Science.gov

Sample records for sfr concept design

  1. Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, M. M.; Prele, G.; Mariteau, P.; Sauvage, J. F.; Hayafune, H.; Chikazawa, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A comparison of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with future French SFR concept has been done based on the requirement of EDF, the investor-operator of future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of EDF-JAEA bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation on future SFR. (authors)

  2. Transmutation abilities of the SFR low void effect core concept 'CFV' 3600 MWth

    SciTech Connect

    Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Andriolo, L.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential of minor actinide transmutation in a 3600 MWth SFR core designed with the low void effect core concept (namely 'CFV concept'). This concept is based upon an axially heterogeneous design with an internal fertile zone, and two radial fuel zones with different heights. Two modes of minor actinide transmutation are considered. The homogeneous mode where the minor actinides (MA) are diluted in the fuel is studied considering different options: - MA diluted in the whole core, - MA diluted in the internal and external fuel zone, - MA diluted in the internal fertile zone, for which different isotopic vectors and contents in fuel are analyzed. The heterogeneous mode is also studied with MA placed in external blanket bearings, with contents of 20%. The results are compared to those obtained with a traditional homogenous core concept (SFRV2B type) in terms of transmutation performances. Impacts of the transmutation assumptions on transmutation performances, on fuel cycle and safety parameters (void effect, Doppler) are also presented. (authors)

  3. Improving SFR Economics Through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2009-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  4. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  5. An Innovative Hybrid Loop-Pool SFR Design and Safety Analysis Methods: Today and Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Vincent Mousseau

    2008-04-01

    Investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants will become possible only if SFRs achieve economic competitiveness as compared to light water reactors and other Generation IV reactors. Toward that end, we have launched efforts to improve the economics and safety of SFRs from the thermal design and safety analyses perspectives at Idaho National Laboratory. From the thermal design perspective, an innovative hybrid loop-pool SFR design has been proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to further improve economics and safety. From the safety analyses perspective, we have initiated an effort to develop a high fidelity reactor system safety code.

  6. Nuclear data uncertainty propagation for neutronic key parameters of CEA's SFR V2B and CFV sodium fast reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Archier, P.; Buiron, L.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dos Santos, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a nuclear data uncertainty propagation analysis for two CEA's Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor designs: the SFR V2B and CFV cores. The nuclear data covariance matrices are provided by the DER/SPRC/LEPh's nuclear data team (see companion paper) for several major isotopes. From the current status of this analysis, improvements on certain nuclear data reactions are highlighted as well as the need for new specific integral experiments in order to meet the technological breakthroughs proposed by the CFV core. (authors)

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Neutron Cross-Sections Considered for Design and Safety Studies of Lfr and SFR Generation IV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of several design and safety parameters with regard to five different nuclear data libraries, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3. More specifically, the effective multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity swing and decay heat generation in available LFR and SFR designs were estimated. Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCB were used in the analyses of the neutronic and burn-up performance of the systems. Thermo-hydraulic safety calculations were performed by the STAR-CD CFD code. For the LFR, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 showed to give a harder neutron spectrum than JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 data due to the lower inelastic scattering cross-section of lead in these libraries. Hence, the neutron economy of the system becomes more favourable and keff is higher when calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 data. As for actinide cross-section data, the uncertainties in the keff values appeared to be mainly due to 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. Differences in the estimated burn-up reactivity swings proved to be significant, for an SFR as large as a factor of three (when comparing ENDF/B-VI.8 results to those of JENDL3.2). Uncertainties in the evaluation of short-term decay heat generation showed to be of the order of several per cent. Significant differences were, understandably, observed between decay heat generation data quoted in literature for LWR-UOX and those calculated for an LFR (U,TRU)O2 spent fuel. A corresponding difference in calculated core parameters (outlet coolant temperature) during protected total Loss-of-Power was evaluated.

  8. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  9. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  10. The Concept of Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    This paper approaches the concept of curriculum design from a philosophical perspective, arguing that the concept of "design" in curriculum is fundamentally misleading. The paper begins with a series of comments questioning the assumption that curriculum design involves a set of discrete skills or procedures in which one may attain expertise, like…

  11. A new airfoil design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henne, P. A.; Gregg, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    The present airfoil design concept is based on utilizing unconventional geometry characteristics near the airfoil trailing edge which include a finite trailing edge thickness, strongly divergent trailing edge upper and lower surfaces, and high surface curvature on the lower surface at or near the lower surface trailing edge. This paper presents computational analyses of airfoils and a wing utilizing the concept, airfoil validation wind tunnel test results of several configurations, and wing-validation wind tunnel test results for a complete wing design. In addition to validating the concept, the airfoil and wing testing provided additional detailed data to better understand the aerodynamic advantage of such an unconventional trailing edge configuration. It is demonstrated that the concept represents a significant step in airfoil technology beyond that achieved with the Supercritical Airfoil. This concept provides the aerodynamicist an additional degree of design freedom and flexibility previously unrecognized.

  12. Engineering Design Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the separation of content between science, math, engineering, and technology education should not exist. Working with the relationship between these content areas enhances students' efforts to learn about the physical world. In teaching students about design, technology, and engineering, attention should be given to the…

  13. Recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: Star formation rate (SFR) inferences are based on the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are required to provide a calibration. We study the key points of such an approximation with the aim to produce accurate SFR inferences. Methods: We use the intrinsic algebra of synthesis models and explore how the SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underlying star formation history (SFH). Results: We show that the constant SFR approximation is a simplified expression of deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It characterizes the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), from which the SSPs as a sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e., about 13 Gyr for z = 0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not required to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a single SFR timescale over which the recent SFH is averaged, and we suggest to use typical SFR indices (ionizing flux, UV fluxes) together with untypical ones (optical or IR fluxes) to correct the SFR for the contribution of the old component of the SFH. We show how to use galaxy colors to quote age ranges where the recent component of the SFH is stronger or softer than the older component. Conclusions: Despite of SFR calibrations are unaffected by this work, the meaning of results obtained by SFR inferences does. In our framework, results such as the correlation of SFR timescales with galaxy colors, or the sensitivity of different SFR indices to variations in the SFH, fit naturally. This framework provides a theoretical guide-line to optimize the available information from data and numerical experiments to improve the accuracy of SFR inferences.

  14. Recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Star formation rate (SFR) inferences are based on the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are required to provide a calibration. We study the key points of such an approximation with the aim to produce accurate SFR inferences. Methods: We use the intrinsic algebra of synthesis models and explore how the SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underlying star formation history (SFH). Results: We show that the constant SFR approximation is a simplified expression of deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It characterizes the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), from which the SSPs as a sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e., about 13 Gyr for z = 0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not required to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a single SFR timescale over which the recent SFH is averaged, and we suggest to use typical SFR indices (ionizing flux, UV fluxes) together with untypical ones (optical or IR fluxes) to correct the SFR for the contribution of the old component of the SFH. We show how to use galaxy colors to quote age ranges where the recent component of the SFH is stronger or softer than the older component. Conclusions: Despite of SFR calibrations are unaffected by this work, the meaning of results obtained by SFR inferences does. In our framework, results such as the correlation of SFR timescales with galaxy colors, or the sensitivity of different SFR indices to variations in the SFH, fit naturally. This framework provides a theoretical guide-line to optimize the available information from data and numerical experiments to improve the accuracy of SFR inferences.

  15. Long life valve design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hall, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Valve concept evaluation, final candidate selection, design, manufacture, and demonstration testing of a pneumatically actuated 10-inch hybrid poppet butterfly shutoff valve are presented. Conclusions and recommendations regarding those valve characteristics and features which would serve to guide in the formulation of future valve procurements are discussed. The pertinent design goals were temperature range of plus 200 to minus 423 F, valve inlet pressure 35 psia, actuation pressure 750 psia, main seal leakage 3 x 0.00001 sccs at 35 psia valve inlet pressure, and a storage and operating life of 10 years. The valve was designed to be compatible with RP-1, propane, LH2, LO2, He, and N2.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of a SFR core with sodium plenum

    SciTech Connect

    Canuti, E.; Ivanov, E.; Tiberi, V.; Pignet, S.

    2012-07-01

    The new concepts of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors have to reach the Generation IV safety objectives. In this regard the Sodium Void Effect has to be minimized for the future projects of large-size SFR as well as the uncertainties on it. The Inst. of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) as technological support of French public authorities is in charge of safety assessment of operating and under construction reactors, as well as future projects. In order to state about the safety of new SFR designs the IRSN must be able to evaluate core parameters and their uncertainties. In this frame a sensitivity and uncertainty study has been performed to evaluate the impact of nuclear data uncertainty on sodium void effect, for the benchmark model of large SFR BN-800. The benchmark parameters (effective multiplication factor and sodium void effect) have been evaluated using two codes, the deterministic code ERANOS and the Monte Carlo code SCALE, while the S/U analysis has been performed only with SCALE. The results of the these studies point out the most relevant cross section uncertainties that affect the SVE and how efforts should be done in increasing the existing nuclear data accuracies. (authors)

  17. Europa Small Lander Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    2005-12-01

    Title: Europa Small Lander Design Concepts Authors: Wayne F. Zimmerman, James Shirley, Robert Carlson, Tom Rivellini, Mike Evans One of the primary goals of NASA's Outer Planets Program is to revisit the Jovian system. A new Europa Geophysical Explorer (EGE) Mission has been proposed and is under evaluation. There is in addition strong community interest in a surface science mission to Europa. A Europa Lander might be delivered to the Jovian system with the EGE orbiter. A Europa Astrobiology Lander (EAL) Mission has also been proposed; this would launch sometime after 2020. The primary science objectives for either of these would most likely include: Surface imaging (both microscopic and near-field), characterization of surface mechanical properties (temperature, hardness), assessment of surface and near-surface organic and inorganic chemistry (volatiles, mineralogy, and compounds), characterization of the radiation environment (total dose and particles), characterization of the planetary seismicity, and the measurement of Europa's magnetic field. The biggest challenges associated with getting to the surface and surviving to perform science investigations revolve around the difficulty of landing on an airless body, the ubiquitous extreme topography, the harsh radiation environment, and the extreme cold. This presentation reviews some the recent design work on drop-off probes, also called "hard landers". Hard lander designs have been developed for a range of science payload delivery systems spanning small impactors to multiple science pods tethered to a central hub. In addition to developing designs for these various payload delivery systems, significant work has been done in weighing the relative merits of standard power systems (i.e., batteries) against radioisotope power systems. A summary of the power option accommodation benefits and issues will be presented. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a

  18. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  19. On the Design Concept in Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of the trendy concept in engineering ethics education that ethical problems should be comprehended from the viewpoint of design. First, I present two objections against the concept and the content of it. Second, I examine the concept and show that the essence of it is pragmatic methods. That is, we should understand ethical problems and design problems pragmatically. Finally, I point out that the objections are not true of this pragmatic understanding.

  20. "Universal Design" Concept Pushed for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a "universal design" concept that is being pushed by a coalition of education groups for education. Called "universal design for learning," the philosophy advocates creating lessons and classroom materials that are flexible enough to accommodate different learning styles. The coalition has drafted language it wants to have…

  1. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  2. Project Design: An Emerging Curriculum Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes Project Design, a curriculum concept being implemented in Ontario schools, in which groups of students are given the opportunity to contribute to the selection and design of a material object or system which they subsequently construct, test, and evaluate. Project focus in on basic learning experiences which involve multidisciplinary…

  3. Design concepts for the EST mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Süss, Martin; Fischer, David

    2012-09-01

    The EST has unique an optical layout, with an on-axis Gregorian tube system and the altitude axis behind the M1 mirror unit - a great challenge for the mount designer in regard of balancing. Three different structural design concepts and various alternatives for the bearing and drive systems were investigated. Hydrostatic bearings with direct drives are compared with roller bearings and geared drives. The influence of available bearing and drive technology were investigated by FE calculations, dynamic analysis and end-to-end simulations. The finally recommended design concept is based on large-diameter segmented roller bearings and so-called pinion motors in both axes.

  4. Crashworthy airframe design concepts: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1982-01-01

    Crashworthy floor concepts applicable to general aviation aircraft metal airframe structures were investigated. Initially several energy absorbing lower fuselage structure concepts were evaluated. Full scale floor sections representative of a twin engine, general aviation airplane lower fuselage structure were designed and fabricated. The floors featured an upper high strength platform with an energy absorbing, crushable structure underneath. Eighteen floors were fabricated that incorporated five different crushable subfloor concepts. The floors were then evaluated through static and dynamic testing. Computer programs NASTRAN and KRASH were used for the static and dynamic analysis of the floor section designs. Two twin engine airplane fuselages were modified to incorporate the most promising crashworthy floor sections for test evaluation.

  5. Educational Videogames: Concept, Design And Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlick, D.; Yang, A.; Kilb, D. L.; Ma, L.; Ruzic, R.; Peach, C. L.; Layman, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Videogames have historically gained popularity thanks to their entertainment rather than their educational value. This may be due, in part, to the fact that many educational videogames present academic concepts in dry, quiz-like ways, without the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement of non-educational games. The increasing availability of tools that allow designers to easily create rich experiences for players now makes it simpler than ever for educational game designers to generate the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement that gamers have grown to expect. Based on data from our work, when designed effectively, educational games can engage players, teach concepts, and tear down the stereotype of the stuffy, boring educational game. Our team has been experimenting with different ways to present scientific and mathematical concepts to middle and high school students through engaging, interactive games. When designing a gameplay concept, we focus on what we want the player to learn and experience as well as how to maintain a learning environment that is fun and engaging. Techniques that we have found successful include the use of a series of fast-paced 'minigames,' and the use of a 'simulator' learning method that allows a player to learn by completing objectives similar to those completed by today's scientists. Formative evaluations of our games over the past year have revealed both design strengths and weaknesses. Based on findings from a systematic evaluation of game play with diverse groups, with data collected through in-person observations of game play, knowledge assessments, focus groups, interviews with players, and computer tracking of students' game play behavior, we have found that players are uniformly enthusiastic about the educational tools. At the same time, we find there is more work to be done to make our tools fully intuitive, and to effectively present complex mathematical and scientific concepts to learners from a wide

  6. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  7. The natural flow wing-design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1992-01-01

    A wing-design study was conducted on a 65 degree swept leading-edge delta wing in which the wing geometry was modified to take advantage of the naturally occurring flow that forms over a slender wing in a supersonic flow field. Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis methods were used in the study which was divided into three parts: preliminary design, initial design, and final design. In the preliminary design, the wing planform, the design conditions, and the near-conical wing-design concept were derived, and a baseline standard wing (conventional airfoil distribution) and a baseline near-conical wing were chosen. During the initial analysis, a full-potential flow solver was employed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline standard delta wing and to investigate modifications to the airfoil thickness, leading-edge radius, airfoil maximum-thickness position, and wing upper to lower surface asymmetry on the baseline near-conical wing. The final design employed an Euler solver to analyze the best wing configurations found in the initial design and to extend the study of wing asymmetry to develop a more refined wing. Benefits resulting from each modification are discussed, and a final 'natural flow' wing geometry was designed that provides an improvement in aerodynamic performance compared with that of a baseline conventional uncambered wing, linear-theory cambered wing, and near-conical wing.

  8. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  9. Galium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagnetic pump. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx. 10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx. 500 J), second-stage pulse which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  10. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  11. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources especially in the context of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Since bioreactor designs for terrestrial operation will not readily apply to conditions of microgravity, there is an urgent need to learn about the differences. These differences cannot be easily estimated due to the complex nature of the mass transport and mixing mechanisms in fermenters. Therefore, a systematic and expeditious experimental program must be undertaken to obtain the engineering data necessary to lay down the foundations of designing bioreactors for microgravity. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecrafts, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  12. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  13. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  14. International Design Concepts for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J.

    2001-12-01

    In August of 2000, representatives of eleven countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding to Establish the International Square Kilometre Array Steering Committee (ISSC). Arguably, the SKA could be built today, but without question it would be unaffordable. Increasing collecting area by a factor of 100 beyond today's largest array cannot be done cost effectively by simple extensions of what has been done before. New concepts, new designs, and new technologies will be required, as well as a paradigm shift. It will be necessary to heavily exploit emerging communications and consumer market technologies; to "hammer" them into shapes required to solve the SKA challenges, rather than inventing our own solutions from scratch. Or if we do invent ab initio solutions, we should look at creating consumer markets to embrace them, so that the full benefits of mass production and manufacturing can be realized. The strawman science goals of the SKA are extremely ambitious. Today there are six primary design concepts being studied that attempt to meet some or all of these goals; phased arrays of active elements embedded into flat tiles, "super Arecibo" antennas constructed in individual limestone karst sinkholes and arrayed together, large arrays of small, spherical (or hemispherical) Luneberg lenses, large deformable apertures with long focal ratios and aerostat-borne focal plane array receivers, arrays of large parabolic antennas constructed from steel "ropes," and large arrays of small parabolic dishes derived from the TVRO industry. This talk summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of these various designs in their current, incomplete state. In the US, the US SKA Consortium of 10 academic and research organizations has generated a roadmap to guide and assess the technology development that will be required to produce a successful SKA design, with well understood costs, performance, and minimal risk. The design and construction efforts for the ATA, LOFAR and the EVLA will

  15. Identifying and Overcoming Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Introducing a Conception-Focused Curriculum to Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Gerald F.; Burch, Jana J.; Bradley, Thomas P.; Heller, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Educators have been challenged to identify threshold concepts and develop transformed students. This stands in stark contrast to many curriculum design and delivery models that currently view students as repositories of knowledge. In this article, we argue that educators can reach both goals, identify stumbling blocks and transforming students,…

  16. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  17. Space interferometer mission (SIM) instrument design concepts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A. L.

    SIM is a 12 meter baseline interferometer to be built as part of the NASA Origins program, designed to fly in space and provide high precision astrometry measurements of astronomical objects. SIM will provide angular measurements three orders of magnitude more precise than current space or ground based sensors, allowing the indirect detection of Earth-like planets around neighboring stars. The SIM mission will also include the ability to synthesize images by varying the interferometer baseline lengths and will demonstrate a nulling beam combiner as a technology pathfinder for future missions. A team at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) in Sunnyvale, CA has been chosen by JPL to enter a partnership to design and build the SIM instrument. This paper describes the overall LMMS SIM instrument concept and its unique features, including the full aperture laser metrology approach for high precision metrology.

  18. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  19. The Triton: Design concepts and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Singer, Michael; Vanryn, Percy; Brown, Rhonda; Tella, Gustavo; Harvey, Bob

    1992-01-01

    During the design of the C & P Aerospace Triton, a few problems were encountered that necessitated changes in the configuration. After the initial concept phase, the aspect ratio was increased from 7 to 7.6 to produce a greater lift to drag ratio (L/D = 13) which satisfied the horsepower requirements (118 hp using the Lycoming O-235 engine). The initial concept had a wing planform area of 134 sq. ft. Detailed wing sizing analysis enlarged the planform area to 150 sq. ft., without changing its layout or location. The most significant changes, however, were made just prior to inboard profile design. The fuselage external diameter was reduced from 54 to 50 inches to reduce drag to meet the desired cruise speed of 120 knots. Also, the nose was extended 6 inches to accommodate landing gear placement. Without the extension, the nosewheel received an unacceptable percentage (25 percent) of the landing weight. The final change in the configuration was made in accordance with the stability and control analysis. In order to reduce the static margin from 20 to 13 percent, the horizontal tail area was reduced from 32.02 to 25.0 sq. ft. The Triton meets all the specifications set forth in the design criteria. If time permitted another iteration of the calculations, two significant changes would be made. The vertical stabilizer area would be reduced to decrease the aircraft lateral stability slope since the current value was too high in relation to the directional stability slope. Also, the aileron size would be decreased to reduce the roll rate below the current 106 deg/second. Doing so would allow greater flap area (increasing CL(sub max)) and thus reduce the overall wing area. C & P would also recalculate the horsepower and drag values to further validate the 120 knot cruising speed.

  20. Deep Space Habitat ECLSS Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly S.; Rotter, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over because the mission definition has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  1. Deep Space Habitat ECLS Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over as the mission definition also has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  2. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  3. Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.

  4. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  5. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  6. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  7. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  8. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most

  9. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.

  10. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  11. New Worlds Observer Telescope and Instrument Optical Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Noecker, Charlie; Kendrick, Steve; Woodgate, Bruce; Kilstron, Steve; Cash, Webster

    2008-01-01

    Optical design concepts for the telescope and instrumentation for NASA s New Worlds Observer program are presented. A four-meter multiple channel telescope is discussed, as well as a suite of science instrument concepts. Wide field instrumentation (imager and spectrograph) would be accommodated by a three-mirror-anastigmat telescope design. Planet finding and characterization, and a UV instrument would use a separate channel that is picked off after the first two mirrors (primary and secondary). Guiding concepts are also discussed.

  12. Design concept for pressure switch calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slingerland, M. G.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrator and switch design enables pressure switches to operate under 150 g shock loads. The design employs a saturated liquid-to-vapor phase transition at constant pressure to produce a known force independent of displacement over a usable range.

  13. Single stage rocket concept selection and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, J. A.

    1992-03-01

    The paper compares three concepts of a single-stage rocket for use as a reusable safe and reliable launch system: (1) horizontal takeoff and landing; (2) vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and vertical takeoff and horizontal landing. These concepts were evaluated during Phase I using the following ground rules: the 1992 technology availability; 7 d turnaround between flights with 350 man-days servicing; a 400-km polar orbit, 600 fps maneuver capability on orbit; 10,000 lb payload; 1170 nmi crossrange; two-man crew, 4-day duration, 14.7 psi cabin pressure, 1000 cu ft crew volume, 3 g maximum acceleration; winds amounting to 200 fps ascent, 73 fps landing; and return payload to base after single engine failure. On the basis of the comparison (done on the basis of the lowest cost to acquire and operate, the least sensitivity to uncertainties in predicted weight and performance, and the operational flexibility) the VTOL concept with nose-first reentry was chosen.

  14. Space Shuttle food galley design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C.; Fischer, R.; Cooper, B.

    1974-01-01

    A food galley has been designed for the crew compartment of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter. The rationale for the definition of this design was based upon assignment of priorities to each functional element of the total food system. Principle priority categories were assigned in the following order: food quality, nutrition, food packaging, menu acceptance, meal preparation efficiency, total system weight, total system volume, and total power requirements. Hence, the galley was designed using an 'inside-out' approach which first considered the food and related biological functions and subsequently proceeded 'outward' from the food to encompass supporting hardware. The resulting galley is an optimal design incorporating appropriate priorities for trade-offs between biological and engineering constraints. This design approach is offered as a model for the design of life support systems.

  15. NGST NIRCam Scientific Program and Design Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Marcia J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Crampton, David; Doyon, Rene; Eisenstein, Daniel; Greene, Thomas P.; Hodapp, Klaus-Werner; Horner, Scott D.; Johnstone, Doug; Lesyna, Lawrence; Lilly, Simon; Meyer, Michael; Martin, Peter; McCarthy, Donald W., Jr.; Rieke, George H.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Stauffer, John; Trauger, John T.; Young, Erick T.

    2003-03-01

    The science program for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) relies heavily on a high performance nearinfrared imager. A design which supports the observations outlined in the Design Reference Mission (DRM) and which also supports enhanced searches for "first light" objects and planets has been developed. Key features of the design include use of refractive optics to minimize the volume and mass required, tunable filters for spectroscopic imaging, and redundant imagers for fail-safe wavefront sensing.

  16. RLIN Product Batch: Fundamental Design Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1984-01-01

    Considers fundamental decisions that shaped the output products of Research Libraries Information Network. Product Batch was designed using single data definition (RMARC) combined with standard PL/I, modular programing techniques, program documentation. Choice of software and programing languages, other design aspects (accountability, count…

  17. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Poston, Dave; Lipinski, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A report presents a design concept for an instrumented robotic vehicle (rover) to be used on a future mission of exploration of the planet Mars. The design incorporates a nuclear fission power system to provide long range, long life, and high power capabilities unachievable through the use of alternative solar or radioisotope power systems. The concept described in the report draws on previous rover designs developed for the 2009 Mars Science laboratory (MSL) mission to minimize the need for new technology developments.

  18. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  19. Ergonomic approach for pillow concept design.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent. PMID:26360205

  20. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  1. 4MOST fiber feed concept design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, D. M.; Winkler, R.; Saviauk, Allar; Haynes, R.; Barden, S.; Bellido-Tirado, O.; Bauer, S.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Depagne, E.; Dionies, F.; Ehrlich, K.; Kelz, Andreas; Saunders, W.; Woche, M.

    2014-08-01

    4MOST, the 4m Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope, features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with ~2400 fibers in the focal plane that are configured by a fiber positioner based on the tilting spine principle (Echidna/FMOS) arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The fibers feed two types of spectrographs; ~1600 fibers go to two spectrographs with resolution R>5000 and ~800 fibers to a spectrograph with R>18,000. Part of the ongoing optimization of the fiber feed subsystem design includes early prototyping and testing of key components such as fiber connectors and fiber cable management. Performance data from this testing will be used in the 4MOST instrument simulator (TOAD) and 4MOST system design optimization. In this paper we give an overview of the current fiber feed subsystem design, simulations and prototyping plans.

  2. Innovative power conversion system for the French SFR prototype, ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Cachon, L.; Biscarrat, C.; Morin, F.; Haubensack, D.; Rigal, E.; Moro, I.; Baque, F.; Madeleine, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Laffont, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the prototype ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), foreseen in operation by the 20's, will have to demonstrate not only the minor actinide transmutation capability, but also the progress made in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology on an industrial scale, by qualifying innovative options. Some of these options still require improvements, especially in the field of operability and safety. In fact, one of the main issues with the standard steam/water Power Conversion System (PCS) of SFR is the fast and energetic chemical reaction between water and sodium, which could occur in steam generators in case of tube failure. To manage the sodium/water reaction, one way consists in minimizing the impact of such event: hence studies are carried out on steam generator design, improvement of the physical knowledge of this phenomenon, development of numerical simulation to predict the reaction onset and consequences, and associated detection improvement. On the other hand, the other way consists in eliminating sodium/water reaction. In this frame, the CEA contribution to the feasibility evaluation of an alternative innovative PCS (replacing steam/water by 180 bar pressurised nitrogen) is focused on the following main topics: - The parametric study leading to nitrogen selection: the thermodynamic cycle efficiency optimisation on Brayton cycles is performed with several gases at different pressures. - The design of innovative compact heat exchangers for the gas loop: here the key points are the nuclear codification associated with inspection capability, the innovative welding process and the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic optimisations. After a general introduction of the ASTRID project, this paper presents in detail these different feasibility studies being led on the innovative gas PCS for an SFR. (authors)

  3. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-19

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR`s fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system`s vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm{sup 2} density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner.

  4. Analysis and Multipoint Design of the TCA Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Buning, Pieter G.

    1999-01-01

    The goal in this effort is to analyze the baseline TCA concept at transonic and supersonic cruise, then apply the natural flow wing design concept to obtain multipoint performance improvements. Analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between the overset grids.

  5. Deep Throttle Turbopump Technology Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinzburg, Adiel; Williams, Morgan; Ferguson, Tom; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to increase the throttling range of turbopumps from 30 to 120% of the design value, while maintaining high performance levels. Details are given on wide flow range issues, H-Q characteristics, stall characteristics, energy levels, pressure fluctuations at impeller exit, WFR impeller characteristics, commercial diffuser pumps, slotted or tandem vanes, leading edge characteristics, leading edge models, throat models, diffusion passage models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies, and CFD flow cases.

  6. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  7. Structural Design and Sizing of a Metallic Cryotank Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the structural design and sizing details of a 33-foot (10 m) metallic cryotank concept used as the reference design to compare with the composite cryotank concepts developed by industry as part of NASA s Composite Cryotank Technology Development (CCTD) Project. The structural design methodology and analysis results for the metallic cryotank concept are reported in the paper. The paper describes the details of the metallic cryotank sizing assumptions for the baseline and reference tank designs. In particular, the paper discusses the details of the cryotank weld land design and analyses performed to obtain a reduced weight metallic cryotank design using current materials and manufacturing techniques. The paper also discusses advanced manufacturing techniques to spin-form the cryotank domes and compares the potential mass savings to current friction stir-welded technology.

  8. Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  9. Heat sink structural design concepts for a hypersonic research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Hypersonic research aircraft design requires careful consideration of thermal stresses. This paper relates some of the problems in a heat sink structural design that can be avoided by appropriate selection of design options including material selection, design concepts, and load paths. Data on several thermal loading conditions are presented on various conventional designs including bulkheads, longerons, fittings, and frames. Results indicate that conventional designs are inadequate and that acceptable designs are possible by incorporating innovative design practices. These include nonintegral pressure compartments, ball-jointed links to distribute applied loads without restraining the thermal expansion, and material selections based on thermal compatibility.

  10. Accelerator Design Concept for Future Neutrino Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    ISS Accelerator Working Group; Zisman, Michael S; Berg, J. S.; Blondel, A.; Brooks, S.; Campagne, J.-E.; Caspar, D.; Cevata, C.; Chimenti, P.; Cobb, J.; Dracos, M.; Edgecock, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Fernow, R.; Filthaut, F.; Gallardo, J.; Garoby, R.; Geer, S.; Gerigk, F.; Hanson, G.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, C.; Kaplan, D.; Keil, E.; Kirk, H.; Klier, A.; Kurup, A.; Lettry, J.; Long, K.; Machida, S.; McDonald, K.; Meot, F.; Mori, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Poklonskiy, A.; Popovic, M.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, T.; Sandstrom, R.; Sevior, R.; Sievers, P.; Simos, N.; Torun, Y.; Vretenar, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Zisman, Michael S

    2008-02-03

    This document summarizes the findings of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The work of the group took place at three plenary meetings along with three workshops, and an oral summary report was presented at the NuFact06 workshop held at UC-Irvine in August, 2006. The goal was to reach consensus on a baseline design for a Neutrino Factory complex. One aspect of this endeavor was to examine critically the advantages and disadvantages of the various Neutrino Factory schemes that have been proposed in recent years.

  11. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganin, Alexander A; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today's complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks. PMID:26782180

  12. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  13. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks. PMID:26782180

  14. Design concepts for hardened communications structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathau, William J.; Smith, William G.

    1990-03-01

    An important component of any hardened command and control structure is the antenna system that provides communication with the outside world. Two types of antennae were considered; i.e., the whip type and the directional. The whip type is for short range communication and the directional is for use primarily with satellites. In the super high frequency range, the use of directional antennae having parabolic dishes greater than 8 feet in diameter are common. In the very extra high frequency range, dishes that are 2 to 3 feet in diameter are used. The whip type antenna should extend up to, say, 60 feet in the air. Based on this background, a family of structures was designed that can protect whip and directional antennae from the blast and shock effects from a 1-MT device for ground surface overpressure ranging from 15,000 to 500 psi. As the antennae, transmitters, receivers, power supplies, and lifting mechanisms will be located within such structures, appropriate shock spectra plots were developed to determine if the fragility level of pertinent equipment will be exceeded and for use in designing shock isolation systems. Button up periods of 1 and 4 weeks were considered.

  15. New Worlds Observer Telescope and Instrument Optical Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Kilston, Steve; Kendrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Optical design concepts for the telescope and instrumentation for NASA's New Worlds Observer program are presented. First order parameters are derived from the science requirements, and estimated performance metrics are shown using optical models. A four meter multiple channel telescope is discussed, as well as a suite of science instrument concepts. Wide field instrumentation (imager and spectrograph) would be accommodated by a three-mirror anastigmat telescope design. Planet finding and characterization would use a separate channel which is picked off after the first two mirrors (primary and secondary). Guiding concepts are also discussed.

  16. Engineering CAR-T Cells: Design Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shivani; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being empirically designed based on a simple understanding of TCR signaling, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been remarkably successful in treating patients with advanced refractory B cell malignancies. However, many challenges remain in improving the safety and efficacy of this therapy and extending it toward the treatment of epithelial cancers. Other aspects TCR signaling beyond those directly provided by CD3ζ and CD28 phosphorylation strongly influence a T cell’s ability to differentiate and acquire full effector functions. Here, we discuss how the principles of TCR recognition, including spatial constraints, Kon/Koff rates, and synapse formation, along with in-depth analysis of CAR signaling might be applied to develop safer and more effective synthetic tumor targeting receptors. PMID:26169254

  17. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  18. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  19. A Hierarchical Biology Concept Framework: A Tool for Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Khodor, Julia; Halme, Dina Gould; Walker, Graham C.

    2004-01-01

    A typical undergraduate biology curriculum covers a very large number of concepts and details. We describe the development of a Biology Concept Framework (BCF) as a possible way to organize this material to enhance teaching and learning. Our BCF is hierarchical, places details in context, nests related concepts, and articulates concepts that are inherently obvious to experts but often difficult for novices to grasp. Our BCF is also cross-referenced, highlighting interconnections between concepts. We have found our BCF to be a versatile tool for design, evaluation, and revision of course goals and materials. There has been a call for creating Biology Concept Inventories, multiple-choice exams that test important biology concepts, analogous to those in physics, astronomy, and chemistry. We argue that the community of researchers and educators must first reach consensus about not only what concepts are important to test, but also how the concepts should be organized and how that organization might influence teaching and learning. We think that our BCF can serve as a catalyst for community-wide discussion on organizing the vast number of concepts in biology, as a model for others to formulate their own BCFs and as a contribution toward the creation of a comprehensive BCF. PMID:15257339

  20. Trapped Ion Magnetic Resonance: Concepts and Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Pedro Jose

    A novel spectroscopy of trapped ions is proposed which will bring single-ion detection sensitivity to the observation of magnetic resonance spectra and resolve the apparent incompatibility in existing techniques between high information content and high sensitivity. Methods for studying both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are designed. They assume established techniques for trapping ions in high magnetic field and observing electrically the trapping frequencies with high resolution (<1 Hz) and sensitivity (single -ion). A magnetic bottle field gradient couples the spin and spatial motions together and leads to the small spin -dependent force on the ion exploited by Dehmelt to observe directly the perturbation of the ground-state electron's axial frequency by its spin magnetic moment. A series of fundamental innovations is described to extend magnetic resonance to molecular ions ( cong 100 amu) and nuclear magnetic moments. It is demonstrated how time-domain trapping frequency observations before and after magnetic resonance can be used to make cooling of the particle to its ground state unnecessary. Adiabatic cycling of the magnetic bottle off between detection periods is shown to be practical and to allow high-resolution magnetic resonance to be encoded pointwise as the presence or absence of trapping frequency shifts. Methods of inducing spin -dependent work on the ion orbits with magnetic field gradients and Larmor frequency irradiation are proposed which greatly amplify the attainable shifts in trapping frequency. The first proposal presented builds on Dehmelt's experiment to reveal ESR spectra. A more powerful technique for ESR is then designed where axially synchronized spin transitions perform spin-dependent work in the presence of a magnetic bottle, which also converts axial amplitude changes into cyclotron frequency shifts. The most general approach presented is a continuous Stern-Gerlach effect in which a magnetic field

  1. Task-oriented display design - Concept and example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1989-01-01

    The general topic was in the area of display design alternatives for improved man-machine performance. The intent was to define and assess a display design concept oriented toward providing this task-oriented information. The major focus of this concept deals with the processing of data into parameters that are more relevant to the task of the human operator. Closely coupled to this concept of relevant information is the form or manner in which this information is actually presented. Conventional forms of presentation are normally a direct representation of the underlying data. By providing information in a form that is more easily assimilated and understood, a reduction in human error and cognitive workload may be obtained. A description of this proposed concept with a design example is provided. The application for the example was an engine display for a generic, twin-engine civil transport aircraft. The product of this concept was evaluated against a functionally similar, traditional display. The results of this evaluation showed that a task-oriented approach to design is a viable concept with regard to reducing user error and cognitive workload. The goal of this design process, providing task-oriented information to the user, both in content and form, appears to be a feasible mechanism for increasing the overall performance of a man-machine system.

  2. Task-oriented display design: Concept and example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1989-01-01

    The general topic was in the area of display design alternatives for improved man-machine performance. The intent was to define and assess a display design concept oriented toward providing this task-oriented information. The major focus of this concept deals with the processing of data into parameters that are more relevant to the task of the human operator. Closely coupled to this concept of relevant information is the form or manner in which this information is actually presented. Conventional forms of presentation are normally a direct representation of the underlying data. By providing information in a form that is more easily assimilated and understood, a reduction in human error and cognitive workload may be obtained. A description of this proposed concept with a design example is provided. The application for the example was an engine display for a generic, twin-engine civil transport aircraft. The product of this concept was evaluated against a functionally similar, traditional display. The results of this evaluation showed that a task-oriented approach to design is a viable concept with regard to reducing user error and cognitive workload. The goal of this design process, providing task-oriented information to the user, both in content and form, appears to be a feasible mechanism for increasing the overall performance of a man-machine system.

  3. Personalized radiotherapy: concepts, biomarkers and trial design.

    PubMed

    Ree, A H; Redalen, K R

    2015-07-01

    In the past decade, and pointing onwards to the immediate future, clinical radiotherapy has undergone considerable developments, essentially including technological advances to sculpt radiation delivery, the demonstration of the benefit of adding concomitant cytotoxic agents to radiotherapy for a range of tumour types and, intriguingly, the increasing integration of targeted therapeutics for biological optimization of radiation effects. Recent molecular and imaging insights into radiobiology will provide a unique opportunity for rational patient treatment, enabling the parallel design of next-generation trials that formally examine the therapeutic outcome of adding targeted drugs to radiation, together with the critically important assessment of radiation volume and dose-limiting treatment toxicities. In considering the use of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity, this may also include the identification of molecular, metabolic and imaging markers of treatment response and tolerability, and will need particular attention on patient eligibility. In addition to providing an overview of clinical biomarker studies relevant for personalized radiotherapy, this communication will highlight principles in addressing clinical evaluation of combined-modality-targeted therapeutics and radiation. The increasing number of translational studies that bridge large-scale omics sciences with quality-assured phenomics end points-given the imperative development of open-source data repositories to allow investigators the access to the complex data sets-will enable radiation oncology to continue to position itself with the highest level of evidence within existing clinical practice. PMID:25989697

  4. Thermal design trades for SAFIR architecture concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Paine, Christopher; Bradford, Matt; Dragovan, Mark; Nash, Al; Dooley, Jennifer; Lawrence, Charles

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR is a IO-meter, 4 K space telescope optimized for wavelengths between 20 microns and 1 mm. The combination of aperture diameter and telescope temperature will provide a raw sensitivity improvement of more than a factor of 1000 over presently-planned missions. The sensitivity will be comparable to that of the JWST and ALMA, but at the critical far-IR wavelengths where much of the universe's radiative energy has emerged since the origin of stars and galaxies. We examine several of the critical technologies for SAFIR which enable the large cold aperture, and present results of studies examining the telescope optics and the spacecraft thermal architecture. Both the method by which the aperture is filled, and the overall optical design for the telescope can impact the potential scientific return of SAFIR. Thermal architecture that goes far beyond the sunshades developed for the James Webb Space Telescope will be necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity of SAFIR. By combining active and passive cooling at critical points within the observatory, a significant reduction of the required level of active cooling can be obtained.

  5. Personalized radiotherapy: concepts, biomarkers and trial design

    PubMed Central

    Redalen, K R

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, and pointing onwards to the immediate future, clinical radiotherapy has undergone considerable developments, essentially including technological advances to sculpt radiation delivery, the demonstration of the benefit of adding concomitant cytotoxic agents to radiotherapy for a range of tumour types and, intriguingly, the increasing integration of targeted therapeutics for biological optimization of radiation effects. Recent molecular and imaging insights into radiobiology will provide a unique opportunity for rational patient treatment, enabling the parallel design of next-generation trials that formally examine the therapeutic outcome of adding targeted drugs to radiation, together with the critically important assessment of radiation volume and dose-limiting treatment toxicities. In considering the use of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity, this may also include the identification of molecular, metabolic and imaging markers of treatment response and tolerability, and will need particular attention on patient eligibility. In addition to providing an overview of clinical biomarker studies relevant for personalized radiotherapy, this communication will highlight principles in addressing clinical evaluation of combined-modality-targeted therapeutics and radiation. The increasing number of translational studies that bridge large-scale omics sciences with quality-assured phenomics end points—given the imperative development of open-source data repositories to allow investigators the access to the complex data sets—will enable radiation oncology to continue to position itself with the highest level of evidence within existing clinical practice. PMID:25989697

  6. Concept Design of Cardiovascular Stents Based on Load Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.

    2015-04-01

    The concept design is an important design phase for the cardiovascular stents. The topology optimization methods can be applied to the concept design of the cardiovascular stents. However, the interaction analysis between the stent and artery involves material nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity and boundary nonlinearity. The interaction analysis is not easy to be successful if these three types of nonlinearities are considered simultaneously. Therefore, the topology optimization process may be suspended if the nonlinear interaction analysis fails. The aim of this paper is to develop a design method to obtain the concept design of cardiovascular stents based on the load identification and homogenization method. A displacement control method is proposed to identify the design load of the cardiovascular stents. The identified design load is then applied to the stent and the nonlinear interaction analysis is replaced by the linear analysis. Further, the nonlinear analysis is completely avoided in the topology optimization process. The numerical results show that the proposed design method can obtain the legible concept design of cardiovascular stents.

  7. Third Generation of AHSS: Microstructure Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlock, David K.; Speer, John G.

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new advanced high strength sheet steels (AHSS), particularly for automotive applications. Descriptive terminology has evolved to describe the “First Generation” of AHSS, i.e. steels that possess primarily ferrite-based microstructures, and the “Second Generation” of AHSS, i.e. austenitic steels with high manganese contents which include steels that are closely related to austenitic stainless steels. First generation AHSS have been referred to by a variety of names including dual phase (DP), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), complex-phase (CP), and martensitic (MART). Second generation austenitic AHSS include twinninginduced plasticity (TWIP) steels, Al-added lightweight steels with induced plasticity (L-IP®), and shear band strengthened steels (SIP steels). Recently there has been increased interest in the development of the “Third Generation” of AHSS, i.e. steels with strength-ductility combinations significantly better than exhibited by the first generation AHSS but at a cost significantly less than required for second generation AHSS. Approaches to the development of third generation AHSS will require unique alloy/microstructure combinations to achieve the desired properties. Results from a recent composite modeling analysis have shown that the third generation of AHSS will include materials with complex microstructures consisting of a high strength phase (e.g. ultra-fine grained ferrite, martensite, or bainite) and significant amounts of a constituent with substantial ductility and work hardening (e.g. austenite). In this paper, design methodologies based on considerations of fundamental strengthening mechanisms are presented and evaluated to assess the potential for developing new materials. Several processing routes will be assessed, including the recently identified Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P) process developed in the authors’ own laboratory.

  8. Design and Evaluation of Nextgen Aircraft Separation Assurance Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut; Arutyunov, Vladimir; Laue, John-Luke; Wilmoth, Ian

    2012-01-01

    To support the development and evaluation of future function allocation concepts for separation assurance systems for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, this paper presents the design and human-in-the-loop evaluation of three feasible function allocation concepts that allocate primary aircraft separation assurance responsibilities and workload to: 1) pilots; 2) air traffic controllers (ATC); and 3) automation. The design of these concepts also included rules of the road, separation assurance burdens for aircraft of different equipage levels, and utilization of advanced weather displays paired with advanced conflict detection and resolution automation. Results of the human-in-the-loop simulation show that: a) all the concepts are robust with respect to weather perturbation; b) concept 1 (pilots) had highest throughput, closest to assigned spacing, and fewest violations of speed and altitude restrictions; c) the energy of the aircraft during the descent phase was better managed in concepts 1 and 2 (pilots and ATC) than in concept 3 (automation), in which the situation awareness of pilots and controllers was lowest, and workload of pilots was highest. The paper also discusses further development of these concepts and their augmentation and integration with future air traffic management tools and systems that are being considered for NextGen.

  9. Investigating the Act of Design in Discharge Concept Using PMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestariningsih; Anwar, Muhammad; Setiawan, Agus Mulyanto

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the act of design in discharge concept using Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI) approach with Lapindo's Mud phenomenon as a context. Design research was chosen as the method used in this research that consists of three phases, namely preparing for the experiment, teaching experiment, and…

  10. High Altitude Venus Operations Concept Trajectory Design, Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Van Norman, John W.; Arney, Dale C.; Dec, John A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.

    2015-01-01

    A trajectory design and analysis that describes aerocapture, entry, descent, and inflation of manned and unmanned High Altitude Venus Operation Concept (HAVOC) lighter-than-air missions is presented. Mission motivation, concept of operations, and notional entry vehicle designs are presented. The initial trajectory design space is analyzed and discussed before investigating specific trajectories that are deemed representative of a feasible Venus mission. Under the project assumptions, while the high-mass crewed mission will require further research into aerodynamic decelerator technology, it was determined that the unmanned robotic mission is feasible using current technology.

  11. Symmetric Achromatic Low-Beta Collider Interaction Region Design Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially-designed symmetric Chromaticity Compensation Block (CCB) induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCB?s placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chromaticity compensation scheme.

  12. Lunar fission surface power system design and implementation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  13. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-20

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  14. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  15. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  16. A design concept for an MMIC microstrip phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Smetana, J.; Acosta, R.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka band advanced satellite communication antenna systems. The proposed design concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required. The proposed design concept takes into consideration the RF characteristics and actual phyical dimensions of the MMIC devices. Also, solutions to spatial constraints and interconnections associated with currently available packaging designs are discussed. Finally, the design of the microstrip radiating elements and their radiation characteristics are examined.

  17. Interactive design and analysis of future large spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer aided design program used to perform systems level design and analysis of large spacecraft concepts is presented. Emphasis is on rapid design, analysis of integrated spacecraft, and automatic spacecraft modeling for lattice structures. Capabilities and performance of multidiscipline applications modules, the executive and data management software, and graphics display features are reviewed. A single user at an interactive terminal create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of Earth orbiting spacecraft with relative ease. Data generated in the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of an Earth-orbiting large diameter antenna satellite are used to illustrate current capabilities. Computer run time statistics for the individual modules quantify the speed at which modeling, analysis, and design evaluation of integrated spacecraft concepts is accomplished in a user interactive computing environment.

  18. Global cost and weight evaluation of fuselage keel design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Morris, M. R.; Metschan, S. L.; Swanson, G. D.; Smith, P. J.; Griess, K. H.; Schramm, M. R.; Humphrey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing program entitled Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) is focused on the application of affordable composite technology to pressurized fuselage structure of future aircraft. As part of this effort, a design study was conducted on the keel section of the aft fuselage. A design build team (DBT) approach was used to identify and evaluate several design concepts which incorporated different material systems, fabrication processes, structural configurations, and subassembly details. The design concepts were developed in sufficient detail to accurately assess their potential for cost and weight savings as compared with a metal baseline representing current wide body technology. The cost and weight results, along with an appraisal of performance and producibility risks, are used to identify a globally optimized keel design; one which offers the most promising cost and weight advantages over metal construction. Lastly, an assessment is given of the potential for further cost and weight reductions of the selected keel design during local optimization.

  19. Enroute flight planning: Evaluating design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, C. Elaine

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this research were to develop design concepts to support the task of enroute flight planning. And within this context, to explore and evaluate general design concepts and principles to guide the development of cooperative problem solving systems. A detailed model is to be developed of the cognitive processes involved in flight planning. Included in this model will be the identification of individual differences of subjects. Of particular interest will be differences between pilots and dispatchers. The effect will be studied of the effect on performance of tools that support planning at different levels of abstraction. In order to conduct this research, the Flight Planning Testbed (FPT) was developed, a fully functional testbed environment for studying advanced design concepts for tools to aid in flight planning.

  20. Design concepts for low cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  1. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  2. Thermal design concept for a high resolution UV spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, P.; Stipandic, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal design concept described has been developed for the High Resolution UV Spectrometer/Polarimeter to be flown on the Solar Maximum Mission. Based on experience gained from a similar Orbiting Solar Observatory mission payload, it has been recognized that initial protection of the optical elements, contamination control, reduction of scattered light, tight bulk temperature, and gradient constraints are key elements that must be accommodated in any thermal control concept for this class of instrument. Salient features of the design include: (1) a telescope door providing contamination protection of an aplanatic Gregorian telescope; (2) a rastering system for the secondary mirror; (3) a unique solar heat absorbing device; (4) heat pipes and special radiators; (5) heaters for active temperature control and optics contamination protection; and (6) high precision platinum resistance thermometers. Viability of the design concept has been established by extensive thermal analysis and some subsystem testing. A summary of analytical and test results is included.

  3. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  4. Design for All in Scandinavia - a strong concept.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Karin; Benktzon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Design for All is more than an appealing point of view. It is a concept that offers a set of challenges capable of generating innovation and giving design added value and weight. In the Scandinavian tradition, the concept has developed from a purely social dimension to a design topic that is discussed both in terms of its business potential and in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. This article gives a State of the Art of the development of Design for All in the Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland during the past 15 years, beginning with a common review and joint Scandinavian projects, followed by an overall review country by country which include selected case studies over the past 15 years. PMID:23755993

  5. NASA LaRC Strain Gage Balance Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for more than fifty years. These balances have been utilized in Langley's wind tunnels, which span over a wide variety of aerodynamic test regimes, as well as other ground based test facilities and in space flight applications. As a result, the designs encompass a large array of sizes, loads, and environmental effects. Currently Langley has more than 300 balances available for its researchers. This paper will focus on the design concepts for internal sting mounted strain-gage balances. However, these techniques can be applied to all force measurement design applications. Strain-gage balance concepts that have been developed over the years including material selection, sting, model interfaces, measuring, sections, fabrication, strain-gaging and calibration will be discussed.

  6. Design Concept for Garbage Bin with Situation Awareness Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supattatham, Montri; Papasratorn, Borworn

    Many measures to prevent wide-spread of communicable diseases depends on embedded IT into objects found in public places. This makes it possible to have objects with awareness on surrounding environment, or having situation awareness. This paper presents design concept to add situation awareness features to automatic garbage bin. There are three design levels for including situation awareness features with garbage bin. From awareness goals, required features are identified. Perception, comprehension, and projection are then aligned with the required features, in order to have desired awareness. Automatic garbage bin is implemented using design specification from the proposed design concept. Result from convenience sampling survey reveals that users are satisfied with the implemented garbage bin.

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations based on Soviet design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of several missile concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on some typical Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing missiles with either forward- or aft-tail controls, and wing-control missiles with fixed aft stabilizing surfaces. The conceptual missions include air-to-air, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface. Analytical and experimental results indicate that through the proper shaping and location of components, and through the exploitation of local flow fields, the concepts provide generally good stability characteristics, high control effectiveness, and low control hinge moments. In addition, in the case of some cruise-type missions, there are indications of the application of area ruling as a means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency. In general, a point-design philosophy is indicated whereby a particular configuration is developed for performing a particular mission.

  8. Concepts and software for a rational design of polynucleotide probes.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Cristina; Moraru, Gabriel; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf

    2011-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of genes and mRNA is most often based on polynucleotide probes. However, so far there was no published framework for the rational design of polynucleotide probes. The well-established concepts for oligonucleotide probe design cannot be transferred to polynucleotides. Due to the high allele diversity of genes, a single probe is not sufficient to detect all alleles of a gene. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop a concept and software (PolyPro) for rational design of polynucleotide probe mixes to target particular genes. PolyPro consists of three modules: a GenBank Taxonomy Extractor (GTE), a Polynucleotide Probe Designer (PPD) and a Hybridization Parameters Calculator (HPC). The new concept proposes the construction of defined polynucleotide mixes to target the habitat specific sequence diversity of a particular gene. The concept and the software are intended as a first step towards a more frequent application of polynucleotides for in situ identification of mRNA and genes in environmental microbiology. PMID:23761233

  9. A study of spaceraft technology and design concepts, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zylius, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts for advancing the state of the art in the design of unmanned spacecraft, the requirements that gave rise to its configuration, and the programs of technology that are suggested as leading to its eventual development are examined. Particular technology issues discussed include: structures and materials; thermal control; propulsion; electrical power; communications; data management; and guidance, navigation, and control.

  10. Designing Multimedia Games for Young Children's Taxonomic Concept Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En; Lee, Meng-Da

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to design and evaluate multimedia games which were based on the theories of children's development of taxonomic concepts. Factors that might affect children's classification skills, such as use of single physical characteristics of objects, competition between thematic and taxonomic relationships, difficulty in forming…

  11. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  12. Closed-pore Insulation Thermal Protection System Design Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Harris, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a unique closed-pore ceramic foam insulation (CPI) produced from low cost fly ash cenospheres is reported for space shuttle external thermal protection. Two basic design approaches were developed: bonded and mechanically fastened. A description of the concepts is presented in addition to fabrication and test results.

  13. Evaluation of Design Concepts for Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Future long-duration missions to Mars using in situ resource production to obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere for use as a propellant or for life support will require long term oxygen storage facilities. This report describes preliminary analysis of design concepts for lightweight, collapsible liquid oxygen storage tanks to be used on the surface of Mars. With storage at relatively low pressures, an inflatable tank concept in which the cryogen is stored within a fiber-reinforced Teflon FEP bladder is an efficient approach. The technology required for such a tank is well-developed through similar previous applications in positive expulsion bladders for zero-g liquid fuel rocket tanks and inflatable space habitat technology, though the liquid oxygen environment presents unique challenges. The weight of the proposed structure is largely dominated by the support structure needed to hold the tank off the ground and permit a vacuum insulation space to be maintained around the tank. In addition to the inflatable tank concept, telescoping tank concepts are studied. For a telescoping tank, the greatest difficulty is in making effective joints and seals. The use of shape memory alloy to produce a passive clamping ring is evaluated. Although the telescoping tank concepts are a viable option, it appears that inflatable tank concepts will be more efficient and are recommended.

  14. Concept and design of a multiple-function laser (MFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karning, Heinrich; Ruger, James F.; Weispfenning, Martin

    1998-10-01

    The multifunctional properties of modern Laser sources for future military sensor applications will be studied. The goal of this study is the design of a modular laser source which covers various functions like: Laser rangefinding. Target designation (1.06 micrometer), Eyesafe target designation (1.5 micrometer), Laser radar for Automatic target recognition, Identification friend or foe using Laser interrogation with D- band response as well as allowance for Covert communication and Missile jamming with a laser in the 3 to 5 micrometer range. It is obvious that these applications require a wide range of power levels, wavelength agility and pulse repetition rates. The concept for a compact Laser source to cover these requirements will be presented. In addition a concept for the integrated sensor to provide the above mentioned functions will also be presented.

  15. Bionic Concept Applied to Flow Slab Design of PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. T.; Chang, C. P.

    A character of fuel cell with high potency and low pollution was known well and considered as a new generation of power technology. In this study a novel design of flow slab addressed and originated from bionic concept will be applied to improve the performance of PEMFC. Simulation results executed at Re = 100 show that the bionic flow type will possess a better uniformity of velocity and lower pressure drop. Besides, the integral performance concerned at SDR and PDR will also show the bionic flow type to be an outstanding design. Hence, this novel flow design addressed will be useful to promotion of PEMFC.

  16. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  17. A survey of aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul

    1987-01-01

    The five existing design concepts of the aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle (namely, the raked sphere-cone designs, conical lifting-brake, raked elliptic-cone, lifting-body, and ballute) are reviewed and critiqued. Historical backgrounds, and the geometrical, aerothermal, and operational features of these designs are reviewed first. Then, the technological requirements for the vehicle (namely, navigation, aerodynamic stability and control, afterbody flow impingement, nonequilibrium radiation, convective heat-transfer rates, mission abort and multiple atmospheric passes, transportation and construction, and the payload-to-vehicle weight requirements) are delineated by summarizing the recent advancements made on these issues. Each of the five designs are critiqued and rated on these issues. The highest and the lowest ratings are given to the raked sphere-cone and the ballute design, respectively.

  18. Design and Analysis of a Stiffened Composite Structure Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam

    2011-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened thin-skin composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure is presented. Since the repair concept is a bolted repair using metal components, it can easily be applied in the operational environment. Initial analyses are aimed at validating the finite element modeling approach by comparing with available test data. Once confidence in the analysis approach is established several repair configurations are explored and the most efficient one presented. Repairs involving damage to the top of the stiffener alone are considered in addition to repairs involving a damaged stiffener, flange and underlying skin. High fidelity finite element modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners, elastic-plastic metallic material properties and geometrically nonlinear analysis are utilized in the effort. The results of the analysis are presented and factors influencing the design are assessed and discussed.

  19. A centrifugal pump concept designed for multiple use in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, E.; Wulz, H. G.

    A centrifugal pump concept was elaborated for a multiple application in future spacecrafts. Based on this concept a prototype of a small centrifugal pump was manufactured and comprehensively tested. The model pump has been approved in different test series with the fluids liquid ammonia and demineralized water. The design of the model pump was driven by strict requirements of COLUMBUS, namely long life, noiseless operation, minimum mass and low energy consumption. Because of its modular design and as a result of selected materials of multiple compatibility, this pump is suited for the delivery of various further fluids, such as freons, hydrocarbons, propellants (hydrazine) etc.. It is also capable of pumping corrosive or toxic fluids for laboratory processes in space. The wide speed range from about 1,00 to 20,000 rpm which corresponds to a flow from about 1 to 20 l/min, permits an energy saving adaption and flow control.

  20. Concept design of a new generation military vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Ursescu, Gabriel; Serrao, Lorenzo; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Bechtel, James; Udvare, Thomas; Letherwood, Mike

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an advanced concept for a next generation military vehicle based on state of the art technologies. The vehicle's platform will be directly suitable for high mobility applications for instance: Special Forces missions, Marine reconnaissance missions, and commercial racing in events such as Bajas and the Paris - Dakar. The platform will be a 10000 -14000 lbs high-speed multi-purpose vehicle, designed for extreme off-road operation. A completely new suspension concept is expected to be developed and the new vehicle topology will accommodate a new generation hybrid-electric power train. The dynamic performance targets are 125 mph off-road and 0-60 in 7 seconds. The concept design will focus also on survivability mainly through the use of a new vehicle topology (herein referred to as "island") specifically designed to enhance crew protection. The "island" topology consists in locating the powertrain and other vehicle equipment and subsystems around the crew compartment. Thus, even in the event of an external shield penetration the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment which serves in an additional role as a secondary shield. The paper presents vehicle specifications, performance capabilities, simulation models and virtual models of the vehicle.

  1. Nanoplasmonics: New Design Concepts For Nanoscale Optical Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Stefan A.

    2010-10-07

    The design of nanoplasmonic cavities exploiting coherent processes such as sub- and superradiance as well as Fano-type interactions will be discussed, under the framework of plasmon hybridization theory. In such cavities, interactions between bright and dark localized plasmon modes lead to a complex mode spectrum, which can be visualized using electron energy loss spectroscopy. First implementations fabricated using electron beam lithography will be presented. Furthermore, it will be shown how the concept of transformation optics can be utilized for the design of nanoresonators with a broadband absorption spectrum, showing high promise for light harvesting over the whole visible and infrared range of the spectrum.

  2. Marco (Medical Record Communications) - System Concept, Design and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, P. H.; Heisler, B. D.; Mela, W. D.; Alpert, J. J.; Goldstein, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    MARCO, an interfacility communication system, has been designed to promote safe relevant health care delivery to the inner city pediatric patient receiving care in a network consisting of Boston City Hospital and its affiliated Neighborhood Health Centers. This application of computer technology to communication of medical information compiled on an individual patient in multiple locations has implications for private group practice as well as other urban networks similar to our own. This paper provides the MARCO system concept, the system design and evaluation of its success after two years of operation.

  3. An optical reflectarray nanoantenna: the concept and design.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Akram; Ghadarghadr, Shabnam; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and design of a reflectarray nanoantenna at optical frequencies whose elements are nano-sized concentric spherical particles with the core made of ordinary dielectrics and the shell made of a plasmonic material. Modeling approaches based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical method and dipole-modes scattering theory are used to characterize and tune the reflectarray design. A 6x6 elements reflectarray nanoantenna operating at wavelength 357.1nm with narrow beamwidth is presented, and its scanned radiation characteristics for 15 degrees and 30 degrees are demonstrated. PMID:20173831

  4. Automating expert role to determine design concept in Kansei Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokman, Anitawati Mohd; Haron, Mohammad Bakri Che; Abidin, Siti Zaleha Zainal; Khalid, Noor Elaiza Abd

    2016-02-01

    Affect has become imperative in product quality. In affective design field, Kansei Engineering (KE) has been recognized as a technology that enables discovery of consumer's emotion and formulation of guide to design products that win consumers in the competitive market. Albeit powerful technology, there is no rule of thumb in its analysis and interpretation process. KE expertise is required to determine sets of related Kansei and the significant concept of emotion. Many research endeavors become handicapped with the limited number of available and accessible KE experts. This work is performed to simulate the role of experts with the use of Natphoric algorithm thus providing sound solution to the complexity and flexibility in KE. The algorithm is designed to learn the process by implementing training datasets taken from previous KE research works. A framework for automated KE is then designed to realize the development of automated KE system. A comparative analysis is performed to determine feasibility of the developed prototype to automate the process. The result shows that the significant Kansei is determined by manual KE implementation and the automated process is highly similar. KE research advocates will benefit this system to automatically determine significant design concepts.

  5. Generic repository design concepts and thermal analysis (FY11).

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Robert; Dupont, Mark; Blink, James A.; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Carter, Joe; Hardin, Ernest L.; Sutton, Mark A.

    2011-08-01

    Reference concepts for geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the U.S. are developed, including geologic settings and engineered barriers. Repository thermal analysis is demonstrated for a range of waste types from projected future, advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The results show significant differences among geologic media considered (clay/shale, crystalline rock, salt), and also that waste package size and waste loading must be limited to meet targeted maximum temperature values. In this study, the UFD R&D Campaign has developed a set of reference geologic disposal concepts for a range of waste types that could potentially be generated in advanced nuclear FCs. A disposal concept consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. Mature repository concepts have been developed in other countries for disposal of spent LWR fuel and HLW from reprocessing UNF, and these serve as starting points for developing this set. Additional design details and EBS concepts will be considered as the reference disposal concepts evolve. The waste inventory considered in this study includes: (1) direct disposal of SNF from the LWR fleet, including Gen III+ advanced LWRs being developed through the Nuclear Power 2010 Program, operating in a once-through cycle; (2) waste generated from reprocessing of LWR UOX UNF to recover U and Pu, and subsequent direct disposal of used Pu-MOX fuel (also used in LWRs) in a modified-open cycle; and (3) waste generated by continuous recycling of metal fuel from fast reactors operating in a TRU burner configuration, with additional TRU material input supplied from reprocessing of LWR UOX fuel. The geologic setting provides the natural barriers, and establishes the boundary conditions for performance of engineered barriers. The composition and physical properties of the host medium dictate design and construction approaches, and determine hydrologic and thermal responses of the

  6. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2003-01-01

    A study was recently carried out by a team from JPL and the DOE to investigate the utility of a DOE-developed 3 kWe surface fission power system for Mars missions. The team was originally tasked to perform a study to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of incorporation of such a power system into a landed mission. In the course of the study it became clear that the application of such a power system was enabling to a wide variety of potential missions. Of these, two missions were developed, one for a stationary lander and one for a reactor-powered rover. This paper discusses the design of the rover mission, which was developed around the concept of incorporating the fission power system directly into a large rover chassis to provide high power, long range traverse capability. The rover design is based on a minimum extrapolation of technology, and adapts existing concepts developed at JPL for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, lander and EDL systems. The small size of the reactor allowed its incorporation directly into an existing large MSL rover chassis design, allowing direct use of MSL aeroshell and pallet lander elements, beefed up to support the significantly greater mass involved in the nuclear power system and its associated shielding. This paper describes the unique design challenges encountered in the development of this mission architecture and incorporation of the fission power system in the rover, and presents a detailed description of the final design of this innovative concept for providing long range, long duration mobility on Mars.

  7. A concept ideation framework for medical device design.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Thomas J; Grosse, Ian R; Krishnamurty, Sundar

    2015-06-01

    Medical device design is a challenging process, often requiring collaboration between medical and engineering domain experts. This collaboration can be best institutionalized through systematic knowledge transfer between the two domains coupled with effective knowledge management throughout the design innovation process. Toward this goal, we present the development of a semantic framework for medical device design that unifies a large medical ontology with detailed engineering functional models along with the repository of design innovation information contained in the US Patent Database. As part of our development, existing medical, engineering, and patent document ontologies were modified and interlinked to create a comprehensive medical device innovation and design tool with appropriate properties and semantic relations to facilitate knowledge capture, enrich existing knowledge, and enable effective knowledge reuse for different scenarios. The result is a Concept Ideation Framework for Medical Device Design (CIFMeDD). Key features of the resulting framework include function-based searching and automated inter-domain reasoning to uniquely enable identification of functionally similar procedures, tools, and inventions from multiple domains based on simple semantic searches. The significance and usefulness of the resulting framework for aiding in conceptual design and innovation in the medical realm are explored via two case studies examining medical device design problems. PMID:25956618

  8. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  9. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  10. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Composite Turbine Vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Parikh, Ankur H.; Nagpal, VInod K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop design concepts for a cooled ceramic vane to be used in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine(HPT). To insure that the design concepts were relevant to the gas turbine industry needs, Honeywell International Inc. was subcontracted to provide technical guidance for this work. The work performed under this contract can be divided into three broad categories. The first was an analysis of the cycle benefits arising from the higher temperature capability of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) compared with conventional metallic vane materials. The second category was a series of structural analyses for variations in the internal configuration of first stage vane for the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) of a CF6 class commercial airline engine. The third category was analysis for a radial cooled turbine vanes for use in turboshaft engine applications. The size, shape and internal configuration of the turboshaft engine vanes were selected to investigate a cooling concept appropriate to small CMC vanes.

  11. 3MI OPD optical design: concept and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, Riccardo; Bartoli, Alessandro; Maiorano, Michele; Bruno, Umberto; Belli, Fabio; Bove, Giuseppe; Caruso, Alberto; Calamai, Luciano; Manolis, Ilias; Labate, Demetrio

    2015-09-01

    The Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarisation Imager (3MI) is an imaging radiometer for the ESA/Eumetsat MetOp-SG programme. Based on the heritage of POLDER/PARASOL, 3MI will collect global observations of the top-of-atmosphere polarised bi-directional reflectance distribution function in 12 spectral bands, by observing the same target from multiple views using a push-broom scanning concept. In order to mitigate any technological risks associated with the 3MI instrument development, an Elegant Breadboard of representative form, function and performance to the 3MI VNIR lens was foreseen in the frame of the Optics Pre- Development (OPD) activity. The optical design and the performance results of the OPD VNIR lens are presented, from the top level requirements flow-down to the optical design solution and concept adopted. The large FOV and image irradiance uniformity, the extended VNIR spectral range, combined with the demanding polarisation and stray-light requirements are the main design drivers. The design concept is based on a Galilean telescope coupled to a focusing group. The aperture stop, placed in between, is located in such a way that the system is telecentric in image space. The system exhibits a fine control of the entrance pupil size as a function of the FOV, low distortion and correction of lateral chromatic aberration. Polarisation related performances are achieved by low polarisation sensitivity and low retardance anti-reflection coatings, as well as by a proper selection of glass material properties.

  12. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  13. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  14. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  15. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Thomas; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the pre- and posttest stage in five courses (total n = 580 students) at a large research university in western Canada. Calculated difficulty and discrimination metrics indicated that BEDCI questions are able to effectively capture learning changes at the undergraduate level. A high correlation (r = 0.84) between responses by students in similar courses and at the same stage of their academic career, also suggests that the test is reliable. Students showed significant positive learning changes by the posttest stage, but some non–expert-like responses were widespread and persistent. BEDCI is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool that can be used in a variety of life sciences disciplines. PMID:25185236

  16. Evolution of design concepts for remotely maintainable equipment racks

    SciTech Connect

    Peishel, F.L.; Mouring, R.W.; Schrock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment racks have been used to support process equipment in radioactive facilities for many years. Improvements in the design of these racks have evolved relatively slowly primarily as a result of limitations in the capabilities of maintenance equipment; that is, tasks could only be approached from above using bridge cranes with viewing primarily through periscopes. In recent years, however, technological advances have been made by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in bridge-mounted servomanipulators with onboard auxiliary hoists and television viewing systems. These advances permit full cell coverage by the manipulator arms which, in turn, allow maintenance tasks to be approached horizontally as well as from above. Maintainable equipment items can be stacked vertically on a rack because total overhead access is less important and maintenance tasks that would not have been attempted in the past can now be performed. These advances permit greater flexibility in the design and cell layout of the racks and lead to concepts that could significantly increase the availability of a facility. The evolution of rack design and a description of the alternative concepts based on present maintenance systems capabilities are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Fundamental design concepts in multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2005-12-01

    The most fundamental concept in designing multi-lane smart electromechanical actuation systems, besides meeting performance requirements, is the realization of high integrity. The essential requirements for realizing high integrity (and in any safety-critical system) are hardware redundancy and intelligent monitoring. To correctly detect, identify, isolate and replace redundant components, an intelligent fault detection and fault isolation scheme is required. The effectiveness of any fault detection and fault isolation system is assessed by examining promptness of detection, sensitivity, missed fault detection, the rate of false alarms, and incorrect fault identification. These terms are very much dependent on the threshold values of the monitoring devices imbedded in the system. The main aim of this paper is to provide fundamental consolidation designs and monitoring schemes in different architectures. It will address single-type and two-type summing architectures and highlight feedback sensor integration and monitoring strategies in the former, and explore the suitability of different threshold setting methodologies such as a simulation-graphical based Monte Carlo method, decision theory and analysis of variance. The paper will also address other fundamentals that are essential at the design stage, such as control surface load estimation, force fight (between mismatch lanes) reduction through lane equalization, and threshold setting concepts (scheduled and unscheduled) in a multi-mode operation system. The analysis is based on a four-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with two lanes failed) of an aileron control surface similar to that of the Sea Harrier.

  18. Concepts for the design of an antimatter annihilation rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation is considered for spacecraft propulsion. Annihilation produces considerably more energy per unit mass of propellant than any other known means of energy production. An antimatter annihilation rocket requires several systems and components that are unique to its nature. Among these are an antimatter storage system, a means to extract the antimatter from storage, a system to transport the antimatter to the rocket engine, and the engine wherein annihilation occurs and thrust is produced. Design concepts of these systems and components are presented and discussed.

  19. A modular steel freeway bridge: design concept and earthquake resistance.

    PubMed

    Wattenburg, W H; McCallen, D B; Murray, R C

    1995-04-14

    A modular multilane steel freeway bridge has been constructed from surplus railroad flatcar decks. It can be erected on-site in a few days' time. It has been built and static-load tested for emergency freeway bridge repair. This inexpensive modular bridge may also have broad application around the world for low-cost bridges in areas where funds are limited. On the basis of static-load testing performed by the California Department of Transportation and computer dynamic analysis, this simple modular-design concept has the potential of providing a strong bridge that can withstand the severe aftershocks expected immediately after a major earthquake. PMID:17814794

  20. Structural Design Methodology Based on Concepts of Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Du, Jiaji; Rusk, David

    2000-01-01

    In this report, an approach to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design is proposed based on the concept of an equivalent "Level of Safety" that incorporates past service experience in the design of new structures. The discrete "Level of Safety" for a single inspection event is defined as the compliment of the probability that a single flaw size larger than the critical flaw size for residual strength of the structure exists, and that the flaw will not be detected. The cumulative "Level of Safety" for the entire structure is the product of the discrete "Level of Safety" values for each flaw of each damage type present at each location in the structure. Based on the definition of "Level of Safety", a design procedure was identified and demonstrated on a composite sandwich panel for various damage types, with results showing the sensitivity of the structural sizing parameters to the relative safety of the design. The "Level of Safety" approach has broad potential application to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design with uncertainty.

  1. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 1: Conceptional design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). As part of the design study critical technology issues were identified and a technology acquisition and demonstration plan was formulated.

  2. Natural optical design concepts for highly miniaturized camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    1999-08-01

    Microcameras for computers, mobile phones, watches, security system and credit cards is a very promising future market. Semiconductor industry is now able to integrate light reception, signal amplification and processing in a low- power-consuming microchip of a few mm2 size. Active pixel sensors supply each pixel in an image sensor with an individually programmable functionality. Beside the electronic receptor chip, a highly miniaturized lens system is required. Compared to the progress in microelectronics, optics has not yet made a significant step. Today's microcamera lenses are usually a downscaled version of a classical lens system and rarely smaller than 3 mm X 3 mm X 3 mm. This lagging of optics is quite surprising. Biologists have systematically studied all types of natural eye sensors since the 18th Century. Mother Nature provides a variety of highly effective examples for miniaturized imaging system. Single-aperture systems are the appropriate solution if the size is a free design parameter. If the budget is tight and optics limited to size, nature prefers multiple-aperture systems, the so-called compound eyes. As compound eyes are limited in resolution and night view, a cluster of single-aperture eyes, as jumping spiders use, is probably a better solution. The recent development in micro- optics offers the chance to imitate such natural design concepts. We have investigated miniaturized imaging systems based on microlens array and natural optical design concepts. Practical limitations for system design, packaging and assembling are given. Examples for micro-optical components and imaging systems are presented.

  3. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  4. Design Concepts for the Generation-X Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D.; Danner, R.; Pearson, D.; Shropshire, D.

    2010-03-01

    The Generation-X mission, proposed by Roger Brissenden at SAO, is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 time period. As currently conceived Gen-X would be a follow-on to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with a collecting area ≥ 50 m2, 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution, which would be launched in 2030 with an Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Our design concept assumes an Ares V with a 10-m diameter, 1,400 m3 volume fairing (or an equivalent launch vehicle) will be developed for NASA's exploration program. The key features of this design include a 16-m diameter deployable x-ray mirror provides a collecting area of 136 m2 a 60-m deployable optical bench which utilizes a Tensegrity structure to achieve high stiffness with low mass; and adaptive grazing incidence optics. Gen-X's combination of large collecting area and high spatial resolution will provide 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than IXO, enabling scientists to study the formation and growth of the first black holes at z ≈ 8-15 with 0.1 to 10 keV fluxes of ≈ 10-20 erg cm-2s-1.

  5. Design Concepts for the Generation-X Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D.; Danner, R.; Shropshire, D.; Pearson, D.

    2009-09-01

    The Generation-X mission, proposed by Roger Brissenden at SAO, is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 time period. As currently conceived Gen-X would be a follow-on to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with a collecting area ≥ 50 m^2, 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution, which would be launched in ˜2030 with an Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Our design concept assumes an Ares V with a 10-m diameter, 1,400 m^3 volume fairing (or an equivalent launch vehicle) will be developed for NASA's exploration program. The key features of this design include a 16-m diameter deployable x-ray mirror provides a collecting area of 136 m^2; a 60-m deployable optical bench which utilizes a Tensegrity structure to achieve high stiffness with low mass; and adaptive grazing incidence optics. Gen-X's combination of large collecting area and high spatial resolution will provide 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than IXO, enabling scientists to study the formation and growth of the first black holes at z ≈ 8-15 with 0.1 to 10 keV fluxes of ≈ 10-20 erg cm^{-2}s^{-1}.

  6. PIAA coronagraph design for the Exo-C Mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Krist, John; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The Exoplanet Coronagraph (Exo-C) mission concept consists of a 1.4m space telescope equipped with a high performance coronagraph to directly image exoplanets and disks around many nearby stars. One of the coronagraphs under consideration to be used for this mission is the highly efficient Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. This paper presents and describes: (a) the PIAA design for Exo-C; (b) an end-to-end performance analysis including sensitivity to jitter, and (c) the expected science yield of Exo-C with PIAA. The design is a "classic" PIAA, which is made possible by the unobstructed aperture. It consists of a pair of forward and inverse PIAA optics and a simple hard-edge focal plane mask. A mild binary pre-apodizer relaxes the radius of curvature on the PIAA mirrors to be easier than typical PIAA mirrors manufactured to date. This design has been optimized for high performance while being relatively insensitive to low order aberrations. The throughput is 90% relative to telescope PSF, while the inner working angle is 2.1 l/D and the contrast is ~1e-9 in a full 360-degree field of view (after wavefront control with two DMs), all for a 20% spectral band centered around 550nm. The design also has good tolerance to jitter: contrast at 1.6mas jitter is still within a factor of a few of 1e-9.

  7. Proceedings: Persepectives on adolescent medicine: concepts and program design.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M I; Litt, R F; Schonberg, S K; Sheehy, A J; Daum, F; Hein, K

    1975-01-01

    The concepts and goals of a program in adolescent medicine should include development of a capability to focus on current health needs of youth in a variety of settings; to plan clinical services to meet those needs with the flexibility necessary to respond to changing future requirements; and to deliver service within such a context while simulataneously creating a milieu conducive to education and investigation into the very process and definition of adolescence. The Division of Adolescent Medicine at Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center was designed 7 years ago to fulfill these goals and consequently may serve others as a functional model for health care delivery to teenagers. The Division is comprised of: (1) a 37 bed in-patient unit; (2) a hospital-based ambulatory program including general diagnostic and follow-up services, as well as a speciality service capability in the areas of gynecology and family planning, cardiology, gastroenterology and nutrition; (3) primary care health services within teenage dentention and prison facilities; (4) addictive disease diagnostic and treatment programs; (5) school health programs from intermediate school through college levels, and (6) the division also performs supportive and consultative functions for a variety of community-based agencies. Within the programatic design approximately 70,000 adolescents have been served. The cornerstone of the educational and investigative efforts has been the concept that all the above six functional units are clinical laboratories and classrooms so that training and research activities are integral parts of each of the service areas. This program design is continually undergoing revision and refinement so as to remain ever-responsive to new and emerging problems to meet additional training demands and, most importantly, to permit and encourage creativity and growth patients and staff. PMID:1065206

  8. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît

    2014-02-18

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  9. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît

    2014-02-01

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  10. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) evolved design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, David; Duncan, Alan; Pitman, Joseph T.; Sigler, Robert; Kendrick, Rick; Smith, Eric H.; Mason, James

    2004-10-01

    An innovative approach to future space telescopes that enables order of magnitude increased science return for astronomical, Earth-observing and planetary science missions is described. Our concept, called Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes. MIDAS integrates many optical interferometry advances as an evolution of over a decade of technology development in distributed aperture optical imaging systems. Nine collector telescopes are integrated into MIDAS as the primary remote sensing science payload, supporting a collection of six back-end science instruments tailored to a specific mission. By interfacing to multiple science instruments, enabling sequential and concurrent functional modes, we expand the potential science return of future space science missions many fold. Passive imaging modes with MIDAS enable remote sensing at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each science instrument, as well as in somewhat lower resolution by multiple science instruments acting concurrently on the image, such as in different wavebands. Our MIDAS concept inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the science instruments. For Earth-observing and planetary science missions, the MIDAS optical design provides high-resolution imaging at high altitudes for long dwell times, thereby enabling real-time, wide-area remote sensing of dynamic planetary surface characteristics. In its active remote sensing modes, using an integrated solid-state laser source, MIDAS enables surface illumination, active spectroscopy, LIDAR, vibrometery, and optical communications. Our concept is directly scalable to telescope synthetic apertures of 5m, limited by launch vehicle fairing diameter, and above 5m diameter achieved by means of autonomous deployments or manned

  11. Test bed control center design concept for Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the design concept for the control center for the Single Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System test bed and the design process behind the concept. The design concept supports all phases of the test bed mission, including technology demonstration, comprehensive system testing, and comparative evaluation for further development and refinement of the TWRMS for field operations.

  12. A new design concept for multifunctional fasteners using smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hwan-Sik

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a new design concept for multifunctional fasteners using smart materials is presented. The proposed piezoelectric devices, named 'smart fasteners,' can be fabricated by modifying the design of ordinary fasteners such that they have a piezoelectric element and a control unit embedded in their body. These smart fasteners can not only clamp structural members like ordinary fasteners but also measure the response of the structure and generate forces to enhance the dynamic performance of the structure. Due to their fastener-type design, they are more convenient to install onto or remove from structures compared to conventional piezoceramic patch actuators for which a bonding epoxy layer needs to be applied. In order to demonstrate their applicability in active vibration controls, a simulation study was conducted on a fixed-fixed beam structure. Since the control force is applied at the boundary of the structure where the smart fasteners are attached, a new control algorithm called Active Boundary Control (ABC) was developed using the Lyapunov's direct method. The simulation results show that smart fasteners can be used to suppress vibration of the beam by applying the Lyapunov-based Active Boundary Control algorithm.

  13. Facilitating the Concept of Universal Design Among Design Students - Changes in Teaching in the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Vavik, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This short paper describes and reflects on how the teaching of the concept of Universal Design (UD) has developed in the last decade at the Institute of Design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO). Four main changes are described. Firstly, the curriculum has evolved from teaching guidelines and principles to focusing on design processes. Secondly, an increased emphasis is put on cognitive accessibility. Thirdly, non-stigmatizing aesthetics expressions and solutions that communicate through different senses have become more important subjects. Fourthly the teaching of UD has moved from the second to the first year curriculum. PMID:27534301

  14. Application of Systems Engineering Principles for Concept Design of New Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karunakaran Nair Ajith; Jagathy Raj, Vettuvila Purushothaman

    2016-06-01

    A successful engineering design is one that meets the user requirements completely. Design essentially starts with concept design followed by detailed design. The importance of concept design is brought out in this paper. Systems engineering principles and practices are used to build the concept design starting from user requirements and user specified reference scenarios. Systems engineering methodology helps in proper understanding of the user requirements, identifying multiple solutions, short listing the candidate solutions and finally selecting one or two feasible designs. A case study analysis is presented to demonstrate the systems engineering practices followed for concept abstraction and preliminary design of a typical engineering system.

  15. Applying Quality by Design Concepts to Pharmacy Compounding.

    PubMed

    Timko, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Compounding of medications is an important part of the practice of the pharmacy profession. Because compounded medications do not have U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, a pharmacist has the responsibility to ensure that compounded medications are of suitable quality, safety, and efficacy. The Federal Government and numerous states have updated their laws and regulations regarding pharmacy compounding as a result of recent quality issues. Compounding pharmacists are expected to follow good preparation prodecures in their compounding practices in much the same way pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to follow Current Good Manufacturing Procedures as detailed in the United States Code of Federal Regulations. Application of Quality by Design concepts to the preparation process for a compounded medication can help in understanding the potential pitfalls and the means to mitigate their impact. The goal is to build quality into the compounding process to ensure that the resultant compounded prescription meets the human or animal patients' requirements. PMID:26891559

  16. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  17. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  18. Design concepts to improve high performance solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juranek, H. J.; Frey, H. U.

    1986-01-01

    By improving several important components of the well known off-axis solar simulator system, a considerable step forward was made. The careful mathematical studies on the optics and the thermal side of the problem lead to a highly efficient system with low operational costs and a high reliability. The actual performance of the simulator is significantly better than the specified one, and the efficiency is outstanding. No more than 12 lamps operating at 18 kW are required to obtain one Solar Constant in the 6 m beam. It is now known that by using sophisticated optics, even larger facilities of high performance can be designed without leaving the proven off-axis concept and using a spherical mirror. Using high performance optics is a means of reducing costs at a given size of beam because the number of lamps is one of the most cost driving factors in the construction of a solar simulator.

  19. Improved design concepts for millimeter wave power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granatstein, V. L.; Guo, H.; Carmel, Y.

    1993-03-01

    This progress report summarizes the work done during the period from 15 Mar. 1992 to 14 Mar. 1993. In the past year, we have designed a phase-locked, harmonic, inverted gyro-twistron, known as the phigtron. The phigtron combines a subharmonic gyro-TWT amplifier input section with a gyroklystron type output cavity. The phigtron is expected to reach much higher phase-locking gain and wider bandwidth than the two cavity phase-locked gyroklystron oscillator. The efficient and stable operation of this phase-locked harmonic gyrotron will be obtained through the implementation of mode selective interaction circuits. The proof-of-principle cold test results of such circuitry have recently been obtained indicating that the technical realization of this research concept is feasible. The construction of the phigtron hot test laboratory facility is now actively proceeding.

  20. Exploring Systematic Effects in the Mass-Metallicity-SFR Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, O. G.; Dalcanton, J.; Skillman, E.; Conroy, C.

    2016-06-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of the correlation between metallicity and SFR may be used along with chemical evolution models to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows), but the observed strength of this correlation varies widely among studies using both single-fiber and IFU spectroscopy. We analyze possible sources of systematic error that could affect the observed strength of this correlation, including choice of metallicity calibration. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity and SFR using a new set of theoretically calibrated abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. (2013) for ~150,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using any of these new strong emission line abundance diagnostics yields a relatively weak correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass, in contrast to the stronger correlation found by some previous studies using other metallicity diagnostics. We also consider other possible sources of bias that can affect the metallicity correlation with SFR, including uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. Finally, we present preliminary results from current work investigating the effect of the choice of binning technique on derivations of direct method metallicities for stacked galaxy spectra and the subsequent impact on the correlation between metallicity and SFR. The large uncertainty in the true strength of the relation between mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  1. Requirements and design concept for a facility mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.E.; Burks, B.L.; Little, C.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has for some time been considering the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) of facilities which are no longer in use, but which are highly contaminated with radioactive wastes. One of the holdups in performing the D&D task is the accumulation of accurate facility characterizations that can enable a safe and orderly cleanup process. According to the Technical Strategic Plan for the Decontamination and Decommissioning Integrated Demonstration, {open_quotes}the cost of characterization using current baseline technologies for approximately 100 acres of gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge alone is, for the most part incalculable{close_quotes}. Automated, robotic techniques will be necessary for initial characterization and continued surveillance of these types of sites. Robotic systems are being designed and constructed to accomplish these tasks. This paper describes requirements and design concepts for a system to accurately map a facility contaminated with hazardous wastes. Some of the technologies involved in the Facility Mapping System are: remote characterization with teleoperated, sensor-based systems, fusion of data sets from multiple characterization systems, and object recognition from 3D data models. This Facility Mapping System is being assembled by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Technology Development Program.

  2. IRSN working program status on tools for evaluation of SFR cores static neutronics safety parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.; Tiberi, V.; Ecrabet, F.; Chegrani, Y.; Canuti, E.; Bisogni, D.; Sargeni, A.; Bernard, F.

    2012-07-01

    As technical support of the French Nuclear Safety Authority, IRSN will be in charge of safety assessment of any future project of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) that could be built in France. One of the main safety topics will deal with reactivity control. Since the design and safety assessment of the last two SFR plants in France (Phenix and Superphenix, more than thirty years ago), methods, codes and safety objectives have evolved. That is why a working program on core neutronic simulations has been launched in order to be able to evaluate accuracy of future core characteristics computations. The first step consists in getting experienced with the ERANOS well-known deterministic code used in the past for Phenix and Superphenix. Then Monte-Carlo codes have been tested to help in the interpretation of ERANOS results and to define what place this kind of codes can have in a new SFR safety demonstration. This experience is based on open benchmark computations. Different cases are chosen to cover a wide range of configurations. The paper shows, as an example, criticality results obtained with ERANOS, SCALE and MORET, and the first conclusions based on these results. In the future, this work will be extended to other safety parameters such as sodium void and Doppler effects, kinetic parameters or flux distributions. (authors)

  3. Trade-off study on the power capacity of a prototype SFR in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Bae, I. H.

    2012-07-01

    The major roles of a prototype SFR are to provide irradiation test capability for the fuel and structure materials, and to obtain operational experiences of systems. Due to a compromise between the irradiation capability and construction costs, the power level should be properly determined. In this paper, a trade-off study on the power level of the prototype SFR was performed from a neutronics viewpoint. To select candidate cores, the parametric study of pin diameters was estimated using 20 wt.% uranium fuel. The candidate cores of different power levels, 125 MWt, 250 MWt, 400 MWt, and 500 MWt, were compared with the 1500 MWt reference core. The resulting core performance and economic efficiency indices became insensitive to the power at about 400-500 MWt and sharply deteriorated at about 125-250 MWt with decreasing core sizes. Fuel management scheme, TRU core performance comparing with uranium core, and sodium void reactivity were also evaluated with increasing power levels. It is found that increasing the number of batches showed higher burnup performance and economic efficiency. However, increasing the cycle length showed the trends in lower economic efficiency. Irradiation performance of TRU and enriched TRU cores was improved about 20 % and 50 %, respectively. The maximum sodium void reactivity of 5.2$ was confirmed less than the design limit of 7.5$. As a result, the power capacity of the prototype SFR should not be less than 250 MWt and would be appropriate at {approx} 500 MWt considering the performance and economic efficiency. (authors)

  4. Design flood estimation in ungauged basins: probabilistic extension of the design-storm concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Mario; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Design flood estimation in ungauged basins is an important hydrological task, which is in engineering practice typically solved with the design storm concept. However, neglecting the uncertainty in the hydrological response of the catchment through the assumption of average-recurrence-interval (ARI) neutrality between rainfall and runoff can lead to flawed design flood estimates. Additionally, selecting a single critical rainfall duration neglects the contribution of other rainfall durations on the probability of extreme flood events. In this study, the design flood problem is approached with concepts from structural reliability that enable a consistent treatment of multiple uncertainties in estimating the design flood. The uncertainty of key model parameters are represented probabilistically and the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) is used to compute the flood exceedance probability. As an important by-product, the FORM analysis provides the most likely parameter combination to lead to a flood with a certain exceedance probability; i.e. it enables one to find representative scenarios for e.g., a 100 year or a 1000 year flood. Possible different rainfall durations are incorporated by formulating the event of a given design flood as a series system. The method is directly applicable in practice, since for the description of the rainfall depth-duration characteristics, the same inputs as for the classical design storm methods are needed, which are commonly provided by meteorological services. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Trauchgauer Ach catchment in Bavaria, SCS Curve Number (CN) and Unit hydrograph models are used for modeling the hydrological process. The results indicate, in accordance with past experience, that the traditional design storm concept underestimates design floods.

  5. Design and Testing of a Low Noise Flight Guidance Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lewis, Elliot T.

    2004-01-01

    A flight guidance concept was developed to assist in flying continuous descent approach (CDA) procedures designed to lower the noise under the flight path of jet transport aircraft during arrival operations at an airport. The guidance consists of a trajectory prediction algorithm that was tuned to produce a high-efficiency, low noise flight profile with accompanying autopilot and flight display elements needed by the flight control system and pilot to fly the approach. A key component of the flight guidance was a real-time display of energy error relative to the predicted flight path. The guidance was integrated with the conventional Flight Management System (FMS) guidance of a modern jet transport airplane and tested in a high fidelity flight simulation. A charted arrival procedure, which allowed flying conventional arrivals, CDA arrivals with standard guidance, and CDA arrivals with the new low noise guidance, was developed to assist in the testing and evaluation of the low noise guidance concept. Results of the simulation testing showed the low noise guidance was easy to use by airline pilot test subjects and effective in achieving the desired noise reduction. Noise under the flight path was reduced by at least 2 decibels in Sound Exposure Level (SEL) at distances from about 3 nautical miles out to about 17.5 nautical miles from the runway, with a peak reduction of 8.5 decibels at about 10.5 nautical miles. Fuel consumption was also reduced by about 17% for the LNG conditions compared to baseline runs for the same flight distance. Pilot acceptance and understanding of the guidance was quite high with favorable comments and ratings received from all test subjects.

  6. Sub-mSV breast XACT scanner: concept and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shanshan; Ren, Liqiang; Samant, Pratik; Chen, Jian; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2016-04-01

    Excessive exposure to radiation increases the risk of cancer. We present the concept and design of a new imaging paradigm, X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT). Applying this innovative technology to breast imaging, one single X-ray exposure can generate a 3D acoustic image, which dramatically reduces the radiation dose to patients when compared to beast CT. A theoretical model is developed to analyze the sensitivity of XACT. A noise equivalent pressure model is used for calculating the minimal radiation dose in XACT imaging. Furthermore, K-Wave simulation is employed to study the acoustic wave propagation in breast tissue. Theoretical analysis shows that the X-ray induced acoustic signal has a 100% relative sensitivity to the X-ray absorption (given that the percentage change in the X-ray absorption coefficient yields the same percentage change in the acoustic signal amplitude), but not to X-ray scattering. The final detection sensitivity is primarily limited by the thermal noise. The radiation dose can be reduced by a factor of 100 compared with the newly FDA approved breast CT. Reconstruction result shows that breast calcification with diameter of 80 μm can be observed in XACT image by using ultrasound transducers with 5.5 MHz center frequency. Therefore, with the proposed innovative technology, one can potentially reduce radiation dose to patient in breast imaging as compared with current x-ray modalities.

  7. HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Missa P; De Groot, Anne S; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is needed to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic but designing such a vaccine is a challenge. Despite many advances in vaccine technology and approaches to generate both humoral and cellular immune responses, major phase-II and -III vaccine trials against HIV/AIDS have resulted in only moderate successes. The modest achievement of the phase-III RV144 prime-boost trial in Thailand re-emphasized the importance of generating robust humoral and cellular responses against HIV. While antibody-directed approaches are being pursued by some groups, others are attempting to develop vaccines targeting cell-mediated immunity, since evidence show CTLs to be important for the control of HIV replication. Phase-I and -IIa multi-epitope vaccine trials have already been conducted with vaccine immunogens consisting of known CTL epitopes conserved across HIV subtypes, but have so far fallen short of inducing robust and consistent anti-HIV CTL responses. The concepts leading to the development of T-cell epitope-based vaccines, the outcomes of related clinical vaccine trials and efforts to enhance the immunogenicity of cell-mediated approaches are summarized in this review. Moreover, we describe a novel approach based on the identification of SIV and FIV antigens which contain conserved HIV-specific T-cell epitopes and represent an alternative method for developing an effective HIV vaccine against global HIV isolates. PMID:23289052

  8. Molecular design concept for x-ray laser research

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.K.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.

    1992-12-10

    The goal of this program is the construction of an x-ray laser in the kilovolt regime. Recent experimental results indicate that a new technique for the generation of strong amplification of x-ray wavelengths is feasible. It involves the combination of (1) a new ultrahigh brightness subpicosecond laser technology and (2) a recently discovered unique mode of strong-field interaction, particularly applicable to molecules. A concept of molecular x-ray design emerges from the considerations which matches the mode of excitation to the structure of the molecular system. The molecular approach enables the combination of very highly electronically excited conditions with an environment characteristic of dense cold matter, a general situation exceptionally conducive to x-ray amplification. Both high efficiency and wavelength tunability are intrinsic features of this method. Recent results discussed in this report are revealing important characteristics of the molecular strong-field coupling pertinent to this goal. A continued program of research is proposed to evaluate this method for the production of x-ray amplification in the kilovolt region.

  9. Design concepts of solar thermoelectric generators in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raag, V.; Hankins, L.; Swerdling, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several thermoelectric technologies have been examined as to their suitability for use in a solar thermoelectric generator (STG) as a nonpropulsive power source for space applications. The results show that of all the presently available thermoelectric technologies, i.e., lead telluride, bismuth telluride, selenide, and silicon-germanium alloys, the latter type provides the optimum STG. Detailed results are presented on the performance and configurational characteristics of various silicon-germanium alloy STGs, including the performance of such STGs as a function of time in a Mercury orbit and the orbit of Mercury around the sun. It is shown that an STG design based on the use of silicon germanium alloy thermoelectric material, using multiple high voltage thermopiles with individual solar concentrators, presents the optimum combination of technology and configuration for minimizing power source mass. Additional concepts studied and discussed are the flat plate individual thermopile type and single concentrator compact thermopile type. The STG possesses an attractive potential for this application and represents a useful addition to the family of power sources for consideration in various space applications.

  10. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Sessions, Alaric M.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. The existing power system was analyzed to rank components in terms of inefficiency, power dissipation, footprint and mass. Design considerations and priorities are compared along with the results of each design iteration. Overall power system improvements are summarized for design implementations.

  11. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Sessions, Alaric M.; Beyon, Jeffrey; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. The existing power system was analyzed to rank components in terms of inefficiency, power dissipation, footprint and mass. Design considerations and priorities are compared along with the results of each design iteration. Overall power system improvements are summarized for design implementations.

  12. Advanced-power-reactor design concepts and performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, H. W.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Springborn, R. H.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Five reactor cooling concepts which allow continued reactor operation following a single rupture of the coolant system are presented for application with the APR. These concepts incorporate convective cooling, double containment, or heat pipes to ensure operation after a coolant line rupture. Based on an evaluation of several control system concepts, a molybdenum clad, beryllium oxide sliding reflector located outside the pressure vessel is recommended.

  13. Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly constant ({approx

  14. Design of a Synthesizing Lecture on Mechanics Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Natalie E.; Docktor, Jennifer L.; Gladding, Gary E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-10-01

    Within the context of traditional physics problem solving instruction, major concepts are mentioned but often marginalized by the focus on equation manipulation, resulting in students perceiving concepts as unimportant in problem solving. Additionally, since topics are covered as isolated pieces, students also perceive concepts as unrelated. In response to this disconnect, we discuss the development of a short, animated, web-delivered synthesizing presentation modeled after the "common learning resource" from the preparation for future learning construct. In the presentation, major concepts of introductory mechanics are structured hierarchically. More specifically, the presentation is an overview of major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and the conditions under which they are applied. It is linked to previous problems solved by the students and intended to prepare them for future learning by illustrating how concepts guide problem solving processes.

  15. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  16. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  17. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola,Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  18. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola, Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  19. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  20. An empirical SFR estimator for high redshift galaxies:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, Stephane

    2015-08-01

    At high redshift, most of the SFR indicators are limited to the most massive galaxies (Far-IR, radio) and out of reach of optical spectroscopy (Halpha). The UV continuum is the only one available at all redshifts and for galaxies within a large range of mass. The main question is then to properly account for dust absorption. The SED fitting are always limited in the choice of popular attenuation laws (if not only one, starburst) which relies on the slope of the UV continuum. The alternative is to measure the net budget between the absorbed vs un-absorbed UV light i.e. the infrared excess (IRX= Lir/Luv).By using the deep 24 micron in the COSMOS field, we have observed a remarkable behaviour of IRX stripes within the (NUV-r)o vs (r-K)o color diagram which can be used to derive robust SFR estimates just with the Luv, Lr and Lk luminosities (Arnouts et al, 2013). We have shown that we can explain the correlation if we consider a two component models for the birth clouds and the ISM and also a complete model for galaxy inclination to explain the extrem IRX values. We are now extended the method with Herschel data at higher redshift (z~2) and lower masses (M~10^8Mo) by using stacking techniques and find that the IRX-NUVrK correlation persists (Le Floc’h , in prep). This method allows us to derive an accurate SFR for each individual galaxy based on its location in the NUVrK diagram and with no assumption on dust attenuation law, a main caveat for SED fitting technique.We investigated the behavior of the scatter of the SFR-Mass in GOODS and COSMOS fields and find that both SFR (Lir+Luv) or SFR(NUVrK) estimatesare consistent (Ilbert et al., 2015). Finally will investigate the dust-free UV luminosity functions in between 0SFR densities down to 10^8-8.5 Mo, with no resort to stacking technique as in Far-IR or radio wavelength.

  1. Viper cabin-fuselage structural design concept with engine installation and wing structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, B.; Carr, D.; Mccorkle, T.; Stevens, C.; Turner, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the process and considerations in designing the cabin, nose, drive shaft, and wing assemblies for the 'Viper' concept aircraft. Interfaces of these assemblies, as well as interfaces with the sections of the aircraft aft of the cabin, are also discussed. The results of the design process are included. The goal of this project is to provide a structural design which complies with FAR 23 requirements regarding occupant safety, emergency landing loads, and maneuvering loads. The design must also address the interfaces of the various systems in the cabin, nose, and wing, including the drive shaft, venting, vacuum, electrical, fuel, and control systems. Interfaces between the cabin assembly and the wing carrythrough and empennage assemblies were required, as well. In the design of the wing assemblies, consistency with the existing cabin design was required. The major areas considered in this report are materials and construction, loading, maintenance, environmental considerations, wing assembly fatigue, and weight. The first three areas are developed separately for the nose, cabin, drive shaft, and wing assemblies, while the last three are discussed for the entire design. For each assembly, loading calculations were performed to determine the proper sizing of major load carrying components. Table 1.0 lists the resulting margins of safety for these key components, along with the types of the loads involved, and the page number upon which they are discussed.

  2. Object Design: Twelve Concepts to Know, Understand and Apply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschalek, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Some art teachers say that art is all around us when they actually mean that "design" is all around us. The everyday objects we view, purchase, and use are designed. Some are well designed, others are poorly designed, and many are in-between. Teachers need to develop learning strategies that enable their students to understand how design is part…

  3. An integrated mechanical design concept for the final focusingregion for the HIF point design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Barnard, J.J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Chun,J.; Schmidt, J.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Abbott, R.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Pemberton, S.J.; Rose, D.V.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-21

    A design study was undertaken to develop a ''first cut'' integrated mechanical design concept of the final focusing region for a conceptual IFE power plant that considers the major issues which must be addressed in an integrated driver and chamber system. The conceptual design in this study requires a total of 120 beamlines located in two conical arrays attached on the sides of the target chamber 180 degrees apart. Each beamline consists of four large-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnets and a dipole magnet. The major interface issues include radiation shielding and thermal insulation of the superconducting magnets; reaction of electromagnetic loads between the quadrupoles; alignment of the magnets; isolation of the vacuum regions in the target chamber from the beamline, and assembly and maintenance.

  4. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    800 nanometers with three additional discrete near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) ocean aerosol correction bands. Also, to avoid drift in sensor sensitivity from being interpreted as environmental change, climate change research requires rigorous monitoring of sensor stability. For SeaWiFS, monthly lunar imaging accurately tracked stability at an accuracy of approximately 0.1% that allowed the data to be used for climate studies [2]. It is now acknowledged by the international community that future missions and sensor designs need to accommodate lunar calibrations. An overview of ocean color remote sensing and a review of the progress made in ocean color remote sensing and the variety of research applications derived from global satellite ocean color data are provided. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the design options for ocean color satellite radiometers, performance and testing criteria, and sensor components (optics, detectors, electronics, etc.) that must be integrated into an instrument concept. These ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of data that can be delivered as a trade against mission cost. Historically, science and sensor technology have advanced in a "leap-frog" manner in that sensor design requirements for a mission are defined many years before a sensor is launched and by the end of the mission, perhaps 15-20 years later, science applications and requirements are well beyond the capabilities of the sensor. Section 3 provides a summary of historical mission science objectives and sensor requirements. This progression is expected to continue in the future as long as sensor costs can be constrained to affordable levels and still allow the incorporation of new technologies without incurring unacceptable risk to mission success. The IOCCG Report Number 13 discusses future ocean biology mission Level-1 requirements in depth.

  5. Developing Prospective Teachers' Conceptions with Well-Designed Tasks: Explaining Successes and Analyzing Conceptual Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanheiser, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have documented prospective teachers' (PTs') conceptions of various mathematical topics. However, less is known about how PTs' conceptions develop. To address this gap, I designed two tasks with the goals of addressing the PTs' initial conceptions of multidigit whole numbers and helping them develop more sophisticated ones. I…

  6. Multivariable feedback design: concepts for a classical/modern synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J C; Stein, G

    1980-01-01

    A practical design perspective on multivariable feedback control problems is presented. The basic issue - feedback design in the face of uncertainites - is reviewed and known SISO statements and constraints of the design problem to MIMO cases are generalized. Two major MIMO design approaches are then evaluated in the context of these results.

  7. Multivariable feedback design - Concepts for a classical/modern synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. C.; Stein, G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a practical design perspective on multivariable feedback control problems. It reviews the basic issue - feedback design in the face of uncertainties - and generalizes known single-input, single-output (SISO) statements and constraints of the design problem to multiinput, multioutput (MIMO) cases. Two major MIMO design approaches are then evaluated in the context of these results.

  8. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase B report: Candidate RCS concept comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Schweickert, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    The competing auxiliary propulsion concepts for the reusable space shuttle vehicle are defined. The concepts are compared on the basis of selection criteria such as weight, reliability, and technology requirements. Propulsion systems using both cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen and earth storable propellants were considered. Three high value oxygen-hydrogen reaction control system concepts were evaluated. The final comparisons demonstrate that all three concepts are viable design approaches. The flexibility and growth potential of the parallel concept are considered to provide an advantage over the series concept.

  9. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  10. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  11. Preliminary weight and cost estimates for transport aircraft composite structural design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary weight and cost estimates have been prepared for design concepts utilized for a transonic long range transport airframe with extensive applications of advanced composite materials. The design concepts, manufacturing approach, and anticipated details of manufacturing cost reflected in the composite airframe are substantially different from those found in conventional metal structure and offer further evidence of the advantages of advanced composite materials.

  12. Design Concepts for a Global Telemetered Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Orsini, Nicholas A.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study represents a first step in developing an integrated, real-tlme global seismic data acquisition system -- a Global Telemetered Seismograph Network (GTSN). The principal objective of the GTSN will be to acquire reliable, high-quality, real-time seismic data for rapid location and analysis of seismic events. A secondary, but important, objective of the GTSN is to augment the existing off-line seismic data base available for research. The deployment of the GTSN will involve a variety of interrelated activities -- development of the data acquisition and receiving equipment, establishment of satellite and terrestrial communication links, site selection and preparation, training of station personnel, equipment installation, and establishment of support facilities. It is a complex program and the develop- ment of a sound management plan will be essential. The purpose of this study is not to fix design goals or dictate avenues of approach but to develop work- ing concepts that may be used as a framework for program planning. The international exchange of seismic data has been an important factor in the progress that has been made during the past two decades in our under- standing of earthquakes and global tectonics. The seismic data base available for analysis and research is derived principally from the Global Seismograph Network (GSN), which is funded and managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The GSN comprises some 120 seismograph stations located in more than 60 countries of the world. Established during the 1960's with the installation of the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN), the GSN has been augmented in recent years by the installation of more advanced data systems, such as the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO), the modified High-Gain Long- Period (ASRO) seismographs, and the digital WWSSN (DWWSSN). The SRO, ASRO, and DWWSSN stations have the common, distinctive feature of digital data recording, so they are known

  13. Recent advances in approximation concepts for optimum structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    The basic approximation concepts used in structural optimization are reviewed. Some of the most recent developments in that area since the introduction of the concept in the mid-seventies are discussed. The paper distinguishes between local, medium-range, and global approximations; it covers functions approximations and problem approximations. It shows that, although the lack of comparative data established on reference test cases prevents an accurate assessment, there have been significant improvements. The largest number of developments have been in the areas of local function approximations and use of intermediate variable and response quantities. It also appears that some new methodologies are emerging which could greatly benefit from the introduction of new computer architecture.

  14. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  15. On the [CII]-SFR Relation in High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Yue, B.

    2015-11-01

    After two Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observing cycles, only a handful of [C ii] 158 μm emission line searches in z > 6 galaxies have reported a positive detection, questioning the applicability of the local [C ii]-star formation rate (SFR) relation to high-z systems. To investigate this issue we use the Vallini et al. (V13) model,based on high-resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations to predict the [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium of a z ≈ 7 (halo mass Mh = 1.17 × 1011 M⊙) galaxy. We improve the V13 model by including (a) a physically motivated metallicity (Z) distribution of the gas, (b) the contribution of photodissociation regions (PDRs), and (c) the effects of cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the [C ii] line luminosity. We study the relative contribution of diffuse neutral gas to the total [C ii] emission (Fdiff/Ftot) for different SFR and Z values. We find that the [C ii] emission arises predominantly from PDRs: regardless of the galaxy properties, Fdiff/Ftot ≤ 10%, since at these early epochs the CMB temperature approaches the spin temperature of the [C ii] transition in the cold neutral medium (TCMB ˜ {T}s{{CNM}} ˜ 20 K). Our model predicts a high-z [C ii]-SFR relation, consistent with observations of local dwarf galaxies (0.02 < Z/Z⊙ < 0.5). The [C ii] deficit suggested by actual data (LCii < 2.0 × 107 L⊙ in BDF3299 at z ≈ 7.1) if confirmed by deeper ALMA observations, can be ascribed to negative stellar feedback disrupting molecular clouds around star formation sites. The deviation from the local [C ii]-SFR would then imply a modified Kennicutt-Schmidt relation in z > 6 galaxies. Alternatively/in addition, the deficit might be explained by low gas metallicities (Z < 0.1 Z⊙).

  16. Trajectory Design for the Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Europa is one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for extant life. As such, NASA has funded the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to jointly determine and develop the best mission concept to explore Europa in the near future. The result of nearly 4 years of work--the Europa Clipper mission concept--is a multiple Europa flyby mission that could efficiently execute a number of high caliber science investigations to meet Europa science priorities specified in the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, and is capable of providing reconnaissance data to maximize the probability of both a safe landing and access to surface material of high scientific value for a future Europa lander. This paper will focus on the major enabling component for this mission concept--the trajectory. A representative trajectory, referred to as 13F7-A21, would obtain global-regional coverage of Europa via a complex network of 45 flybys over the course of 3.5 years while also mitigating the effects of the harsh Jovian radiation environment. In addition, 5 Ganymede and 9 Callisto flybys would be used to manipulate the trajectory relative to Europa. The tour would reach a maximum Jovicentric inclination of 20.1 deg. have a deterministic (Delta)V of 164 m/s (post periapsis raise maneuver), and a total ionizing dose of 2.8 Mrad (Si).

  17. New silicon cell design concepts for 20 percent AMI efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic design principles for obtaining high efficiency in silicon solar cells are reviewed. They critically involve very long minority carrier lifetimes, not so much to attain high collection efficiency, but primarily for increased output voltages. Minority carrier lifetime, however, is sensitive to radiation damage, and particularly in low resistivity silicon, on which the high efficiency design is based. Radiation resistant space cells will therefore have to follow differing design principles than high efficiency terrestrial cells.

  18. CAD framework concept for the design of integrated microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andras; Rencz, Marta; Szekely, Vladimir; Karam, Jean Michel; Courtois, Bernard; Hofmann, K.; Glesner, M.

    1995-09-01

    Besides foundry facilities, CAD-tools are also required to move microsystems from research prototypes to an industrial market. CAD tools of microelectronics have been developed for more than 20 years, both in the field of circuit design tools and in the area of TCAD tools. Usually a microelectronics engineer is involved only in one side of the design: either he deals with application design or he participates in the manufacturing design, but not in both. This is one point that is to be followed in case of microsystem design, if higher level of design productivity is expected. Another point is that certain standards should also be established in case of microsystem design too: based on selected technologies a set of standard components should be predesigned and collected in a standard component library. This component library should be available from within microsystem design frameworks which might well be established by a proper configuration and extension of existing IC design frameworks. A very important point is the development of proper simulation models of microsystem components that are based on e.g. the FEM results of the predesign phase and are provided in the form of an analog VHDL script. After detailing the above mentioned considerations we discuss the development work concerning a microsystem design framework. Its goal is to provide a set of powerful tools for microsystem application designers. This future framework will be composed of different industry-standard CAD programs and different design databases which in certain cases are completed with special interfaces and special purpose simulation tools.

  19. Pulsed neutron source cold moderators --- concepts, design and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Guenter S.

    1997-01-01

    Moderator design for pulsed neutron sources is becoming more and more an interface area between source designers and instrument designers. Although there exists a high degree of flexibility, there are also physical and technical limitations. This paper aims at pointing out these limitations and examining ways to extend the current state of moderator technology in order to make the next generation neutron sources even more versatile and flexible tools for science in accordance with the users' requirements. (auth)

  20. The SFR and IMF of the galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    There is a long term dynamical heating of stellar populations with age observed in the age velocity dispersion relation (AVR). This effect allows a determination of the star formation history SFR(t) from local kinematical data of main sequence stars. Using a self-consistent disk model for the vertical structure of the disk, we find from the kinematics of the stars in the solar neighbourhood that the SFR shows a moderate star burst about 10 Gyr ago followed by a continuous decline to the present day value consistent with the observed number of OB stars. The gravitational potential of the gas component and of the Dark Matter Halo is included and the effect of chemical enrichment, finite lifetime of the stars and mass loss of the stellar component are taken into account. The scale heights for main sequence stars together with the SFR is then used to determine constistently the IMF from the observed local luminosity function. The main new result is that the power law break in the present day mass function (PDMF) around 1 M ⊙ is entirely due to evolutionary effects of the disk and does not appear in the IMF.

  1. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  2. The SLAC Damped Detuned Structure: Concept and design

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, N.M. |

    1997-05-01

    The SLAC Damped Detuned Structure (DDS) is an accelerator structure designed to suppress the long range transverse wakefields which limit the performance of high current multibunch accelerators. We discuss the conceptual considerations which have led to its development and discuss the steps involved in arriving at a design.

  3. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  4. Principles and Concepts for Information and Communication Technology Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ray; Langdon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a theory for evaluating information and communication technology design for individuals with disabilities. Simplex 1 evaluates designs in five zones: sensory and input zone; output zone; abstract working memory; long-term memory; and central executive functioning. Simplex 2 evaluates feedback, emotional responses, cognitive…

  5. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  6. Essential Concepts of Engineering Design Curriculum in Secondary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert; Smith, Phillip Cameron, Jr.; Kim, Soo Jung

    2009-01-01

    Technology education is a field of study that seeks to promote technological literacy for all students. Wright and Lauda defined technology education as a program designed to help students "develop an understanding and competence in designing, producing, and using technological products and systems, and in assessing the appropriateness of…

  7. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  8. Prospective markets and design concepts for civilian remotely piloted aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Gregory, T. J.; Aderhold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that examines the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) in the civil environment. A market survey was conducted in which 35 civil applications of RPVs were identified. For a number of these uses, vehicle and system concepts were defined, benefit and cost comparisons were made with present methods, and the influence of safety and environmental implications was assessed. The results suggest a sizable potential demand for the use of RPVs in the civil sector, and some of the applications show promising cost savings over established methods. A focussed technology effort could provide the safety assurances needed for routine civilian operation of RPVs.

  9. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Odeh, Mufeed

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  10. Site Analysis--Rudimentary Concept in Residential Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Dennis C.

    1969-01-01

    This article on site analysis is concerned with the external factors affecting the dwelling and surrounding area when planning a residential design. Schematic drawings as well as a list of important data to be considered when planning are included. (GR)

  11. Design concept for the microwave interrogation structure in PARCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment.

  12. Design Concept for the Retrofit KAO 1m Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Won-Yong; Mack, Peter; Park, Jang-Hyun; Jin, Ho; Lee, Woo-Baik; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2000-12-01

    Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) is working to retrofit its 1m robotic telescope in collaboration with a company (ACE, Astronomical Consultants & Equipment). The telescope system is being totally refurbished to make a fully automatic telescope which can operate in both interactive and fully autonomous robotic modes. Progress has been made in design and manufacturing of the telescope mount, mechanics, and optical performance system tests are being made for re-configured primary and secondary mirrors. The optical system is designed to collect 80% incident light within 0.5 arcsec with f/7.5 Ritchey-Chretien design. The telescope mount is an equatorial fork with a friction drive system. The design allows fully programmable tracking speeds with typical range of 15 arcsec/sec with accuracy of +/-5 arcsec/hour. The mount system has integral pointing model software to correct for refraction, and all mechanical errors and misalignments. The pointing model will permit positioning to better than 30 arcsec RMS within 75o from zenith and 45 arcsec RMS elsewhere on the sky. The software is designed for interactive, remote and robotic modes of operation. In interactive and remote mode the user can manually enter coordinates or retrieve them from a computer file. In robotic mode the telescope controller downloads the coordinates in the order determined by the scheduler. The telescope will be equipped with a CCD camera and will be accessible via the internet.

  13. Design of experiments applications in bioprocessing: concepts and approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Bhalla, Akriti; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Most biotechnology unit operations are complex in nature with numerous process variables, feed material attributes, and raw material attributes that can have significant impact on the performance of the process. Design of experiments (DOE)-based approach offers a solution to this conundrum and allows for an efficient estimation of the main effects and the interactions with minimal number of experiments. Numerous publications illustrate application of DOE towards development of different bioprocessing unit operations. However, a systematic approach for evaluation of the different DOE designs and for choosing the optimal design for a given application has not been published yet. Through this work we have compared the I-optimal and D-optimal designs to the commonly used central composite and Box-Behnken designs for bioprocess applications. A systematic methodology is proposed for construction of the model and for precise prediction of the responses for the three case studies involving some of the commonly used unit operations in downstream processing. Use of Akaike information criterion for model selection has been examined and found to be suitable for the applications under consideration. PMID:24123959

  14. Study of metallic structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    A structural design study was made, to assess the relative merits of various metallic structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to ensure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, select structural concepts and materials, and define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented. The effect on design methods of using the computerized structural design system was appraised, and recommendations are presented concerning further development of design tools, development of materials and structural concepts, and research on basic technology.

  15. Basic concepts for the design of high-efficiency single-junction and multibandgap solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts for obtaining practical solar-cell modules with one-sun efficiencies up to 30 percent at air mass 1 are now well understood. Such high-efficiency modules utilize multibandgap structures. To achieve module efficiencies significantly above 30 percent, it is necessary to employ different concepts such as spectral compression and broad-band detection. A detailed description of concepts for the design of high-efficiency multibandgap solar cells is given.

  16. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  17. Boom-Constrained Drag Minimization for Design of Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.; Li, Wu; Geiselhart, Karl

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modifying an existing baseline configuration that has been designed to achieve low-boom characteristics in order to minimize drag while not severely penalizing baseline sonic boom levels. The baseline configuration that was used is the result of using a mixed-fidelity CFD-based low-boom design process that has been tested and verified. Shape modifications are carried out by using arbitrary shape-deformation algorithms. The focus of this paper is the integration of several key enabling techniques and methods for efficient redesign under stringent constraints.

  18. Design concept for diffractive elements shaping partially coherent laser beams.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, D

    2001-11-01

    A new two-step design algorithm for the calculation of a diffractive phase element (DPE) for use with partially coherent laser beams is presented. The optical reconstruction of the DPE is modeled by the convolution of a coherent diffraction pattern and the far-field intensity distribution of a partially coherent laser beam. Numerical deconvolution is applied to derive a suitable amplitude pattern as signal input to a standard iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA). Theory and numerical results are presented. Compared with a single-step IFTA design, this new approach yields nearly equal diffraction efficiencies and a relative improvement of 15% in signal reconstruction error. PMID:11688882

  19. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  20. Development of preliminary design concept for a multifunction display and control system for the Orbiter crew station. Task 4: Design concept recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Holcomb, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Application of multifunction display and control systems to the NASA Orbiter spacecraft offers the potential for reducing crew workload and improving the presentation of system status and operational data to the crew. A design concept is presented for the application of a multifunction display and control system (MFDCS) to the Orbital Maneuvering System and Electrical Power Distribution and Control System on the Orbiter spacecraft. The MFDCS would provide the capability for automation of procedures, fault prioritization and software reconfiguration of the MFDCS data base. The MFDCS would operate as a stand-alone processor to minimize the impact on the current Orbiter software. Supervisory crew command of all current functions would be retained through the use of several operating modes in the system. Both the design concept and the processes followed in defining the concept are described.

  1. Conceptions of Trust: How Designers Approach Usable Privacy and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birge, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Designers who create user interfaces are frequently required to ask users for personal information. For the user, this is a "trust question": Do I, the user, trust the system or entity that is asking me for this information? The creation and management of these trust questions is an important aspect of the research field called usable…

  2. Guard tower structural design concept for perimeter security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Risse, J.T.

    1983-07-01

    Facilities that require outdoor perimeter sensor fields to furnish perimeter penetration alarms can often benefit by the inclusion of manned guard towers in the total security plan. Acquisition and maintenance costs of closed circuit television to provide adequate visual assessment may be too costly and perhaps tower personnel could perform other functions such as monitoring vehicles or personnel in the vicinity of the protected area. Because there appeared to be no uniformity of design features for guard towers being built for nominally identical purposes, a program has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories to identify functions and features of towers, and to find a standard design such that security organizations, wishing to build a tower, would not find it necessary to start anew for each application. A tower design using prestressed concrete ''double tees'' has been worked out and reduced to practice that accomplishes many of the desired characteristics of a guard tower at reasonable cost. The prestressed concrete technology is available throughout the CONUS, Canada, Europe, etc. One such design is described and discussed.

  3. Concepts for a Staff Development Design on Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Horace B.

    The guiding principles that make up a cohesive design for training state community education coordinators is developed from four main constructs: (1) the major goal, of enhancing community quality of life, where the focus should be on synergy, citizen empowerment, and change agency leadership by the coordinators; (2) community education as a…

  4. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  5. Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Richard D.

    Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are currently being researched for a wide range of tasks, including search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance, traffic monitoring, fire detection, pipe and electrical line inspection, and border patrol to name only a few of the application domains. Although small/miniature UAVs, including both Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) vehicles and small helicopters, have shown great potential in both civilian and military domains, including research and development, integration, prototyping, and field testing, these unmanned systems/vehicles are limited to only a handful of university labs. For VTOL type aircraft the number is less than fifteen worldwide! This lack of development is due to both the extensive time and cost required to design, integrate and test a fully operational prototype as well as the shortcomings of published materials to fully describe how to design and build a "complete" and "operational" prototype system. This dissertation overcomes existing barriers and limitations by describing and presenting in great detail every technical aspect of designing and integrating a small UAV helicopter including the on-board navigation controller, capable of fully autonomous takeoff, waypoint navigation, and landing. The presented research goes beyond previous works by designing the system as a testbed vehicle. This design aims to provide a general framework that will not only allow researchers the ability to supplement the system with new technologies but will also allow researchers to add innovation to the vehicle itself. Examples include modification or replacement of controllers, updated filtering and fusion techniques, addition or replacement of sensors, vision algorithms, Operating Systems (OS) changes or replacements, and platform modification or replacement. This is supported by the testbed's design to not only adhere to the technology it currently utilizes but to be general enough to adhere to a multitude of

  6. Preliminary design concept of a subcritical reactor using available resources

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, E.L.; Hoyny, V.; Chaudhuri, B.R.; Taprantzis, A.; Yavas, A.

    1993-12-31

    During the Fall 1993 semester, a project was initiated within the Nuclear Engineering Department of the University of Tennessee with the objective of developing a design for a subcritical reactor with maximized multiplication factor using materials currently available. Such a device, if constructed, would serve as a teaching tool for the Department of Nuclear Engineering. Design work was conducted as a large number of computer calculations, with trial pile configurations based on fundamental nuclear engineering principles, in an effort to maximize multiplication factor through fuel element geometry, moderator type, fissile/moderator ratio, and reflector character. The principal objective of the design group for the early phase of this project was to present several possible ``baseline`` reactor designs and identify directions for improvements. For the sake of calculational ease, the cores analyzes to date have been of nearly cubic shape. The SCALE CSAS25 software which runs KENO.Va, a Monte Carlo code, was used for all neutronics calculations. The baseline reactors resulting from work to date are cuboidal in shape and graphite reflected. Two types of fuel element geometries are proposed, a typical triangular pitch rod lattice and an arrangement of discrete fuel slugs placed in a lattice corresponding to body centered cubic packing. The latter arrangement provides slightly higher multiplication factors than the former. Calculations were performed for both graphite and heavy water moderation with heavy water moderation producing considerably higher multiplication factors, as expected. In general, the maximum k{sub eff} for the reactors are in the range of 0.5 to 0.9, well subcritical, except in the cases of the extreme possible values of fuel assay where critical configurations are possible. In these cases, designs with reduced fuel loading are recommended to assure a subcritical multiplication factor.

  7. Trainee Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning, Classroom Layout and Exam Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study centres on identifying and classifying the conceptions of teaching and learning held by future secondary school teachers, and on analysing the relationship between these conceptions and the way classroom space is organized and exams are designed. The test instruments used were applied to a sample of 138 graduates, who…

  8. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  9. New Approach to Concept Feasibility and Design Studies for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M. J.; McLaughlin, W.; Nichols, J.

    1998-01-01

    JPL has assembled a team of multidisciplinary experts with corporate knowledge of space mission and instrument development. The advanced Concept Design Team, known as Team X, provides interactive design trades including cost as a design parameter, and advanced visualization for pre-Phase A Studies.

  10. Conversations around Design Sketches: Use of Communication Channels for Sharing Mental Models during Concept Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariff, Nik Shahman Nik Ahmad; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Eris, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exploratory protocol study on the use of different communication channels during design sketching. We focus on how individual designers share their mental models with other designers in a group, and analyse their use of graphical, textual, and verbal communications during concept generation. Our findings suggest that…

  11. A space crane concept: Preliminary design and static analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Davis, Robert C.; Greene, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Future in-space construction and assembly facilities will require the use of space cranes capable of supporting and manipulating large and massive loads. The large size of the space components being considered for construction will require that these cranes have a reach on the order of 100 meters. A space crane constructed from an erectable four-longeron truss beam with 19 5-sq-m truss bays is considered. This concept was selected to be compatible with the Space Station truss. This truss is hinged at three locations along its bottom edge and attached at one end to a rotary joint cantilevered to the assembly depot's main truss structure. The crane's boom sections are rotated by extensible longeron actuators located along the top edge of the beam. To achieve maximum position maneuvering capability for the crane requires that the individual sections be capable of rotating 180 degrees about the hinge point. This can only be accomplished by offsetting the hinges from the longeron axes. Since offset hinges introduce bending moments in the truss members, an analysis of the effect of hinge offsets on the load-carrying capacity of the structure is required. The objective of the static finite element analysis described is to determine the effect of various offset lengths on the overall bending stiffness of the crane and on the maximum stresses.

  12. Initial Package Design Concepts Integrated Product Team (IPT) Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.; Luke, Dale Elden

    2000-03-01

    Initially, the question of transporting TRU waste to WIPP was raised as part of the EM Integration activities. The issue was re-examined as part of the system-wide view to re-engineer the TRU waste program. Consequently, the National Transportation Program and the National TRU Waste Program, in a cooperative effort, made a commitment to EM-20 to examine the feasibility of using rail to transport TRU waste material to WIPP. In December of 1999 Mr. Philip Altomare assembled a team of subject matter experts (SME) to define initial concepts for a Type B package capable of shipping TRU waste by rail (see Attachment 1 for a list of team members). This same team of experts also provided input to a preliminary study to determine if shipping TRU waste by rail could offer cost savings or other significant advantages over the current mode of operation using TRUPACT-II packages loaded on truck. As part of the analysis, the team also identified barriers to implementing rail shipments to WIPP and outlined a path forward. This report documents the findings of the study and its initial set of recommendations. As the study progressed, it was expanded to include new packages for truck as well as rail in recognition of the benefits of shipping large boxes and contaminated equipment.

  13. New Design Concept and Flight Test of Superpressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Shigeo; Honda, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Haruhisa; Matsushima, Kiyoho

    A new ballon design method named ‘three-dimensional gore design’ was developed. It is based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. This type of balloon can be manufactured with gores having a size larger than that of the conventional gore. The sides of each gore are fixed to the adjacent short load tapes with controlled shortening rates. The gore length is chosen so as not to create any meridional tension. Hence, the superpressure limit of these balloons is simply given as film strength divided by bulge radius. As the limit does not depend on the balloon size, a large balloon with a high superpressure limit can be easily constructed without strong films. A test flight as well as indoor inflation and burst experiment showed that this new design method can realize a larger and lighter superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload in the stratosphere.

  14. Cabin-fuselage-wing structural design concept with engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariotti, Scott; Garner, M.; Cepeda, A.; Vieira, J.; Bolton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fuselage structural assembly and wing structural design that will be able to withstand the given operational parameters and loads provided by Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR 23) and the Statement of Work (SOW). The goal is to provide a durable lightweight structure that will transfer the applied loads through the most efficient load path. Areas of producibility and maintainability of the structure will also be addressed. All of the structural members will also meet or exceed the desired loading criteria, along with providing adequate stiffness, reliability, and fatigue life as stated in the SOW. Considerations need to be made for control system routing and cabin heating/ventilation. The goal of the wing structure and carry through structure is also to provide a simple, lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the wing, tailboom, and landing gear. These forces will be channeled through various internal structures sized for the pre-determined loading criteria. Other considerations were to include space for flaps, ailerons, fuel tanks, and electrical and control system routing. The difficulties encountered in the fuselage design include expanding the fuselage cabin to accept a third occupant in a staggered configuration and providing ample volume for their safety. By adding a third person the CG of aircraft will move forward so the engine needs to be moved aft to compensate for the difference in the moment. This required the provisions of a ring frame structure for the new position of the engine mount. The difficulties encountered in the wing structural design include resizing the wing for the increased capacity and weight, and compensating for a large torsion produced by the tail boom by placing a great number of stiffeners inside the boom, which will result in the relocation of the fuel tank. Finally, an adequate carry through structure for the wing and fuselage interface will be

  15. Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Ray F.

    2013-11-01

    This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A′ in the 10-90 MeV/c 2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  17. Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

    1994-01-01

    The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

  18. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  19. A pointing system design concept for Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edward; Rathbun, Dave; Smith, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A study has been conducted to recommend a pointing system design and architecture that can accommodate the articulated pointing requirements levied on the Space Station Freedom Attached Payload Pointing System. A conceptual design of a control system is developed using classical rate and position control techniques. A high fidelity simulation testbed has been developed as the principal tool for the pointing performance evaluation. Techniques of model reduction are applied to reduce the model order to a manageable size for incorporation into the testbed. The disturbance rich space station environment has been modeled, and nonlinearities such as bearing friction, motor and sensor noise are also considered. Simulations were performed with representatie payloads at nominal pointing orientations. The results show that the tight instrument pointing requirements and the severe Space Station disturbance environment render a marginal performance for a conventional (direct drive and hardmount) gimbal pointing system, particularly for lightweight payloads. A gimbal system that incorporates a passive base isolator and reactionless actuation appears to provide a significant imporvement in pointing performance over the conventional pointing systems.

  20. Computer control of large accelerators, design concepts and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, F.; Gormley, M.

    1985-03-01

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. This presentation is an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies, and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented, since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided.

  1. The analysis of a state-switched absorber design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanese, Anne-Marie; Cunefare, Kenneth

    2002-11-01

    A tuned vibration absorber (TVA) is a spring-damper-mass system used in many industries for the suppression of a specific vibration frequency, and has application for the suppression of aircraft fuselage vibration. A state-switched absorber (SSA) is similar to a TVA, except that one or more components in the SSA is able to instantaneously and discretely change properties, thus increasing the effective bandwidth of vibration suppression. In order to design a replacement SSA for the classic TVA, the SSA must operate in the appropriate frequency range, be lightweight, and compact. An optimal SSA will also have a maximal frequency range between which it can switch. This paper discusses the development of a magnetorheological (MR) silicone gel used as the SSA switching element, the shape required to maintain a magnetic flux path, and the contribution of the magnet-mass to frequency shifting. The MR gel is iron-doped silicone, cured in the presence of a magnetic field. During operation, the applied magnetic flux is modified to change the natural frequency. The applied flux requirement forces the SSA to be a small ring. The SSA is designed to operate below 100 Hz.

  2. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; Mody, P.; Pertuze, J. A.; Sato, S.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Tan, C. S.; Hollman, J. S.; Duda, J. E.; Fitzgerald, N.; Houghton, J.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kiwada, G. F.; Kordonowy, D.; Parrish, J. C.; Tylko, J.; Wen, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  3. Fuel system design concepts for broad property fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study assessing the impact of using jet fuel with relaxed specification properties on an aircraft fuel system are given. The study objectives were to identify credible values for specific fuel properties which might be relaxed, to evolve advanced fuel system designs for airframe and engines which would permit use of the specified relaxed properties fuels, and to evaluate performance of the candidate advanced fuel systems and the relaxed property fuels in a typical transport aircraft. The study used, as a baseline, the fuel system incorporated in the Lockheed Tristar. This aircraft is powered by three RB.211-524 Rolls-Royce engines and incorporates a Pratt and Whitney ST6C-421 auxiliary power unit for engine starting and inflight emergency electrical power. The fuel property limits examined are compared with commercial Jet A kerosene and the NASA RFP fuel properties. A screening of these properties established that a higher freezing point and a lower thermal stability would impact fuel system design more significantly than any of the other property changes. Three candidate fuel systems which combine the ability to operate with fuels having both a high freeze point and a low thermal stability are described. All candidates employ bleed air to melt fuel freeze-out prior to starting the APU or an inoperable engine. The effects of incorporating these systems on aircraft weight and engine specific fuel consumption are given.

  4. Computer control of large accelerators design concepts and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, F.; Gormley, M.

    1984-05-01

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. These lectures are an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided. 19 references.

  5. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  6. Design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Bihari, Tom

    1992-01-01

    There are many problem-solving tasks that are too complex to fully automate given the current state of technology. Nevertheless, significant improvements in overall system performance could result from the introduction of well-designed computer aids. We have been studying the development of cognitive tools for one such problem-solving task, enroute flight path planning for commercial airlines. Our goal was two-fold. First, we were developing specific systems designs to help with this important practical problem. Second, we are using this context to explore general design concepts to guide in the development of cooperative problem-solving systems. These designs concepts are described.

  7. A New Streamflow-Routing (SFR1) Package to Simulate Stream-Aquifer Interaction with MODFLOW-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Banta, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    stream reach is based on a mass-balance approach and accounts for exchanges with (inputs from or losses to) ground-water systems. Two test examples are used to illustrate some of the capabilities of the SFR1 Package. The first test simulation was designed to illustrate how pumping of ground water from an aquifer connected to streams can affect streamflow, depth, width, and streambed conductance using the different options. The second test simulation was designed to illustrate solute transport through interconnected lakes, streams, and aquifers. Because of the need to examine time series results from the model simulations, the Gage Package first described in the LAK3 documentation was revised to include time series results of selected variables (streamflows, stream depth and width, streambed conductance, solute concentrations, and solute loads) for specified stream reaches. The mass-balance or continuity approach for routing flow and solutes through a stream network may not be applicable for all interactions between streams and aquifers. The SFR1 Package is best suited for modeling long-term changes (months to hundreds of years) in ground-water flow and solute concentrations using averaged flows in streams. The Package is not recommended for modeling the transient exchange of water between streams and aquifers when the objective is to examine short-term (minutes to days) effects caused by rapidly changing streamflows.

  8. The application of some lifting-body reentry concepts to missile design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting-body concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of missiles. A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry and atmospheric flight. Some of the concepts appear to offer some novel design approaches for missiles for a variety of missions and flight profiles, including long-range orbital/reentry with transatmospheric operation for strategic penetration, low altitude penetration, and battlefield tactical. The concepts considered include right triangular pyramidal configurations, a lenticular configuration, and various 75-degree triangular planform configurations with variations in body camber and control systems. The aerodynamic features are emphasized but some observations are also made relative to other factors such as heat transfer, structures, carriage, observability, propulsion, and volumetric efficiency.

  9. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 4: OEPSS design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Ziese, James M.; Farhangi, Shahram

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the OEPSS study have been organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume describes three propulsion concepts that will simplify the propulsion system design and significantly reduce operational requirements. The concepts include: (1) a fully integrated, booster propulsion module concept for the ALS that avoids the complex system created by using autonomous engines with numerous artificial interfaces; (2) an LOX tank aft concept which avoids potentially dangerous geysering in long LOX propellant lines; and (3) an air augmented, rocket engine nozzle afterburning propulsion concept that will significantly reduce LOX propellant requirements, reduce vehicle size and simplify ground operations and ground support equipment and facilities.

  10. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.