximization of desired outputs of LENR remain for future developments.

  3. Natural Disasters: Earth Science Readings. Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Nancy

    Natural Disasters is a reproducible teacher book that explains what scientists believe to be the causes of a variety of natural disasters and suggests steps that teachers and students can take to be better prepared in the event of a natural disaster. It contains both student and teacher sections. Teacher sections include vocabulary, an answer key,…

  4. Reproducibility of ambulatory blood pressure load.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, P K; Sheps, S G; Bailey, K R; Wiltgen, C M; Moore, A G

    1990-12-01

    Twenty-two hypertensive patients were monitored during two separate drug-free occasions with a Del Mar Avionics ambulatory device. Blood pressure loads (percentage of systolic and diastolic readings more than 140 and 90 mmHg, respectively) and mean BP were measured both to determine their reproducibility and to examine how they correlate with each other. The systolic and diastolic mean awake BPs for day 1 and day 2 were 140/93 mmHg and 140/91 mmHg, respectively, and BP loads were 45%/55% and 43%/54%. Moreover, mean BP loads correlated highly (r = 0.93) with mean BP values taken on the same day. Both ambulatory mean SBP and BP load were highly reproducible (r = 0.87 and 0.80, respectively, during the awake hours), and mean DBP and load were fairly reproducible (r = 0.59 and 0.39, respectively, during the awake hours). Clinically, however, both were consistent from day 1 to day 2. Mean and individual standard deviations also were reproducible for both systolic and diastolic pressures and loads. PMID:2096203

  5. Sexuality and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…

  6. A cumulative scale of severe sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Joachim; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    The article assesses the scale properties of the criterion set for severe sexual sadism in a sample of male forensic patients (N = 100). Half of the sample consists of sexual sadists; the remainder is sampled at random from the general group of nonsadistic sex offenders. Eleven of 17 criteria (plus the additional item of inserting objects into the victim's bodily orifices) of Marshall, Kennedy, Yates, and Serran's list form a cumulative scale. More specifically, this scale comprises all the 5 core criteria that Marshall and his colleagues considered particularly relevant. The resulting 11-item scale of severe sexual sadism is highly reliable (r(tt) = .93) and represents a strong scale (H = .83) of the Guttman type (coefficient of reproducibility = .97). The 11-item scale distinguishes perfectly between sexual sadists and nonsadistic sex offenders in the sample. PMID:19605691

  7. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  8. Sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Tavara, Luis

    2006-06-01

    Gender-based violence is related to the power imbalance between men and women that is present, to a greater or lesser degree, in all societies. It was recognized as a human rights problem by the United Nations relatively recently. It includes emotional, physical and sexual violence. Sexual violence is the extreme form of gender-based violence, usually accompanied by the other types of violence. Its prevalence is difficult to determine, but it is likely to affect at least one-third of women at some time in their life. It has multiple effects on women's physical and gynaecological health, and these depend greatly on the quality of care that women receive immediately after the assault. Unfortunately, most emergency health services, including those in women's hospitals, are not prepared to provide the correct care for these women. Care should be multidisciplinary and should involve crisis treatment, meticulous clinical examination with complementary auxiliary methods, treatment of physical lesions, prevention of pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and follow-up for at least 6 months after the assault. PMID:16564226

  9. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

  10. Sexual signals and mating patterns in Syngnathidae.

    PubMed

    Rosenqvist, G; Berglund, A

    2011-06-01

    Male pregnancy in the family Syngnathidae (pipefishes, seahorses and seadragons) predisposes males to limit female reproductive success; sexual selection may then operate more strongly on females and female sexual signals may evolve (sex-role reversal). A bewildering array of female signals has evolved in Syngnathids, e.g. skin folds, large body size, colouration, markings on the body and elaborate courtship. These female sexual signals do not seem quantitatively or qualitatively different from those that evolve in males in species with conventional sex roles where males provide females or offspring with direct benefits. In several syngnathid species, males also evolve ornaments, females are choosy in addition to being competitive and males compete as well as choosing partners. Thus, sex roles form a continuum, spanning from conventional to reversed within this group of fishes. Cases are presented here suggesting that stronger sexual selection on females may be most extreme in species showing classical polyandry (one male mates with several females, such as many species where males brood their eggs on the trunk), intermediate in polygynandrous species (males and females both mate with more than one partner, as in many species where males brood their eggs on the tail) and least extreme, even exhibiting conventional sex roles, in monogamous species (one male mates solely with one female, as in many seahorses and tropical pipefishes). At the same time caution is needed before unanimously establishing this pattern: first, the connection between mating patterns, strength of sexual selection, sex roles and ornament expression is far from simple and straightforward, and second, knowledge of the actual morphology, ecology and behaviour of most syngnathid species is scanty. Basically only a few Nerophis, Syngnathus and Hippocampus species have been studied in any detail. It is known, however, that this group of fishes exhibits a remarkable variation in sex roles and

  11. A Physical Activity Questionnaire: Reproducibility and Validity

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Nicolas; Sanchez, Carlos E.; Vera, Jose A.; Perez, Wilson; Thalabard, Jean-Christophe; Rieu, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the Quantification de L’Activite Physique en Altitude chez les Enfants (QAPACE) supervised self-administered questionnaire reproducibility and validity on the estimation of the mean daily energy expenditure (DEE) on Bogotá’s schoolchildren. The comprehension was assessed on 324 students, whereas the reproducibility was studied on a different random sample of 162 who were exposed twice to it. Reproducibility was assessed using both the Bland-Altman plot and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity was studied in a sample of 18 girls and 18 boys randomly selected, which completed the test - re-test study. The DEE derived from the questionnaire was compared with the laboratory measurement results of the peak oxygen uptake (Peak VO2) from ergo-spirometry and Leger Test. The reproducibility ICC was 0.96 (95% C.I. 0.95-0.97); by age categories 8-10, 0.94 (0.89-0. 97); 11-13, 0.98 (0.96- 0.99); 14-16, 0.95 (0.91-0.98). The ICC between mean TEE as estimated by the questionnaire and the direct and indirect Peak VO2 was 0.76 (0.66) (p<0.01); by age categories, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 were 0.89 (0.87), 0.76 (0.78) and 0.88 (0.80) respectively. The QAPACE questionnaire is reproducible and valid for estimating PA and showed a high correlation with the Peak VO2 uptake. Key pointsThe presence of a supervisor, the limited size of the group with the possibility of answering to their questions could explain the high reproducibility for this questionnaire.No study in the literature had directly addressed the issue of estimating a yearly average PA including school and vacation period.A two step procedure, in the population of schoolchildren of Bogotá, gives confidence in the use of the QAPACE questionnaire in a large epidemiological survey in related populations. PMID:24149485

  12. Women and sexual problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000663.htm Women and sexual problems To use the sharing features on this page, ... feel better about your sex life. Common Sexual Problems You may have sexual dysfunction if you are ...

  13. Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... used by VA to refer to experiences of sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that a Veteran ... make an estimate of the actual rates of sexual assault and harassment experiences among all individuals serving in ...

  14. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  15. A meshfree unification: reproducing kernel peridynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, M. A.; Foster, J. T.; Belytschko, T.; Liu, Wing Kam

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first investigation establishing the link between the meshfree state-based peridynamics method and other meshfree methods, in particular with the moving least squares reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). It is concluded that the discretization of state-based peridynamics leads directly to an approximation of the derivatives that can be obtained from RKPM. However, state-based peridynamics obtains the same result at a significantly lower computational cost which motivates its use in large-scale computations. In light of the findings of this study, an update to the method is proposed such that the limitations regarding application of boundary conditions and the use of non-uniform grids are corrected by using the reproducing kernel approximation.

  16. The Road to Reproducibility in Animal Research.

    PubMed

    Jilka, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Reproducibility of research findings is the hallmark of scientific advance. However, the recently noted lack of reproducibility and transparency of published research using animal models of human biology and disease has alarmed funders, scientists, and the public. Improved reporting of methodology and better use of statistical tools are needed to enhance the quality and utility of published research. Reporting guidelines like Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) have been devised to achieve these goals, but most biomedical research journals, including the JBMR, have not been able to obtain high compliance. Cooperative efforts among authors, reviewers and editors-empowered by increased awareness of their responsibilities, and enabled by user-friendly guidelines-are needed to solve this problem. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:27255286

  17. An International Ki67 Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67’s value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that goal, we conducted a Ki67 reproducibility study. Methods Eight laboratories received 100 breast cancer cases arranged into 1-mm core tissue microarrays—one set stained by the participating laboratory and one set stained by the central laboratory, both using antibody MIB-1. Each laboratory scored Ki67 as percentage of positively stained invasive tumor cells using its own method. Six laboratories repeated scoring of 50 locally stained cases on 3 different days. Sources of variation were analyzed using random effects models with log2-transformed measurements. Reproducibility was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the approximate two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the true intraclass correlation coefficients in these experiments were provided. Results Intralaboratory reproducibility was high (ICC = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.97). Interlaboratory reproducibility was only moderate (central staining: ICC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.78; local staining: ICC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.68). Geometric mean of Ki67 values for each laboratory across the 100 cases ranged 7.1% to 23.9% with central staining and 6.1% to 30.1% with local staining. Factors contributing to interlaboratory discordance included tumor region selection, counting method, and subjective assessment of staining positivity. Formal counting methods gave more consistent results than visual estimation. Conclusions Substantial variability in Ki67 scoring was observed among some of the world’s most experienced laboratories. Ki67 values and cutoffs for clinical decision-making cannot be transferred between laboratories without

  18. Reproducibility of liquid oxygen impact test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    Results for 12,000 impacts on a wide range of materials were studied to determine the reproducibility of the liquid oxygen impact test method. Standard deviations representing the overall variability of results were in close agreement with the expected values for a binomial process. This indicates that the major source of variability is due to the go - no go nature of the test method and that variations due to sampling and testing operations were not significant.

  19. Tools and techniques for computational reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Stephen R; Frampton, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    When reporting research findings, scientists document the steps they followed so that others can verify and build upon the research. When those steps have been described in sufficient detail that others can retrace the steps and obtain similar results, the research is said to be reproducible. Computers play a vital role in many research disciplines and present both opportunities and challenges for reproducibility. Computers can be programmed to execute analysis tasks, and those programs can be repeated and shared with others. The deterministic nature of most computer programs means that the same analysis tasks, applied to the same data, will often produce the same outputs. However, in practice, computational findings often cannot be reproduced because of complexities in how software is packaged, installed, and executed-and because of limitations associated with how scientists document analysis steps. Many tools and techniques are available to help overcome these challenges; here we describe seven such strategies. With a broad scientific audience in mind, we describe the strengths and limitations of each approach, as well as the circumstances under which each might be applied. No single strategy is sufficient for every scenario; thus we emphasize that it is often useful to combine approaches. PMID:27401684

  20. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    PubMed

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology. PMID:26601028

  1. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements

    PubMed Central

    Carasso, Alfred S.

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing1 of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology. PMID:26601028

  2. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  3. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified...

  4. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified...

  5. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified...

  6. 10 CFR 95.43 - Authority to reproduce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... detects the unauthorized reproduction of classified documents is encouraged. (b) Unless restricted by the CSA, Secret and Confidential documents may be reproduced. Reproduced copies of classified...

  7. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior. PMID:949223

  8. Circulating Endocannabinoid Concentrations and Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carolin; Hill, Matthew N.; Chang, Sabrina C.H.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several lines of evidence point to the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning. These include results from studies describing the subjective effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in humans and the observable effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in other species, as well as results from studies investigating the location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and periphery, and the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on neurotransmitters implicated in sexual functioning. While these lines of research suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning, no studies investigating the relationship between concentrations of endogenous cannabinoids (i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and sexual functioning have been conducted in any species. Aim To measure circulating endocannabinoid concentrations in relation to subjective and physiological indices of sexual arousal in women (n = 21). Methods Serum endocannabinoid (AEA and 2-AG) concentrations were measured immediately prior to, and immediately following, viewing of neutral (control) and erotic (experimental) film stimuli in a repeated measures design. Physiological sexual arousal was measured via vaginal photoplethysmography. Subjective sexual arousal was measured both continuously and non-continuously. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Changes in AEA and 2-AG concentrations from pre- to post-film and in relation to physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal. Results Results revealed a significant relationship between endocannabinoid concentrations and female sexual arousal, whereby increases in both physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in AEA, and increases in subjective indices of

  9. Queer nuclear families? Reproducing and transgressing heteronormativity.

    PubMed

    Folgerø, Tor

    2008-01-01

    During the past decade the public debate on gay and lesbian adoptive rights has been extensive in the Norwegian media. The debate illustrates how women and men planning to raise children in homosexual family constellations challenge prevailing cultural norms and existing concepts of kinship and family. The article discusses how lesbian mothers and gay fathers understand and redefine their own family practices. An essential point in this article is the fundamental ambiguity in these families' accounts of themselves-how they simultaneously transgress and reproduce heteronormative assumptions about childhood, fatherhood, motherhood, family and kinship. PMID:18771116

  10. Open and reproducible global land use classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nüst, Daniel; Václavík, Tomáš; Pross, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Researchers led by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental research (UFZ) developed a new world map of land use systems based on over 30 diverse indicators (http://geoportal.glues.geo.tu-dresden.de/stories/landsystemarchetypes.html) of land use intensity, climate and environmental and socioeconomic factors. They identified twelve land system archetypes (LSA) using a data-driven classification algorithm (self-organizing maps) to assess global impacts of land use on the environment, and found unexpected similarities across global regions. We present how the algorithm behind this analysis can be published as an executable web process using 52°North WPS4R (https://wiki.52north.org/bin/view/Geostatistics/WPS4R) within the GLUES project (http://modul-a.nachhaltiges-landmanagement.de/en/scientific-coordination-glues/). WPS4R is an open source collaboration platform for researchers, analysts and software developers to publish R scripts (http://www.r-project.org/) as a geo-enabled OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) process. The interoperable interface to call the geoprocess allows both reproducibility of the analysis and integration of user data without knowledge about web services or classification algorithms. The open platform allows everybody to replicate the analysis in their own environments. The LSA WPS process has several input parameters, which can be changed via a simple web interface. The input parameters are used to configure both the WPS environment and the LSA algorithm itself. The encapsulation as a web process allows integration of non-public datasets, while at the same time the publication requires a well-defined documentation of the analysis. We demonstrate this platform specifically to domain scientists and show how reproducibility and open source publication of analyses can be enhanced. We also discuss future extensions of the reproducible land use classification, such as the possibility for users to enter their own areas of interest to the system and

  11. The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

    2011-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665

  12. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  13. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Nancy A.

    1988-01-01

    Three situations of sexual harassment, typical of the complaints received by various departments and offices on all Indiana University campuses, are presented. According to the National Advisory Council on Women's Educational Programs, "academic sexual harassment is the use of authority to emphasize the sexuality or sexual identity of a student in…

  14. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  15. Sexuality and Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanctuary, Gerald

    The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

  16. Reproducibility of airway wall thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Krass, Stefan; Owsijewitsch, Michael; de Hoop, Bartjan; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto

    2010-03-01

    Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with today's high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form solution to account for possible variations of parenchyma density between different lung regions, inspiration states and contrast agent concentrations. The general accuracy of the algorithm is evaluated using basic tubular software and hardware phantoms. Furthermore, we present results on the reproducibility of the algorithm with respect to clinical CT scans, varying reconstruction kernels, and repeated acquisitions, which is crucial for longitudinal observations.

  17. Reproducibility Data on SUMMiT

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Lloyd; Jakubczak, Jay; Limary, Siv; McBrayer, John; Montague, Stephen; Smith, James; Sniegowski, Jeffry; Stewart, Harold; de Boer, Maarten

    1999-07-16

    SUMMiT (Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology) at the Sandia National Laboratories' MDL (Microelectronics Development Laboratory) is a standardized MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) technology that allows designers to fabricate concept prototypes. This technology provides four polysilicon layers plus three sacrificial oxide layers (with the third oxide layer being planarized) to enable fabrication of complex mechanical systems-on-a-chip. Quantified reproducibility of the SUMMiT process is important for process engineers as well as designers. Summary statistics for critical MEMS technology parameters such as film thickness, line width, and sheet resistance will be reported for the SUMMiT process. Additionally, data from Van der Pauw test structures will be presented. Data on film thickness, film uniformity and critical dimensions of etched line widths are collected from both process and monitor wafers during manufacturing using film thickness metrology tools and SEM tools. A standardized diagnostic module is included in each SWiT run to obtain post-processing parametric data to monitor run-to-run reproducibility such as Van der Pauw structures for measuring sheet resistance. This characterization of the SUMMiT process enables design for manufacturability in the SUMMiT technology.

  18. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  19. Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science".

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher J; Bahník, Štěpán; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Bosco, Frank A; Chandler, Jesse; Chartier, Christopher R; Cheung, Felix; Christopherson, Cody D; Cordes, Andreas; Cremata, Edward J; Della Penna, Nicolas; Estel, Vivien; Fedor, Anna; Fitneva, Stanka A; Frank, Michael C; Grange, James A; Hartshorne, Joshua K; Hasselman, Fred; Henninger, Felix; van der Hulst, Marije; Jonas, Kai J; Lai, Calvin K; Levitan, Carmel A; Miller, Jeremy K; Moore, Katherine S; Meixner, Johannes M; Munafò, Marcus R; Neijenhuijs, Koen I; Nilsonne, Gustav; Nosek, Brian A; Plessow, Franziska; Prenoveau, Jason M; Ricker, Ashley A; Schmidt, Kathleen; Spies, Jeffrey R; Stieger, Stefan; Strohminger, Nina; Sullivan, Gavin B; van Aert, Robbie C M; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Vanpaemel, Wolf; Vianello, Michelangelo; Voracek, Martin; Zuni, Kellylynn

    2016-03-01

    Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted. PMID:26941312

  20. Heterospecific interactions and the proliferation of sexually dimorphic traits.

    PubMed

    Pfennig, Karin S; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2012-02-01

    Sexual selection is expected to promote speciation by fostering the evolution of sexual traits that minimize reproductive interactions among existing or incipient species. In species that compete for access to, or attention of, females, sexual selection fosters more elaborate traits in males compared to females. If these traits also minimize reproductive interactions with heterospecifics, then species with enhanced risk of interactions between species might display greater numbers of these sexual dimorphic characters. We tested this prediction in eight families of North American birds. In particular, we evaluated whether the number of sexually dimorphic traits was positively associated with species richness at a given site or with degree of sympatry with congeners. We found no strong evidence of enhanced sexual dimorphism with increasing confamilial species richness at a given site. We also found no overall relationship between the number of sexually dimorphic traits and overlap with congeners across these eight families. However, we found patterns consistent with our prediction within Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans) and, to a lesser degree, Parulidae (New World warblers). Our results suggest that sexually selected plumage traits in these groups potentially play a role in reproductive isolation. PMID:24639684

  1. Model systems, taxonomic bias, and sexual selection: beyond Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Marlene; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Herberstein, Marie Elisabeth; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    Although model systems are useful in entomology, allowing generalizations based on a few well-known species, they also have drawbacks. It can be difficult to know how far to generalize from information in a few species: Are all flies like Drosophila? The use of model systems is particularly problematic in studying sexual selection, where variability among taxa is key to the evolution of different behaviors. A bias toward the use of a few insect species, particularly from the genus Drosophila, is evident in the sexual selection and sexual conflict literature over the past several decades, although the diversity of study organisms has increased more recently. As the number of model systems used to study sexual conflict increased, support for the idea that sexual interactions resulted in harm to females decreased. Future work should choose model systems thoughtfully, combining well-known species with those that can add to the variation that allows us to make more meaningful generalizations. PMID:24160422

  2. Regulation of apomixis: learning from sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Leal, Daniel; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Apomixis is a natural form of asexual reproduction through seeds that leads to viable offspring genetically identical to the mother plant. New evidence from sexual model species indicates that the regulation of female gametogenesis and seed formation is also directed by epigenetic mechanisms that are crucial to control events that distinguish sexuality from apomixis, with important implications for our understanding of the evolutionary forces that shape structural variation and diversity in plant reproduction. PMID:23000434

  3. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    PubMed

    Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans, sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species, it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include, the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not synonymous), the activation of specific brain area as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxyglucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all, by the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic area as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for male mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  4. Reproducible quantitative proteotype data matrices for systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Röst, Hannes L.; Malmström, Lars; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    Historically, many mass spectrometry–based proteomic studies have aimed at compiling an inventory of protein compounds present in a biological sample, with the long-term objective of creating a proteome map of a species. However, to answer fundamental questions about the behavior of biological systems at the protein level, accurate and unbiased quantitative data are required in addition to a list of all protein components. Fueled by advances in mass spectrometry, the proteomics field has thus recently shifted focus toward the reproducible quantification of proteins across a large number of biological samples. This provides the foundation to move away from pure enumeration of identified proteins toward quantitative matrices of many proteins measured across multiple samples. It is argued here that data matrices consisting of highly reproducible, quantitative, and unbiased proteomic measurements across a high number of conditions, referred to here as quantitative proteotype maps, will become the fundamental currency in the field and provide the starting point for downstream biological analysis. Such proteotype data matrices, for example, are generated by the measurement of large patient cohorts, time series, or multiple experimental perturbations. They are expected to have a large effect on systems biology and personalized medicine approaches that investigate the dynamic behavior of biological systems across multiple perturbations, time points, and individuals. PMID:26543201

  5. Sexuality and Islam.

    PubMed

    Dialmy, Abdessamad

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

  6. Effects of clonality on the genetic variability of rare, insular species: the case of Ruta microcarpa from the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, M; Reid, A; Caujapé-Castells, J; Marrero, Á; Fernández-Palacios, J M; Mesa-Coelo, R A; Conti, E

    2013-01-01

    Many plant species combine sexual and clonal reproduction. Clonal propagation has ecological costs mainly related to inbreeding depression and pollen discounting; at the same time, species able to reproduce clonally have ecological and evolutionary advantages being able to persist when conditions are not favorable for sexual reproduction. The presence of clonality has profound consequences on the genetic structure of populations, especially when it represents the predominant reproductive strategy in a population. Theoretical studies suggest that high rate of clonal propagation should increase the effective number of alleles and heterozygosity in a population, while an opposite effect is expected on genetic differentiation among populations and on genotypic diversity. In this study, we ask how clonal propagation affects the genetic diversity of rare insular species, which are often characterized by low levels of genetic diversity, hence at risk of extinction. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite markers to study the genetic structure of the critically endangered insular endemic Ruta microcarpa. We found that clonality appears to positively affect the genetic diversity of R. microcarpa by increasing allelic diversity, polymorphism, and heterozygosity. Moreover, clonal propagation seems to be a more successful reproductive strategy in small, isolated population subjected to environmental stress. Our results suggest that clonal propagation may benefit rare species. However, the advantage of clonal growth may be only short-lived for prolonged clonal growth could ultimately lead to monoclonal populations. Some degree of sexual reproduction may be needed in a predominantly clonal species to ensure long-term viability. PMID:23789068

  7. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    PubMed

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. PMID:26315443

  8. Is Grannum grading of the placenta reproducible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mary; Ryan, John; Brennan, Patrick C.; Higgins, Mary; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2009-02-01

    Current ultrasound assessment of placental calcification relies on Grannum grading. The aim of this study was to assess if this method is reproducible by measuring inter- and intra-observer variation in grading placental images, under strictly controlled viewing conditions. Thirty placental images were acquired and digitally saved. Five experienced sonographers independently graded the images on two separate occasions. In order to eliminate any technological factors which could affect data reliability and consistency all observers reviewed images at the same time. To optimise viewing conditions ambient lighting was maintained between 25-40 lux, with monitors calibrated to the GSDF standard to ensure consistent brightness and contrast. Kappa (κ) analysis of the grades assigned was used to measure inter- and intra-observer reliability. Intra-observer agreement had a moderate mean κ-value of 0.55, with individual comparisons ranging from 0.30 to 0.86. Two images saved from the same patient, during the same scan, were each graded as I, II and III by the same observer. A mean κ-value of 0.30 (range from 0.13 to 0.55) indicated fair inter-observer agreement over the two occasions and only one image was graded consistently the same by all five observers. The study findings confirmed the lack of reproducibility associated with Grannum grading of the placenta despite optimal viewing conditions and highlight the need for new methods of assessing placental health in order to improve neonatal outcomes. Alternative methods for quantifying placental calcification such as a software based technique and 3D ultrasound assessment need to be explored.

  9. Endocrine regulation and sexual differentiation of avian copulatory sexually selected characters.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia L R; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Reproductive specializations in birds have provided intriguing model systems to better understand the role of endocrine mechanisms that regulate phenotype expression and the action of sexual selection. A comparative approach can elucidate how endocrine systems associated with control of sexual differentiation, sexual maturation, and reproductive physiology and behavior have diversified. Here we compare the copulatory sexually selected traits of two members of the galloanseriform superfamily: quail and ducks. Japanese quail have a non-intromittent penis, and they have evolved a unique foam gland that is known to be involved in post-copulatory sexual selection. In contrast, ducks have maintained a large intromittent penis that has evolved via copulatory male-male competition and has been elaborated in a sexually antagonistic race due to sexual conflict with females over mating. These adaptations function in concert with sex-specific and, in part, species-specific behaviors. Although the approaches to study these traits have been different, exploring the differences in neuroendocrine regulation of sexual behavior, development and seasonality of the foam gland and the penis side by side, allow us to suggest some areas where future research would be productive to better understand the evolution of novelty in sexually selected traits. PMID:25179524

  10. Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

    2010-08-01

    Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

  11. Parental Sexual Attitudes, Family Sexual Communication, and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    Some researchers have reported that when parents are the main source of sex education, their adolescent children are less likely to engage in premarital sexual activity and are more likely to use effective contraception. This study used the variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes (liberal or conservative) to categorize 349 college…

  12. Identification of the meiotic toolkit in diatoms and exploration of meiosis-specific SPO11 and RAD51 homologs in the sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, Shrikant; Moeys, Sara; von Dassow, Peter; Huysman, Marie J. J.; Mapleson, Daniel; De Veylder, Lieven; Sanges, Remo; Vyverman, Wim; Montresor, Marina; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata

    2015-11-14

    Sexual reproduction is an obligate phase in the life cycle of most eukaryotes. Meiosis varies among organisms, which is reflected by the variability of the gene set associated to the process. Diatoms are unicellular organisms that belong to the stramenopile clade and have unique life cycles that can include a sexual phase. The exploration of five diatom genomes and one diatom transcriptome led to the identification of 42 genes potentially involved in meiosis. While these include the majority of known meiosis-related genes, several meiosis-specific genes, including DMC1, could not be identified. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses supported gene identification and revealed ancestral loss and recent expansion in the RAD51 family in diatoms. The two sexual species Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata and Seminavis robusta were used to explore the expression of meiosis-related genes: RAD21, SPO11-2, RAD51-A, RAD51-B and RAD51-C were upregulated during meiosis, whereas other paralogs in these families showed no differential expression patterns, suggesting that they may play a role during vegetative divisions. An almost identical toolkit is shared among Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and Fragilariopsis cylindrus, as well as two species for which sex has not been observed, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana, suggesting that these two may retain a facultative sexual phase. Lastly, our results reveal the conserved meiotic toolkit in six diatom species and indicate that Stramenopiles share major modifications of canonical meiosis processes ancestral to eukaryotes, with important divergences in each Kingdom.

  13. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  14. Indian concepts on sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

  15. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  16. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  17. Sexual harassment victimization in adolescence: Associations with family background.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-06-01

    Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. PMID:27131452

  18. Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

  19. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  20. Testosterone Stimulates Mounting Behavior and Arginine Vasotocin Expression in the Brain of both Sexual and Unisexual Whiptail Lizards

    PubMed Central

    Hillsman, K.D.; Sanderson, N.S.; Crews, D.

    2008-01-01

    In nonmammalian vertebrates the abundance of arginine vasotocin (AVT) neurons in the brain is sexually dimorphic, a pattern that is modulated by testicular androgen. This peptide is thought to be involved in the control of male-typical mounting behaviors. The all-female desert-grasslands whiptail (Cnemidophorus uniparens) reproduces by obligate parthenogenesis and in nature no males exist, but eggs treated with aromatase inhibitor hatch into individuals (called virago C. uniparens) having testes, accessory sex structures, high circulating concentrations of androgens, and exhibiting only male-like copulatory behavior. To examine the ‘sexual’ dimorphism of AVT-containing neurons in these animals, we compared AVT immunoreactivity in gonadectomized control and virago C. uniparens, with that of gonadectomized male and female Cnemidophorus inornatus, a sexual species that is the maternal ancestor to the parthenogenetic species. Mounting behavior is elicited in both species and both sexes by testosterone, and it was predicted that the distribution and abundance of AVT cell bodies and fibers would reflect the propensity of males and females of the two species to display male-typical copulatory behavior. Since both this propensity and AVT abundance are controlled by androgens, we compared testosterone-implanted and control animals within each group. Testosterone treatment generally increased AVT abundance, except in lab-reared parthenoforms, in which testosterone treatment was the least effective in inducing male-like copulatory behavior. PMID:18391518

  1. Is there evidence of sexual reproduction (meiosis) in Acanthamoeba?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed A.; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of independently breeding species into males and females (gametes) has remained a puzzle. Given the significant advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction as a long-term species survival strategy; here, we pose the question whether there is some form of meiosis in Acanthamoeba species, which represents our ancient lineage. The recently available Acanthamoeba genome revealed several genes implicated in meiosis in sexual eukaryotes such as Spo11, Mre11, Rad50, Rad51, Rad52, Mnd1, Dmc1, Msh, and Mlh, suggesting that Acanthamoeba is capable of some form of meiosis, inferring the presence of sexual reproduction in Acanthamoeba, and that meiosis evolved early in eukaryotic evolution. PMID:25800982

  2. Reproducibility of neuroimaging analyses across operating systems

    PubMed Central

    Glatard, Tristan; Lewis, Lindsay B.; Ferreira da Silva, Rafael; Adalat, Reza; Beck, Natacha; Lepage, Claude; Rioux, Pierre; Rousseau, Marc-Etienne; Sherif, Tarek; Deelman, Ewa; Khalili-Mahani, Najmeh; Evans, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging pipelines are known to generate different results depending on the computing platform where they are compiled and executed. We quantify these differences for brain tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness (CT) extraction, using three of the main neuroimaging packages (FSL, Freesurfer and CIVET) and different versions of GNU/Linux. We also identify some causes of these differences using library and system call interception. We find that these packages use mathematical functions based on single-precision floating-point arithmetic whose implementations in operating systems continue to evolve. While these differences have little or no impact on simple analysis pipelines such as brain extraction and cortical tissue classification, their accumulation creates important differences in longer pipelines such as subcortical tissue classification, fMRI analysis, and cortical thickness extraction. With FSL, most Dice coefficients between subcortical classifications obtained on different operating systems remain above 0.9, but values as low as 0.59 are observed. Independent component analyses (ICA) of fMRI data differ between operating systems in one third of the tested subjects, due to differences in motion correction. With Freesurfer and CIVET, in some brain regions we find an effect of build or operating system on cortical thickness. A first step to correct these reproducibility issues would be to use more precise representations of floating-point numbers in the critical sections of the pipelines. The numerical stability of pipelines should also be reviewed. PMID:25964757

  3. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; O'Brien, T. J.; Page, K. L.; Templeton, M. R.; Körding, E. G.; Knigge, C.; Rupen, M. P.; Fender, R. P.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S.; Migliari, S.; Remillard, R. A.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Waagen, E. O.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disk material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows that the compact jet remained active throughout the outburst with no radio quenching.

  4. REPRODUCIBLE AND SHAREABLE QUANTIFICATIONS OF PATHOGENICITY

    PubMed Central

    Manrai, Arjun K; Wang, Brice L; Patel, Chirag J; Kohane, Isaac S

    2016-01-01

    There are now hundreds of thousands of pathogenicity assertions that relate genetic variation to disease, but most of this clinically utilized variation has no accepted quantitative disease risk estimate. Recent disease-specific studies have used control sequence data to reclassify large amounts of prior pathogenic variation, but there is a critical need to scale up both the pace and feasibility of such pathogenicity reassessments across human disease. In this manuscript we develop a shareable computational framework to quantify pathogenicity assertions. We release a reproducible “digital notebook” that integrates executable code, text annotations, and mathematical expressions in a freely accessible statistical environment. We extend previous disease-specific pathogenicity assessments to over 6,000 diseases and 160,000 assertions in the ClinVar database. Investigators can use this platform to prioritize variants for reassessment and tailor genetic model parameters (such as prevalence and heterogeneity) to expose the uncertainty underlying pathogenicity-based risk assessments. Finally, we release a website that links users to pathogenic variation for a queried disease, supporting literature, and implied disease risk calculations subject to user-defined and disease-specific genetic risk models in order to facilitate variant reassessments. PMID:26776189

  5. The reproducible radio outbursts of SS Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Altamirano, D.; O'Brien, T. J.; Page, K. L.; Templeton, M. R.; Körding, E. G.; Knigge, C.; Rupen, M. P.; Fender, R. P.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S.; Migliari, S.; Remillard, R. A.; Russell, D. M.; Sarazin, C. L.; Waagen, E. O.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of our intensive radio observing campaign of the dwarf nova SS Cyg during its 2010 April outburst. We argue that the observed radio emission was produced by synchrotron emission from a transient radio jet. Comparing the radio light curves from previous and subsequent outbursts of this system (including high-resolution observations from outbursts in 2011 and 2012) shows that the typical long and short outbursts of this system exhibit reproducible radio outbursts that do not vary significantly between outbursts, which is consistent with the similarity of the observed optical, ultraviolet and X-ray light curves. Contemporaneous optical and X-ray observations show that the radio emission appears to have been triggered at the same time as the initial X-ray flare, which occurs as disc material first reaches the boundary layer. This raises the possibility that the boundary region may be involved in jet production in accreting white dwarf systems. Our high spatial resolution monitoring shows that the compact jet remained active throughout the outburst with no radio quenching.

  6. Mediators of sexual revictimization risk in adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  7. Reproducing Natural Spider Silks' Copolymer Behavior in Synthetic Silk Mimics

    SciTech Connect

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-10-30

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia, indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into β-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure.

  8. Reproducing Natural Spider Silks’ Copolymer Behavior in Synthetic Silk Mimics

    PubMed Central

    An, Bo; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Sampath, Sujatha; Holland, Gregory P.; Hinman, Mike; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Lewis, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    Dragline silk from orb-weaving spiders is a copolymer of two large proteins, major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) and 2 (MaSp2). The ratio of these proteins is known to have a large variation across different species of orb-weaving spiders. NMR results from gland material of two different species of spiders, N. clavipes and A. aurantia, indicates that MaSp1 proteins are more easily formed into β-sheet nanostructures, while MaSp2 proteins form random coil and helical structures. To test if this behavior of natural silk proteins could be reproduced by recombinantly produced spider silk mimic protein, recombinant MaSp1/MaSp2 mixed fibers as well as chimeric silk fibers from MaSp1 and MaSp2 sequences in a single protein were produced based on the variable ratio and conserved motifs of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in native silk fiber. Mechanical properties, solid-state NMR, and XRD results of tested synthetic fibers indicate the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the fiber and verify the importance of postspin stretching treatment in helping the fiber to form the proper spatial structure. PMID:23110450

  9. An Overview of Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stier, William F., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…

  10. Parasitism, host immune function, and sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Christe, P; Lux, E

    1999-03-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection may arise as a consequence of 1) females avoiding mates with directly transmitted parasites, 2) females choosing less-parasitized males that provide parental care of superior quality, or 3) females choosing males with few parasites in order to obtain genes for parasite resistance in their offspring. Studies of specific host-parasite systems and comparative analyses have revealed both supportive and conflicting evidence for these hypotheses. A meta-analysis of the available evidence revealed a negative relationship between parasite load and the expression of male secondary sexual characters. Experimental studies yielded more strongly negative relationships than observations did, and the relationships were more strongly negative for ectoparasites than for endoparasites. There was no significant difference in the magnitude of the negative effect for species with and without male parental care, or between behavioral and morphological secondary sexual characters. There was a significant difference between studies based on host immune function and those based on parasite loads, with stronger effects for measures of immune function, suggesting that the many negative results from previous analyses of parasite-mediated sexual selection may be explained because relatively benign parasites were studied. The multivariate analyses demonstrating strong effect sizes of immune function in relation to the expression of secondary sexual characters, and for species with male parental care as compared to those without, suggest that parasite resistance may be a general determinant of parasite-mediated sexual selection. PMID:10081812

  11. Children and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Susan Miller

    1991-01-01

    Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)

  12. Sexual Problems in Women

    MedlinePlus

    There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include Lack of sexual desire Inability to become aroused Lack of orgasm, or sexual climax Painful intercourse These problems may have physical or psychological causes. Physical causes ...

  13. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  14. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sexual dysfunction and infertility What is sexual dysfunction and how common is ... and 40% of women. For couples dealing with infertility, it is even more common. Often, people ignore ...

  15. Parasitism and the expression of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    De Lisle, Stephen P; Rowe, Locke

    2015-02-01

    Although a negative covariance between parasite load and sexually selected trait expression is a requirement of few sexual selection models, such a covariance may be a general result of life-history allocation trade-offs. If both allocation to sexually selected traits and to somatic maintenance (immunocompetence) are condition dependent, then in populations where individuals vary in condition, a positive covariance between trait expression and immunocompetence, and thus a negative covariance between trait and parasite load, is expected. We test the prediction that parasite load is generally related to the expression of sexual dimorphism across two breeding seasons in a wild salamander population and show that males have higher trematode parasite loads for their body size than females and that a key sexually selected trait covaries negatively with parasite load in males. We found evidence of a weaker negative relationship between the analogous female trait and parasite infection. These results underscore that parasite infection may covary with expression of sexually selected traits, both within and among species, regardless of the model of sexual selection, and also suggest that the evolution of condition dependence in males may affect the evolution of female trait expression. PMID:25750721

  16. [Sexuality of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, Andrzej; Szymkiewicz, Jadwiga; Rogala, Jerzy

    2006-09-01

    Over the time when the sexual intercourse has been considered merely one of a number of forms of sexual contact, views on sexuality during pregnancy have undergone considerable transformation. A great many of authors emphasise, that the pregnancy is a stimulus for partners to search for ways to maintain mutual emotional bond, close physical affinity and satisfy sexual needs not necessarily finished with an intercourse. The fact, that one of the two partners is pregnant, imposes some restrictions on sexual life. Not rarely, in particular in the first trimester of pregnancy, a female is little interested in sex. It is due to, inter alia, hormonal changes resulting in nausea, fatigue and increased nervosity. These symptoms contribute to general feebleness and reduction of the level of sexual needs and difficulty to become aroused and sexually ready. In spite of that, a lot of women have the need to keep physical and emotional contact with their partners. For a number of couples, pregnancy becomes a stimulus to search for new ways of pleasing each other in love play, that does not necessarily leads with an intercourse. Most studies concerning sexuality during pregnancy focus on observing sexual activity, physiological changes, mutual relationship of partners, analysis of sexual intercourses and investigation of so-called sexual satisfaction. Examination of sexual satisfaction ruchedes the frequency of sexual contacts, intercourses, foreplay, concurrence of orgasms in the two partners, partners' happiness, sexual satisfaction and mutual heartiness. In some researchers' opinion, sexual satisfaction correlates with the feeling of happiness resulting form being pregnant, pregnant woman's feeling still attractive and experience of orgasm. However, some researchers observe reduced sexual activity during pregnancy, except for the second trimester, when sexual activity is similar to the one outside pregnancy. Pregnant women prefer the following types of sexual activity: non

  17. On the intricate relationship between sexual motivation and arousal.

    PubMed

    Agmo, Anders

    2011-05-01

    Sexual motivation and sexual arousal are widely used concepts. While there seem to be considerable agreement as to the meaning of sexual motivation, there is certain confusion about the exact meaning of sexual arousal. Some use it as a synonym to sexual motivation and others make it equivalent to erection or vaginal lubrication. An unresolved question is the relationship between sexual arousal and general arousal as well as that between arousal and motivation. I present arguments for the view that arousal refers to the general state of alertness of the organism. Consequently, there is no such thing as a specific sexual arousal. I suggest that this term should be abandoned, or if that is not feasible, to make it a synonym to enhanced genital blood flow. The notion of a subjective sexual arousal, some kind of vaguely described mental state, seems to lack all explanatory value. I then show that general arousal is an important determinant of sexual motivation, and that the execution of copulatory acts leads to increased general arousal. This increase leads to enhanced sexual motivation, making the activation of sexual reflexes requiring high levels of motivation possible. Examples of such reflexes may be ejaculation in males of many species, and perhaps the psychic state of orgasm in women. PMID:20816969

  18. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pamela

    1989-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life. PMID:21248971

  19. Schooling & Sexualities: Teaching for a Positive Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laskey, Louise, Ed.; Beavis, Catherine, Ed.

    This collection of papers contains a Foreword by Jane Kenway, an Introduction by Louise Laskey and Catherine Beavis, and four sections. Section 1, Schools and the Social Construction of Sexuality, contains 3 chapters: (1) Power and Partnership? Challenging the Sexual Construction of Schooling (D. Denborough); (2) Where Do You Draw the Line?…

  20. Sexual Harassment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, D'Ann

    1986-01-01

    In a recent BEST (Bureau of Evaluative Studies and Testing, Indiana University, Bloomington) survey, 10 percent of Indiana University women who responded had experienced some form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in education is any attention of a sexual nature from an instructor or professor which makes a student uncomfortable in class or…

  1. Sexual Assault Prevention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Governor's Commission on Crime, Jefferson.

    This publication is designed to educate men and women about sexual assault. The goals are to encourage people to become involved in their own protection and to make them better informed and able to deal with sexual assaults when they do occur. Facts about sexual assault are presented, including descriptions of rapists, rape victims, and rape…

  2. High variation in clonal vs. sexual reproduction in populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana (Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilk, John A.; Kramer, Andrea T.; Ashley, Mary V.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Many plants reproduce both clonally and sexually, and the balance between the two modes of reproduction will vary among populations. Clonal reproduction was characterized in three populations of the wild strawberry, Fragaria virginiana, to determine the extent that reproductive mode varied locally between sites. The study sites were fragmented woodlands in Cook County, Illinois, USA. Methods A total of 95 strawberry ramets were sampled from the three sites via transects. Ramets were mapped and genotyped at five variable microsatellite loci. The variability at these five loci was sufficient to assign plants to clones with high confidence, and the spatial pattern of genets was mapped at each site. Key Results A total of 27 distinct multilocus genotypes were identified. Of these, 18 genotypes were detected only once, with the remaining nine detected in multiple ramets. The largest clone was identified in 16 ramets. No genets were shared between sites, and each site exhibited markedly different clonal and sexual recruitment patterns, ranging from two non-overlapping and widespread genets to 19 distinct genets. Only one flowering genet was female; the remainder were hermaphrodites. Conclusions Local population history or fine-scale ecological differences can result in dramatically different reproductive patterns at small spatial scales. This finding may be fairly widespread among clonal plant species, and studies that aim to characterize reproductive modes in species capable of asexual reproduction need to evaluate reproductive modes in multiple populations and sites. PMID:19797422

  3. Inhibited Sexual Desire and Sexual Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Morse, William I.

    1985-01-01

    Inhibited sexual desire (ISD) is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions, especially in women. Family physicians have an opportunity to recognize ISD before the associated problems become entrenched, and to guide couples toward satisfactory resolution. A summary is presented of current thinking on ISD and its causes. Case reports and observations about frequency of and treatment for ISD are included. Much less has been written about sexual avoidance in the presence of desire. A definition is offered of simple sexual avoidance in the absence of genital dysfunction. Frequency, treatment response, and specific cases are described. A newly identified entity—mutual unwillingness to importune for sex—is discussed briefly. Counselling which focuses on communication, self responsibility, and sex education is very helpful to patients with sexual problems. PMID:21274060

  4. Sexually compulsive men and inhibited sexual desire.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B W

    1994-01-01

    Sexually compulsive males report extremely high rates of desire involving paraphiliac activity. Desire and arousal in partner sex is usually low or unstable. Cognitive-behavioral strategies and techniques are presented based on four components in the assessment/intervention process: 1) eliminating or reducing paraphiliac arousal; 2) sex education, changing sexual attitudes, self-disclosure, sexual assertiveness, and reduction of guilt and shame; 3) confronting secrecy and cognitive distortions, increasing empathy for victims, awareness of harm to others, and commitment to abstain from compulsive, abusive behavior; and 4) developing a healthy sexual desire and arousal pattern that nurtures and maintains an intimate relationship. The motivated male (especially with a partner he is comfortable with, attracted to, and trusts) can develop a pleasurable, erotic sexual pattern that allows him to maintain desire during partner sex. PMID:7996591

  5. Sexual imprinting on ecologically divergent traits leads to sexual isolation in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Genevieve M.; Head, Megan L.; Boughman, Janette W.

    2011-01-01

    During sexual imprinting, offspring learn parental phenotypes and then select mates who are similar to their parents. Imprinting has been thought to contribute to the process of speciation in only a few rare cases; this is despite imprinting's potential to generate assortative mating and solve the problem of recombination in ecological speciation. If offspring imprint on parental traits under divergent selection, these traits will then be involved in both adaptation and mate preference. Such ‘magic traits’ easily generate sexual isolation and facilitate speciation. In this study, we show that imprinting occurs in two ecologically divergent stickleback species (benthics and limnetics: Gasterosteus spp.). Cross-fostered females preferred mates of their foster father's species. Furthermore, imprinting is essential for sexual isolation between species; isolation was reduced when females were raised without fathers. Daughters imprinted on father odour and colour during a critical period early in development. These traits have diverged between the species owing to differences in ecology. Therefore, we provide the first evidence that imprinting links ecological adaptation to sexual isolation between species. Our results suggest that imprinting may facilitate the evolution of sexual isolation during ecological speciation, may be especially important in cases of rapid diversification, and thus play an integral role in the generation of biodiversity. PMID:21270044

  6. Sexual imprinting on ecologically divergent traits leads to sexual isolation in sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Genevieve M; Head, Megan L; Boughman, Janette W

    2011-09-01

    During sexual imprinting, offspring learn parental phenotypes and then select mates who are similar to their parents. Imprinting has been thought to contribute to the process of speciation in only a few rare cases; this is despite imprinting's potential to generate assortative mating and solve the problem of recombination in ecological speciation. If offspring imprint on parental traits under divergent selection, these traits will then be involved in both adaptation and mate preference. Such 'magic traits' easily generate sexual isolation and facilitate speciation. In this study, we show that imprinting occurs in two ecologically divergent stickleback species (benthics and limnetics: Gasterosteus spp.). Cross-fostered females preferred mates of their foster father's species. Furthermore, imprinting is essential for sexual isolation between species; isolation was reduced when females were raised without fathers. Daughters imprinted on father odour and colour during a critical period early in development. These traits have diverged between the species owing to differences in ecology. Therefore, we provide the first evidence that imprinting links ecological adaptation to sexual isolation between species. Our results suggest that imprinting may facilitate the evolution of sexual isolation during ecological speciation, may be especially important in cases of rapid diversification, and thus play an integral role in the generation of biodiversity. PMID:21270044

  7. Fitness-associated sexual reproduction in a filamentous fungus.

    PubMed

    Schoustra, Sijmen; Rundle, Howard D; Dali, Rola; Kassen, Rees

    2010-08-10

    Sex is a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although the majority of eukaryotes reproduce sexually at least sometimes [1-3], the evolution of sex from an asexual ancestor has been difficult to explain because it requires sexually reproducing lineages to overcome the manifold costs of sex, including the destruction of favorable gene combinations created by selection [4, 5]. Conditions for the evolution of sex are much broader if individuals can reproduce either sexually or asexually (i.e., facultative sex) and allocate disproportionately more resources to sex when their fitness is low (fitness-associated-sex or FAS [6-10]). Although facultatively sexual organisms have been shown to engage in more sex when stressed [11], direct evidence for FAS is lacking. We provide evidence using 53 genotypes of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans in a reciprocal transplant experiment across three environments. Different genotypes achieved highest fitness in different environments and genotypes invested relatively more in sex in environments in which their fitness was lower, showing that allocation to sexual reproduction is a function of how well-adapted a genotype is to its environment. FAS in A. nidulans is unlikely to have evolved as a strategy to resist or avoid stress because asexual spores are more dispersive and equally resistant [12, 13]. PMID:20598542

  8. Reproductive interference between animal species.

    PubMed

    Gröning, Julia; Hochkirch, Axel

    2008-09-01

    Although sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) have been reported from a wide range of animal taxa, their potential for determining species coexistence is often disregarded. Here, we review evidence from laboratory and field studies illustrating that heterospecific sexual interactions are frequently associated with fitness loss and can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences. We define reproductive interference as any kind of interspecific interaction during the process of mate acquisition that adversely affects the fitness of at least one of the species involved and that is caused by incomplete species recognition. We distinguish seven types of reproductive interference: signal jamming, heterospecific rivalry, misdirected courtship, heterospecific mating attempts, erroneous female choice, heterospecific mating, and hybridization. We then discuss the sex-specific costs of these types and highlight two typical features of reproductive interference: density-dependence and asymmetry. Similar to competition, reproductive interference can lead to displacement of one species (sexual exclusion), spatial, temporal, or habitat segregation, changes in life history parameters, and reproductive character displacement. In many cases, patterns of coexistence might be shaped by reproductive interference rather than by resource competition, as the presence of a few heterospecifics might substantially decrease reproductive success. Therefore, interspecific sexual interactions should receive more attention in ecological research. Reproductive interference has mainly been discussed in the context of invasive species or hybrid zones, whereas its influence on naturally-occurring sympatric species pairs has rarely been addressed. To improve our knowledge of the ecological significance of reproductive interference, findings from laboratory experiments should be validated in the field. Future studies should also focus on ecological mechanisms, such

  9. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  10. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  11. Research Reproducibility in Geosciences: Current Landscape, Practices and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, An

    2016-04-01

    Reproducibility of research can gauge the validity of its findings. Yet currently we lack understanding of how much of a problem research reproducibility is in geosciences. We developed an online survey on faculty and graduate students in geosciences, and received 136 responses from research institutions and universities in Americas, Asia, Europe and other parts of the world. This survey examined (1) the current state of research reproducibility in geosciences by asking researchers' experiences with unsuccessful replication work, and what obstacles that lead to their replication failures; (2) the current reproducibility practices in community by asking what efforts researchers made to try to reproduce other's work and make their own work reproducible, and what the underlying factors that contribute to irreproducibility are; (3) the perspectives on reproducibility by collecting researcher's thoughts and opinions on this issue. The survey result indicated that nearly 80% of respondents who had ever reproduced a published study had failed at least one time in reproducing. Only one third of the respondents received helpful feedbacks when they contacted the authors of a published study for data, code, or other information. The primary factors that lead to unsuccessful replication attempts are insufficient details of instructions in published literature, and inaccessibility of data, code and tools needed in the study. Our findings suggest a remarkable lack of research reproducibility in geoscience. Changing the incentive mechanism in academia, as well as developing policies and tools that facilitate open data and code sharing are the promising ways for geosciences community to alleviate this reproducibility problem.

  12. Sexual Misconduct and Enactment

    PubMed Central

    Plakun, Eric M.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by “bad” clinicians against patients who are “victims,” this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  13. Sexual misconduct and enactment.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1999-01-01

    Sexual misconduct remains a significant problem in the behavioral health professions. Although it is tempting to view sexual misconduct as perpetrated by "bad" clinicians against patients who are "victims," this is an oversimplification of a complex problem. In this article, the author explores the psychoanalytic concept of enactment as a mechanism that can lead well-meaning clinicians to engage in sexual misconduct; defines enactment and differentiates it from near neighbor phenomena; uses case examples to illustrate how enactments may lead to sexual misconduct or may offer opportunities to deepen and enhance psychotherapeutic work; and offers recommendations for prevention of sexual misconduct. PMID:10523431

  14. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy. PMID:26830886

  15. Sexuality and chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E

    2013-11-01

    Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783

  16. Necrophilia and sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michelle L; Schlesinger, Louis B; Pinizzotto, Anthony J

    2010-03-01

    A closed case-file review of 211 sexual homicides identified 16 cases of necrophilia. The results of this unique descriptive study of necrophilia associated with sexual homicide provide information on crime-scene locations, methods of killing, body disposition, premortem sexual assault, specifics of the necrophilic acts, methods of victim abduction, and motivational dynamics. The findings suggest that the most common explanation for necrophilia-the offender's desire to have an unresisting partner-may not always be applicable in cases where this rare paraphilia is connected to sexual murder. The possibility of using crime-scene behaviors in these cases to investigate serial sexual murders is offered. PMID:20102474

  17. Dialysis and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Beal-Lloyd, Donna; Groh, Carla J

    2012-01-01

    End stage renal disease is a major health issue in the United States. Dialysis, the major form of renal replacement therapy, has physical and psychological implications that can have a major impact on both men's and women's sexuality and sexual performance. Nurses are in a key position to assist men and women on dialysis to develop healthy and realistic approaches to their sexuality. This article reviews the literature on dialysis and sexuality, and recommends nursing interventions that can assist persons on dialysis achieve the level of sexual intimacy and satisfaction they desire. PMID:23061112

  18. Reproducibility of a life-cycle toxicity test with Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, B.R.; Forte, J.L.; Wright, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    Standardized chronic life-cycle toxicity testing procedures for aquatic species are described. The reproducibility of chronic toxicity and points using the static-renewal method with Daphnia magna are investigated. The objectives were to determine if the lowest rejected concentrations tested (LRCTs) obtained for six different toxicity criteria in static-renewal tests with acridine were reproducible over time and to determine the relative sensitivity and variability of the toxicity criteria. Two of the six toxicity criteria, numbers of young per brood and the young produced per female, were found to be reliable and sensitive for estimating the LRCT for acridine to D. magna. (RJC)

  19. Human sexual response.

    PubMed

    Basson, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The human sexual response to sexually arousing stimuli is a motivational incentive-based cycle comprising subjective experience and physiologic changes. Clinical and empirical data support a circular model of overlapping phases of variable order. Brain imaging data of sexual arousal identify areas of cerebral activation and inhibition reflecting a complex network of cognitive, motivational, emotional, and autonomic components. Psychologic and biologic factors influence the brain's appraisal and processing of sexual stimuli to allow or disallow subsequent arousal. The sexual and non-sexual outcomes influence motivation to future sexual intimacy. Variability is marked both between individuals and within a person's sexual life, influenced by multiple factors, including stage of life cycle, mental health, and relationship happiness. Neurologic disease can interrupt the cycle at many points: by limiting motivation, reducing ability to attend to and feel sexual stimuli, and accomplishing the movements needed to stimulate and experience intercourse. Impairments to genital congestion, penile erection, and orgasm may also occur. Disease-associated changes to the interpersonal relationship and self-image plus frequently comorbid depression will tend to lessen motivation and temper the brain's appraisal of sexual stimuli, so precluding arousal. Therapy begins by explaining the sexual response cycle, clarifying the points of interruption in the patient's own cycle so as to guide treatment. PMID:26003236

  20. Drugs and sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Antonio; Scimeca, Giuseppe; Marino, Antonio G; Mento, Carmela; Micò, Umberto; Romeo, Vincenzo M; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between drugs and sexual behavior in a sample of polydrug substance abusers recruited from several Italian therapeutic communities; participants were 90 polydrug substance abusers (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine, inhalants, marijuana/sedatives or hallucinogens abusers) who were compared with 90 nonsubstance-abusing individuals. Sexual behavior was measured by the Italian version of the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man; SAWM), a questionnaire that assesses different kind of sexual attitudes. Results showed that drug-abusing individuals are particularly inclined to search for sexual intercourse and are open to different kinds of sexual experiences; however, they have difficulties in establishing committed and deep relationships with their partners, showing signs of inhibition, affective detachment or anger. Their sexual lives are also surrounded by negative emotions, disturbing thoughts and maladjusted behaviors. The importance of integrating sexual problems into therapeutic strategies is discussed. PMID:23457886

  1. Authoritarianism and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Walker, W D; Rowe, R C; Quinsey, V L

    1993-11-01

    In Study 1, 198 men completed the Right Wing Authoritarianism, Sex Role Ideology, Hostility Towards Women, Acceptance of Interpersonal Violence, Adversarial Sexual Beliefs, and Rape Myth Acceptance scales, as well as measures of past sexually aggressive behavior and likelihood of future sexual aggression. As predicted, authoritarianism and sex role ideology were as closely related to self-reported past and potential future sexually aggressive behavior as were the specifically sexual and aggression-related predictors. Among 134 men in Study 2, authoritarianism and sex guilt positively correlated with each other and with self-reported past sexual aggression. In both studies, the relationship of authoritarianism and sexual aggression was larger in community than in university samples. PMID:8246111

  2. Birdsong performance and the evolution of simple (rather than elaborate) sexual signals.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Hu, Yang

    2011-11-01

    Sexual signals are often elaborate as a result of sexual selection for signals of individual quality. Contrary to expectation, however, the elaboration of signals such as birdsong is not related to the strength of sexual selection across species. With a comparative study across wood warblers (family Parulidae), we show a compromise between advertising the performance of trills (syllable repetitions) and song complexity, which can result in the evolution of simple, rather than elaborate, song. Species with higher trill performance evolved simple songs with more extensive trilled syntax. This advertises trill performance but reduces syllable diversity in songs. These two traits are commonly sexually selected in songbirds, but indexes of sexual selection were not related to either in wood warblers. This is consistent with sexual selection targeting different traits in different species, sometimes resulting in simple signals. We conclude that the evolution of sexual signals can be unpredictable when their physiology affords multiple or, as here, opposing ways of advertising individual quality. PMID:22030736

  3. Parasites, immunology of hosts, and host sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Saino, N

    1994-12-01

    Parasite-mediated sexual selection is reviewed with special emphasis on the bird literature. Choosy females may benefit from choosing parasite-free mates if such males provide better parental care, do not transmit contagious parasites, or provide resistance genes to offspring. There is evidence in support of each of these mechanisms. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that secondary sexual characters reliably reveal the ability of males to resist parasites due to the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone and other biochemicals. Several aspects of these negative feedback mechanisms are supported by laboratory studies, but evidence from free-living animals is almost completely absent. Corticosterone rather than testosterone may potentially mediate the immunocompetence handicap mechanism. A simple version of the immunocompetence handicap is developed suggesting that body condition of male hosts is a sufficient mediator of the handicap mechanism of reliable sexual signaling. Sexual selection appears to be more intense in sexually dichromatic bird species, and comparative studies using pairwise comparisons of closely related taxa reveal that sexually dichromatic bird species have larger spleens, larger bursa of Fabricius, and higher concentrations of leukocytes than monochromatic species. Parasite-mediated sexual selection is proposed to affect parasite biology by increasing (1) the variance-to-mean ratio in parasite abundance, (2) variance in the intensity of natural selection affecting hosts, and (3) speciation rates among parasites exploiting hosts subject to intense sexual selection as compared to those subject to less intense selection. PMID:7799157

  4. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  5. Sexual Ideology and Schooling: Towards Democratic Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Alexander

    This book examines the issue of sexuality education in the schools. Chapter 1, "Sexuality and Sexuality Education: Implications for the Nature of Society," discusses the controversy over the issue. Chapter 2, "Restrictive and Permissive Sexual Ideologies," provides an analytical framework for clarifying conflicts around human sexuality that…

  6. Sexual At-Risk Behaviors of Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinq-Mars, Caroline; Wright, John; Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated sexual at-risk behaviors of sexually abused adolescent girls. Variables of interest were presence of consensual sexual activity, age at first consensual intercourse, number of sexual partners, condom use, and pregnancies. Participants were 125 sexually abused adolescent girls aged 12 to 17 years. Results showed that…

  7. Sexual disorders in the context of Darwinian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Troisi, A

    2003-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that a Darwinian perspective can provide medical sexology with a new theoretical framework which is useful to clarify the relationship between the evolutionary bases of human sexuality and the sex-specific vulnerability to different sexual disorders. Evolutionary theory predicts that the relative parental investment of the sexes in their offspring is associated with different mating strategies in males and females. Individuals of the sex that invests more in offspring should be more discriminative in their sexual interactions because the costs of making a poor mate choice are greater for the highest-investing sex. Because in Homo sapiens, as in many other mammal species, the higher-investing sex is the female sex, women are more discriminative in their sexual preferences and less promiscuous than men. Accordingly, the epidemiology of sexual disorders can be expected to reflect sex differences in evolved mating strategies and sexual psychology. Sexual disorders that represent extreme variants of a mating strategy involving greater voluntary control over mate choice, accurate assessment of the quality of potential mates, and a tendency toward sexual restraint should be more prevalent among women. In contrast, sexual disorders that represent extreme variants of a mating strategy involving responsiveness to a variety of sexual stimuli and a tendency toward promiscuity should occur more frequently among men. Clinical data support these predictions. PMID:12834022

  8. Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children.

    PubMed

    Seña, Arlene C; Hsu, Katherine K; Kellogg, Nancy; Girardet, Rebecca; Christian, Cindy W; Linden, Judith; Griffith, William; Marchant, Anne; Jenny, Carole; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated treatment regimens; vaccinations for human papillomavirus (HPV) among previously unvaccinated patients aged 9-26 years; and consideration for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis using an algorithm to assess the timing and characteristics of the exposure. For child sexual assault (CSA) survivors, recommendations include targeted diagnostic testing with increased use of NAATs when appropriate; routine follow-up visits within 6 months after the last known sexual abuse; and use of HPV vaccination in accordance with national immunization guidelines as a preventive measure in the post-sexual assault care setting. For CSA patients, NAATs are considered to be acceptable for identification of gonococcal and chlamydial infections from urine samples, but are not recommended for extragenital testing due to the potential detection of nongonococcal Neisseria species. Several research questions were identified regarding the prevalence, detection, and management of STI/HIV infections among adult, adolescent, and pediatric sexual assault survivors. PMID:26602623

  9. Disruption of adult expression of sexually selected traits by developmental exposure to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Jašarević, Eldin; Sieli, Paizlee T; Twellman, Erin E; Welsh, Thomas H; Schachtman, Todd R; Roberts, R Michael; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2011-07-12

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), may cause adverse health effects in wildlife and humans, but controversy remains as to what traits are most sensitive to EDCs and might serve as barometers of exposure. Expression of sexually selected traits that have evolved through intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual choice of mating partner are more dependent on developmental and physical condition of an animal than naturally selected traits and thus might be particularly vulnerable to disruption by developmental exposure to EDCs. We have used the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) as a model to test this hypothesis. Adult male-male competition for mates in this species is supported by enhanced spatial navigational and exploratory abilities, which enable males to search for prospective, widely dispersed females. Male deer mice exposed to BPA or ethinyl estradiol (EE) through maternal diet showed no changes in external phenotype, sensory development, or adult circulating concentrations of testosterone and corticosterone, but spatial learning abilities and exploratory behaviors were severely compromised compared with control males. Because these traits are not sexually selected in females, BPA exposure predictably had no effect, although EE-exposed females demonstrated enhanced spatial navigational abilities. Both BPA-exposed and control females preferred control males to BPA-exposed males. Our demonstration that developmental exposure to BPA compromises cognitive abilities and behaviors essential for males to reproduce successfully has broad implications for other species, including our own. Thus, sexually selected traits might provide useful biomarkers to assess risk of environmental contamination in animal and human populations. PMID:21709224

  10. Degradation of sexual reproduction in Veronica filiformis after introduction to Europe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Baker’s law predicts that self-incompatible plant species are generally poor colonizers because their mating system requires a high diversity of genetically differentiated individuals and thus self-compatibility should develop after long-distance dispersal. However, cases like the introduction of the self-incompatible Veronica filiformis (Plantaginaceae) to Europe constitute an often overlooked alternative to this rule. This species was introduced from subalpine areas of the Pontic-Caucasian Mountains and colonized many parts of Central and Western Europe in the last century, apparently without producing seeds. To investigate the consequences of the absence of sexual reproduction in this obligate outcrosser since its introduction, AFLP fingerprints, flower morphology, pollen and ovule production and seed vitality were studied in introduced and native populations. Results Interpopulation crossings of 19 introduced German populations performed in the greenhouse demonstrated that introduced populations are often unable to reproduce sexually. These results were similar to intrapopulation crossings, but this depended on the populations used for crossings. Results from AFLP fingerprinting confirmed a lack of genetic diversity in the area of introduction, which is best explained by the dispersal of clones. Flower morphology revealed the frequent presence of mutations affecting the androecium of the flower and decreasing pollen production in introduced populations. The seeds produced in our experiments were smaller, had a lower germination rate and had lower viability than seeds from the native area. Conclusions Taken together, our results demonstrate that V. filiformis was able to spread by vegetative means in the absence of sexual reproduction. This came at the cost of an accumulation of phenotypically observable mutations in reproductive characters, i.e. Muller’s ratchet. PMID:23198765

  11. First record of second-generation facultative parthenogenesis in a vertebrate species, the whitespotted bambooshark Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    PubMed

    Straube, N; Lampert, K P; Geiger, M F; Weiß, J D; Kirchhauser, J X

    2016-02-01

    In this study, two parthenogenetic events within a family of the whitespotted bambooshark Chiloscyllium plagiosum are reported. A captive female produced multiple parthenogens. Unexpectedly, a single specimen of a total of nine parthenogens displayed external claspers characterizing the male sex in chondrichthyans. Upon dissection, internal sexual organs of this specimen were malformed or absent; however, the presence of claspers in this study challenges the as yet assumed sex determination system in this shark species. Even more remarkable was that one of the female parthenogens reproduced asexually again producing viable offspring. As far as is known, this is the first genetically confirmed evidence for second-generation facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates. These results support the evolutionary significance of parthenogenesis as an alternative to sexual reproduction. PMID:26727105

  12. Sexual structures in Aspergillus: morphology, importance and genomics.

    PubMed

    Geiser, David M

    2009-01-01

    The genus Aspergillus comprises a few hundred species sharing a common asexual spore forming structure, the aspergillum. Approximately one-third of these species also produce a sexual stage, all but five of which are known to be homothallic. Sexual stages associated with Aspergillus fall into approximately ten different genera, reflecting a tremendous degree of phylogenetic and biological diversity. Sexual stages in Aspergillus are plectomycetous, typical for the order in which it resides, the Eurotiales. Theoretically, a homothallic Aspergillus species can produce both asexual conidia and sexual ascospores in both clonal and recombinant fashion, although the actual significance of these potential modes of reproduction is unclear. Aspergillus species with known sexual stages tend to be minor players in infections of humans, perhaps because of their tendency to produce fewer asexual spores compared to their non-teleomorphic congeners. The discovery of population genetic and genomic evidence for sex in species with no known sexual stage indicates that no assumptions can be made about the clonal versus recombinant life histories of a species based on its known mitotic and/or meiotic reproductive modes. PMID:18608901

  13. Accurate measurements of dynamics and reproducibility in small genetic networks

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Julien O; Samanta, Reba; Gregor, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of gene expression has become a central tool for understanding genetic networks. In many systems, the only viable way to measure protein levels is by immunofluorescence, which is notorious for its limited accuracy. Using the early Drosophila embryo as an example, we show that careful identification and control of experimental error allows for highly accurate gene expression measurements. We generated antibodies in different host species, allowing for simultaneous staining of four Drosophila gap genes in individual embryos. Careful error analysis of hundreds of expression profiles reveals that less than ∼20% of the observed embryo-to-embryo fluctuations stem from experimental error. These measurements make it possible to extract not only very accurate mean gene expression profiles but also their naturally occurring fluctuations of biological origin and corresponding cross-correlations. We use this analysis to extract gap gene profile dynamics with ∼1 min accuracy. The combination of these new measurements and analysis techniques reveals a twofold increase in profile reproducibility owing to a collective network dynamics that relays positional accuracy from the maternal gradients to the pair-rule genes. PMID:23340845

  14. Youth Who Sexual Offended

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Li Lian; Zeng, Gerald; Teoh, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increased focus on understanding youth sexual offending in recent years, but there has been limited empirical research on the causes, pathways, and treatment of youth who have sexually offended—especially within a non-Western context. The Good Lives and Self-Regulation Models have often been used to understand and rehabilitate adult sexual offenders, but (unfortunately) there is scant research on youth who sexually offended using these models. The present study aims to describe the different primary goods that are associated with youth sexual offending behaviors in an Asian context. In addition, the study sought to explore whether the age of victim (child vs. nonchild) and nature of sexual offense (penetrative vs. nonpenetrative) influenced the youth’s engagement in offense pathways. The results suggest that pleasure, relatedness, and inner peace were the primary human goods that were most sought after by a sample of 168 youth who sexually offended in Singapore. In addition, offender classification (in relation to the age of victim and nature of sexual offense) influenced the pathways to sexual offending. Therefore, these findings have important clinical implications for assessment, management, and intervention planning for youth who sexually offended. PMID:24048701

  15. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all species of swordtails and platies (Pisces: Genus Xiphophorus) uncovers a hybrid origin of a swordtail fish, Xiphophorus monticolus, and demonstrates that the sexually selected sword originated in the ancestral lineage of the genus, but was lost again secondarily

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Males in some species of the genus Xiphophorus, small freshwater fishes from Meso-America, have an extended caudal fin, or sword – hence their common name “swordtails”. Longer swords are preferred by females from both sworded and – surprisingly also, non-sworded (platyfish) species that belong to the same genus. Swordtails have been studied widely as models in research on sexual selection. Specifically, the pre-existing bias hypothesis was interpreted to best explain the observed bias of females in presumed ancestral lineages of swordless species that show a preference for assumed derived males with swords over their conspecific swordless males. However, many of the phylogenetic relationships within this genus still remained unresolved. Here we construct a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of all 26 known Xiphophorus species, including the four recently described species (X. kallmani, X. mayae, X. mixei and X. monticolus). We use two mitochondrial and six new nuclear markers in an effort to increase the understanding of the evolutionary relationships among the species in this genus. Based on the phylogeny, the evolutionary history and character state evolution of the sword was reconstructed and found to have originated in the common ancestral lineage of the genus Xiphophorus and that it was lost again secondarily. Results We estimated the evolutionary relationships among all known species of the genus Xiphophorus based on the largest set of DNA markers so far. The phylogeny indicates that one of the newly described swordtail species, Xiphophorus monticolus, is likely to have arisen through hybridization since it is placed with the southern platyfish in the mitochondrial phylogeny, but with the southern swordtails in the nuclear phylogeny. Such discordance between these two types of markers is a strong indication for a hybrid origin. Additionally, by using a maximum likelihood approach the possession of the sexually selected sword trait is shown

  16. Sexual Knowledge among Norwegian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Pal

    1993-01-01

    Studied sexual knowledge among Norwegian adolescents (n=1,855) aged 17-19 years. Found knowledge gaps among adolescents on sexual physiology and anatomy, sexually transmitted diseases, and fecundation/contraception. Level of sexual knowledge was higher among girls than boys and increased with increasing age. Sexual knowledge did not predict…

  17. The R software environment in reproducible geoscientific research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pebesma, Edzer; Nüst, Daniel; Bivand, Roger

    2012-04-01

    Reproducibility is an important aspect of scientific research, because the credibility of science is at stake when research is not reproducible. Like science, the development of good, reliable scientific software is a social process. A mature and growing community relies on the R software environment for carrying out geoscientific research. Here we describe why people use R and how it helps in communicating and reproducing research.

  18. Sexual selection on skeletal shape in Carnivora.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jeremy S; Carrier, David R

    2016-04-01

    Lifetime reproductive success of males is often dependent upon the ability to physically compete for mates. However, species variation in social structure leads to differences in the relative importance of intraspecific aggression. Here, we present a large comparative dataset on sexual dimorphism in skeletal shape in Carnivora to test the hypotheses that carnivorans exhibit sexual dimorphism in skeletal anatomy that is reflective of greater specialization for physical aggression in males relative to females and that this dimorphism is associated with the intensity of sexual selection. We tested these hypotheses using a set of functional indices predicted to improve aggressive performance. Our results indicate that skeletal shape dimorphism is widespread within our sample. Functional traits thought to enhance aggressive performance are more pronounced in males. Phylogenetic model selection suggests that the evolution of this dimorphism is driven by sexual selection, with the best-fitting model indicating greater dimorphism in polygynous versus nonpolygynous species. Skeletal shape dimorphism is correlated with body size dimorphism, a common indicator of the intensity of male-male competition, but not with mean body size. These results represent the first evidence of sexual dimorphism in the primary locomotor system of a large sample of mammals. PMID:26969835

  19. Virtual Reference Environments: a simple way to make research reproducible

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Daniel G.; Budden, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Reproducible research’ has received increasing attention over the past few years as bioinformatics and computational biology methodologies become more complex. Although reproducible research is progressing in several valuable ways, we suggest that recent increases in internet bandwidth and disk space, along with the availability of open-source and free-software licences for tools, enable another simple step to make research reproducible. In this article, we urge the creation of minimal virtual reference environments implementing all the tools necessary to reproduce a result, as a standard part of publication. We address potential problems with this approach, and show an example environment from our own work. PMID:25433467

  20. Mediators of Sexual Revictimization Risk in Adult Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287

  1. Sexuality and headache.

    PubMed

    Del Bene, E; Conti, C; Poggioni, M; Sicuteri, F

    1982-01-01

    Ten percent of 362 headache sufferers reported sexual arousal during migraine attack. Clinical investigations on sexuality in 16 headache sufferers, according to some studies showing correlations between idiopathic headache and sexual behavior, were performed. Patients responding by questionnaire listed each sexual experience, headache attack, and number of sleeping hours every day for 1 month. In both men and women, the number of coiti, erotic dreams, and sleeping hours were similar in headache sufferers and controls, while the frequency of masturbation was significantly reduced in the former. Sexual excitement and fantasies appeared more often in female headache sufferers than in controls, while the opposite occurred in the male group. Among the clinical analogies between the crises of migraine and morphine abstinence, sexual arousal may be included. PMID:7054999

  2. Dangerous Omissions: Abstinence-Only-until-Marriage School-Based Sexuality Education and the Betrayal of LGBTQ Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elia, John P.; Eliason, Mickey J.

    2010-01-01

    To gain an understanding of how abstinence-only-until-marriage school-based sexuality education has been exclusionary, it is important to explore how heteronormativity has been endorsed, played out, and reproduced ever since school-based sexuality education has been offered in the United States. Such an exploration reveals glaring evidence that…

  3. [Sexuality and urological diseases].

    PubMed

    Droupy, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) frequently suffer from sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory dysfunction). Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation are two times more common in men with chronic pelvic pain/chronic prostatitis. All treatments of prostate cancer are responsible for sexual dysfunctions. Sexual disorders frequently appear during the management of infertile couples. Information and support should be offered to couples. Women with urinary incontinence also suffer frequently from coital incontinence. PMID:25201599

  4. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

  5. Evolution of sexuality: biology and behavior

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in animals and plants is far more prevalent than asexual reproduction, and there is no dearth of hypotheses attempting to explain why. Even bacteria and viruses, which reproduce by cloning, engage in promiscuous horizontal gene exchange (“parasexual reproduction”) on such short time scales that they evolve genotypic diversity even more rapidly than eukaryotes. (We confront this daily in the form of antimicrobial resistance.) The host-parasite and host-pathogen arms race purports to explain the prevalence of sexual reproduction, yet there are over a dozen other hypotheses, including the proposition that sexual reproduction purges the genome of deleterious mutations. An equally daunting challenge is to understand, in terms of evolutionary logic, the jungle of diverse courtship and mating strategies that we find in nature. The phenotypic plasticity of sex determination in animals suggests that the central nervous system and reproductive tract may not reach the same endpoint on the continuum between our stereotypic male and female extremes. Why are there only two kinds of gametes in most eukaryotes? Why are most flowering plants, and few animals, hermaphroditic? Why do male animals compete more for access to females than the other way around in most animals that have been studied?This review presents more questions than answers, but an extraordinary wealth of data has been collected, and new genetic techniques will provide new answers. The possible relevance of these data to human sexuality will be discussed in a future article. PMID:16200180

  6. Orchid pollination by sexual deception: pollinator perspectives.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C

    2011-02-01

    The extraordinary taxonomic and morphological diversity of orchids is accompanied by a remarkable range of pollinators and pollination systems. Sexually deceptive orchids are adapted to attract specific male insects that are fooled into attempting to mate with orchid flowers and inadvertently acting as pollinators. This review summarises current knowledge, explores new hypotheses in the literature, and introduces some new approaches to understanding sexual deception from the perspective of the duped pollinator. Four main topics are addressed: (1) global patterns in sexual deception, (2) pollinator identities, mating systems and behaviours, (3) pollinator perception of orchid deceptive signals, and (4) the evolutionary implications of pollinator responses to orchid deception, including potential costs imposed on pollinators by orchids. A global list of known and putative sexually deceptive orchids and their pollinators is provided and methods for incorporating pollinator perspectives into sexual deception research are provided and reviewed. At present, almost all known sexually deceptive orchid taxa are from Australia or Europe. A few sexually deceptive species and genera are reported for New Zealand and South Africa. In Central and Southern America, Asia, and the Pacific many more species are likely to be identified in the future. Despite the great diversity of sexually deceptive orchid genera in Australia, pollination rates reported in the literature are similar between Australian and European species. The typical pollinator of a sexually deceptive orchid is a male insect of a species that is polygynous, monandrous, haplodiploid, and solitary rather than social. Insect behaviours involved in the pollination of sexually deceptive orchids include pre-copulatory gripping of flowers, brief entrapment, mating, and very rarely, ejaculation. Pollinator behaviour varies within and among pollinator species. Deception involving orchid mimicry of insect scent signals is

  7. [Psychoanalytic therapy of sexually abused adolescents].

    PubMed

    Hirsch, M

    1997-12-01

    Sexual abuse as an extreme childhood trauma produces distorted object-images, introjects of violence which reproduce the trauma permanently through symptoms and acting-out. Although the traumatic power should be relived in transference, psychoanalytic therapy does not always mean permanent interpretation of transference, rather supporting, confirming, valuing activity is indicated. The following scopes can be differentiated: idealization, changing the therapeutic object into a triangulating one; negative transference of an archaic destructive mother imago, nevertheless also of the traumatic object, setting free hidden aggressive affects; emerging of the specific sexual trauma in transference and counter-transference. In the whole course of therapy, especially at the end, working through of guilt-feelings, shame and mourning permits the separation from the traumatic objects, although the danger of returning to them, often represented by the real actual objects, does not guarantee a full success in all cases. PMID:9499697

  8. Prime time sexual harrassment.

    PubMed

    Grauerholz, E; King, A

    1997-04-01

    This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves. PMID:12294811

  9. Sexual assault documentation program.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Vickie; Heger, Astrid; Rogers, Christopher; Sathyavagiswaran, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Since 2001, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner has collaborated with Los Angeles County-University of Southern California Medical Center Violence Intervention Program and their Sexual Assault Center. The partnership was established at the suggestion of the district attorney's office to enhance the clinical recognition of sexual assault in the medical examiner's office using the extensive experience of experts in the field of sexual assault. As of December 2008, over 5 dozen victims of sexual assault have been evaluated with this collaboration. The partnership relied on the expertise of 2 pediatricians who are established clinical experts in the field of sexual abuse and assault, in collaboration with the staff of the medical examiner's office. In cases of suspected sexual assault, a joint evaluation by the clinical experts and the medical examiner was made. The goal of the project was for the medical examiners to become more confident in their observations and documentation of crimes of sexual abuse. Even though they are still available upon request, consultations with the sexual assault experts have decreased as the skills of the medical examiner to evaluate sexual assault cases have increased. PMID:22442832

  10. Crossover sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    Heil, Peggy; Ahlmeyer, Sean; Simons, Dominique

    2003-10-01

    Crossover sexual offenses are defined as those in which victims are from multiple age, gender, and relationship categories. This study investigates admissions of crossover sexual offending from sex offenders participating in treatment who received polygraph testing. For 223 incarcerated and 266 paroled sexual offenders, sexual offenses were recorded from criminal history records and admissions during treatment coupled with polygraph testing. The majority of incarcerated offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both children and adults from multiple relationship types. In addition, there was a substantial increase in offenders admitting to sexually assaulting victims from both genders. In a group of incarcerated offenders who sexually assaulted children, the majority of offenders admitted to sexually assaulting both relatives and nonrelatives, and there was a substantial increase in the offenders admitting to assaulting both male and female children. Although similar trends were observed for the sample of parolees, the rates were far less dramatic. Parolees appeared to have greater levels of denial, had participated in fewer treatment sessions, and perceived greater supervision restrictions as a result of admitting additional offenses. These findings support previous research indicating that many sexual offenders do not exclusively offend against a preferred victim type. PMID:14571530

  11. Uncovering Sexual Problems

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, May

    1977-01-01

    While patients frequently make it difficult for us to uncover their sexual concerns, a much greater difficulty is due to physicians' unwillingness to deal with this subject. Physicians need to acquire basic knowledge about human sexuality as well as skills in making patients feel comfortable and open. A non-judgmental attitude is essential. The physician will also be able to anticipate and prevent sexual distress by education. Expertise must be developed in differentiating those problems requiring referral for specialized sexual counselling from those which the family physician can handle. PMID:21304865

  12. Sexually Transmitted Proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Gavin W.; Kim, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    There are many different sexually transmitted infections that can cause proctitis. Recognition of the common symptoms with anoscopic examination is crucial in accurate diagnosis of the pathogen. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of more than one inciting pathogen. Treatment should be prompt and extended to sexual partners who have been exposed to the disease. Effective treatment can alleviate the discomfort and potentially serious complications associated with sexually transmitted proctitides. This article illustrates and discusses the clinical presentations, diagnostic pearls, and treatments of sexually transmitted proctitides. PMID:26034402

  13. Attention bias for sexual words in female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words using a modified dot-probe task. As expected, female participants with sexual dysfunction showed an attention bias to sexual words, whereas control participants did not. The authors discuss implications for models of sexual dysfunction and clinical intervention. PMID:20432123

  14. Sexual Harrassment in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, G. Robb; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the definition of sexual harassment, the types of sexual harassment, the "reasonable woman standard," and employer liability for sexual harassment. Provides some suggestions for avoiding liability. (MLF)

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 ... D. (2005). Adult perpetrator gender asymmetries in child sexual assault victim selection: Results from the 2000 National Incident- ...

  16. Guidelines for Teaching about Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Nurse educators who are comfortable with their own sexuality, have sensitive and perceptive communication skills, and are knowledgeable about sexual health are best equipped to integrate sexuality education into the nursing curriculum. (SK)

  17. Attempts to reproduce vacuolar myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Weis, Lynn A; Gerhold, Richard W; Fischer, John R

    2004-07-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a cause of bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) mortality in 1994 in Arkansas (USA) and has since caused over 90 bald eagle and numerous American coot (Fulica americana) mortalities in five southeastern states. The cause of AVM remains undetermined but is suspected to be a biotoxin. Naturally occurring AVM has been limited to wild waterbirds, raptors, and one species of shorebird, and has been reproduced experimentally in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). In this study, chickens and swine were evaluated for susceptibility to vacuolar myelinopathy with the intent of developing animal models for research and to identify specific tissues in affected coots that contain the causative agent. Additionally, submerged, aquatic vegetation, primarily hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), and associated material collected from a reservoir during an AVM outbreak was fed to chickens in an effort to reproduce the disease. In two separate experiments, six 4-wk-old leghorn chickens and ten 5-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed coot tissues. In a third experiment, five 3-mo-old domestic swine and one red-tailed hawk, serving as a positive control, were fed coot tissues. In these experiments, treatment animals received tissues (brain, fat, intestinal tract, kidney, liver, and/or muscle) from coots with AVM lesions collected at a lake during an AVM outbreak. Negative control chickens and one pig received tissues from coots without AVM lesions that had been collected at a lake where AVM has never been documented. In a fourth experiment, eight 3-wk-old leghorn chickens were fed aquatic vegetation material. Four chickens received material from the same lake from which coots with AVM lesions were collected for the previous experiments, and four control chickens were fed material from the lake where AVM has never been documented. Blood was collected and physical and neurologic exams were conducted on animals before and once per week

  18. Asexual and sexual replication in sporulating organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bohyun; Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2007-08-01

    Replication via sporulation is the replication strategy for all multicellular life, and may even be observed in unicellular life (such as with budding yeast). We consider diploid populations replicating via one of two possible sporulation mechanisms. (1) Asexual sporulation, whereby adult organisms produce single-celled diploid spores that grow into adults themselves. (2) Sexual sporulation, whereby adult organisms produce single-celled diploid spores that divide into haploid gametes. The haploid gametes enter a haploid “pool,” where they may recombine with other haploids to form a diploid spore that then grows into an adult. We consider a haploid fusion rate given by second-order reaction kinetics. We work with a simplified model where the diploid genome consists of only two chromosomes, each of which may be rendered defective with a single point mutation of the wild-type. We find that the asexual strategy is favored when the rate of spore production is high compared to the characteristic growth rate from a spore to a reproducing adult. Conversely, the sexual strategy is favored when the rate of spore production is low compared to the characteristic growth rate from a spore to a reproducing adult. As the characteristic growth time increases, or as the population density increases, the critical ratio of spore production rate to organism growth rate at which the asexual strategy overtakes the sexual one is pushed to higher values. Therefore, the results of this model suggest that, for complex multicellular organisms, sexual replication is favored at high population densities and low growth and sporulation rates.

  19. Multivariate sexual selection in a rapidly evolving speciation phenotype.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kevin P; Shaw, Kerry L

    2013-06-22

    Estimating the fitness surface of rapidly evolving secondary sexual traits can elucidate the origins of sexual isolation and thus speciation. Evidence suggests that sexual selection is highly complex in nature, often acting on multivariate sexual characters that sometimes include non-heritable components of variation, thus presenting a challenge for predicting patterns of sexual trait evolution. Laupala crickets have undergone an explosive species radiation marked by divergence in male courtship song and associated female preferences, yet patterns of sexual selection that might explain this diversification remain unknown. We used female phonotaxis trials to estimate the fitness surface for acoustic characters within one population of Laupala cerasina, a species with marked geographical variation in male song and female preferences. Results suggested significant directional sexual selection on three major song traits, while canonical rotation of the matrix of nonlinear selection coefficients (γ) revealed the presence of significant convex (stabilizing) sexual selection along combinations of characters. Analysis of song variation within and among males indicated significantly higher repeatability along the canonical axis of greatest stabilizing selection than along the axis of greatest linear selection. These results are largely consistent with patterns of song divergence that characterize speciation and suggest that different song characters have the potential to indicate distinct information to females during courtship. PMID:23760640

  20. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type of piping joint used shall be...

  1. 10 CFR 1016.35 - Authority to reproduce Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority to reproduce Restricted Data. 1016.35 Section 1016.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) SAFEGUARDING OF RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 1016.35 Authority to reproduce Restricted Data. Secret Restricted Data will not be...

  2. An Open Science and Reproducible Research Primer for Landscape Ecologists

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years many funding agencies, some publishers, and even the United States government have enacted policies that encourage open science and strive for reproducibility; however, the knowledge and skills to implement open science and enable reproducible research are not yet...

  3. An open investigation of the reproducibility of cancer biology research.

    PubMed

    Errington, Timothy M; Iorns, Elizabeth; Gunn, William; Tan, Fraser Elisabeth; Lomax, Joelle; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that research that builds upon previously published findings has reproduced the original work. However, it is rare for researchers to perform or publish direct replications of existing results. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is an open investigation of reproducibility in preclinical cancer biology research. We have identified 50 high impact cancer biology articles published in the period 2010-2012, and plan to replicate a subset of experimental results from each article. A Registered Report detailing the proposed experimental designs and protocols for each subset of experiments will be peer reviewed and published prior to data collection. The results of these experiments will then be published in a Replication Study. The resulting open methodology and dataset will provide evidence about the reproducibility of high-impact results, and an opportunity to identify predictors of reproducibility. PMID:25490932

  4. An open investigation of the reproducibility of cancer biology research

    PubMed Central

    Errington, Timothy M; Iorns, Elizabeth; Gunn, William; Tan, Fraser Elisabeth; Lomax, Joelle; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that research that builds upon previously published findings has reproduced the original work. However, it is rare for researchers to perform or publish direct replications of existing results. The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is an open investigation of reproducibility in preclinical cancer biology research. We have identified 50 high impact cancer biology articles published in the period 2010-2012, and plan to replicate a subset of experimental results from each article. A Registered Report detailing the proposed experimental designs and protocols for each subset of experiments will be peer reviewed and published prior to data collection. The results of these experiments will then be published in a Replication Study. The resulting open methodology and dataset will provide evidence about the reproducibility of high-impact results, and an opportunity to identify predictors of reproducibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04333.001 PMID:25490932

  5. Mimetic butterflies support Wallace's model of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2008-07-22

    Theoretical and empirical observations generally support Darwin's view that sexual dimorphism evolves due to sexual selection on, and deviation in, exaggerated male traits. Wallace presented a radical alternative, which is largely untested, that sexual dimorphism results from naturally selected deviation in protective female coloration. This leads to the prediction that deviation in female rather than male phenotype causes sexual dimorphism. Here I test Wallace's model of sexual dimorphism by tracing the evolutionary history of Batesian mimicry-an example of naturally selected protective coloration-on a molecular phylogeny of Papilio butterflies. I show that sexual dimorphism in Papilio is significantly correlated with both female-limited Batesian mimicry, where females are mimetic and males are non-mimetic, and with the deviation of female wing colour patterns from the ancestral patterns conserved in males. Thus, Wallace's model largely explains sexual dimorphism in Papilio. This finding, along with indirect support from recent studies on birds and lizards, suggests that Wallace's model may be more widely useful in explaining sexual dimorphism. These results also highlight the contribution of naturally selected female traits in driving phenotypic divergence between species, instead of merely facilitating the divergence in male sexual traits as described by Darwin's model. PMID:18426753

  6. Parental Non-verbal Sexual Communication: Its Relationship to Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Guilt.

    PubMed

    Joffe, H; Franca-Koh, A C

    2001-01-01

    The study explores the link between remembered non-verbal sexual communication in the home, current sexual behaviours and feelings of sexual guilt, among a sample of young British men and women. Non-verbal sexual communication encapsulates: openness about nudity in the home; the showing of affection between parents; signs of parental sexual activity and contraceptive use; and intimation of mother's menstruation. One hundred and thirty-seven young adults completed questionnaires measuring remembered parental non-verbal sexual communication, current sexual behaviour and sexual guilt. Higher levels of parental non-verbal sexual communication were found to be linked to: earlier onset of sexual activity, fewer sexual partners and lower feelings of aspects of sexual guilt. The findings are discussed in terms of how to advance this area of study. PMID:22049235

  7. Sexual reproduction of the Hawaiian black coral Antipathes griggi (Cnidaria: Antipatharia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.; Waller, R. G.; Montgomery, A. D.; Kelley, C. D.; Toonen, R. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Hawaiian black coral fishery has maintained steady catch levels for over 50 years. However, recent declines in the biomass of commercially valuable Hawaiian black corals question whether regulations need to be redefined for sustainable harvesting. Fishery management efforts are complicated by the limited information on the basic life history and reproduction of black corals. To address this knowledge gap, we used histological techniques to investigate sexual reproductive processes within Antipathes griggi, the dominant species targeted by the fishery. Our results indicate that A. griggi is likely gonochoric with a 1:1 sex ratio and has an annual reproductive cycle. Furthermore, the percentage of polyps containing gametes dropped continuously throughout the reproductive season, indicating that spawning occurs in successive events with greatest intensity between November and December. Current fishing regulations prohibit harvesting of colonies <90 cm in height in state waters, and colonies <120 cm in height in federal waters. This study indicates that ~80% meeting the state harvesting limit, and ~90% of colonies meeting the federal limit, are sexually mature. Therefore, increasing these minimum size harvesting limits would ensure that more colonies can reproduce before being exposed to fishing mortality. Although A. griggi can be found to depths of 100 m, it is rare below the 75 m depth limit at which commercial harvest occurs in Hawai`i. Thus, the supposed depth refuge from harvest does not really exist.

  8. Sexual Reproduction and Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the second edition of Plant Propagation Concepts and Laboratory Exercises, we have combined the first edition chapters 36: Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms and 37: Breeding Horticultural Plants into the present single chapter Sexual Reproduction and Breeding. These topics are so closely relate...

  9. Battling Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  10. Sexual Murderers' Implicit Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony

    2005-01-01

    Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…

  11. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  12. Sexual Victimization of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kevonne; Zweig, Janine M.

    2007-01-01

    An estimated 7.0% to 8.1% of American youth report being sexually victimized at some point in their life time. This article presents a background to youth sexual victimization, focusing on prevalence data, challenging issues when studying this problem, risk factors, and common characteristics of perpetrators. Additionally, a type of sexual…

  13. Sexual Behavior of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hilmar

    1978-01-01

    Confined to discussion of heterosexual activities, this article examines adolescent sexual behavior in terms of promiscuity; the search for a sexual behavior code; the impact of the media; and the influence of peer groups, religious identification, and the adult double standard. (JC)

  14. Evaluating Sexuality Education Curriculums.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David C.; Terlosky, Beverly

    2000-01-01

    In contrast to studies of abstinence-only programs, studies of abstinence-plus curricula indicate that students do not increase sexual activity. Parents, teachers, and administrators should evaluate all sexuality education programs according to three important criteria: credibility of training materials, curriculum content, and curriculum…

  15. Schizophrenia and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Bernard H.

    1971-01-01

    Generally, the schizophrenic is far less active sexually than the rest of the population, and gets less satisfaction out of such activity. Just as he gives up in other areas he eventually abdicates his sexual role, withdrawing from temptations that seem to promise torment. (Author)

  16. Sexual Addiction: Diagnostic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giugliano, John R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years clinicians report a great deal of concern about definition, diagnostic assessment, and treatment modalities when dealing with what might be called out-of-control sexual behavior. Many terms have been used to describe the phenomenon of problematic sexual behavior. Many of these concepts overlap, some are no longer popular, and some…

  17. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  18. Myths of Sexuality Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that sexuality education needs to take into account the myths by which teachers educate and students learn. Defines myth as a narrative, paradigm, or vision. Argues that myth provides depth to sexuality education, but that existing myths serve the purpose poorly. Proposes alternative narratives to the dominant myth. (DSK)

  19. Your Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaginal dryness and lead to pain during intercourse. • Stress and anxiety • Relationship problems • Illness, including depression • Past negative sexual ... alcohol, smoking, illegal drug use, and medical conditions. Anxiety, stress, problems with your partner, and past negative sexual ...

  20. Sexuality, Power, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

    The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

  1. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  2. Hypoactive Sexual Desire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.

    1977-01-01

    Low-libido disorders are highly prevalent, may be extremely distressful to patients and their partners, and influence the course and prognosis of therapy. This paper focuses on this important aspect of human sexuality. Some clinical features of hypoactive sexual desire are described, and some hypotheses about etiology and prognosis are presented.…

  3. [Sexual violence. Towards a healthy sexuality].

    PubMed

    Londono Velez, A

    1998-06-01

    Different forms of violence against women and girls reflect existing inequalities between men and women and between adults and children, as well as concepts of masculinity based on aggressiveness and exercise of force as means of affirming virility. Such forms of masculinity manifest themselves through sexual violence. Women who remain in violent relationships are paralyzed by the lack of a self-defense mechanism, by economic and psychic dependence, and by low self-esteem resulting from a long history of submission. Violence against women and girls consists in a series of behaviors, beliefs, and practices aimed at compromising the full exercise of their rights, often with societal tolerance. Sexual violence represents an assault on basic human rights and on the victims' personality, body, and conscience, and on the conscience of their families and even their communities. A number of measures should be taken to eliminate sexual violence, including sex education within the family, school, and elsewhere. PMID:12348803

  4. Reproducing static and dynamic biodiversity patterns in tropical forests: the critical role of environmental variance.

    PubMed

    Fung, Tak; O'Dwyer, James P; Rahman, Kassim Abd; Fletcher, Christine D; Chisholm, Ryan A

    2016-05-01

    Ecological communities are subjected to stochasticity in the form of demographic and environmental variance. Stochastic models that contain only demographic variance (neutral models) provide close quantitative fits to observed species-abundance distributions (SADs) but substantially underestimate observed temporal species-abundance fluctuations. To provide a holistic assessment of whether models with demographic and environmental variance perform better than neutral models, the fit of both to SADs and temporal species-abundance fluctuations at the same time has to be tested quantitatively. In this study, we quantitatively test how closely a model with demographic and environmental variance reproduces total numbers of species, total abundances, SADs and temporal species-abundance fluctuations for two tropical forest tree communities, using decadal data from long-term monitoring plots and considering individuals larger than two size thresholds for each community. We find that the model can indeed closely reproduce these static and dynamic patterns of biodiversity in the two communities for the two size thresholds, with better overall fits than corresponding neutral models. Therefore, our results provide evidence that stochastic models incorporating demographic and environmental variance can simultaneously capture important static and dynamic biodiversity patterns arising in tropical forest communities. PMID:27349097

  5. The sexual responses of sexual sadists.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L

    2012-08-01

    On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent. PMID:22708887

  6. Repeatability, Reproducibility, Separative Power and Subjectivity of Different Fish Morphometric Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Takács, Péter; Vitál, Zoltán; Ferincz, Árpád; Staszny, Ádám

    2016-01-01

    We compared the repeatability, reproducibility (intra- and inter-measurer similarity), separative power and subjectivity (measurer effect on results) of four morphometric methods frequently used in ichthyological research, the "traditional" caliper-based (TRA) and truss-network (TRU) distance methods and two geometric methods that compare landmark coordinates on the body (GMB) and scales (GMS). In each case, measurements were performed three times by three measurers on the same specimen of three common cyprinid species (roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758), bleak Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)) collected from three closely-situated sites in the Lake Balaton catchment (Hungary) in 2014. TRA measurements were made on conserved specimens using a digital caliper, while TRU, GMB and GMS measurements were undertaken on digital images of the bodies and scales. In most cases, intra-measurer repeatability was similar. While all four methods were able to differentiate the source populations, significant differences were observed in their repeatability, reproducibility and subjectivity. GMB displayed highest overall repeatability and reproducibility and was least burdened by measurer effect. While GMS showed similar repeatability to GMB when fish scales had a characteristic shape, it showed significantly lower reproducability (compared with its repeatability) for each species than the other methods. TRU showed similar repeatability as the GMS. TRA was the least applicable method as measurements were obtained from the fish itself, resulting in poor repeatability and reproducibility. Although all four methods showed some degree of subjectivity, TRA was the only method where population-level detachment was entirely overwritten by measurer effect. Based on these results, we recommend a) avoidance of aggregating different measurer's datasets when using TRA and GMS methods; and b) use of image-based methods for morphometric

  7. Repeatability, Reproducibility, Separative Power and Subjectivity of Different Fish Morphometric Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Takács, Péter

    2016-01-01

    We compared the repeatability, reproducibility (intra- and inter-measurer similarity), separative power and subjectivity (measurer effect on results) of four morphometric methods frequently used in ichthyological research, the “traditional” caliper-based (TRA) and truss-network (TRU) distance methods and two geometric methods that compare landmark coordinates on the body (GMB) and scales (GMS). In each case, measurements were performed three times by three measurers on the same specimen of three common cyprinid species (roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758), bleak Alburnus alburnus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Prussian carp Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1782)) collected from three closely-situated sites in the Lake Balaton catchment (Hungary) in 2014. TRA measurements were made on conserved specimens using a digital caliper, while TRU, GMB and GMS measurements were undertaken on digital images of the bodies and scales. In most cases, intra-measurer repeatability was similar. While all four methods were able to differentiate the source populations, significant differences were observed in their repeatability, reproducibility and subjectivity. GMB displayed highest overall repeatability and reproducibility and was least burdened by measurer effect. While GMS showed similar repeatability to GMB when fish scales had a characteristic shape, it showed significantly lower reproducability (compared with its repeatability) for each species than the other methods. TRU showed similar repeatability as the GMS. TRA was the least applicable method as measurements were obtained from the fish itself, resulting in poor repeatability and reproducibility. Although all four methods showed some degree of subjectivity, TRA was the only method where population-level detachment was entirely overwritten by measurer effect. Based on these results, we recommend a) avoidance of aggregating different measurer’s datasets when using TRA and GMS methods; and b) use of image-based methods for

  8. Death after Sexual Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Christian T.; Ricklin, Meret E.; Pauli, Andreina; Ott, Daniel; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.; Pfortmueller, Carmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is an essential aspect of quality of life. Nevertheless, sexual intercourse is physically challenging and leads to distinct changes in blood pressure, heart, and respiratory rate that may lead to vital complications. We present a case report of a 22-year-old female suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage after sexual intercourse. The patient was immediately transported to hospital by emergency medical services and, after diagnosis, transferred to a tertiary hospital with neurosurgical expertise but died within 24 hours. After postcoital headaches, subarachnoid hemorrhage is the second most common cause of neurological complications of sexual intercourse and therefore patients admitted to an emergency department with headache after sexual intercourse should always be carefully evaluated by cerebral imaging. PMID:26697238

  9. Psychopathy and sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    Mokros, Andreas; Osterheider, Michael; Hucker, Stephen J; Nitschke, Joachim

    2011-06-01

    Psychopathic personality disorder and sexual sadism share several common characteristics, such as emotional detachment from the suffering of others or the preparedness to inflict pain or injuries. Based on a sample of 100 male forensic patients (all of them sex offenders, half of them sadistic), the concept of psychopathy and sexual sadism as a unified construct was tested empirically. Pooling indicator variables for psychopathic and sexually sadistic disorders showed that a two-factorial solution yielded a better fit than a single-factor model. The two factors identified psychopathy and sexual sadism as separate latent variables. More specifically, the data were compatible with a path model in which affective deficits and behavioral disinhibition of the psychopathy domain are precursors to sexually sadistic conduct. PMID:20393872

  10. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  11. Death after Sexual Intercourse.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian T; Ricklin, Meret E; Pauli, Andreina; Ott, Daniel; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K; Pfortmueller, Carmen A

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is an essential aspect of quality of life. Nevertheless, sexual intercourse is physically challenging and leads to distinct changes in blood pressure, heart, and respiratory rate that may lead to vital complications. We present a case report of a 22-year-old female suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage after sexual intercourse. The patient was immediately transported to hospital by emergency medical services and, after diagnosis, transferred to a tertiary hospital with neurosurgical expertise but died within 24 hours. After postcoital headaches, subarachnoid hemorrhage is the second most common cause of neurological complications of sexual intercourse and therefore patients admitted to an emergency department with headache after sexual intercourse should always be carefully evaluated by cerebral imaging. PMID:26697238

  12. Challenges in sexual medicine.

    PubMed

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-09-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field, in an effort to improve the lives of our patients, who wait for effective therapies. PMID:22777290

  13. Sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2014-06-01

    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below. PMID:24889293

  14. Species clarification of Ogasawara cockroaches which inhabit Japan.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, N; Kawakami, Y; Banzai, A; Ooi, H K; Uchida, A

    2015-03-01

    The so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" were examined by morphological observations and by breeding experiments to elucidate their actual taxonomical status. Fourteen groups (isolate) of "Ogasawara cockroaches" collected from Iwoto-A, Iwoto-B, Hahajima, Chichijima, Nishijima, Nakodojima, Tokunoshima-A, Tokunoshima-B, Okinawato- A, Okinawa-B, Amamiooshima, Miyakojima, Ishigakijima and Hawaii, were bred and passaged in our laboratory. Cockroaches collected from the field were first reared individually and the sexes of their offspring examined. Cockroaches collected from Iwoto, Tokushima and Okinawa, were found to consist of two groups; those whose offspring were all female and the other whose offspring consist of both male and female. Cross-breeding experiments showed that individuals from the group that did not produce any male but only female offspring were parthenogenetic. On the contrary, the group that have bisexual individuals produced both male and female offspring in a ratio of 1:1. Our results show that the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" consist of 2 species, namely, Pycnoscelus surinamensis and Pycnoscelus indicus. There are areas in which both species co-habitated together and there are also areas in which either only one of the two species can be found. The group that reproduces only female offspring and only through parthenogenesis was identified as P. surinamensis. The group that reproduces heterosexually and produce male and female offspring was identified as P. indicus. Thus, the so-called "Ogasawara cockroaches" found in Japan actually consist of 2 species, namely, P. surinamensis and P. indicus, which can be differentiated using the solitary breeding method to demonstrate parthenogenesis in the former and the need for sexual reproduction in the latter. PMID:25801258

  15. Correlates of increased sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Haavio-Mannila, E; Kontula, O

    1997-08-01

    Comparisons of nationally representative survey data of the population ages 18-54 years in 1971 (N = 2252) and 1992 (N = 1718) from Finland show that sexual satisfaction has greatly increased particularly among women. Some predictors of sexual satisfaction of men and women are examined on the basis of the 1992 survey data on people ages 18-74 years (N = 2250). Correlations between social background factors, sexual ideas and assertiveness, optional relationships, sexual practices, organism, and satisfaction with sexual intercourse were calculated. To control the simultaneous effect of the variables explaining satisfaction, path analyses were conducted. Results show that young age, a sexually unreserved and a nonreligious childhood home, early start of sexual life, high education, sexual assertiveness, considering sexuality important in life, reciprocal feeling of love, use of sex materials, frequent intercourse, many-sided (versatile) sexual techniques, and frequent orgasm correlate with finding sexual intercourse pleasurable. There were some gender differences in the connections between the independent factors and satisfaction with coitus. The importance of sexuality in life, love, and the use of sexual materials were connected directly to physical sexual satisfaction among men but only indirectly among women. For women, but not for men, young age and early start of sexual life correlated with enjoyment of intercourse. The greater sexual dissatisfaction of women compared to men, which still prevails, may be due to their late start of sexual life, conservative sexual attitudes, unimportance of sexuality in life, lack of sexual assertiveness, and use of restricted sexual techniques. The emancipation of women may change these ideas and practices of women. This might lessen the gender gap in physical sexual satisfaction. PMID:9251837

  16. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F., Jr.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  17. Textbook Sexual Inadequacy? A Review of Sexuality Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goettsch, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews eight current human sexuality textbooks for both their general organization and substantive content. Addresses specifically the content areas of sexual response cycle; sexual disfunction; acquaintance rape; AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases; extramarital sex; abortion; homosexuality; and pornography. Identifies as a recurring fault…

  18. Changes in Women's Sexual Behavior Following Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deliramich, Aimee N.; Gray, Matt J.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines changes in women's sexual activity and behavior following sexual assault and the relationship between alcohol abuse and postassault promiscuity. Although many researchers have focused on avoidance of sexual activity following an assault, some have suggested that women may exhibit an increase in sexual activity…

  19. Reproducible and controllable induction voltage adder for scaled beam experiments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    A reproducible and controllable induction adder was developed using solid-state switching devices and Finemet cores for scaled beam compression experiments. A gate controlled MOSFET circuit was developed for the controllable voltage driver. The MOSFET circuit drove the induction adder at low magnetization levels of the cores which enabled us to form reproducible modulation voltages with jitter less than 0.3 ns. Preliminary beam compression experiments indicated that the induction adder can improve the reproducibility of modulation voltages and advance the beam physics experiments. PMID:27587112

  20. Influences of clonality on plant sexual reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Flowering plants possess an unrivaled diversity of mechanisms for achieving sexual and asexual reproduction, often simultaneously. The commonest type of asexual reproduction is clonal growth (vegetative propagation) in which parental genotypes (genets) produce vegetative modules (ramets) that are capable of independent growth, reproduction, and often dispersal. Clonal growth leads to an expansion in the size of genets and increased fitness because large floral displays increase fertility and opportunities for outcrossing. Moreover, the clonal dispersal of vegetative propagules can assist “mate finding,” particularly in aquatic plants. However, there are ecological circumstances in which functional antagonism between sexual and asexual reproductive modes can negatively affect the fitness of clonal plants. Populations of heterostylous and dioecious species have a small number of mating groups (two or three), which should occur at equal frequency in equilibrium populations. Extensive clonal growth and vegetative dispersal can disrupt the functioning of these sexual polymorphisms, resulting in biased morph ratios and populations with a single mating group, with consequences for fertility and mating. In populations in which clonal propagation predominates, mutations reducing fertility may lead to sexual dysfunction and even the loss of sex. Recent evidence suggests that somatic mutations can play a significant role in influencing fitness in clonal plants and may also help explain the occurrence of genetic diversity in sterile clonal populations. Highly polymorphic genetic markers offer outstanding opportunities for gaining novel insights into functional interactions between sexual and clonal reproduction in flowering plants. PMID:26195747

  1. Sexual selection in mushroom-forming basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2011-01-01

    We expect that sexual selection may play an important role in the evolution of mushroom-forming basidiomycete fungi. Although these fungi do not have separate sexes, they do play female and male roles: the acceptance and the donation of a nucleus, respectively. The primary mycelium (monokaryon) of basidiomycete fungi, growing from a germinating sexual spore, is hermaphroditic, but it loses female function upon the acceptance of a second nucleus. The resulting dikaryon with two different nuclei in each cell retains a male potential as both nuclei can fertilize receptive mycelia. We tested the occurrence of sexual selection in the model species of mushroom-forming basidiomycetes, Schizophyllum commune, by pairing monokaryons with fully compatible dikaryons. In most pairings, we found a strong bias for one of the two nuclei although both were compatible with the monokaryon when paired alone. This shows that sexual selection can occur in mushroom-forming basidiomycetes. Since the winning nucleus of a dikaryon occasionally varied depending on the receiving monokaryon, we infer that sexual selection can operate through choosiness of the receiving individual (analogous to female choice). However, in other cases the same nucleus won, irrespective of the receiving monokaryon, suggesting that competition between the two nuclei of the donating mycelium (analogous to male–male competition) might also play a role. PMID:20630884

  2. Sexual selection accelerates signal evolution during speciation in birds

    PubMed Central

    Seddon, Nathalie; Botero, Carlos A.; Tobias, Joseph A.; Dunn, Peter O.; MacGregor, Hannah E. A.; Rubenstein, Dustin R.; Uy, J. Albert C.; Weir, Jason T.; Whittingham, Linda A.; Safran, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection is proposed to be an important driver of diversification in animal systems, yet previous tests of this hypothesis have produced mixed results and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we use a novel phylogenetic approach to assess the influence of sexual selection on patterns of evolutionary change during 84 recent speciation events across 23 passerine bird families. We show that elevated levels of sexual selection are associated with more rapid phenotypic divergence between related lineages, and that this effect is restricted to male plumage traits proposed to function in mate choice and species recognition. Conversely, we found no evidence that sexual selection promoted divergence in female plumage traits, or in male traits related to foraging and locomotion. These results provide strong evidence that female choice and male–male competition are dominant mechanisms driving divergence during speciation in birds, potentially linking sexual selection to the accelerated evolution of pre-mating reproductive isolation. PMID:23864596

  3. Sexual sadism and sadistic personality disorder in sexual homicide.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer

    2006-12-01

    Controversies exist about the diagnostic validity of sexual sadism and its relation to sadistic personality disorder in sex offenders. The aim of this study was to investigate which diagnostic, developmental, and criminal characteristics differentiate sexual sadistic from non-sadistic sexual homicide perpetrators. Psychiatric court reports on 166 men who had committed a sexual homicide were evaluated regarding psychiatric, sexual and criminal history. Sixty-one offenders (36.7%) with sexual sadism (SeSd) were compared with 105 (63.3%) offenders without this diagnosis (NSeSd). Besides the sexual sadistic symptoms, there were seven factors that discriminated best between the two groups (sexual masochism, sadistic personality disorder, isolation in childhood, multiple sexual homicide, previous rape, previous tendencies for similar behavior, and long duration of the homicidal act). Sexual sadism is connected with circumscribed other characteristics and has to be considered in risk assessment and treatment of sex offenders. PMID:17192143

  4. Effect of tropical storms on sexual and asexual reproduction in coral Pocillopora verrucosa subpopulations in the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranceta-Garza, F.; Balart, E. F.; Reyes-Bonilla, H.; Cruz-Hernández, P.

    2012-12-01

    Pocillopora verrucosa is a branching, reef-building coral, and a simultaneous hermaphrodite that reproduces sexually and asexually by fragmentation. In the Gulf of California, local P. verrucosa populations have mixed modes of reproduction which vary in frequency by site. Sexual and asexual reproductions were assessed using multi-locus genotypes deriving from six microsatellite loci at every location. Clone frequencies varied from 0.30 at Loreto to 0.96 in the San Lorenzo Channel. Isla Espíritu Santo and the San Lorenzo Channel were mostly asexual subpopulations, presented the lowest genotypic richness ( N g / N = 0.1-0.12) and genotypic diversity ( G o / G e = 0.04), and were dominated by one or two multi-loci genotypes ( G o / N g = 0.35-0.45). Loreto, El Portugués, and Cabo Pulmo were mostly sexual with high Ng/ N (0.80-0.74) and G o / G e (0.52-0.58) and did not show domination by a single multi-locus genotype ( G o / N g = 0.70-0.74). There was a significant relationship ( P < 0.05) between tropical storm frequency and the genotypic indexes of richness and diversity modeling an inverted U-shape, which indicates that the sites where storm frequencies were the highest had mostly clonal populations; sites exposed to intermediate or low storm frequencies had mostly sexual populations. The study included a restored area (San Lorenzo Channel) where genotypic analyses showed a high level of clonality similar to natural conditions occurring in a nearby subpopulation (Isla Espíritu Santo), which demonstrates the low natural genetic diversity of the area. This study showed that a species with mixed reproduction modes has different maintenance strategies at a regional and even local level among populations indicating the crucial role that storms play in population structure.

  5. Heteronormativity hurts everyone: experiences of young men and clinicians with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Goldenberg, Shira

    2013-09-01

    Heteronormative assumptions can negatively influence the lives of young gay and bisexual men, and recent sociological analyses have identified the negative impacts of heteronormativity on heterosexual men (e.g. 'fag discourse' targeted at heterosexual adolescents). However, insights into how heteronormative discourses may be (re)produced in clinical settings and how they contribute to health outcomes for gay, bisexual and heterosexual men are poorly understood. This analysis draws on in-depth interviews with 45 men (15-25 years old) and 25 clinicians in British Columbia, Canada, to examine how heteronormative discourses affect sexually transmitted infection testing. The sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing experience emerged as a unique situation, whereby men's (hetero)sexuality was explicitly 'interrogated'. Risk assessments discursively linked sexual identity to risk in ways that reinforced gay men as the risky 'other' and heterosexual men as the (hetero)normal and, therefore, relatively low-risk patient. This, in turn, alleviated concern for sexually transmitted infection/HIV exposure in heterosexual men by virtue of their sexual identity (rather than their sexual practices), which muted discussions around their sexual health. The clinicians also positioned sexual identities and practices as important 'clues' for determining their patients' social contexts and supports while concurrently informing particular tailored clinical communication strategies. These findings highlight how men's experiences with sexually transmitted infection/HIV testing can (re)produce heteronormative assumptions and expectations or create opportunities for more equitable gendered relations and discourses. PMID:23117592

  6. Effects of feeding level and sexual maturation on carcass and fillet characteristics and indices of protein degradation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual maturation in many species of fish including salmonids requires mobilization of energy and nutrient resources to support gonad growth. During sexual maturation, particularly vitellogenesis, proteins are mobilized from muscle tissue, which is evidenced by increased expression of proteolytic g...

  7. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  8. Prenatal endocrine influences on sexual orientation and on sexually differentiated childhood behavior.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa

    2011-04-01

    Both sexual orientation and sex-typical childhood behaviors, such as toy, playmate and activity preferences, show substantial sex differences, as well as substantial variability within each sex. In other species, behaviors that show sex differences are typically influenced by exposure to gonadal steroids, particularly testosterone and its metabolites, during early development (prenatally or neonatally). This article reviews the evidence regarding prenatal influences of gonadal steroids on human sexual orientation, as well as sex-typed childhood behaviors that predict subsequent sexual orientation. The evidence supports a role for prenatal testosterone exposure in the development of sex-typed interests in childhood, as well as in sexual orientation in later life, at least for some individuals. It appears, however, that other factors, in addition to hormones, play an important role in determining sexual orientation. These factors have not been well-characterized, but possibilities include direct genetic effects, and effects of maternal factors during pregnancy. Although a role for hormones during early development has been established, it also appears that there may be multiple pathways to a given sexual orientation outcome and some of these pathways may not involve hormones. PMID:21333673

  9. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148

  10. 223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    223. FREQUENTLY REPRODUCED VIEW OF GWMP SHOWING VARIABLE WIDTH MEDIANS WITH INDEPENDENT ALIGNMENTS FROM KEY BRIDGE LOOKING NORTHWEST, 1953. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  11. Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west elevation. Building camouflaged during World War II. - Grand Central Air Terminal, 1310 Air Way, Glendale, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Reproduced from the collections of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress, Accession No. 45041 Geographical File ('Nantucket, Mass.') Division of Prints and Photographs c. 1880 - Jethro Coffin House, Sunset Hill, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. What is sexual addiction?

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  14. Research in Human Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Joan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Medical students' attitudes towards concepts in sexuality before and after a five-day sexuality course were tested at the University of Miami School of Medicine and evaluated with Osgood's Semantic Differential. Concepts rated were "my sexuality,""masturbation,""homosexuality," and "my role in understanding sexual problems." (LBH)

  15. Sexual Health for America's Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffner, Debra W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Commission on Adolescent Sexual Health developed a professional consensus statement about adolescent sexual health. Its report for policymakers recommends that adults face the facts about adolescent sexuality and that public policies on adolescent sexual health be based on appropriate knowledge, accurate data, current theory, ongoing…

  16. Human Sexuality: Responsible Life Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Verdene; Smith, Peggy B.

    This book provides a complete course in human sexuality. It can also be used to supplement a family living course. Text content provides current information for teaching high school students about sexuality issues. The text offers basic information on growth and development, sexual development, pregnancy, and birth. It explains the sexual decision…

  17. Sexual Harassment: A Hidden Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    A discussion of sexual harassment on college and university campuses addresses a number of questions and issues: myths of sexual harassment; what is sexual harassment, how widespread is it, and why are women reluctant to talk about it?; sexual harassment and the law; is harassment a violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (for employees) or…

  18. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  19. On The Reproducibility of Seasonal Land-surface Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T J

    2004-10-22

    The sensitivity of the continental seasonal climate to initial conditions is estimated from an ensemble of decadal simulations of an atmospheric general circulation model with the same specifications of radiative forcings and monthly ocean boundary conditions, but with different initial states of atmosphere and land. As measures of the ''reproducibility'' of continental climate for different initial conditions, spatio-temporal correlations are computed across paired realizations of eleven model land-surface variables in which the seasonal cycle is either included or excluded--the former case being pertinent to climate simulation, and the latter to seasonal anomaly prediction. It is found that the land-surface variables which include the seasonal cycle are impacted only marginally by changes in initial conditions; moreover, their seasonal climatologies exhibit high spatial reproducibility. In contrast, the reproducibility of a seasonal land-surface anomaly is generally low, although it is substantially higher in the Tropics; its spatial reproducibility also markedly fluctuates in tandem with warm and cold phases of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, the overall degree of reproducibility depends strongly on the particular land-surface anomaly considered. It is also shown that the predictability of a land-surface anomaly implied by its reproducibility statistics is consistent with what is inferred from more conventional predictability metrics. Implications of these results for climate model intercomparison projects and for operational forecasts of seasonal continental climate also are elaborated.

  20. [Sexual disorders in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Scheer, P J

    2014-02-01

    Numerous sexual disorders, which were previously in the foreground, have in fact disappeared due to our changing society. This broad field today includes repressed sexual disorders of adolescents who cannot or do not want to go along with the changes either for familial or personal reasons. Immigrant background, religious beliefs, and peer pressure may play a role here. As a dialog partner for adolescents, the competent physician must take into consideration the interplay of sexual desire, ethical beliefs, morals, and parental expectations, which requires interest, intuition, and tact. PMID:24535205

  1. [Sexuality in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Hamela-Olkowska, Anita; Marcyniak, Marek; Sieńko, Jacek; Czajkowski, Krzysztof; Brandt, Maciej; Jalinik, Katarzyna; Labusiewicz, Wojciech; Romankiewicz, Kamila

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on women's sexuality. The studies were conducted using questionnaires to interview 120 women from 35 weeks' of gestation or just after the delivery. There were no medical contraindications for sexual intercourse in pregnancy in this group. More than half of respondents reported a decrease in libido during gestation. A reduction in coital frequency, oral intercourse, gratification of coitus, caress of breasts or genitals and erotic dreams occurred during pregnancy. Lateral position was mainly used during coitus in pregnancy. Most of women didn't discuss the problems of sexual activity in pregnancy with their obstetricians. PMID:15537259

  2. Sexual dimorphism in primate aerobic capacity: a phylogenetic test.

    PubMed

    Lindenfors, Patrik; Revell, L J; Nunn, C L

    2010-06-01

    Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess. This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females (i.e. sexual dimorphism) and a correlation between sexual dimorphism in aerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However, physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower per unit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing or reversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexual selection. We used measures of haematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) counts from 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selection and body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity than females, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males, (iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but also that (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should co-vary negatively with body mass. For the first two predictions, we used a phylogenetic paired t-test developed for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degree of sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction. Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whether substrate use, basal metabolic rate and agility influenced physiological measures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for a correlation between RBC count and agility. PMID:20406346

  3. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  4. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    PubMed

    Harris, Allyssa L

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior among adolescents is a major public health concern with potentially long-lasting consequences, including pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV/AIDS. Researchers have demonstrated that parent-adolescent sexual communication can mitigate adolescent risky sexual behaviors; the development of interventions that support this process are vital. This column examines a recent study that evaluated a parent-adolescent sexual communication intervention. PMID:27067937

  5. Perceptions of low agency and high sexual openness mediate the relationship between sexualization and sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Blake, Khandis R; Bastian, Brock; Denson, Thomas F

    2016-09-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the saturation of popular Western culture by female hypersexualization. We provide data showing that men have more sexually aggressive intentions toward women who self-sexualize, and that self-sexualized women are vulnerable to sexual aggression if two qualifying conditions are met. Specifically, if perceivers view self-sexualized women as sexually open and lacking agency (i.e., the ability to influence one's environment), they harbor more sexually aggressive intentions and view women as easier to sexually victimize. In Experiment 1, male participants viewed a photograph of a woman whose self-sexualization was manipulated through revealing versus non-revealing clothing. In subsequent experiments, men and women (Experiment 2) and men only (Experiment 3) viewed a photograph of a woman dressed in non-revealing clothing but depicted as open or closed to sexual activity. Participants rated their perceptions of the woman's agency, then judged how vulnerable she was to sexual aggression (Experiments 1 and 2) or completed a sexually aggressive intentions measure (Experiment 3). Results indicated that both men and women perceived self-sexualized women as more vulnerable to sexual aggression because they assumed those women were highly sexually open and lacked agency. Perceptions of low agency also mediated the relationship between women's perceived sexual openness and men's intentions to sexually aggress. These effects persisted even when we described the self-sexualized woman as possessing highly agentic personality traits and controlled for individual differences related to sexual offending. The current work suggests that perceived agency and sexual openness may inform perpetrator decision-making and that cultural hypersexualization may facilitate sexual aggression. Aggr. Behav. 42:483-497, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848102

  6. Genetic Dissection of Sexual Reproduction in a Primary Homothallic Basidiomycete

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2016-01-01

    In fungi belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, sexual compatibility is usually determined by two genetically unlinked MAT loci, one of which encodes one or more pheromone receptors (P/R) and pheromone precursors, and the other comprehends at least one pair of divergently transcribed genes encoding homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. Most species are heterothallic, meaning that sexual reproduction requires mating between two sexually compatible individuals harboring different alleles at both MAT loci. However, some species are known to be homothallic, one individual being capable of completing the sexual cycle without mating with a genetically distinct partner. While the molecular underpinnings of the heterothallic life cycles of several basidiomycete model species have been dissected in great detail, much less is known concerning the molecular basis for homothallism. Following the discovery in available draft genomes of the homothallic basidiomycetous yeast Phaffia rhodozyma of P/R and HD genes, we employed available genetic tools to determine their role in sexual development. Two P/R clusters, each harboring one pheromone receptor and one pheromone precursor gene were found in close vicinity of each other and were shown to form two redundant P/R pairs, each receptor being activated by the pheromone encoded by the most distal pheromone precursor gene. The HD locus is apparently genetically unlinked to the P/R locus and encodes a single pair of divergently transcribed HD1 and HD2 transcription factors, both required for normal completion of the sexual cycle. Given the genetic makeup of P. rhodozyma MAT loci, we postulate that it is a primarily homothallic organism and we propose a model for the interplay of molecular interactions required for sexual development in this species. Phaffia rhodozyma is considered one of the most promising microbial source of the carotenoid astaxanthin. Further development of this yeast as an industrial organism will benefit from

  7. Genetic Dissection of Sexual Reproduction in a Primary Homothallic Basidiomycete.

    PubMed

    David-Palma, Márcia; Sampaio, José Paulo; Gonçalves, Paula

    2016-06-01

    In fungi belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, sexual compatibility is usually determined by two genetically unlinked MAT loci, one of which encodes one or more pheromone receptors (P/R) and pheromone precursors, and the other comprehends at least one pair of divergently transcribed genes encoding homeodomain (HD) transcription factors. Most species are heterothallic, meaning that sexual reproduction requires mating between two sexually compatible individuals harboring different alleles at both MAT loci. However, some species are known to be homothallic, one individual being capable of completing the sexual cycle without mating with a genetically distinct partner. While the molecular underpinnings of the heterothallic life cycles of several basidiomycete model species have been dissected in great detail, much less is known concerning the molecular basis for homothallism. Following the discovery in available draft genomes of the homothallic basidiomycetous yeast Phaffia rhodozyma of P/R and HD genes, we employed available genetic tools to determine their role in sexual development. Two P/R clusters, each harboring one pheromone receptor and one pheromone precursor gene were found in close vicinity of each other and were shown to form two redundant P/R pairs, each receptor being activated by the pheromone encoded by the most distal pheromone precursor gene. The HD locus is apparently genetically unlinked to the P/R locus and encodes a single pair of divergently transcribed HD1 and HD2 transcription factors, both required for normal completion of the sexual cycle. Given the genetic makeup of P. rhodozyma MAT loci, we postulate that it is a primarily homothallic organism and we propose a model for the interplay of molecular interactions required for sexual development in this species. Phaffia rhodozyma is considered one of the most promising microbial source of the carotenoid astaxanthin. Further development of this yeast as an industrial organism will benefit from

  8. Sexual Scripts and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Black Heterosexual Men: Development of the Sexual Scripts Scale

    PubMed Central

    Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J.; Noar, Seth M.; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men’s HIV risk. PMID:24311105

  9. Clonal Species Trichoderma parareesei sp. nov. Likely Resembles the Ancestor of the Cellulase Producer Hypocrea jecorina/T. reesei▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova, Lea; Jaklitsch, Walter M.; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Kubicek, Christian P.; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that the prominent industrial enzyme producer Trichoderma reesei (teleomorph Hypocrea jecorina; Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Dikarya) has a genetically isolated, sympatric sister species devoid of sexual reproduction and which is constituted by the majority of anamorphic strains previously attributed to H. jecorina/T. reesei. In this paper we present the formal taxonomic description of this new species, T. parareesei, complemented by multivariate phenotype profiling and molecular evolutionary examination. A phylogenetic analysis of relatively conserved loci, such as coding fragments of the RNA polymerase B subunit II (rpb2) and GH18 chitinase (chi18-5), showed that T. parareesei is genetically invariable and likely resembles the ancestor which gave raise to H. jecorina. This and the fact that at least one mating type gene of T. parareesei has previously been found to be essentially altered compared to the sequence of H. jecorina/T. reesei indicate that divergence probably occurred due to the impaired functionality of the mating system in the hypothetical ancestor of both species. In contrast, we show that the sexually reproducing and correspondingly more polymorphic H. jecorina/T. reesei is essentially evolutionarily derived. Phenotype microarray analyses performed at seven temperature regimens support our previous speculations that T. parareesei possesses a relatively high opportunistic potential, which probably ensured the survival of this species in ancient and sustainable environment such as tropical forests. PMID:20817800

  10. SHARED ITS DNA SUBSTITUTIONS IN ISOLATES OF OPPOSITE MATING TYPE REVEAL A RECOMBIING HISTORY FOR THREE PRESUMED ASEXUAL SPECIES IN THE FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETE GENUS ALTERNARIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 15,000 species of ascomycete fungi lack a known sexual state. For fungi with asexual states in the form genera Embellisia, Ulocladium and Alternaria, six species have known sexual states but more than 50 species do not. In sexual filamentous ascomycetes, opposite mating type information at t...

  11. Wired on Steroids: Sexual Differentiation of the Brain and Its Role in the Expression of Sexual Partner Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Brenda M.; Skinner, Donal C.; Roselli, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    The preference to seek out a sexual partner of the opposite sex is robust and ensures reproduction and survival of the species. Development of female-directed partner preference in the male is dependent on exposure of the developing brain to gonadal steroids synthesized during critical periods of sexual differentiation of the central nervous system. In the absence of androgen exposure, a male-directed partner preference develops. The development and expression of sexual partner preference has been extensively studied in rat, ferret, and sheep model systems. From these models it is clear that gonadal testosterone, often through estrogenic metabolites, cause both masculinization and defeminization of behavior during critical periods of brain development. Changes in the steroid environment during these critical periods result in atypical sexual partner preference. In this manuscript, we review the major findings which support the hypothesis that the organizational actions of sex steroids are responsible for sexual differentiation of sexual partner preferences in select non-human species. We also explore how this information has helped to frame our understanding of the biological influences on human sexual orientation and gender identity. PMID:22654808

  12. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...

  13. Understanding Sexual Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... protective factors. Step 3: Develop and test prevention strategies Using information gathered in research, CDC develops and evaluates strategies ... or technical help so communities can adopt these strategies. For more information on sexual violence prevention activities at CDC, please ...

  14. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  15. Sexuality in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... for your partner. It also benefits your physical health by reducing stress and making you feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ...

  16. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  17. Rape (sexual assault) - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Sex and rape; Date rape; Sexual assault ... Rape may occur between members of the same sex. This is more common in places such as prisons, military settings, and single-sex schools. People with physical or mental disabilities or ...

  18. [Sexuality and death].

    PubMed

    Sapetti, Adrián

    2006-01-01

    It is intented to show two apparently antithetic poles: Sexuality and Death, in fact interpenetrate themselves, disguising the fear of death, or the desire to die, Eros' world. Different expressions of culture are analyzed, especially the one known as The Profane Time, the time for work, which is characterized by the submission to interdicts (prohibitions) and, on the other hand, the Time for Joy or The Sacred Time, characterized by the transgression of such prohibitions. Its relationship with the interdicts'violations in the sexual as well as in the death arena is analyzed in order to connect the human being's fear in the presence of the unrestraint, the overflow and the abandonment of the time established for work that would imply free sexuality. The latter is connected with some conclusions that could be considered useful in the field of Sexual Therapies, with a certain critical look at the mechanist settlement applied to those treatments. PMID:16645674

  19. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that you can get from having sex with someone who has the infection. The causes ... is no cure. Sometimes medicines can keep the disease under control. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly ...

  20. [Adolescence and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, G

    2006-03-22

    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance. PMID:16615726

  1. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Transgender People Teaching Your Child Tolerance STDs Understanding Early ... and Romance Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Transgender People Sexual Attraction and Orientation Contact Us Print ...

  2. Sexual Problems in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than a few months or cause distress for you or your partner, you should see your health care provider.

  3. Evidence for no sexual isolation between Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Phillips, Dennis R; Tao, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Sexual isolation, the reduced tendency to mate, is one of the reproductive barriers that prevent gene flow between different species. Various species-specific signals during courtship contribute to sexual isolation between species. Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta are closely related species of the nasuta subgroup within the Drosophila immigrans group and are distributed in allopatry. We analyzed mating behavior and courtship as well as cuticular hydrocarbon profiles within and between species. Here, we report that these two species randomly mated with each other. We did not observe any sexual isolation between species or between strains within species by multiple-choice tests. Significant difference in the courtship index was detected between these two species, but males and females of both species showed no discrimination against heterospecific partners. Significant quantitative variations in cuticular hydrocarbons between these two species were also found, but the cuticular hydrocarbons appear to play a negligible role in both courtship and sexual isolation between these two species. In contrast to the evident postzygotic isolation, the lack of sexual isolation between these two species suggests that the evolution of premating isolation may lag behind that of the intergenomic incompatibility, which might be driven by intragenomic conflicts. PMID:23919152

  4. Multidimensional characterization of sexual minority adolescents' sexual safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2013-10-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths' risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers'. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths' sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  5. Multidimensional Characterization of Sexual Minority Adolescents’ Sexual Safety Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Young adults have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sexual minority youths’ risk for STIs, including HIV, is as high as or higher than sexual majority peers’. Sexual safety, while often treated as a single behavior such as condom use, can be best conceptualized as the result of multiple factors. We used latent class analysis to identify profiles based on ever-used sexual safety strategies and lifetime number of partners among 425 self-identified LGBTQ youth aged 14-19. Data collection took place anonymously online. We identified four specific subgroup profiles for males and three for females, with each subgroup representing a different level and type of sexual safety. Profiles differed from each other in terms of age and outness for males, and in outness, personal homonegativity, and amount of education received about sexual/romantic relationships for females. Youths’ sexual safety profiles have practice implications for sexuality educators, health care professionals, and parents. PMID:24011111

  6. Patterns of sexual dimorphism in body weight among prosimian primates.

    PubMed

    Kappeler, P M

    1991-01-01

    Many primatologists believe that there is no sexual dimorphism in body size in prosimian primates. Because this belief is based upon data that came from only a few species and were largely flawed in some aspect of sample quality, I re-examined the extent of sexual dimorphism in body weight, using weights of 791 adult prosimians from 34 taxa recorded over the last 17 years at the Duke University Primate Center. There was no significant sex difference in body weight in 17 species, but males were significantly larger in Nycticebus pygmaeus, Tarsius syrichta, Galago moholi, Galagoides demidovii, Otolemur crassicaudatus and Otolemur garnettii. Moreover, females were significantly larger in Microcebus murinus. Thus, the general lack of sexual dimorphism could be confirmed, notably for lemurs, but prosimians as a group show more variability in sexual size dimorphism than was previously thought. After including previously published data obtained in the wild from 8 additional species, I found significant heterogeneity in the degree of sexual dimorphism at the family level, but only the Indridae and Galagidae were significantly different from each other. Among the prosimian infraorders, the Lorisiformes were significantly more dimorphic than the Lemuriformes. Differences in dimorphism between higher taxonomic groups are discussed in the context of prosimian evolution, concluding that phylogenetic inertia cannot provide a causal explanation for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. The relative monomorphism of most prosimians may be related to allometric constraints and, especially in the Lemuriformes, to selective forces affecting male and female behavioral strategies. PMID:1794769

  7. The influence of growth patterns on sexual size monomorphism in lemurs.

    PubMed

    Tennenhouse, E M

    2015-09-01

    The lack of sexual size dimorphism among lemurs is puzzling given the high degree of polygyny in this clade. It has been proposed that the unique ecological conditions of Madagascar favour rapid completion of growth, limiting the opportunities for bimaturism and sexual size dimorphism in lemurs. Using recently compiled large data sets on many species across the lemur clade, I examined the prevalence of sexual size monomorphism of body mass among lemurs and tested the hypothesis that limited growth durations constrain sexual size dimorphism. I used segmented regression analyses to accurately model growth in each species. The majority of species analysed exhibited a period of rapid growth followed by a distinct period of slow growth prior to attainment of adult body mass. Whereas the first period of growth was constrained by the need to attain the majority of adult body mass prior to the onset of the infant's first dry season, the subsequent period of slow growth was unconstrained and sufficiently long to promote sexual bimaturism. Sex differences in the duration and rate of growth during this second growth phase appeared to account for the sexual size dimorphism exhibited by three lemur species. Therefore, constraints on growth processes do not limit sexual size dimorphism in lemurs, and other explanations for the prevalence of sexual size monomorphism in this clade should be examined. The importance of considering ontogeny in future investigations of sexual size monomorphism in lemurs is highlighted. PMID:26134876

  8. The herring gull complex is not a ring species.

    PubMed Central

    Liebers, Dorit; de Knijff, Peter; Helbig, Andreas J.

    2004-01-01

    Under what circumstances speciation in sexually reproducing animals can occur without geographical disjunction is still controversial. According to the ring-species model, a reproductive barrier may arise through 'isolation by distance' when peripheral populations of a species meet after expanding around some uninhabitable barrier. The classical example of this kind of speciation is the herring gull (Larus argentatus) complex, with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Based on mitochondrial DNA variation among 21 gull taxa, we show that members of this complex differentiated largely in allopatry following multiple vicariance and long-distance-colonization events, not primarily through isolation by distance. Reproductive isolation evolved more rapidly between some lineages than between others, irrespective of their genetic distance. Extant taxa are the result of divergent as well as reticulate evolution between two ancestral lineages originally separated in a North Atlantic refugium and a continental Eurasian refugium, respectively. Continental birds expanded along the entire north Eurasian coast and via Beringia into North America. Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America. PMID:15255043

  9. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene.

    PubMed

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy-gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy-gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy-gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy-gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious-gynomonoecious sexual

  10. Diversity of sexual systems within different lineages of the genus Silene

    PubMed Central

    Casimiro-Soriguer, Inés; Buide, Maria L.; Narbona, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Species and populations can be categorized by their sexual systems, depending on the spatial distribution of female and male reproductive structures within and among plants. Although a high diversity of sexual systems exists in Silene, their relative frequency at the genus and infrageneric level is unknown. Here, we carried out an extensive literature search for direct or indirect descriptions of sexual systems in Silene species. We found descriptions of sexual systems for 98 Silene species, where 63 and 35 correspond to the phylogenetically supported subgenera Silene and Behenantha, respectively. Hermaphroditism was the commonest sexual system (58.2 %), followed by dioecy (14.3 %), gynodioecy (13.3 %) and gynodioecy–gynomonoecy (i.e. hermaphroditic, female and gynomonoecious plants coexisting in the same population; 12.2 %). The presence of these sexual systems in both subgenera suggests their multiple origins. In 17 species, the description of sexual systems varied, and in most cases these differences corresponded to variations within or among populations. Interestingly, the poorly studied gynodioecy–gynomonoecy sexual system showed similar frequency to dioecy and gynodioecy in both subgenera. In addition, the incidence of gynodioecy–gynomonoecy was analysed in the species of section Psammophilae (Silene littorea, S. psammitis, S. adscendens and S. cambessedesii), in a survey of 26 populations across the distribution area of the species. The four species showed gynomonoecy–gynodioecy in most populations. Hermaphrodites were the most frequent morph, with a low number of females and gynomonoecious plants in all populations. The frequency of sexual morphs varied significantly among the studied populations but not among species. Female plants generally produced smaller numbers of flowers than hermaphroditic or gynomonoecious plants, and the percentages of female flowers per population were low. All these findings suggest that the gynodioecious

  11. Causes of male sexual trait divergence in introduced populations of guppies.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A K; Head, M L; Brooks, R C; Rollins, L A; Ingleby, F C; Zajitschek, S R K

    2014-02-01

    Males from different populations of the same species often differ in their sexually selected traits. Variation in sexually selected traits can be attributed to sexual selection if phenotypic divergence matches the direction of sexual selection gradients among populations. However, phenotypic divergence of sexually selected traits may also be influenced by other factors, such as natural selection and genetic constraints. Here, we document differences in male sexual traits among six introduced Australian populations of guppies and untangle the forces driving divergence in these sexually selected traits. Using an experimental approach, we found that male size, area of orange coloration, number of sperm per ejaculate and linear sexual selection gradients for male traits differed among populations. Within populations, a large mismatch between the direction of selection and male traits suggests that constraints may be important in preventing male traits from evolving in the direction of selection. Among populations, however, variation in sexual selection explained more than half of the differences in trait variation, suggesting that, despite within-population constraints, sexual selection has contributed to population divergence of male traits. Differences in sexual traits were also associated with predation risk and neutral genetic distance. Our study highlights the importance of sexual selection in trait divergence in introduced populations, despite the presence of constraining factors such as predation risk and evolutionary history. PMID:24456226

  12. Androgens and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, K A

    1995-01-16

    A review of the literature reveals that the endocrine determinants of female sexuality are complex and difficult to characterize. In adolescent males, free testosterone directly affects sexual motivation, with social factors exerting little or no effect. In adolescent girls, by contrast, societal and peer pressure play a pivotal role in the appearance of certain sexual behaviors. Throughout a woman's life, hormonal and psychosocial factors are critical influences. It is possible that cyclic patterns of testosterone are less important for female sexual behavior than the "tonic" effect of overall testosterone levels. Although the estrogen dependence of the vaginal epithelium--important for postmenopausal women--has been clearly established, the role of other hormonal factors and treatments, particularly those involving androgens, in human female sexual behavior remains enigmatic. The search for an understanding of these relationships is not merely an interesting academic exercise but is necessary to determine what role, if any, androgens may play in the treatment of sexual dysfunction during the female reproductive years. PMID:7825630

  13. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research.

    PubMed

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-12-15

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants' individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a "statistically significant" finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications. PMID:26553988

  14. Making neurophysiological data analysis reproducible: why and how?

    PubMed

    Delescluse, Matthieu; Franconville, Romain; Joucla, Sébastien; Lieury, Tiffany; Pouzat, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Reproducible data analysis is an approach aiming at complementing classical printed scientific articles with everything required to independently reproduce the results they present. "Everything" covers here: the data, the computer codes and a precise description of how the code was applied to the data. A brief history of this approach is presented first, starting with what economists have been calling replication since the early eighties to end with what is now called reproducible research in computational data analysis oriented fields like statistics and signal processing. Since efficient tools are instrumental for a routine implementation of these approaches, a description of some of the available ones is presented next. A toy example demonstrates then the use of two open source software programs for reproducible data analysis: the "Sweave family" and the org-mode of emacs. The former is bound to R while the latter can be used with R, Matlab, Python and many more "generalist" data processing software. Both solutions can be used with Unix-like, Windows and Mac families of operating systems. It is argued that neuroscientists could communicate much more efficiently their results by adopting the reproducible research paradigm from their lab books all the way to their articles, thesis and books. PMID:21986476

  15. Using prediction markets to estimate the reproducibility of scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Dreber, Anna; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Almenberg, Johan; Isaksson, Siri; Wilson, Brad; Chen, Yiling; Nosek, Brian A.; Johannesson, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about a lack of reproducibility of statistically significant results have recently been raised in many fields, and it has been argued that this lack comes at substantial economic costs. We here report the results from prediction markets set up to quantify the reproducibility of 44 studies published in prominent psychology journals and replicated in the Reproducibility Project: Psychology. The prediction markets predict the outcomes of the replications well and outperform a survey of market participants’ individual forecasts. This shows that prediction markets are a promising tool for assessing the reproducibility of published scientific results. The prediction markets also allow us to estimate probabilities for the hypotheses being true at different testing stages, which provides valuable information regarding the temporal dynamics of scientific discovery. We find that the hypotheses being tested in psychology typically have low prior probabilities of being true (median, 9%) and that a “statistically significant” finding needs to be confirmed in a well-powered replication to have a high probability of being true. We argue that prediction markets could be used to obtain speedy information about reproducibility at low cost and could potentially even be used to determine which studies to replicate to optimally allocate limited resources into replications. PMID:26553988

  16. Reproducibility of regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Overall, J. |

    1996-10-01

    Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism in response to benzodiazepine agonists have been used as indicators of benzodiazepine-GABA receptor function. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of these responses. Sixteen healthy right-handed men underwent scanning with PET and [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) twice: before placebo and before lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg). The same double FDG procedure was repeated 6-8 wk later on the men to assess test-retest reproducibility. The regional absolute brain metabolic values obtained during the second evaluation were significantly lower than those obtained from the first evaluation regardless of condition (p {le} 0.001). Lorazepam significantly and consistently decreased both whole-brain metabolism and the magnitude. The regional pattern of the changes were comparable for both studies (12.3% {plus_minus} 6.9% and 13.7% {plus_minus} 7.4%). Lorazepam effects were the largest in the thalamus (22.2% {plus_minus} 8.6% and 22.4% {plus_minus} 6.9%) and occipital cortex (19% {plus_minus} 8.9% and 21.8% {plus_minus} 8.9%). Relative metabolic measures were highly reproducible both for pharmacolgic and replication condition. This study measured the test-retest reproducibility in regional brain metabolic responses, and although the global and regional metabolic values were significantly lower for the repeated evaluation, the response to lorazepam was highly reproducible. 1613 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Reproducibility of radiomics for deciphering tumor phenotype with imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Binsheng; Tan, Yongqiang; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Qi, Jing; Xie, Chuanmiao; Lu, Lin; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2016-01-01

    Radiomics (radiogenomics) characterizes tumor phenotypes based on quantitative image features derived from routine radiologic imaging to improve cancer diagnosis, prognosis, prediction and response to therapy. Although radiomic features must be reproducible to qualify as biomarkers for clinical care, little is known about how routine imaging acquisition techniques/parameters affect reproducibility. To begin to fill this knowledge gap, we assessed the reproducibility of a comprehensive, commonly-used set of radiomic features using a unique, same-day repeat computed tomography data set from lung cancer patients. Each scan was reconstructed at 6 imaging settings, varying slice thicknesses (1.25 mm, 2.5 mm and 5 mm) and reconstruction algorithms (sharp, smooth). Reproducibility was assessed using the repeat scans reconstructed at identical imaging setting (6 settings in total). In separate analyses, we explored differences in radiomic features due to different imaging parameters by assessing the agreement of these radiomic features extracted from the repeat scans reconstructed at the same slice thickness but different algorithms (3 settings in total). Our data suggest that radiomic features are reproducible over a wide range of imaging settings. However, smooth and sharp reconstruction algorithms should not be used interchangeably. These findings will raise awareness of the importance of properly setting imaging acquisition parameters in radiomics/radiogenomics research. PMID:27009765

  18. How reticulated are species?

    PubMed

    Mallet, James; Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-02-01

    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree-like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836

  19. How reticulated are species?

    PubMed Central

    Besansky, Nora; Hahn, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Many groups of closely related species have reticulate phylogenies. Recent genomic analyses are showing this in many insects and vertebrates, as well as in microbes and plants. In microbes, lateral gene transfer is the dominant process that spoils strictly tree‐like phylogenies, but in multicellular eukaryotes hybridization and introgression among related species is probably more important. Because many species, including the ancestors of ancient major lineages, seem to evolve rapidly in adaptive radiations, some sexual compatibility may exist among them. Introgression and reticulation can thereby affect all parts of the tree of life, not just the recent species at the tips. Our understanding of adaptive evolution, speciation, phylogenetics, and comparative biology must adapt to these mostly recent findings. Introgression has important practical implications as well, not least for the management of genetically modified organisms in pest and disease control. PMID:26709836

  20. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones.

    PubMed

    Dines, James P; Otárola-Castillo, Erik; Ralph, Peter; Alas, Jesse; Daley, Timothy; Smith, Andrew D; Dean, Matthew D

    2014-11-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis that seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here, we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: (1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) tend to evolve larger penises and pelvic bones compared to their body length, and (2) pelvic bone shape has diverged more in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  1. Sexual selection targets cetacean pelvic bones

    PubMed Central

    Dines, J. P.; Otárola-Castillo, E.; Ralph, P.; Alas, J.; Daley, T.; Smith, A. D.; Dean, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia evolve rapidly, probably as a result of sexual selection. Whether this pattern extends to the internal infrastructure that influences genital movements remains unknown. Cetaceans (whales and dolphins) offer a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis: since evolving from land-dwelling ancestors, they lost external hind limbs and evolved a highly reduced pelvis which seems to serve no other function except to anchor muscles that maneuver the penis. Here we create a novel morphometric pipeline to analyze the size and shape evolution of pelvic bones from 130 individuals (29 species) in the context of inferred mating system. We present two main findings: 1) males from species with relatively intense sexual selection (inferred by relative testes size) have evolved relatively large penises and pelvic bones compared to their body size, and 2) pelvic bone shape diverges more quickly in species pairs that have diverged in inferred mating system. Neither pattern was observed in the anterior-most pair of vertebral ribs, which served as a negative control. This study provides evidence that sexual selection can affect internal anatomy that controls male genitalia. These important functions may explain why cetacean pelvic bones have not been lost through evolutionary time. PMID:25186496

  2. Professional perspectives on sexual sadism.

    PubMed

    McLawsen, Julia E; Jackson, Rebecca L; Vannoy, Steven D; Gagliardi, Gregg J; Scalora, Mario J

    2008-09-01

    Significant controversy surrounds the diagnosis of sexual sadism. Research suggests that many characteristics attributed to sexual sadists fail to differentiate sexual offenders with and without this diagnosis. Furthermore, when there are differences between sadists and nonsadists, "sadistic" features are frequently associated with nonsadists. Finally, diagnosticians appear to use idiosyncratic methods to diagnose sexual sadism. These findings raise concerns about the reliability and validity of a diagnosis of sexual sadism, particularly with respect to how professionals conceptualize this diagnosis. This study examines how professionals understand the relative importance of behaviors associated with sadistic versus nonsadistic sexual offending. Professionals rated behaviors according to their "essentialness" for this diagnosis. Results show that professionals rated behaviors associated with three out of four conceptualizations of sexual sadism as significantly more essential to making a diagnosis of sexual sadism, compared to behaviors associated with nonsadistic sexual offending. Results suggest that professionals reliably discriminate between sadistic and nonsadistic offense behaviors. PMID:18775840

  3. Applicability of Density Functional Theory in Reproducing Accurate Vibrational Spectra of Surface Bound Species

    SciTech Connect

    Matanovic, Ivana; Atanassov, Plamen; Kiefer, Boris; Garzon, Fernando; Henson, Neil J.

    2014-10-05

    The structural equilibrium parameters, the adsorption energies, and the vibrational frequencies of the nitrogen molecule and the hydrogen atom adsorbed on the (111) surface of rhodium have been investigated using different generalized-gradient approximation (GGA), nonlocal correlation, meta-GGA, and hybrid functionals, namely, Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE), Revised-RPBE, vdW-DF, Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria functional (TPSS), and Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) functional in the plane wave formalism. Among the five tested functionals, nonlocal vdW-DF and meta-GGA TPSS functionals are most successful in describing energetics of dinitrogen physisorption to the Rh(111) surface, while the PBE functional provides the correct chemisorption energy for the hydrogen atom. It was also found that TPSS functional produces the best vibrational spectra of the nitrogen molecule and the hydrogen atom on rhodium within the harmonic formalism with the error of 22.62 and 21.1% for the NAN stretching and RhAH stretching frequency. Thus, TPSS functional was proposed as a method of choice for obtaining vibrational spectra of low weight adsorbates on metallic surfaces within the harmonic approximation. At the anharmonic level, by decoupling the RhAH and NAN stretching modes from the bulk phonons and by solving one- and two-dimensional Schr€odinger equation associated with the RhAH, RhAN, and NAN potential energy we calculated the anharmonic correction for NAN and RhAH stretching modes as 231 cm21 and 277 cm21 at PBE level. Anharmonic vibrational frequencies calculated with the use of the hybrid HSE06 function are in best agreement with available experiments.

  4. Applicability of density functional theory in reproducing accurate vibrational spectra of surface bound species.

    PubMed

    Matanović, Ivana; Atanassov, Plamen; Kiefer, Boris; Garzon, Fernando H; Henson, Neil J

    2014-10-01

    The structural equilibrium parameters, the adsorption energies, and the vibrational frequencies of the nitrogen molecule and the hydrogen atom adsorbed on the (111) surface of rhodium have been investigated using different generalized-gradient approximation (GGA), nonlocal correlation, meta-GGA, and hybrid functionals, namely, Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE), Revised-RPBE, vdW-DF, Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria functional (TPSS), and Heyd, Scuseria, and Ernzerhof (HSE06) functional in the plane wave formalism. Among the five tested functionals, nonlocal vdW-DF and meta-GGA TPSS functionals are most successful in describing energetics of dinitrogen physisorption to the Rh(111) surface, while the PBE functional provides the correct chemisorption energy for the hydrogen atom. It was also found that TPSS functional produces the best vibrational spectra of the nitrogen molecule and the hydrogen atom on rhodium within the harmonic formalism with the error of -2.62 and -1.1% for the N-N stretching and Rh-H stretching frequency. Thus, TPSS functional was proposed as a method of choice for obtaining vibrational spectra of low weight adsorbates on metallic surfaces within the harmonic approximation. At the anharmonic level, by decoupling the Rh-H and N-N stretching modes from the bulk phonons and by solving one- and two-dimensional Schrödinger equation associated with the Rh-H, Rh-N, and N-N potential energy we calculated the anharmonic correction for N-N and Rh-H stretching modes as -31 cm(-1) and -77 cm(-1) at PBE level. Anharmonic vibrational frequencies calculated with the use of the hybrid HSE06 function are in best agreement with available experiments. PMID:25164265

  5. Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth: gendered norms and perceived family health risks. Focus group discussions in a Tanzanian suburb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prolonged sexual abstinence after childbirth is a socio-cultural practice with health implications, and is described in several African countries, including Tanzania. This study explored discourses on prolonged postpartum sexual abstinence in relation to family health after childbirth in low-income suburbs of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods Data for the discourse analysis were collected through focus group discussions with first-time mothers and fathers and their support people in Ilala, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Results In this setting, prolonged sexual abstinence intended at promoting child health was the dominant discourse in the period after childbirth. Sexual relations after childbirth involved the control of sexuality for ensuring family health and avoiding the social implications of non-adherence to sexual abstinence norms. Both abstinence and control were emphasised more with regard to women than to men. Although the traditional discourse on prolonged sexual abstinence for protecting child health was reproduced in Ilala, some modern aspects such as the use of condoms and other contraceptives prevailed in the discussion. Conclusion Discourses on sexuality after childbirth are instrumental in reproducing gender-power inequalities, with women being subjected to more restrictions and control than men are. Thus, interventions that create openness in discussing sexual relations and health-related matters after childbirth and mitigate gendered norms suppressing women and perpetuating harmful behaviours are needed. The involvement of males in the interventions would benefit men, women, and children through improving the gender relations that promote family health. PMID:23316932

  6. Sexual coercion and the misperception of sexual intent☆

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Coreen; Treat, Teresa A.; Viken, Richard J.; McFall, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Misperceiving a woman’s platonic interest as sexual interest has been implicated in a sexual bargaining process that leads to sexual coercion. This paper provides a comprehensive review of sexual misperception, including gender differences in perception of women’s sexual intent, the relationship between sexual coercion and misperception, and situational factors that increase the risk that sexual misperception will occur. Compared to women, men consistently perceive a greater degree of sexual intent in women’s behavior. However, there is evidence to suggest that this gender effect may be driven largely by a sub-group of men who are particularly prone to perceive sexual intent in women’s behavior, such as sexually coercive men and men who endorse sex-role stereotypes. Situational factors, such as alcohol use by the man or woman, provocative clothing, and dating behaviors (e.g., initiating the date or making eye contact), are all associated with increased estimates of women’s sexual interest. We also critique the current measurement strategies and introduce a model of perception that more closely maps on to important theoretical questions in this area. A clearer understanding of sexual perception errors and the etiology of these errors may serve to guide sexual-assault prevention programs toward more effective strategies. PMID:17462798

  7. Benchmarking contactless acquisition sensor reproducibility for latent fingerprint trace evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Dittmann, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Optical, nano-meter range, contactless, non-destructive sensor devices are promising acquisition techniques in crime scene trace forensics, e.g. for digitizing latent fingerprint traces. Before new approaches are introduced in crime investigations, innovations need to be positively tested and quality ensured. In this paper we investigate sensor reproducibility by studying different scans from four sensors: two chromatic white light sensors (CWL600/CWL1mm), one confocal laser scanning microscope, and one NIR/VIS/UV reflection spectrometer. Firstly, we perform an intra-sensor reproducibility testing for CWL600 with a privacy conform test set of artificial-sweat printed, computer generated fingerprints. We use 24 different fingerprint patterns as original samples (printing samples/templates) for printing with artificial sweat (physical trace samples) and their acquisition with contactless sensory resulting in 96 sensor images, called scan or acquired samples. The second test set for inter-sensor reproducibility assessment consists of the first three patterns from the first test set, acquired in two consecutive scans using each device. We suggest using a simple feature space set in spatial and frequency domain known from signal processing and test its suitability for six different classifiers classifying scan data into small differences (reproducible) and large differences (non-reproducible). Furthermore, we suggest comparing the classification results with biometric verification scores (calculated with NBIS, with threshold of 40) as biometric reproducibility score. The Bagging classifier is nearly for all cases the most reliable classifier in our experiments and the results are also confirmed with the biometric matching rates.

  8. Evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in a hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Temeles, E J; Pan, I L; Brennan, J L; Horwitt, J N

    2000-07-21

    Unambiguous examples of ecological causes of animal sexual dimorphism are rare. Here we present evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism in the bill morphology of a hummingbird, the purple-throated carib. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of two Heliconia species whose flowers correspond to the bills of either males or females. Each sex feeds most quickly at the flower species approximating its bill dimensions, which supports the hypothesis that floral specialization has driven the evolution of bill dimorphism. Further evidence for ecological causation of sexual dimorphism was provided by a geographic replacement of one Heliconia species by the other and the subsequent development of a floral dimorphism, with one floral morph matching the bills of males and the other of females. PMID:10903203

  9. "You Must Be Thinking What a Lesbian Man Teacher Is Doing in a Nice Place Like Dipane Letsie School?": Enacting, Negotiating and Reproducing Dominant Understandings of Gender in a Rural School in the Free State, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this article I explore two questions -- how does, Thatho, a transgendered life orientation teacher enact, resist and reproduce dominant understandings of gender and sexuality in terms of his own identity and practice; and what specific possibilities, challenges and resistances exist for a transgender educator in the rural. Using life-history…

  10. Sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and sexual behavior among people with physical disability.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Taleporos, George

    2003-08-01

    This study investigated the association between the severity and duration of physical disability and sexual esteem, sexual depression, sexual satisfaction, and the frequency of sexual behavior. A total of 1,196 participants completed the study. There were 748 participants (367 males, 381 females) who had a physical disability and 448 participants (171 males, 277 females) who were able-bodied. The age range of participants was 18-69 years, with a mean age of 36.39 years (SD = 10.41). The results demonstrated that people with more severe physical impairments experienced significantly lower levels of sexual esteem and sexual satisfaction and significantly higher levels of sexual depression than people who had mild impairments or who did not report having a physical impairment. The study also found that people with more severe physical disabilities engaged in mutual sexual activity significantly less frequently. Women with physical disabilities had significantly more positive feelings about their sexuality and significantly more frequent mutual sexual experiences than their male counterparts. For people with physical disabilities, the frequency of oral sex and nude cuddling were significant predictors of sexual satisfaction in men, while the frequency of deep kissing predicted sexual satisfaction in women. Furthermore, the viewing of erotica was significantly related to sexual dissatisfaction in men. Finally, it was found that people who had experienced their physical impairment for a longer period of time reported significantly more positive feelings about their sexuality. Implications of these findings are discussed and suggestions are made for future research. PMID:12856897

  11. The impact of sexual trauma on sexual desire and function.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Barry; Farr, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The field of sexual trauma is one of the most controversial and value-laden in mental health. The three factors which most affect adult sexual desire and function are the type of sexual trauma, how the sexual incidents were dealt with at the time and, most important, whether the person views her/himself as a survivor or victim. The assessment and treatment program described focuses on couple sex therapy with a special focus on processing the sexual trauma, honoring the person's veto and being 'partners in healing'. The core therapeutic theme is valuing intimate, erotic sexuality, which reinforces being a proud survivor rather than a shameful, anxious or angry victim. It is crucial to create a relapse prevention program to ensure that the person with the sexual trauma history continues to experience the positive roles of adult couple sexuality. PMID:22005207

  12. The Impact of Sexual Orientation on Sexuality and Sexual Practices in North American Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Ando, Kathryn A.; Rowen, Tami S.; Shindel, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There has been limited investigation of the sexuality and sexual dysfunction in non-heterosexual subjects by the sexual medicine community. Additional research in these populations is needed. Aims To investigate and compare sexuality and sexual function in students of varying sexual orientations. Methods An internet-based survey on sexuality was administered to medical students in North American between the months of February and July of 2008. Main Outcome Measures All subjects provided information on their ethnodemographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and sexual history. Subjects also completed a series of widely-utilized instruments for the assessment of human sexuality (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI], Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool [PEDT], Index of Sex Life [ISL]). Results There were 2,276 completed responses to the question on sexual orientation. 13.2% of male respondents and 4.7% of female respondents reported a homosexual orientation; 2.5% of male and 5.7% of female respondents reported a bisexual orientation. Many heterosexual males and females reported same-sex sexual experiences (4% and 10%, respectively). Opposite-sex experiences were very common in the male and female homosexual population (37% and 44%, respectively). The prevalence of premature ejaculation (PEDT > 8) was similar among heterosexual and homosexual men (16% and 17%, P = 0.7, respectively). Erectile dysfunction (IIEF-EF < 26) was more common in homosexual men relative to heterosexual men (24% vs. 12%, P = 0.02). High risk for female sexual dysfunction (FSFI < 26.55) was more common in heterosexual and bisexual women compared with lesbians (51%, 45%, and 29%, respectively, P = 0.005). Conclusion In this survey of highly educated young professionals, numerous similarities and some important differences in sexuality and sexual function were noted based on sexual orientation. It is unclear whether the

  13. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  14. [Impact of aging on sexuality].

    PubMed

    Degauquier, C; Absil, A-S; Psalti, I; Meuris, S; Jurysta, F

    2012-01-01

    Numerous authors on sexual behaviors have studied the link between the persistence of a sexually active life and progressive aging. The knowledge of sexual health in the elderly has shown that biological sexual aging is extremely diverse and heterogeneous in men as well as in women, and contradicts the stereotype of age that would inevitably alter the sexual biological response in each human. Sexual diseases (lubrication, dyspareunia, erectile dysfunction, inability to achieve orgasm) and diseases of aging that impact sexual function have a growing incidence but don't never touch 100% of individuals. There is a decline in sexual interest correlated with the life-span, but the negative effects of age on desire are related to health problems. Moreover, sexual desire is more correlated with personal attitudes toward sexuality than with biological factors and diseases. Several predictors account for the pursuit of an active sexuality (including the presence of a partner, good health, having good sexual self-esteem, enjoyable past experience, an attitude that values the importance of sex in couple relationship), but the most decisive factor to successfully face the specific markers of aging is the ability to adapt to a more sensory sexuality, less focused on performance and coitus. PMID:22891587

  15. Divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to population differences in sexual dimorphism of electrocommunication behavior.

    PubMed

    Ho, Winnie W; Rack, Jessie M; Smith, G Troy

    2013-01-01

    Weakly-electric fish (Apteronotidae) produce highly diverse electrocommunication signals. Electric organ discharges (EODs) vary across species, sexes, and in the magnitude and direction of their sexual dimorphism. Gonadal steroid hormones can modulate EODs, and differences in androgen sensitivity are hypothesized to underlie variation in the degree of sexual dimorphism across species. In this study, we asked whether variation in androgen sensitivity explained variation in sexual dimorphism of EODs within species, at the population level. We examined two populations of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), one from the Orinoco and the other from the Amazon River Basin. EOD frequency (EODf) and chirp rates were measured to characterize diversity in sexual dimorphism across populations. The magnitude of sexual dimorphism in EODf differed significantly across populations, and was more pronounced in the Orinoco population than in the Amazon population. Chirp rates were sexually monomorphic in both populations. 11-Ketotestosterone (11-kT) was administered over a two-week period to assess population differences in sensitivity to androgens. 11-kT masculinized EODf significantly more in the population with the greater degree of sexual dimorphism. 11-kT had no effect on the sexually monomorphic chirping rates. We conclude that population divergence in androgen sensitivity contributes to variation in sexual dimorphism of EODf in A. albifrons. PMID:23142327

  16. Gender, Religiosity, Sexual Activity, Sexual Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Controversial Aspects of Sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion. PMID:24510128

  17. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  18. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... joint tightness, mechanical strength and the nature of the fluid handled....

  19. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... joint tightness, mechanical strength and the nature of the fluid handled....

  20. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... joint tightness, mechanical strength and the nature of the fluid handled....

  1. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND... joint tightness, mechanical strength and the nature of the fluid handled....

  2. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Szitenberg, Amir; John, Max; Blaxter, Mark L.; Lunt, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user intervention or configuration because it stores the experimental workflow as a single, serialized Python object containing explicit provenance and environment information. This ‘single file’ approach ensures the persistence of provenance across iterations of the analysis, with changes automatically managed by the version control program Git. This file, along with a Git repository, are the primary reproducibility outputs of the program. In addition, ReproPhylo produces an extensive human-readable report and generates a comprehensive experimental archive file, both of which are suitable for submission with publications. The system facilitates thorough experimental exploration of both parameters and data. ReproPhylo is a platform independent CC0 Python module and is easily installed as a Docker image or a WinPython self-sufficient package, with a Jupyter Notebook GUI, or as a slimmer version in a Galaxy distribution. PMID:26335558

  3. Reproducibility of polycarbonate reference material in toxicity evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    A specific lot of bisphenol A polycarbonate has been used for almost four years as the reference material for the NASA-USF-PSC toxicity screening test method. The reproducibility of the test results over this period of time indicate that certain plastics may be more suitable reference materials than the more traditional cellulosic materials.

  4. Reproducibility of an imaging based prostate cancer prognostic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Faisal M.; Powell, Douglas; Bayer-Zubek, Valentina; Soares, Rui; Mott, Allison; Fernandez, Gerardo; Mesa-Tejada, Ricardo; Donovan, Michael J.

    2011-03-01

    The Prostate Px prognostic assay offered by Aureon Biosciences is designed to predict progression post primary treatment for prostate cancer patients based on their diagnostic biopsy specimen. The assay is driven by the automated image analysis of biological specimens. Three different histological sections are analyzed for morphometric as well as immunofluorescence protein expression properties within areas of tumor digitally masked by expert pathologists. The assay was developed on a multi-institution cohort of up to 9 images from each of 1027 patients. The variation in histological sections, staining, pathologist tumor masking and the region of image acquisition all have the potential to significantly impact imaging features and consequently the reproducibility of the assay's results for the same patient. This study analyzed the reproducibility of the assay in 50 patients who were re-processed within 3 months in a blinded fashion as de-novo patients. The key assay results reported were in agreement in 94% of the cases. The two independent endpoints of risk classification reproduced results in 90% and 92% of the predictions. This work presents one of the first assessments of the reproducibility of a commercial assay's results given the inherent variations in images and quantitative imaging characteristics in a commercial setting.

  5. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    This document contains reproducible maps, charts and graphs of Latin America for use by teachers and students. The maps are divided into five categories (1) the land; (2) peoples, countries, cities, and governments; (3) the national economies, product, trade, agriculture, and resources; (4) energy, education, employment, illicit drugs, consumer…

  6. Measurement of Liver Iron Concentration by MRI Is Reproducible

    PubMed Central

    Alústiza, José María; Emparanza, José I.; Castiella, Agustín; Casado, Alfonso; Aldazábal, Pablo; San Vicente, Manuel; Garcia, Nerea; Asensio, Ana Belén; Banales, Jesús; Salvador, Emma; Moyua, Aranzazu; Arozena, Xabier; Zarco, Miguel; Jauregui, Lourdes; Vicente, Ohiana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The objectives were (i) construction of a phantom to reproduce the behavior of iron overload in the liver by MRI and (ii) assessment of the variability of a previously validated method to quantify liver iron concentration between different MRI devices using the phantom and patients. Materials and Methods. A phantom reproducing the liver/muscle ratios of two patients with intermediate and high iron overload. Nine patients with different levels of iron overload were studied in 4 multivendor devices and 8 of them were studied twice in the machine where the model was developed. The phantom was analysed in the same equipment and 14 times in the reference machine. Results. FeCl3 solutions containing 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, and 1.2 mg Fe/mL were chosen to generate the phantom. The average of the intramachine variability for patients was 10% and for the intermachines 8%. For the phantom the intramachine coefficient of variation was always below 0.1 and the average of intermachine variability was 10% for moderate and 5% for high iron overload. Conclusion. The phantom reproduces the behavior of patients with moderate or high iron overload. The proposed method of calculating liver iron concentration is reproducible in several different 1.5 T systems. PMID:25874207

  7. Highly reproducible SERS arrays directly written by inkjet printing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiang; Deng, Mengmeng; Li, Huizeng; Li, Mingzhu; Zhang, Cong; Shen, Weizhi; Li, Yanan; Guo, Dan; Song, Yanlin

    2015-01-14

    SERS arrays with uniform gold nanoparticle distribution were fabricated by direct-writing with an inkjet printing method. Quantitative analysis based on Raman detection was achieved with a small standard statistical deviation of less than 4% for the reproducibility and less than 5% for the long-term stability for 12 weeks. PMID:25308163

  8. Slide rule-type color chart predicts reproduced photo tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Slide rule-type color chart determines the final reproduced gray tones in the production of briefing charts that are photographed in black and white. The chart shows both the color by drafting paint manufacturers name and mixture number, and the gray tone resulting from black and white photographic reproduction.

  9. Reproducibility of topographic measures of the glaucomatous optic nerve head

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, O; Michaeli-Cohen, A; Silver, D; Versano, D; Neudorfer, M; Dzhanov, R; Lazar, M

    1998-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Laser scanning tomography provides an assessment of three dimensional optic disc topography. For the clinical purpose of follow up of glaucoma patients, the repeatability of the various measured variables is essential. In the present study, the reproducibility of morphometric variables calculated by the topographic scanning system, TopSS (Laser Diagnostic Technology, San Diego, CA) was investigated.
METHODS—Two independent measurements (30 minutes apart) each consisting of three complete images of the optic disc were performed on 16 eyes of 16 glaucoma patients using a TopSS. The instrument calculates 14 morphometric variables for the characterisation of the optic disc.
RESULTS—From the two tailed paired tests, all variables were seen to have good reproducibility. However, correlation and regression analyses showed that only the three variables, volume below, half depth area, and average cup depth, are acceptably reproducible.
CONCLUSION—The TopSS provides three variables which describe the physiological shape of the optic disc that have high reproducibility. These three variables might be useful for following the progression of optic disc changes in glaucoma patients.

 Keywords: optic nerve head; scanning laser; glaucoma; tomography PMID:9536873

  10. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  11. ReproPhylo: An Environment for Reproducible Phylogenomics.

    PubMed

    Szitenberg, Amir; John, Max; Blaxter, Mark L; Lunt, David H

    2015-09-01

    The reproducibility of experiments is key to the scientific process, and particularly necessary for accurate reporting of analyses in data-rich fields such as phylogenomics. We present ReproPhylo, a phylogenomic analysis environment developed to ensure experimental reproducibility, to facilitate the handling of large-scale data, and to assist methodological experimentation. Reproducibility, and instantaneous repeatability, is built in to the ReproPhylo system and does not require user intervention or configuration because it stores the experimental workflow as a single, serialized Python object containing explicit provenance and environment information. This 'single file' approach ensures the persistence of provenance across iterations of the analysis, with changes automatically managed by the version control program Git. This file, along with a Git repository, are the primary reproducibility outputs of the program. In addition, ReproPhylo produces an extensive human-readable report and generates a comprehensive experimental archive file, both of which are suitable for submission with publications. The system facilitates thorough experimental exploration of both parameters and data. ReproPhylo is a platform independent CC0 Python module and is easily installed as a Docker image or a WinPython self-sufficient package, with a Jupyter Notebook GUI, or as a slimmer version in a Galaxy distribution. PMID:26335558

  12. Reproducibility of the vascular response to heating in human skin.

    PubMed

    Savage, M V; Brengelmann, G L

    1994-04-01

    Blood flow in human skin increases enormously in response to direct heating. If local skin temperature is held above 42 degrees C, blood flow eventually stabilizes at a level beyond which other influences, barring change in blood pressure, can produce no further increase. If this maximal level is a reproducible characteristic of an individual's cutaneous vasculature, it could be useful in comparing individuals; for example, in their response to hyperthermia. Our experiments were carried out to discover whether the maximal response of the vasculature of the skin of the forearm can be reproduced within reasonable limits and, also, to clarify the time course of the response. We used water sprayed over the surface of the forearms of 10 subjects to hold skin temperature above 42 degrees C for 60 min. During the last 10 min of heating, forearm blood flow (via venous occlusion plethysmography) was stable, at a level ranging from 16 to 38 ml.min-1.100 ml-1. This level, normalized to a blood pressure of 100 mmHg, was reproduced in a given individual on four or five occasions, with an average coefficient of variation of 10%. The response was 77 +/- 11% (SD) complete after 20 min of heating. Elapsed time at 90% of the final value was 35 +/- 9 (SD) min. We conclude that the maximal forearm blood flow response to local heating is a reproducible characteristic of the cutaneous vasculature with potential utility in the scaling of responses between and within individuals. PMID:8045857

  13. Linking intra- and interspecific assortative mating: Consequences for asymmetric sexual isolation.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Erik I; Nordén, Anna; Waller, John T; Runemark, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Assortative mating is of interest because of its role in speciation and the maintenance of species boundaries. However, we know little about how within-species assortment is related to interspecific sexual isolation. Most previous studies of assortative mating have focused on a single trait in males and females, rather than utilizing multivariate trait information. Here, we investigate how intraspecific assortative mating relates to sexual isolation in two sympatric and congeneric damselfly species (genus Calopteryx). We connect intraspecific assortment to interspecific sexual isolation by combining field observations, mate preference experiments, and enforced copulation experiments. Using canonical correlation analysis, we demonstrate multivariate intraspecific assortment for body size and body shape. Males of the smaller species mate more frequently with heterospecific females than males of the larger species, which showed less attraction to small heterospecific females. Field experiments suggest that sexual isolation asymmetry is caused by male preferences for large heterospecific females, rather than by mechanical isolation due to interspecific size differences or female preferences for large males. Male preferences for large females and male-male competition for high quality females can therefore counteract sexual isolation. This sexual isolation asymmetry indicates that sexual selection currently opposes a species boundary. PMID:27151764

  14. The Role of Sexual Precedence in Verbal Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Buddie, Amy M.; Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Experiences of verbal sexual coercion are common and have potential for negative consequences, yet are not well understood. This study used qualitative and descriptive statistics to examine verbal sexual coercion experiences among a community sample of 114 women and explored the role of sexual precedence in these experiences. Analyses revealed…

  15. Sexual Self-Concept and Sexual Risk-Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breakwell, Glynis M.; Millward, Lynne J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents data from a survey of randomly selected adolescents (N=474) which examined differences between male and female sexual identities. Results indicate two main dimensions in male sexual self-concept: socioemotional and the relational. Female sexual self-concept revolved around concerns with assertiveness, such as controlling when sex occurs.…

  16. The Sexuality Education Challenge: Promoting Healthy Sexuality in Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Judy C., Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This book offers the insights and perspectives of 39 sexuality educators. The collection of essays, full of theoretical considerations and practical implications, addresses the needs of those responsible for educating young people about sexuality and examines the major issues and concerns of sexuality education within the school setting.…

  17. Association of Sexual Revictimization with Sexuality and Psychological Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Michael H.; Flitter, Jill M. Klotz; Robinson, Beatrice E.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the associations of sexual revictimization (experiencing sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood) in a sample of 230 African American women who are low-income. Data indicate that women who experience sexual revictimization are more at risk for emotional stress and psychological pathology than women with no history of abuse. In…

  18. Sexual compulsion – Relationship with sex, attachment and sexual orientation

    PubMed Central

    KATZ, LICHEN; EBERHARDT, HILA; COHEN, KOBY; LEJOYEUX, MICHEL

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Sexual addiction, also known as hypersexual disorder, is associated with serious psychosocial problems for many people. Methods This study used questionnaires to investigate the effects of gender, sexual orientation and attachment (avoidance and anxiety) on sexual compulsion among 100 heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Results A positive correlation was found between anxious attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.46; p < 0.01) and a positive correlation between avoidant attachment and sexual compulsivity (r = 0.39; p ≤ 0.01) in all participants. Secondly, an analysis of covariance showed a gender by sexual orientation interaction effect [F(1, 103) = 6.39, p < 0.01] but no attachment effect on sexual compulsivity. A follow-up comparison showed that lesbian women had higher rates of sexual compulsivity than heterosexual women [t (2, 50) = 5.08, p < 0.001] whereas there was non-significant difference in sexual compulsivity between homosexual and heterosexual men [t (2, 50) = 1.30, p = N.S.]. Discussion The results provide preliminary evidence for an association between attachment and sexual compulsivity and the effects of gender and sexual orientation on sexual compulsivity. PMID:25786496

  19. Meiosis completion and various sperm responses lead to unisexual and sexual reproduction modes in one clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Sun, Min; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xi-Yin; Liu, Xiao-Li; Liu, Wei; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Unisexual polyploid vertebrates are commonly known to reproduce by gynogenesis, parthenogenesis, or hybridogenesis. One clone of polyploid Carassius gibelio has been revealed to possess multiple modes of unisexual gynogenesis and sexual reproduction, but the cytological and developmental mechanisms have remained unknown. In this study, normal meiosis completion was firstly confirmed by spindle co-localization of β-tubulin and Spindlin. Moreover, three types of various nuclear events and development behaviors were revealed by DAPI staining and BrdU-incorporated immunofluorescence detection during the first mitosis in the fertilized eggs by three kinds of different sperms. They include normal sexual reproduction in response to sperm from the same clone male, typical unisexual gynogenesis in response to sperm from the male of another species Cyprinus carpio, and an unusual hybrid-similar development mode in response to sperm from another different clone male. Based on these findings, we have discussed cytological and developmental mechanisms on multiple reproduction modes in the polyploid fish, and highlighted evolutionary significance of meiosis completion and evolutionary consequences of reproduction mode diversity in polyploid vertebrates. PMID:26042995

  20. On the evolutionary origins of differences in sexual preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ryabko, Daniil; Reznikova, Zhanna

    2015-01-01

    A novel explanation of the evolutionary process leading to the appearance of differences in sexual preferences is proposed. The explanation is fully general: it is not specific to any particular type of sexual preferences, nor to any species or population. It shows how different sexual preferences can appear in any large group-living population in which sexual selection is sufficiently strong in each sex. The main idea is that the lack of interest toward a member of the opposite sex may be interpreted as a signal of popularity, and thus of reproductive success. It is then boosted by the Fisher runaway process far beyond the point where it becomes costly, resulting in a generalized trait—lack of interest toward the opposite sex. If the interest diverts toward other targets then different sexual preferences emerge. This hypothesis is placed into the context of other works on different sexual preferences in animals; supporting evidence from the literature is reviewed and additional research needed to confirm or refute the hypothesis in any given species is outlined. PMID:26052290

  1. Sexual reproduction development in apomictic Eulaliopsis binata (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Li, J J; Liu, L; Ouyang, Y D; Yao, J L

    2011-01-01

    Apomixis is a particular mode of reproduction that allows progeny formation without meiosis and fertilization. Eulaliopsis binata, a tetraploid apomictic species, is widely used for making paper, rope and mats. There is great potential for fixation of heterosis in E. binata due to autonomous endosperm formation in this species. Although most of its embryo sac originates from nucellus cells, termed apospory, we observed sexual reproduction initiation in 86.8 to 96.8% of the ovules, evidenced by callose deposition on the walls of cells undergoing megasporogenesis. However, only 2-3% mature polygonum-type sexual embryo sacs were confirmed by embryological investigation. Callose was not detected on aposporous initial cell walls. The aposporous initial cells differentiated during pre- and post-meiosis of the megaspore mother cell, while the sexual embryo sac degenerated at the megaspore stage. DNA content ratio of embryo and endosperm in some individuals was 2C:3C, based on flow cytometry screening of seed, similar to that of normal sexual seed. These results confirm that apomictic E. binata has conserved sexual reproduction to a certain degree, which may contribute to maintaining genetic diversity. The finding of sexual reproduction in apomictic E. binata could be useful for research on genetic mechanism of apomixis in E. binata. PMID:22002126

  2. Changes in Intimacy and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Changes in Intimacy and Sexuality Alzheimer’s disease can cause changes in intimacy and sexuality in both a person with the disease and the caregiver. The person with Alzheimer’s ...

  3. [Sexual dysfunction in torture victims].

    PubMed

    Theilade, Lotte D Arlø

    2002-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction is seen in up to 51% of torture victims. The torture victim seldom reports anything about having been tortured but often consults the health care system because of a somatic problem which may seem unrelated to torture. Therefore, it is important that doctors are aware of the possible correlation. Symptoms and findings may be both physical and psychical. The torture may be both sexual and non-sexual as well as physical and non-physical. Social, cultural and individual factors also influence the development of sexual dysfunction in a torture victim. The factors that cause sexual dysfunction and the identification of any direct causal relations are discussed. There are indications that sexual torture has a greater impact on the development of sexual dysfunction than other types of torture and it seems that sexual dysfunction is a result of many factors. PMID:12407879

  4. Sexual assault in the military.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carl Andrew; Kintzle, Sara; Schuyler, Ashley C; Lucas, Carrie L; Warner, Christopher H

    2015-07-01

    Military sexual assault is a pervasive problem throughout the military services, despite numerous initiatives to end it. No doubt the military's lack of progress stems from the complexity of sexual assaults, yet in order to develop effective strategies and programs to end sexual assault, deep understanding and appreciation of these complexities are needed. In this paper, we describe the root causes and numerous myths surrounding sexual assault, the military cultural factors that may unintentionally contribute to sexual assault, and the uncomfortable issues surrounding sexual assault that are often ignored (such as the prevalence of male sexual assault within the military). We conclude by offering a broad, yet comprehensive set of recommendations that considers all of these factors for developing effective strategies and programs for ending sexual assault within in the military. PMID:25980511

  5. Adolescent sexuality and public policy.

    PubMed

    Olsen, J A; Jensen, L C; Greaves, P M

    1991-01-01

    In recent decades, various attempts have been made to determine the level of sexual activity among adolescents. This information has been used in the planning and evaluation of sex-related programs. However, there is a flaw in using only the initial estimates of the behavior--that a sexually active person is defined as one who has had sexual intercourse. This narrow definition distorts the perception of adolescent sexual behavior. Sexual activity can more accurately be designated by focusing on the actual frequency with which teenagers have sex. In this research report, adolescents were considered sexually active if they had had sex within the last four weeks. Using this definition, adolescents were found to be substantially less sexually active than has been previously reported. This finding was then used to look at various policy decisions in the areas of sex education, family planning, and sexually transmitted disease prevention. PMID:1927672

  6. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  7. Sexual Patterns at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.

    1971-01-01

    When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)

  8. Sexual selection and the differential effect of polyandry.

    PubMed

    Collet, Julie; Richardson, David S; Worley, Kirsty; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-05-29

    In principle, widespread polyandry (female promiscuity) creates potential for sexual selection in males both before and after copulation. However, the way polyandry affects pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection remains little understood. Resolving this fundamental question has been difficult because it requires extensive information on mating behavior as well as paternity for the whole male population. Here we show that in replicate seminatural groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, polyandry eroded variance in male mating success, which simultaneously weakened the overall intensity of sexual selection but increased the relative strength of postcopulatory episodes. We further illustrate the differential effect of polyandry on pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection by considering the case of male social status, a key determinant of male reproductive success in this species. In low-polyandry groups, however, status was strongly sexually selected before copulation because dominants mated with more females. In high-polyandry groups, sexual selection for status was weakened and largely restricted after copulation because dominants defended paternity by mating repeatedly with the same female. These results reveal polyandry as a potent and dynamic modulator of sexual selection episodes. PMID:22592795

  9. Insights into Sexual Precocity of Female Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense through Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongxia; Li, Xilian; Sun, Yuhang; Hou, Fujun; Zhang, Yufei; Li, Fei; Gu, Zhimin; Liu, Xiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Background The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is the most prevalent aquaculture species in China. The sexual precocity in this species has received considerable attention in recent years because more and more individuals matured at a small size, which devalues the commercial production. In this study, we developed deep-coverage transcriptomic sequencing data for the ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using next-generation RNA sequencing technology and attempted to provide the first insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of sexual precocity in this species. Results A total of 63,336 unigenes were produced from the ovarian cDNA libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M. nipponense using Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Through BLASTX searches against the NR, STRING, Pfam, Swissprot and KEGG databases, 15,134 unigenes were annotated, accounting for 23.89% of the total unigenes. 5,195 and 3,227 matched unigenes were categorized by GO and COG analysis respectively. 15,908 unigenes were consequently mapped into 332 KEGG pathways, and many reproduction-related pathways and genes were identified. Moreover, 26,008 SSRs were identified from 18,133 unigenes. 80,529 and 80,516 SNPs were yielded from ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, respectively, and 29,851 potential SNPs between these two groups were also predicted. After comparing the ovarian libraries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature prawn, 549 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 9 key DEGs that may be related to sexual precocity of M. nipponense were identified. 20 DEGs were selected for validation by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) and 19 DEGs show consistent expression between QPCR and RNAseq-based differential expression analysis datasets. Conclusion This is the first report on the large-scale RNA sequencing of ovaries of sexually precocious and normal sexually mature M

  10. Reproducibility of dual-photon absorptiometry using a clinical phantom

    SciTech Connect

    DaCosta, M.; DeLaney, M.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1985-05-01

    The use of dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA) bone mineral density (BMD) to monitor bone for diagnosis and monitoring therapy of osteoporosis has been established. The objective of this study is to determine the reproducibility of DPA measurements. A phantom was constructed using a section of human boney pelvis and lumbo-sacral spine. Provisions were made to mimic changes in patient girth. To evaluate the DPA reproducibility within a single day, 12 consecutive studies were performed on the phantom using standard acquisition and processing procedures. The mean BMD +-1 SD in gms/cm/sup 2/ (BMD-bar)of lumbar vertebrae 2-4 was 0.771 +- 0.007 with a 0.97% coefficient of variation (1SD) (CV). This evaluation was repeated 7 times over the next 4 months with the performance of 3 to 6 studies each time, the maximum CV found was 1.93. In order to evaluate the DPA reproducibility with time, phantom studies were performed over a 7 month period which included a 153-Gd source change. The BMD-bar was 0.770 +- 0.017 with a 2.15CV. DPA reproducibility with patient girth changes was evaluated by performing the phantom studies at water depths of 12.5, 17.0 and 20.0cm. Five studies of each were performed using standard acquisition and processing procedures. The BMD-bar was 0.779 +- 0.012 with a 1.151CV. based on these results, BMD measurements by DPA are reproducible within 2%. This reliability is maintained for studies performed over extended period of time and are independent of changes in patient girth.

  11. Tract Specific Reproducibility of Tractography Based Morphology and Diffusion Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Besseling, René M. H.; Jansen, Jacobus F. A.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Braakman, Hilde M. H.; Hofman, Paul A. M.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Backes, Walter H.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The reproducibility of tractography is important to determine its sensitivity to pathological abnormalities. The reproducibility of tract morphology has not yet been systematically studied and the recently developed tractography contrast Tract Density Imaging (TDI) has not yet been assessed at the tract specific level. Materials and Methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography are performed twice in 9 healthy subjects. Tractography is based on common space seed and target regions and performed for several major white matter tracts. Tractograms are converted to tract segmentations and inter-session reproducibility of tract morphology is assessed using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The coefficient of variation (COV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) are calculated of the following tract metrics: fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume, and TDI. Analyses are performed both for proximal (deep white matter) and extended (including subcortical white matter) tract segmentations. Results Proximal DSC values were 0.70–0.92. DSC values were 5–10% lower in extended compared to proximal segmentations. COV/ICC values of FA, ADC, volume and TDI were 1–4%/0.65–0.94, 2–4%/0.62–0.94, 3–22%/0.53–0.96 and 8–31%/0.48–0.70, respectively, with the lower COV and higher ICC values found in the proximal segmentations. Conclusion For all investigated metrics, reproducibility depended on the segmented tract. FA and ADC had relatively low COV and relatively high ICC, indicating clinical potential. Volume had higher COV but its moderate to high ICC values in most tracts still suggest subject-differentiating power. Tract TDI had high COV and relatively low ICC, which reflects unfavorable reproducibility. PMID:22485157

  12. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored. PMID:2307597

  13. A Comparison by Sexual Orientation of Sexual Health and Sexual Behaviors among Hispanic Men

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Joseph P.; Valdes, Beatriz; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Gattamorta, Karina A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Significance High rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) related to high risk sexual behaviors are a public health problem in the U.S. Hispanics have the second highest rates of HIV infection among racial/ethnic minorities. Previous research with Hispanic men has identified a number of factors that influence sexual risk and render Hispanic men at risk for HIV/STIs. These factors vary by sexual orientation. Despite these differences in sexual risk by sexual orientation, no study to date has compared the sexual behaviors of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual behaviors of a sample of Hispanic men by sexual orientation. Method A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used to collect data from 163 Hispanic men in South Florida, 80 heterosexual and 83 MSM. Participants completed measures of sexual health, sexual behaviors, and demographics. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners during the previous 3 months, condom usage during the previous 3 months, HIV testing history, and substance use during sex. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of men in terms of certain STIs. Implications Hispanic men as a population may engage in high risk sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV/STIs. More research is needed to develop both culturally tailored and sexual orientation appropriate interventions to assist Hispanic men reduce high risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25663832

  14. Associations between youth homelessness, sexual offenses, sexual victimization, and sexual risk behaviors: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128

  15. Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory.

    PubMed

    van Anders, Sari M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research. PMID:25772652

  16. Neurally augmented sexual function.

    PubMed

    Meloy, S

    2007-01-01

    Neurally Augmented Sexual Function (NASF) is a technique utilizing epidural electrodes to restore and improve sexual function. Orgasmic dysfunction is common in adult women, affecting roughly one quarter of populations studied. Many male patients suffering from erectile dysfunction are not candidates for phosphdiesterase therapy due to concomitant nitrate therapy. Positioning the electrodes at roughly the level of the cauda equina allows for stimulation of somatic efferents and afferents as well as modifying sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Our series of women treated by NASF is described. Our experience shows that the evaluation of potential candidates for both correctable causes and psychological screening are important considerations. PMID:17691397

  17. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  18. Disorders of Sexual Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Theonia K

    2010-09-01

    The term, disorders of sexual differentiation, broadly represents a disjunction between genotype and phenotype. Phenotype in turn can refer to external or internal genital development. Disorders of sexual differentiation are determined at conception insofar as (1) the abnormal genotype is the aberrant genetic product of fertilization at the chromosomal level or (2) the abnormal phenotype results from postfertilization errors in function at the gene level, somewhere along the pathway of transcription and translation. In either event, the error is genetic, whether or not sporadic or inherited, even if the pathways have yet to be fully elucidated for a given disorder. PMID:26839224

  19. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  20. Sexual selection explains sex-specific growth plasticity and positive allometry for sexual size dimorphism in a reef fish

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Stefan P. W.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2009-01-01

    In 1950, Rensch noted that in clades where males are the larger sex, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) tends to be more pronounced in larger species. This fundamental allometric relationship is now known as ‘Rensch's rule’. While most researchers attribute Rensch's rule to sexual selection for male size, experimental evidence is lacking. Here, we suggest that ultimate hypotheses for Rensch's rule should also apply to groups of individuals and that individual trait plasticity can be used to test those hypotheses experimentally. Specifically, we show that in the sex-changing fish Parapercis cylindrica, larger males have larger harems with larger females, and that SSD increases with harem size. Thus, sexual selection for male body size is the ultimate cause of sexual size allometry. In addition, we experimentally illustrate a positive relationship between polygyny potential and individual growth rate during sex change from female to male. Thus, sexual selection is the ultimate cause of variation in growth rate, and variation in growth rate is the proximate cause of sexual size allometry. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis for Rensch's rule and highlight the potential importance of individual growth modification in the shaping of morphological patterns in Nature. PMID:19553253

  1. Determinants of Aged Female Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    Older women (N=50) were asked a series of questions about reference groups, sex roles, sexuality, sexual desire at different stages in the life cycle, appropriateness of certain types of sexual behavior, adjustment to aging, life satisfaction, organizational activities, and male/female interaction. Quantitative and qualitative data provided the…

  2. Infantile sexuality and Freud's legacy.

    PubMed

    Marion, Paola

    2016-06-01

    The topic of sexuality and infantile sexuality, though less frequently discussed by psychoanalysis in recent decades, has received renewed attention for some years. The intention of this paper is to share some reflections around the role of infantile sexuality in our thinking, how we encounter it in our work with patients and in clinical material. Through reference to questions put forward by Freud (1905) in Three Essays, this paper takes into consideration some areas of the debate that has developed on the subject of infantile sexuality, starting from Freud's original intuition, including various hypotheses on the genesis of the sexual drive. The author will concentrate on two specific points. Firstly, how infantile sexuality - as a permanent dimension of the subject's existence - unfolds in the relationship and is deeply influenced by it. And that is how in childhood and adolescence, infantile sexuality ushers in parental sexuality - just as, in the case of our patients, infantile sexuality ushers in the analyst's sexuality. The second point pertains to the temporal dimension within which infantile sexuality is inscribed. The hypothesis that the author proposes is that infantile sexuality may be understood in the specific time of psychoanalysis [Nachträglichkeit], distinct and different with respect to the linear, evolutionary dimension. PMID:25988723

  3. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  4. Sexuality Education as a Ministry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    The author describes her development from being her religious congregation's sexuality educator to completing doctoral studies and finding her place in the professional sexuality education community. She equates sexuality education to a ministry that reaches out to those in need of knowledge.

  5. Sexual Interaction in Nonclinical Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Jane D.; D'Souza, Henry J.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the sexual functioning and interaction of 58 nonclinical heterosexual couples as measured by the Sexual Interaction System Scale (SISS). On all five SISS factors, the nonclinical sample scored significantly better than persons in therapy for sexual dysfunction; they also reported satisfactory relationship adjustment and high levels of…

  6. Psychiatric illness and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Segraves, R T

    1998-05-01

    Impaired sexual function has been noted to occur in various psychiatric illnesses. In affective disorders, disturbances of libido, erection and orgasm have been reported. Disordered sexual behavior has also been noted in patients with schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. Clinical speculation suggests that anxiety disorders may also be associated with a higher prevalence of sexual problems. PMID:9647976

  7. Sexual Behavior Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, William D.

    The paper reviews the literature on sexual delinquency in male and female adolescents and considers guidelines for effective intervention in nonspecialized treatment programs. A section on sexual delinquency in females touches on prostitution and incest, while a section on males notes the changing composition of the sexually delinquent population.…

  8. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  9. [Physiology and physiopathology of sexuality].

    PubMed

    Cuzin, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    From desire to orgasm, sexuality, in women and men, is underpinned by a complex organic, psychological and emotional function. Sexual dysfunction encompasses diverse aetiologies, including chronic diseases and iatrogenesis resulting from medication or surgery. The effects of a chronic disease can have an impact on all phases of the sexual response. PMID:27317816

  10. Reproducibility of intensity-based estimates of lung ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Kaifang; Bayouth, John E.; Ding, Kai; Christensen, Gary E.; Cao, Kunlin; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Lung function depends on lung expansion and contraction during the respiratory cycle. Respiratory-gated CT imaging and image registration can be used to estimate the regional lung volume change by observing CT voxel density changes during inspiration or expiration. In this study, the authors examine the reproducibility of intensity-based estimates of lung tissue expansion and contraction in three mechanically ventilated sheep and ten spontaneously breathing humans. The intensity-based estimates are compared to the estimates of lung function derived from image registration deformation field. Methods: 4DCT data set was acquired for a cohort of spontaneously breathing humans and anesthetized and mechanically ventilated sheep. For each subject, two 4DCT scans were performed with a short time interval between acquisitions. From each 4DCT data set, an image pair consisting of a volume reconstructed near end inspiration and a volume reconstructed near end exhalation was selected. The end inspiration and end exhalation images were registered using a tissue volume preserving deformable registration algorithm. The CT density change in the registered image pair was used to compute intensity-based specific air volume change (SAC) and the intensity-based Jacobian (IJAC), while the transformation-based Jacobian (TJAC) was computed directly from the image registration deformation field. IJAC is introduced to make the intensity-based and transformation-based methods comparable since SAC and Jacobian may not be associated with the same physiological phenomenon and have different units. Scan-to-scan variations in respiratory effort were corrected using a global scaling factor for normalization. A gamma index metric was introduced to quantify voxel-by-voxel reproducibility considering both differences in ventilation and distance between matching voxels. The authors also tested how different CT prefiltering levels affected intensity-based ventilation reproducibility. Results

  11. Conditioned sexual arousal in a nonhuman primate.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Charles T; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ziegler, Toni E; Ferris, Craig F

    2011-05-01

    Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area, and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate's ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory, and decision making. In this study, we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in post-conditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification. PMID:21029736

  12. Naturism and sexuality: broadening our approach to sexual wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glenn; King, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate how people manage their sexuality when practicing naturism in the United Kingdom (UK). Thirty-nine self-identified naturists from across the UK were interviewed. Sexuality, when practicing naturism, was found often to be suppressed through the use of rules, geographical isolation and thoughts and behaviour. Some participants found ways of exploring and enjoying their sexuality by keeping feelings hidden and/or seeking out more sympathetic naturist environments. Naturist environments may offer a unique space in which to explore aspects of our sexuality that are currently pathologised, criminalised or commercialised. This has important implications for sexual health policy and promotion. PMID:18926761

  13. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We design an innovative small-scale composting device including six 4-l reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the performance and reproducibility of composting on a small scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic conditions are established by self-heating in all replicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical transformations, organic matter losses and stabilisation are realistic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic matter evolution exhibits good reproducibility for all six replicates. - Abstract: Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final

  14. Cloning plants by seeds: Inheritance models and candidate genes to increase fundamental knowledge for engineering apomixis in sexual crops.

    PubMed

    Pupilli, Fulvio; Barcaccia, Gianni

    2012-06-30

    Apomixis is desirable in agriculture as a reproductive strategy for cloning plants by seeds. Because embryos derive from the parthenogenic development of apomeiotic egg cells, apomixis excludes fertilization in addition to meiotic segregation and recombination, resulting in offspring that are exact replicas of the parent. Introgression of apomixis from wild relatives to crop species and transformation of sexual genotypes into apomictically reproducing ones are long-held goals of plant breeding. In fact, it is generally accepted that the introduction of apomixis into agronomically important crops will have revolutionary implications for agriculture. This review deals with the current genetic and molecular findings that have been collected from model species to elucidate the mechanisms of apomeiosis, parthenogenesis and apomixis as a whole. Our goal is to critically determine whether biotechnology can combine key genes known to control the expression of the processes miming the main components of apomixis in plants. Two natural apomicts, as the eudicot Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) and the monocot Paspalum spp. (crowngrass), and the sexual model species Arabidopsis thaliana are ideally suited for such investigations at the genomic and biotechnological levels. Some novel views and original concepts have been faced on this review, including (i) the parallel between Y-chromosome and apomixis-bearing chromosome (e.g., comparative genomic analyses revealed common features as repression of recombination events, accumulation of transposable elements and degeneration of genes) from the most primitive (Hypericum-type) to the most advanced (Paspalum-type) in evolutionary terms, and (ii) the link between apomixis and gene-specific silencing mechanisms (i.e., likely based on chromatin remodelling factors), with merging lines of evidence regarding the role of auxin in cell fate specification of embryo sac and egg cell development in Arabidopsis. The production of

  15. Evidence for maintenance of sex determinants but not of sexual stages in red yeasts, a group of early diverged basidiomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The red yeasts are an early diverged group of basidiomycetes comprising sexual and asexual species. Sexuality is based on two compatible mating types and sexual identity is determined by MAT loci that encode homeodomain transcription factors, peptide pheromones and their receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence and integrity of MAT genes throughout the phylogenetic diversity of red yeasts belonging to the order Sporidiobolales. Results We surveyed 18 sexual heterothallic and self-fertile species and 16 asexual species. Functional pheromone receptor homologues (STE3.A1 and STE3.A2) were found in multiple isolates of most of the sexual and asexual species. For each of the two mating types, sequence comparisons with whole-genome data indicated that synteny tended to be conserved along the pheromone receptor region. For the homeodomain transcription factor, likelihood methods suggested that diversifying selection acting on the self/non-self recognition region promotes diversity in sexual species, while rapid evolution seems to be due to relaxed selection in asexual strains. Conclusions The majority of both sexual and asexual species of red yeasts have functional pheromone receptors and homeodomain homologues. This and the frequent existence of asexual strains within sexual species, makes the separation between sexual and asexual species imprecise. Events of loss of sexuality seem to be recent and frequent, but not uniformly distributed within the Sporidiobolales. Loss of sex could promote speciation by fostering the emergence of asexual lineages from an ancestral sexual stock, but does not seem to contribute to the generation of exclusively asexual lineages that persist for a long time. PMID:21880139

  16. Sexual selection drives evolution and rapid turnover of male gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Peter W.; Wright, Alison E.; Zimmer, Fabian; Dean, Rebecca; Montgomery, Stephen H.; Pointer, Marie A.; Mank, Judith E.

    2015-01-01

    The profound and pervasive differences in gene expression observed between males and females, and the unique evolutionary properties of these genes in many species, have led to the widespread assumption that they are the product of sexual selection and sexual conflict. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the connection between sexual selection and transcriptional dimorphism, often termed sex-biased gene expression. Moreover, the relative contribution of sexual selection vs. drift in shaping broad patterns of expression, divergence, and polymorphism remains unknown. To assess the role of sexual selection in shaping these patterns, we assembled transcriptomes from an avian clade representing the full range of sexual dimorphism and sexual selection. We use these species to test the links between sexual selection and sex-biased gene expression evolution in a comparative framework. Through ancestral reconstruction of sex bias, we demonstrate a rapid turnover of sex bias across this clade driven by sexual selection and show it to be primarily the result of expression changes in males. We use phylogenetically controlled comparative methods to demonstrate that phenotypic measures of sexual selection predict the proportion of male-biased but not female-biased gene expression. Although male-biased genes show elevated rates of coding sequence evolution, consistent with previous reports in a range of taxa, there is no association between sexual selection and rates of coding sequence evolution, suggesting that expression changes may be more important than coding sequence in sexual selection. Taken together, our results highlight the power of sexual selection to act on gene expression differences and shape genome evolution. PMID:25831521

  17. Personality Traits, Sexual Problems, and Sexual Orientation: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:25405957

  18. Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Bersamin, Melina M.; Walker, Samantha; Gruber, Enid L.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine the influence of exposure to televised sexual content on adolescent sexuality or how parental intervention may reduce negative effects of viewing such content. This study uses self-report data from 1,012 adolescents to investigate the relations among exposure to sexually suggestive programming, parental mediation strategies, and three types of adolescent sexuality outcomes: participation in oral sex and sexual intercourse, future intentions to engage in these behaviors, and sex expectancies. As predicted, exposure to sexual content was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in sexual behaviors, increased intentions to do so in the future, and more positive sex expectancies. Often, parental mediation strategies were a significant factor in moderating these potential media influences. PMID:21546986

  19. The relationship between sexual selection and sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Kokko, Hanna; Jennions, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Evolutionary conflicts of interest arise whenever genetically different individuals interact and their routes to fitness maximization differ. Sexual selection favors traits that increase an individual's competitiveness to acquire mates and fertilizations. Sexual conflict occurs if an individual of sex A's relative fitness would increase if it had a "tool" that could alter what an individual of sex B does (including the parental genes transferred), at a cost to B's fitness. This definition clarifies several issues: Conflict is very common and, although it extends outside traits under sexual selection, sexual selection is a ready source of sexual conflict. Sexual conflict and sexual selection should not be presented as alternative explanations for trait evolution. Conflict is closely linked to the concept of a lag load, which is context-dependent and sex-specific. This makes it possible to ask if one sex can "win." We expect higher population fitness if females win. PMID:25038050

  20. Intralocus sexual conflict over human height

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Gert; Kuijper, Bram; Buunk, Abraham P.; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) occurs when a trait under selection in one sex constrains the other sex from achieving its sex-specific fitness optimum. Selection pressures on body size often differ between the sexes across many species, including humans: among men individuals of average height enjoy the highest reproductive success, while shorter women have the highest reproductive success. Given its high heritability, IASC over human height is likely. Using data from sibling pairs from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we present evidence for IASC over height: in shorter sibling pairs (relatively) more reproductive success (number of children) was obtained through the sister than through the brother of the sibling pair. By contrast, in average height sibling pairs most reproductive success was obtained through the brother relative to the sister. In conclusion, we show that IASC over a heritable, sexually dimorphic physical trait (human height) affects Darwinian fitness in a contemporary human population. PMID:22875819

  1. Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation.

    PubMed

    Vogelsberger, M; Genel, S; Springel, V; Torrey, P; Sijacki, D; Xu, D; Snyder, G; Bird, S; Nelson, D; Hernquist, L

    2014-05-01

    Previous simulations of the growth of cosmic structures have broadly reproduced the 'cosmic web' of galaxies that we see in the Universe, but failed to create a mixed population of elliptical and spiral galaxies, because of numerical inaccuracies and incomplete physical models. Moreover, they were unable to track the small-scale evolution of gas and stars to the present epoch within a representative portion of the Universe. Here we report a simulation that starts 12 million years after the Big Bang, and traces 13 billion years of cosmic evolution with 12 billion resolution elements in a cube of 106.5 megaparsecs a side. It yields a reasonable population of ellipticals and spirals, reproduces the observed distribution of galaxies in clusters and characteristics of hydrogen on large scales, and at the same time matches the 'metal' and hydrogen content of galaxies on small scales. PMID:24805343

  2. Managing risks in drug discovery: reproducibility of published findings.

    PubMed

    Kannt, Aimo; Wieland, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In spite of tremendous advances in biopharmaceutical science and technology, the productivity of pharmaceutical research and development has been steadily declining over the last decades. The reasons for this decline are manifold and range from improved standard of care that is more and more difficult to top to inappropriate management of technical and translational risks along the R&D value chain. In this short review, major types of risks in biopharmaceutical R&D and means to address them will be described. A special focus will be on a risk, i.e., the lack of reproducibility of published information, that has so far not been fully appreciated and systematically analyzed. Measures to improve reproducibility and trust in published information will be discussed. PMID:26883784

  3. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  4. An exploration of graph metric reproducibility in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Telesford, Qawi K.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    The application of graph theory to brain networks has become increasingly popular in the neuroimaging community. These investigations and analyses have led to a greater understanding of the brain's complex organization. More importantly, it has become a useful tool for studying the brain under various states and conditions. With the ever expanding popularity of network science in the neuroimaging community, there is increasing interest to validate the measurements and calculations derived from brain networks. Underpinning these studies is the desire to use brain networks in longitudinal studies or as clinical biomarkers to understand changes in the brain. A highly reproducible tool for brain imaging could potentially prove useful as a clinical tool. In this review, we examine recent studies in network reproducibility and their implications for analysis of brain networks. PMID:23717257

  5. Longitudinal study of free running exercise challenge: reproducibility.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C V; White, R D; Primhak, R A

    1996-01-01

    The reproducibility of free running exercise challenge has been examined in an unselected population of 8-10 year olds. Using a standardised protocol, monthly exercise tests were performed on 143 children over one year. A positive test was defined using both a 15% and 20% fall in peak expiratory flow after exercise. The mean (95% confidence interval, CI) population frequency for a positive test at 15% fall was 14.9% (6.5 to 23.3) and coefficient of variation 24.6%. For a 20% fall, the mean (95% CI) population frequency was 7.9% (2.9 to 12.9) and coefficient of variation 27.8%. Seventy two (50.3%) of the children gave at least one positive response at 15% fall. Exercise testing is not reproducible in the community setting and should not be used as a screening test. Exercise data from epidemiological studies of asthma should be interpreted with caution. PMID:8660071

  6. Reproducibility of the Tronzo and AO classifications for transtrochanteric fractures☆

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Carlos Augusto; Jesus, Alexandre Atsushi Koza; Floter, Michelle dos Santos; Nunes, Luccas Franco Bettencourt; Sanches, Bárbara de Baptista; Zabeu, José Luís Amim

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the reproducibility of the Tronzo and AO classifications for transtrochanteric fractures. Method This was a cross-sectional study in which the intraobserver and interobserver concordance between two readings made by 11 observers was analyzed. The analysis of the variations used the kappa statistical method. Results Moderate concordance was found in relation to the AO classification, while slight concordance was found for the Tronzo classification. Conclusion This study found that the AO/Asif classification for transtrochanteric presented greater intra and interobserver reproducibility and that greater concordance was correlated with greater experience of the observers. Without division into subgroups, the AO/Asif classification was shown, as described in the literature, to be acceptable for clinical use in relation to transtrochanteric fractures of the femur, although it did not show absolute concordance, given that its concordance level was only moderate. Nonetheless, its concordance was better than that of the Tronzo classification. PMID:26535193

  7. Technical issues in using robots to reproduce joint specific gait.

    PubMed

    Rosvold, J M; Darcy, S P; Peterson, R C; Achari, Y; Corr, D T; Marchuk, L L; Frank, C B; Shrive, N G; Rosvold, Joshua M; Darcy, Shon P; Peterson, Robert C; Achari, Yamini; Corr, David T; Marchuk, Linda L; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G

    2011-05-01

    Reproduction of the in vivo motions of joints has become possible with improvements in robot technology and in vivo measuring techniques. A motion analysis system has been used to measure the motions of the tibia and femur of the ovine stifle joint during normal gait. These in vivo motions are then reproduced with a parallel robot. To ensure that the motion of the joint is accurately reproduced and that the resulting data are reliable, the testing frame, the data acquisition system, and the effects of limitations of the testing platform need to be considered. Of the latter, the stiffness of the robot and the ability of the control system to process sequential points on the path of motion in a timely fashion for repeatable path accuracy are of particular importance. Use of the system developed will lead to a better understanding of the mechanical environment of joints and ligaments in vivo. PMID:21599101

  8. Pressure Stabilizer for Reproducible Picoinjection in Droplet Microfluidic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Yilmaz, Suzan; Adams, Paul D.; Saxena, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Picoinjection is a promising technique to add reagents into pre-formed emulsion droplets on chip; however, it is sensitive to pressure fluctuation, making stable operation of the picoinjector challenging. We present a chip architecture using a simple pressure stabilizer for consistent and highly reproducible picoinjection in multi-step biochemical assays with droplets. Incorporation of the stabilizer immediately upstream of a picoinjector or a combination of injectors greatly reduces pressure fluctuations enabling reproducible and effective picoinjection in systems where the pressure varies actively during operation. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the pressure stabilizer for an integrated platform for on-demand encapsulation of bacterial cells followed by picoinjection of reagents for lysing the encapsulated cells. The pressure stabilizer was also used for picoinjection of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) reagents to achieve genomic DNA amplification of lysed bacterial cells. PMID:25270338

  9. MASSIVE DATA, THE DIGITIZATION OF SCIENCE, AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    As the scientific enterprise becomes increasingly computational and data-driven, the nature of the information communicated must change. Without inclusion of the code and data with published computational results, we are engendering a credibility crisis in science. Controversies such as ClimateGate, the microarray-based drug sensitivity clinical trials under investigation at Duke University, and retractions from prominent journals due to unverified code suggest the need for greater transparency in our computational science. In this talk I argue that the scientific method be restored to (1) a focus on error control as central to scientific communication and (2) complete communication of the underlying methodology producing the results, ie. reproducibility. I outline barriers to these goals based on recent survey work (Stodden 2010), and suggest solutions such as the ?Reproducible Research Standard? (Stodden 2009), giving open licensing options designed to create an intellectual property framework for scientists consonant with longstanding scientific norms.

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  11. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  12. Reproductive skew drives patterns of sexual dimorphism in sponge-dwelling snapping shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Chak, Solomon Tin Chi; Duffy, J. Emmett; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is typically a result of strong sexual selection on male traits used in male–male competition and subsequent female choice. However, in social species where reproduction is monopolized by one or a few individuals in a group, selection on secondary sexual characteristics may be strong in both sexes. Indeed, sexual dimorphism is reduced in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates and eusocial insects with totipotent workers, presumably because of increased selection on female traits. Here, we examined the relationship between sexual dimorphism and sociality in eight species of Synalpheus snapping shrimps that vary in social structure and degree of reproductive skew. In species where reproduction was shared more equitably, most members of both sexes were physiologically capable of breeding. However, in species where reproduction was monopolized by a single individual, a large proportion of females—but not males—were reproductively inactive, suggesting stronger reproductive suppression and conflict among females. Moreover, as skew increased across species, proportional size of the major chela—the primary antagonistic weapon in snapping shrimps—increased among females and sexual dimorphism in major chela size declined. Thus, as reproductive skew increases among Synalpheus, female–female competition over reproduction appears to increase, resulting in decreased sexual dimorphism in weapon size. PMID:26041357

  13. Sexual disinhibition and dementia.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Ulivi, Martina; Danti, Sabrina; Lucetti, Claudio; Nuti, Angelo

    2016-03-01

    To describe inappropriate sexual behaviour (ISB) observed in patients with dementia, we conducted searches using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Web of Science to find relevant articles, chapters, and books published from 1950 to 2014. Search terms used included 'hypersexuality', 'inappropriate sexual behaviors', and 'dementia'. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. Sexuality is a human's need to express intimacy, but persons with dementia may not know how to appropriately meet their needs for closeness and intimacy due to their decline in cognition. Generally, the interaction among brain, physical, psychological, and environmental factors can create what we call ISB. The most likely change in the sexual behaviour of a person with dementia is indifference. However, ISB in dementia appear to be of two types--intimacy-seeking and disinhibited--that differ in their association with dementia type, dementia severity and, possibly, other concurrent behavioural disorder. Tensions develop from uncertainties regarding which, or when, behaviours are to be considered 'inappropriate' (i.e. improper) or abnormal. While most ISB occur in the moderate to severe stages of Alzheimer's dementia, they may also be seen in early stages of frontotemporal dementia because of the lack of insight and disinhibition. ISB are often better managed by non-pharmacological means, as patients may be less responsive to psychoactive therapies, but non-pharmacological interventions do not always stop the behaviour. PMID:26215977

  14. Two Modes of Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    This paper describes the essential difference between two modes of sexual relating: (1) a personal, outward style of interaction that is the natural extension of affection, tenderness, and companionship between two people; and (2) an impersonal, inward, more masturbatory expression in which sex is used primarily as a narcotic. The origins of…

  15. Contextualizing Sexual Objectification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Ann R.; Bettendorf, Sonya K.; Wang, Yu-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The preceding articles provide an excellent overview of relatively recent theory and research on sexual objectification of women from a psychological perspective. Importantly, the authors have contributed to the literature through their conceptual extensions and research applications of objectification theory. In this reaction piece, our goals are…

  16. Variations in Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1983-01-01

    Questions are raised about the difficulty of defining normal and atypical sexual behavior. Variations from normalcy that students, parents, and educators are most likely to encounter are discussed. The importance of dealing with variations in ways that are best for the individual and the group is emphasized. (PP)

  17. The Sexual Tease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, James L.

    1970-01-01

    Sexual teasing, motivated by psychosexual immaturity, is seen as one method of controlling anxiety. When this mechanism fails, a loss of self esteem, coupled with depression, occurs. Medical help may be sought at this point, making it necessary for physicians to be aware of the tease" manifestation. (CJ)

  18. Fighting Campus Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Warren

    2014-01-01

    When President Obama points out, correctly, that young women stand a better chance of being sexually assaulted on a college campus than in the world outside, we have a problem that needs to be addressed not simply on campus, but at the highest levels of government. Author Warren Tolman strongly believes that the Massachusetts Office of Attorney…

  19. Deafness: Implications for Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gerald, Max; Fitz-Gerald, Della

    There is a need for increased sex education for deaf children and adults as well as more accepting attitudes by the deaf themselves and general society. Myths which have hampered acceptance of the deaf include the belief that deaf persons can easily read lips. Surveys of deaf adults have indicated sexual segregation in residential schools and…

  20. Sexual Harassment Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Hartford.

    This document spells out policy regarding sexual harassment in the Connecticut vocational-technical school system that was developed by the Connecticut State Department of Education, the Connecticut Division of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, and the Connecticut Women's Education and Legal Fund, Inc. The introduction calls sexual…

  1. Teen Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and become sexually mature. If you're a girl, you develop breasts and begin to get your period. If you're a boy, your penis and testicles become larger. If you have sex, you could get pregnant or get someone pregnant. ...

  2. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.

    This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…

  3. Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Orgasmic disorders - When you can't have an orgasm or you have pain during orgasm. Sexual pain disorders - When you have pain during ... cream. If you have a problem having an orgasm, you may not be getting enough foreplay or ...

  4. Serious Games for Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Brown, Katherine; Bull, Sheana; Christensen, John L; Hieftje, Kimberly; Jozkowski, Kristen N; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-04-01

    Program developers and researchers in the sexual health domain have increasingly embraced technological trends as they emerge. With the emergence of serious game applications to impact health behaviors, a natural step for research enquiry will be the investigation of serious games for sexual health education. We invited a panel of sexual health researchers who are working at the intersection of sexual health behavior change and technology applications to comment on the place of serious games in furthering the field of sexual health. The panel grappled with six questions. PMID:26181800

  5. [Eating disorders and sexual function].

    PubMed

    Kravvariti, V; Gonidakis, Fr

    2016-01-01

    Women suffering from eating disorders, present considerable retardation and difficulties in their psychosexual development during adolescence. This leads to primary or secondary insufficiencies in their adult sexual life. The cause of these difficulties seems to be a series of biological, family and psychosocial factors. The majority of the research findings indicate that eating disorders have a negative impact on the patient's sexual function. The factors related to eating disorders symptomatology that influence sexuality are various and differ among each eating disorder diagnostic categories. Considering anorexia nervosa, it has been reported that women have negative attitudes to sexual issues and their body. Their sexual motivation increases when they engage in psychotherapy and their body weight is gradually restored. Starvation and its consequences on the human physiology and especially on the brain function seem to be the main factor that leads to reduced sexual desire and scarce sexual activity. Moreover, personality traits that are common in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa such as compulsivity and rigidity are also related with difficulties initiating and retaining romantic and sexual relationships. Usually patients suffering from anorexia nervosa report impaired sexual behavior and lack of interest to engage in a sexual relationship. Considering Bulimia Nervosa, impulsivity and difficulties in emotion regulation that are common features of the individuals that suffer from bulimia nervosa are also related to impulsive and sometimes self-harming sexual behaviors. Moreover women sufferers often report repulsion, anger and shame towards their body and weight, mainly due to the distorted perception that they are fat and ugly. It is interesting that a number of research findings indicate that although patients suffering from bulimia nervosa are more sexually active and have more sexual experiences than patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, both

  6. Intersubject variability and reproducibility of 15O PET studies.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jonathan P; Fryer, Tim D; Bradley, Peter G; Nortje, Jurgens; Smielewski, Peter; Rice, Kenneth; Clark, John C; Pickard, John D; Menon, David K

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen-15 positron emission tomography (15O PET) can provide important data regarding patients with head injury. We provide reference data on intersubject variability and reproducibility of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral metabolism (CMRO2) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in patients and healthy controls, and explored alternative ways of assessing reproducibility within the context of a single PET study. In addition, we used independent measurements of CBF and CMRO2 to investigate the effect of mathematical correlation on the relationship between flow and metabolism. In patients, intersubject coefficients of variation (CoV) for CBF, CMRO2 and OEF were larger than in controls (32.9%+/-2.2%, 23.2%+/-2.0% and 22.5%+/-3.4% versus 13.5%+/-1.4%, 12.8%+/-1.1% and 7.3%+/-1.2%), while CoV for CBV were lower (15.2%+/-2.1% versus 22.5%+/-2.8%) (P<0.001). The CoV for the test-retest reproducibility of CBF, CBV, CMRO2 and OEF in patients were 2.1%+/-1.5%, 3.8%+/-3.0%, 3.7%+/-3.0% and 4.6%+/-3.5%, respectively. These were much lower than the intersubject CoV figures, and were similar to alternative measures of reproducibility obtained by fractionating data from a single study. The physiological relationship between flow and metabolism was preserved even when mathematically independent measures were used for analysis. These data provide a context for the design and interpretation of interventional PET studies. While ideally each centre should develop its own bank of such data, the figures provided will allow initial generic approximations of sample size for such studies. PMID:15988475

  7. Improved reproducibility by assuring confidence in measurements in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Plant, Anne L; Locascio, Laurie E; May, Willie E; Gallagher, Patrick D

    2014-09-01

    ‘Irreproducibility’ is symptomatic of a broader challenge in measurement in biomedical research. From the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) perspective of rigorous metrology, reproducibility is only one aspect of establishing confidence in measurements. Appropriate controls, reference materials, statistics and informatics are required for a robust measurement process. Research is required to establish these tools for biological measurements, which will lead to greater confidence in research results. PMID:25166868

  8. Improvement of sexual destination in Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae)--a critically endangered medicinal plant of Northwestern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Wani, Parvaiz A; Nawchoo, Irshad A; Wafai, B A

    2007-03-01

    Good seed set is no guarantee of absolute sexual destination in plants. Seed viability and seed vigour are crucial phases in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing plant. The present study was an attempt to improve the sexual destination-the germination and seedling survival of Atropa acuminata Royle (Solanaceae), an endemic and extremely restricted sub-alpine medicinal plant of North West Himalayas under ex situ conditions at (1580 m) with an aim to develop a successful germination protocol and agrotechnique in order to revegetate disturbed areas. Among various treatments given to the seeds, GA3, Scarification, warm water treatment and chilling at 4 degrees C for 90 days were found to be most effective with percentage germination of 73.3 +/- 18.80, 79.95 +/- 9.40, 66.6 +/- 6.6, 45 +/- 7.07 (X +/- SE), respectively. The results reveal that the seeds do not germinate unless specific environmental signals or events occur which trigger the genetic and hormonal response of the seeds thereby facilitating their germination. The diversity and the extent of the dormancy mechanisms encountered here suggest that under harsh conditions, natural selection may favour seeds with a genetic system for dormancy and delayed germination. A relation was observed between seed size/weight, % age germination and subsequent seedling survival. Seedling survival is also effected by specific habitat requirement and stiff intra and inter-specific competition particularly the whimsical behaviour of Sambucus wigthiana (an alien species which grows in the vicinity of Atropa) is beyond the ken of Atropa, adding fuel to the already burning candle apart from habitat fragmentation and herbivory. PMID:19069863

  9. Git can facilitate greater reproducibility and increased transparency in science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reproducibility is the hallmark of good science. Maintaining a high degree of transparency in scientific reporting is essential not just for gaining trust and credibility within the scientific community but also for facilitating the development of new ideas. Sharing data and computer code associated with publications is becoming increasingly common, motivated partly in response to data deposition requirements from journals and mandates from funders. Despite this increase in transparency, it is still difficult to reproduce or build upon the findings of most scientific publications without access to a more complete workflow. Findings Version control systems (VCS), which have long been used to maintain code repositories in the software industry, are now finding new applications in science. One such open source VCS, Git, provides a lightweight yet robust framework that is ideal for managing the full suite of research outputs such as datasets, statistical code, figures, lab notes, and manuscripts. For individual researchers, Git provides a powerful way to track and compare versions, retrace errors, explore new approaches in a structured manner, while maintaining a full audit trail. For larger collaborative efforts, Git and Git hosting services make it possible for everyone to work asynchronously and merge their contributions at any time, all the while maintaining a complete authorship trail. In this paper I provide an overview of Git along with use-cases that highlight how this tool can be leveraged to make science more reproducible and transparent, foster new collaborations, and support novel uses. PMID:23448176

  10. Mechanostructure and composition of highly reproducible decellularized liver matrices.

    PubMed

    Mattei, G; Di Patria, V; Tirella, A; Alaimo, A; Elia, G; Corti, A; Paolicchi, A; Ahluwalia, A

    2014-02-01

    Despite the increasing number of papers on decellularized scaffolds, there is little consensus on the optimum method of decellularizing biological tissue such that the micro-architecture and protein content of the matrix are conserved as far as possible. Focusing on the liver, the aim of this study was therefore to develop a method for the production of well-characterized and reproducible matrices that best preserves the structure and composition of the native extra cellular matrix (ECM). Given the importance of matrix stiffness in regulating cell response, the mechanical properties of the decellularized tissue were also considered. The testing and analysis framework is based on the characterization of decellularized and untreated samples in the same reproducible initial state (i.e., the equilibrium swollen state). Decellularized ECM (dECM) were characterized using biochemical, histological, mechanical and structural analyses to identify the best procedure to ensure complete cell removal while preserving most of the native ECM structure and composition. Using this method, sterile decellularized porcine ECM with highly conserved intra-lobular micro-structure and protein content were obtained in a consistent and reproducible manner using the equilibrium swollen state of tissue or matrix as a reference. A significant reduction in the compressive elastic modulus was observed for liver dECM with respect to native tissue, suggesting a re-examination of design parameters for ECM-mimicking scaffolds for engineering tissues in vitro. PMID:24184179

  11. Reproducibility of SELDI Spectra Across Time and Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Lixia; Clarke, Charlotte H.; Coombes, Kevin R.; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Roth, Jack; Mao, Li; Czerniak, Bogdan; Baggerly, Keith A.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Fung, Eric T.; Bast, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    This is an open access article. Unrestricted non-commercial use is permitted provided the original work is properly cited. The reproducibility of mass spectrometry (MS) data collected using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (SELDI-TOF) has been questioned. This investigation was designed to test the reproducibility of SELDI data collected over time by multiple users and instruments. Five laboratories prepared arrays once every week for six weeks. Spectra were collected on separate instruments in the individual laboratories. Additionally, all of the arrays produced each week were rescanned on a single instrument in one laboratory. Lab-to-lab and array-to-array variability in alignment parameters were larger than the variability attributable to running samples during different weeks. The coefficient of variance (CV) in spectrum intensity ranged from 25% at baseline, to 80% in the matrix noise region, to about 50% during the exponential drop from the maximum matrix noise. Before normalization, the median CV of the peak heights was 72% and reduced to about 20% after normalization. Additionally, for the spectra from a common instrument, the CV ranged from 5% at baseline, to 50% in the matrix noise region, to 20% during the drop from the maximum matrix noise. Normalization reduced the variability in peak heights to about 18%. With proper processing methods, SELDI instruments produce spectra containing large numbers of reproducibly located peaks, with consistent heights. PMID:21552492

  12. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

  13. Interrater reproducibility of clinical tests for rotator cuff lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ostor, A; Richards, C; Prevost, A; Hazleman, B; Speed, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff lesions are common in the community but reproducibility of tests for shoulder assessment has not been adequately appraised and there is no uniform approach to their use. Objective: To study interrater reproducibility of standard tests for shoulder evaluation among a rheumatology specialist, rheumatology trainee, and research nurse. Methods: 136 patients were reviewed over 12 months at a major teaching hospital. The three assessors examined each patient in random order and were unaware of each other's evaluation. Each shoulder was examined in a standard manner by recognised tests for specific lesions and a diagnostic algorithm was used. Between-observer agreement was determined by calculating Cohen's κ coefficients (measuring agreement beyond that expected by chance). Results: Fair to substantial agreement was obtained for the observations of tenderness, painful arc, and external rotation. Tests for supraspinatus and subscapularis also showed at least fair agreement between observers. 40/55 (73%) κ coefficient assessments were rated at >0.2, indicating at least fair concordance between observers; 21/55 (38%) were rated at >0.4, indicating at least moderate concordance between observers. Conclusion: The reproducibility of certain tests, employed by observers of varying experience, in the assessment of the rotator cuff and general shoulder disease was determined. This has implications for delegation of shoulder assessment to nurse specialists, the development of a simplified evaluation schedule for general practitioners, and uniformity in epidemiological research studies. PMID:15361389

  14. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    PubMed Central

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  15. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    PubMed

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  16. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

  17. Reproducing Kernels in Harmonic Spaces and Their Numerical Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvadba, Otakar

    2010-05-01

    In harmonic analysis such as the modelling of the Earth's gravity field, the importance of Hilbert's space of harmonic functions with the reproducing kernel is often discussed. Moreover, in case of an unbounded domain given by the exterior of the sphere or an ellipsoid, the reproducing kernel K(x,y) can be expressed analytically by means of closed formulas or by infinite series. Nevertheless, the straightforward numerical implementation of these formulas leads to dozen of problems, which are mostly connected with the floating-point arithmetic and a number representation. The contribution discusses numerical instabilities in K(x,y) and gradK(x,y) that can be overcome by employing elementary functions, in particular expm1 and log1p. Suggested evaluation scheme for reproducing kernels offers uniform formulas within the whole solution domain as well as superior speed and near-perfect accuracy (10-16 for IEC 60559 double-precision numbers) when compared with the straightforward formulas. The formulas can be easily implemented on the majority of computer platforms, especially when C standard library ISO/IEC 9899:1999 is available.

  18. Nonvolitional sex and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Kalmuss, Debra

    2004-06-01

    Nonvolitional sex is sexual behavior that violates a person's right to choose when and with whom to have sex and what sexual behaviors to engage in. The more extreme forms of this behavior include rape, forced sex, childhood sexual abuse, sex trafficking, and violence against people with nonconventional sexual identities. More nuanced forms of nonvolitional sex include engaging in sexual behavior that masks one's nonconventional sexual identity, or that protects one's position with peers, or that represents a quid pro quo for the economic support that one obtains within an intimate relationship. The aim of this essay is to highlight the ways in which nonvolitional sex threatens sexual health and to identify strategies for ameliorating this problem. These strategies will have to be as broad in scope as is the problem that they are designed to address. The essay discusses the following strategies to reduce nonvolitional sex: (1) advocacy for sexual rights, gender equality, and equality for individuals with nonconventional sexual identities; (2) primary prevention programs and interventions that offer comprehensive sexuality education that establishes volitional sex and sexual health as basic human rights; (3) health services that routinely ask clients about their experiences with nonvolitional sex in an open and culturally appropriate manner; and (4) secondary prevention programs to meet the needs of victims of nonvolitional sex identified by the "screening" programs. PMID:15129039

  19. Sexual dysfunction in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Zahra; Amirian, Malihe; Golmakani, Nahid; Mazlom, Reza; Laal Ahangar, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual problems have different effects on the life of people by influencing their interpersonal and marital relationships and satisfaction. Relationship between sexual dysfunctions and infertility can be mutual. Sexual dysfunction may cause difficulty conceiving but also attempts to conceive, may cause sexual dysfunction. Objective: This paper compares sexual dysfunction in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 infertile couples referring to Montasarieh Infertility Clinic and 110 fertile couples referring to five healthcare centers in Mashhad were selected by class cluster sampling method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and Glombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction. Data were analyzed through descriptive and analytical statistical methods by SPSS. Results: There was no significant difference in total score of sexual problems and other dimensions of sexual problems (except infrequency) in fertile 28.9 (15.5) and infertile 29.0 (15.4) women. Fertile women had more infrequency than infertile women (p=0.002). Conclusion: There was no significant difference between fertile and infertile women in terms of sexual problems. Paying attention to sexual aspects of infertility and presence of programs for training of sexual skills seems necessary for couples. PMID:27200422

  20. The complexity of internet sexuality.

    PubMed

    Daneback, Kristian; Ross, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown men and women of all ages and sexual orientations to use the Internet for sexual purposes. For example, the Internet is used to access pornography, to find sex-related information, to purchase sexual merchandise, and to find partners for romance and sex. The specific characteristics of the medium have made it attractive for engaging in sexual behaviors that are regulated by societal and cultural norms offline. Thus, the Internet has made it easier to explore and express one's sexuality at less risk of negative personal sanctions. In this regard, the technological innovation has meant a sexual revolution, particularly for disenfranchised groups. While generally being perceived as positive, concerns have been raised about potential risks associated with the Internet. The purpose of this chapter is to provide the reader with an empirical and theoretical overview of the first 15 years of research in the field of Internet sexuality. PMID:22005208