Science.gov

Sample records for sfr concept design

  1. Comparison of JSFR design with EDF requirements for future SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, M. M.; Prele, G.; Mariteau, P.; Sauvage, J. F.; Hayafune, H.; Chikazawa, Y.

    2012-07-01

    A comparison of Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) design with future French SFR concept has been done based on the requirement of EDF, the investor-operator of future French SFR, and the French safety baseline, under the framework of EDF-JAEA bilateral agreement of research and development cooperation on future SFR. (authors)

  2. Transmutation abilities of the SFR low void effect core concept 'CFV' 3600 MWth

    SciTech Connect

    Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Andriolo, L.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the potential of minor actinide transmutation in a 3600 MWth SFR core designed with the low void effect core concept (namely 'CFV concept'). This concept is based upon an axially heterogeneous design with an internal fertile zone, and two radial fuel zones with different heights. Two modes of minor actinide transmutation are considered. The homogeneous mode where the minor actinides (MA) are diluted in the fuel is studied considering different options: - MA diluted in the whole core, - MA diluted in the internal and external fuel zone, - MA diluted in the internal fertile zone, for which different isotopic vectors and contents in fuel are analyzed. The heterogeneous mode is also studied with MA placed in external blanket bearings, with contents of 20%. The results are compared to those obtained with a traditional homogenous core concept (SFRV2B type) in terms of transmutation performances. Impacts of the transmutation assumptions on transmutation performances, on fuel cycle and safety parameters (void effect, Doppler) are also presented. (authors)

  3. Improving SFR Economics through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2008-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  4. Improving SFR Economics Through Innovations from Thermal Design and Analysis Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Vincent Mousseau; Per F. Peterson

    2009-06-01

    Achieving economic competitiveness as compared to LWRs and other Generation IV (Gen-IV) reactors is one of the major requirements for large-scale investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants. Advances in R&D for advanced SFR fuel and structural materials provide key long-term opportunities to improve SFR economics. In addition, other new opportunities are emerging to further improve SFR economics. This paper provides an overview on potential ideas from the perspective of thermal hydraulics to improve SFR economics. These include a new hybrid loop-pool reactor design to further optimize economics, safety, and reliability of SFRs with more flexibility, a multiple reheat and intercooling helium Brayton cycle to improve plant thermal efficiency and reduce safety related overnight and operation costs, and modern multi-physics thermal analysis methods to reduce analysis uncertainties and associated requirements for over-conservatism in reactor design. This paper reviews advances in all three of these areas and their potential beneficial impacts on SFR economics.

  5. An Innovative Hybrid Loop-Pool SFR Design and Safety Analysis Methods: Today and Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hongbin Zhang; Haihua Zhao; Vincent Mousseau

    2008-04-01

    Investment in commercial sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) power plants will become possible only if SFRs achieve economic competitiveness as compared to light water reactors and other Generation IV reactors. Toward that end, we have launched efforts to improve the economics and safety of SFRs from the thermal design and safety analyses perspectives at Idaho National Laboratory. From the thermal design perspective, an innovative hybrid loop-pool SFR design has been proposed. This design takes advantage of the inherent safety of a pool design and the compactness of a loop design to further improve economics and safety. From the safety analyses perspective, we have initiated an effort to develop a high fidelity reactor system safety code.

  6. Nuclear data uncertainty propagation for neutronic key parameters of CEA's SFR V2B and CFV sodium fast reactor designs

    SciTech Connect

    Archier, P.; Buiron, L.; De Saint Jean, C.; Dos Santos, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a nuclear data uncertainty propagation analysis for two CEA's Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor designs: the SFR V2B and CFV cores. The nuclear data covariance matrices are provided by the DER/SPRC/LEPh's nuclear data team (see companion paper) for several major isotopes. From the current status of this analysis, improvements on certain nuclear data reactions are highlighted as well as the need for new specific integral experiments in order to meet the technological breakthroughs proposed by the CFV core. (authors)

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Neutron Cross-Sections Considered for Design and Safety Studies of Lfr and SFR Generation IV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucek, Kamil; Carlsson, Johan; Wider, Hartmut

    2006-04-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of several design and safety parameters with regard to five different nuclear data libraries, JEF2.2, JEFF3.0, ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3. More specifically, the effective multiplication factor, burn-up reactivity swing and decay heat generation in available LFR and SFR designs were estimated. Monte Carlo codes MCNP and MCB were used in the analyses of the neutronic and burn-up performance of the systems. Thermo-hydraulic safety calculations were performed by the STAR-CD CFD code. For the LFR, ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 showed to give a harder neutron spectrum than JEFF3.0, JENDL3.2, and JENDL3.3 data due to the lower inelastic scattering cross-section of lead in these libraries. Hence, the neutron economy of the system becomes more favourable and keff is higher when calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 and JEF2.2 data. As for actinide cross-section data, the uncertainties in the keff values appeared to be mainly due to 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Am. Differences in the estimated burn-up reactivity swings proved to be significant, for an SFR as large as a factor of three (when comparing ENDF/B-VI.8 results to those of JENDL3.2). Uncertainties in the evaluation of short-term decay heat generation showed to be of the order of several per cent. Significant differences were, understandably, observed between decay heat generation data quoted in literature for LWR-UOX and those calculated for an LFR (U,TRU)O2 spent fuel. A corresponding difference in calculated core parameters (outlet coolant temperature) during protected total Loss-of-Power was evaluated.

  8. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  9. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  10. The Concept of Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    This paper approaches the concept of curriculum design from a philosophical perspective, arguing that the concept of "design" in curriculum is fundamentally misleading. The paper begins with a series of comments questioning the assumption that curriculum design involves a set of discrete skills or procedures in which one may attain expertise, like…

  11. A new airfoil design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henne, P. A.; Gregg, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    The present airfoil design concept is based on utilizing unconventional geometry characteristics near the airfoil trailing edge which include a finite trailing edge thickness, strongly divergent trailing edge upper and lower surfaces, and high surface curvature on the lower surface at or near the lower surface trailing edge. This paper presents computational analyses of airfoils and a wing utilizing the concept, airfoil validation wind tunnel test results of several configurations, and wing-validation wind tunnel test results for a complete wing design. In addition to validating the concept, the airfoil and wing testing provided additional detailed data to better understand the aerodynamic advantage of such an unconventional trailing edge configuration. It is demonstrated that the concept represents a significant step in airfoil technology beyond that achieved with the Supercritical Airfoil. This concept provides the aerodynamicist an additional degree of design freedom and flexibility previously unrecognized.

  12. Engineering Design Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the separation of content between science, math, engineering, and technology education should not exist. Working with the relationship between these content areas enhances students' efforts to learn about the physical world. In teaching students about design, technology, and engineering, attention should be given to the…

  13. Recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: Star formation rate (SFR) inferences are based on the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are required to provide a calibration. We study the key points of such an approximation with the aim to produce accurate SFR inferences. Methods: We use the intrinsic algebra of synthesis models and explore how the SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underlying star formation history (SFH). Results: We show that the constant SFR approximation is a simplified expression of deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It characterizes the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), from which the SSPs as a sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e., about 13 Gyr for z = 0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not required to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a single SFR timescale over which the recent SFH is averaged, and we suggest to use typical SFR indices (ionizing flux, UV fluxes) together with untypical ones (optical or IR fluxes) to correct the SFR for the contribution of the old component of the SFH. We show how to use galaxy colors to quote age ranges where the recent component of the SFH is stronger or softer than the older component. Conclusions: Despite of SFR calibrations are unaffected by this work, the meaning of results obtained by SFR inferences does. In our framework, results such as the correlation of SFR timescales with galaxy colors, or the sensitivity of different SFR indices to variations in the SFH, fit naturally. This framework provides a theoretical guide-line to optimize the available information from data and numerical experiments to improve the accuracy of SFR inferences.

  14. Recent SFR calibrations and the constant SFR approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Star formation rate (SFR) inferences are based on the so-called constant SFR approximation, where synthesis models are required to provide a calibration. We study the key points of such an approximation with the aim to produce accurate SFR inferences. Methods: We use the intrinsic algebra of synthesis models and explore how the SFR can be inferred from the integrated light without any assumption about the underlying star formation history (SFH). Results: We show that the constant SFR approximation is a simplified expression of deeper characteristics of synthesis models: It characterizes the evolution of single stellar populations (SSPs), from which the SSPs as a sensitivity curve over different measures of the SFH can be obtained. As results, we find that (1) the best age to calibrate SFR indices is the age of the observed system (i.e., about 13 Gyr for z = 0 systems); (2) constant SFR and steady-state luminosities are not required to calibrate the SFR; (3) it is not possible to define a single SFR timescale over which the recent SFH is averaged, and we suggest to use typical SFR indices (ionizing flux, UV fluxes) together with untypical ones (optical or IR fluxes) to correct the SFR for the contribution of the old component of the SFH. We show how to use galaxy colors to quote age ranges where the recent component of the SFH is stronger or softer than the older component. Conclusions: Despite of SFR calibrations are unaffected by this work, the meaning of results obtained by SFR inferences does. In our framework, results such as the correlation of SFR timescales with galaxy colors, or the sensitivity of different SFR indices to variations in the SFH, fit naturally. This framework provides a theoretical guide-line to optimize the available information from data and numerical experiments to improve the accuracy of SFR inferences.

  15. Long life valve design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hall, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Valve concept evaluation, final candidate selection, design, manufacture, and demonstration testing of a pneumatically actuated 10-inch hybrid poppet butterfly shutoff valve are presented. Conclusions and recommendations regarding those valve characteristics and features which would serve to guide in the formulation of future valve procurements are discussed. The pertinent design goals were temperature range of plus 200 to minus 423 F, valve inlet pressure 35 psia, actuation pressure 750 psia, main seal leakage 3 x 0.00001 sccs at 35 psia valve inlet pressure, and a storage and operating life of 10 years. The valve was designed to be compatible with RP-1, propane, LH2, LO2, He, and N2.

  16. Uncertainty analysis of a SFR core with sodium plenum

    SciTech Connect

    Canuti, E.; Ivanov, E.; Tiberi, V.; Pignet, S.

    2012-07-01

    The new concepts of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors have to reach the Generation IV safety objectives. In this regard the Sodium Void Effect has to be minimized for the future projects of large-size SFR as well as the uncertainties on it. The Inst. of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) as technological support of French public authorities is in charge of safety assessment of operating and under construction reactors, as well as future projects. In order to state about the safety of new SFR designs the IRSN must be able to evaluate core parameters and their uncertainties. In this frame a sensitivity and uncertainty study has been performed to evaluate the impact of nuclear data uncertainty on sodium void effect, for the benchmark model of large SFR BN-800. The benchmark parameters (effective multiplication factor and sodium void effect) have been evaluated using two codes, the deterministic code ERANOS and the Monte Carlo code SCALE, while the S/U analysis has been performed only with SCALE. The results of the these studies point out the most relevant cross section uncertainties that affect the SVE and how efforts should be done in increasing the existing nuclear data accuracies. (authors)

  17. Europa Small Lander Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    2005-12-01

    Title: Europa Small Lander Design Concepts Authors: Wayne F. Zimmerman, James Shirley, Robert Carlson, Tom Rivellini, Mike Evans One of the primary goals of NASA's Outer Planets Program is to revisit the Jovian system. A new Europa Geophysical Explorer (EGE) Mission has been proposed and is under evaluation. There is in addition strong community interest in a surface science mission to Europa. A Europa Lander might be delivered to the Jovian system with the EGE orbiter. A Europa Astrobiology Lander (EAL) Mission has also been proposed; this would launch sometime after 2020. The primary science objectives for either of these would most likely include: Surface imaging (both microscopic and near-field), characterization of surface mechanical properties (temperature, hardness), assessment of surface and near-surface organic and inorganic chemistry (volatiles, mineralogy, and compounds), characterization of the radiation environment (total dose and particles), characterization of the planetary seismicity, and the measurement of Europa's magnetic field. The biggest challenges associated with getting to the surface and surviving to perform science investigations revolve around the difficulty of landing on an airless body, the ubiquitous extreme topography, the harsh radiation environment, and the extreme cold. This presentation reviews some the recent design work on drop-off probes, also called "hard landers". Hard lander designs have been developed for a range of science payload delivery systems spanning small impactors to multiple science pods tethered to a central hub. In addition to developing designs for these various payload delivery systems, significant work has been done in weighing the relative merits of standard power systems (i.e., batteries) against radioisotope power systems. A summary of the power option accommodation benefits and issues will be presented. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a

  18. Concept Car Design and Ability Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jiefeng; Lu, Hairong

    The concept design as a symbol of creative design thinking, reflecting on the future design of exploratory and prospective, as a vehicle to explore the notion of future car design, design inspiration and creativity is not only a bold display, more through demonstrate the concept, reflects the company's technological strength and technological progress, and thus enhance their brand image. Present Chinese automobile design also has a very big disparity with world level, through cultivating students' concept design ability, to establish native design features and self-reliant brand image is practical and effective ways, also be necessary and pressing.

  19. On the Design Concept in Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the meaning of the trendy concept in engineering ethics education that ethical problems should be comprehended from the viewpoint of design. First, I present two objections against the concept and the content of it. Second, I examine the concept and show that the essence of it is pragmatic methods. That is, we should understand ethical problems and design problems pragmatically. Finally, I point out that the objections are not true of this pragmatic understanding.

  20. Project Design: An Emerging Curriculum Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Describes Project Design, a curriculum concept being implemented in Ontario schools, in which groups of students are given the opportunity to contribute to the selection and design of a material object or system which they subsequently construct, test, and evaluate. Project focus in on basic learning experiences which involve multidisciplinary…

  1. Design Concepts. Teacher Edition. Marketing Education LAPs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Jana

    This learning activity packet is designed to help prepare students to acquire a competency: how to use design concepts in preparation for a career in the fashion industry. The unit consists of the competency, four objectives, suggested learning activities, transparency masters, and a pretest/posttest with answer keys. Activities include a…

  2. "Universal Design" Concept Pushed for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a "universal design" concept that is being pushed by a coalition of education groups for education. Called "universal design for learning," the philosophy advocates creating lessons and classroom materials that are flexible enough to accommodate different learning styles. The coalition has drafted language it wants to have…

  3. Design concepts for the EST mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Süss, Martin; Fischer, David

    2012-09-01

    The EST has unique an optical layout, with an on-axis Gregorian tube system and the altitude axis behind the M1 mirror unit - a great challenge for the mount designer in regard of balancing. Three different structural design concepts and various alternatives for the bearing and drive systems were investigated. Hydrostatic bearings with direct drives are compared with roller bearings and geared drives. The influence of available bearing and drive technology were investigated by FE calculations, dynamic analysis and end-to-end simulations. The finally recommended design concept is based on large-diameter segmented roller bearings and so-called pinion motors in both axes.

  4. Crashworthy airframe design concepts: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronkhite, J. D.; Berry, V. L.

    1982-01-01

    Crashworthy floor concepts applicable to general aviation aircraft metal airframe structures were investigated. Initially several energy absorbing lower fuselage structure concepts were evaluated. Full scale floor sections representative of a twin engine, general aviation airplane lower fuselage structure were designed and fabricated. The floors featured an upper high strength platform with an energy absorbing, crushable structure underneath. Eighteen floors were fabricated that incorporated five different crushable subfloor concepts. The floors were then evaluated through static and dynamic testing. Computer programs NASTRAN and KRASH were used for the static and dynamic analysis of the floor section designs. Two twin engine airplane fuselages were modified to incorporate the most promising crashworthy floor sections for test evaluation.

  5. Educational Videogames: Concept, Design And Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrlick, D.; Yang, A.; Kilb, D. L.; Ma, L.; Ruzic, R.; Peach, C. L.; Layman, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Videogames have historically gained popularity thanks to their entertainment rather than their educational value. This may be due, in part, to the fact that many educational videogames present academic concepts in dry, quiz-like ways, without the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement of non-educational games. The increasing availability of tools that allow designers to easily create rich experiences for players now makes it simpler than ever for educational game designers to generate the visual experiences, interactivity, and excitement that gamers have grown to expect. Based on data from our work, when designed effectively, educational games can engage players, teach concepts, and tear down the stereotype of the stuffy, boring educational game. Our team has been experimenting with different ways to present scientific and mathematical concepts to middle and high school students through engaging, interactive games. When designing a gameplay concept, we focus on what we want the player to learn and experience as well as how to maintain a learning environment that is fun and engaging. Techniques that we have found successful include the use of a series of fast-paced 'minigames,' and the use of a 'simulator' learning method that allows a player to learn by completing objectives similar to those completed by today's scientists. Formative evaluations of our games over the past year have revealed both design strengths and weaknesses. Based on findings from a systematic evaluation of game play with diverse groups, with data collected through in-person observations of game play, knowledge assessments, focus groups, interviews with players, and computer tracking of students' game play behavior, we have found that players are uniformly enthusiastic about the educational tools. At the same time, we find there is more work to be done to make our tools fully intuitive, and to effectively present complex mathematical and scientific concepts to learners from a wide

  6. RISK-INFORMED BALANCING OF SAFETY, NONPROLIFERATION, AND ECONOMICS FOR THE SFR

    SciTech Connect

    Apostolakis, George; Driscoll, Michael; Golay, Michael; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Aldmir, Tunc; Denning, Richard; Lineberry, Michael

    2011-10-20

    A substantial barrier to the implementation of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) technology in the short term is the perception that they would not be economically competitive with advanced light water reactors. With increased acceptance of risk-informed regulation, the opportunity exists to reduce the costs of a nuclear power plant at the design stage without applying excessive conservatism that is not needed in treating low risk events. In the report, NUREG-1860, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission describes developmental activities associated with a risk-informed, scenario-based technology neutral framework (TNF) for regulation. It provides quantitative yardsticks against which the adequacy of safety risks can be judged. We extend these concepts to treatment of proliferation risks. The objective of our project is to develop a risk-informed design process for minimizing the cost of electricity generation within constraints of adequate safety and proliferation risks. This report describes the design and use of this design optimization process within the context of reducing the capital cost and levelized cost of electricity production for a small (possibly modular) SFR. Our project provides not only an evaluation of the feasibility of a risk-informed design process but also a practical test of the applicability of the TNF to an actual advanced, non-LWR design. The report provides results of five safety related and one proliferation related case studies of innovative design alternatives. Applied to previously proposed SFR nuclear energy system concepts We find that the TNF provides a feasible initial basis for licensing new reactors. However, it is incomplete. We recommend improvements in terms of requiring acceptance standards for total safety risks, and we propose a framework for regulation of proliferation risks. We also demonstrate methods for evaluation of proliferation risks. We also suggest revisions to scenario-specific safety risk acceptance standards

  7. The natural flow wing-design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    1992-01-01

    A wing-design study was conducted on a 65 degree swept leading-edge delta wing in which the wing geometry was modified to take advantage of the naturally occurring flow that forms over a slender wing in a supersonic flow field. Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis methods were used in the study which was divided into three parts: preliminary design, initial design, and final design. In the preliminary design, the wing planform, the design conditions, and the near-conical wing-design concept were derived, and a baseline standard wing (conventional airfoil distribution) and a baseline near-conical wing were chosen. During the initial analysis, a full-potential flow solver was employed to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the baseline standard delta wing and to investigate modifications to the airfoil thickness, leading-edge radius, airfoil maximum-thickness position, and wing upper to lower surface asymmetry on the baseline near-conical wing. The final design employed an Euler solver to analyze the best wing configurations found in the initial design and to extend the study of wing asymmetry to develop a more refined wing. Benefits resulting from each modification are discussed, and a final 'natural flow' wing geometry was designed that provides an improvement in aerodynamic performance compared with that of a baseline conventional uncambered wing, linear-theory cambered wing, and near-conical wing.

  8. Gallium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thrustor Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given in Fig. 1. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagneticpump[l]. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx.10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx.500 I), send-stage puke which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  9. Galium Electromagnetic (GEM) Thruster Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design of a new type of two-stage pulsed electromagnetic accelerator, the gallium electromagnetic (GEM) thruster. A schematic illustration of the GEM thruster concept is given. In this concept, liquid gallium propellant is pumped into the first stage through a porous metal electrode using an electromagnetic pump. At a designated time, a pulsed discharge (approx. 10-50 J) is initiated in the first stage, ablating the liquid gallium from the porous electrode surface and ejecting a dense thermal gallium plasma into the second state. The presence of the gallium plasma in the second stage serves to trigger the high-energy (approx. 500 J), second-stage pulse which provides the primary electromagnetic (j x B) acceleration.

  10. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  11. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources especially in the context of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Since bioreactor designs for terrestrial operation will not readily apply to conditions of microgravity, there is an urgent need to learn about the differences. These differences cannot be easily estimated due to the complex nature of the mass transport and mixing mechanisms in fermenters. Therefore, a systematic and expeditious experimental program must be undertaken to obtain the engineering data necessary to lay down the foundations of designing bioreactors for microgravity. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecrafts, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  12. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  13. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  14. International Design Concepts for the SKA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarter, J.

    2001-12-01

    In August of 2000, representatives of eleven countries signed a Memorandum of Understanding to Establish the International Square Kilometre Array Steering Committee (ISSC). Arguably, the SKA could be built today, but without question it would be unaffordable. Increasing collecting area by a factor of 100 beyond today's largest array cannot be done cost effectively by simple extensions of what has been done before. New concepts, new designs, and new technologies will be required, as well as a paradigm shift. It will be necessary to heavily exploit emerging communications and consumer market technologies; to "hammer" them into shapes required to solve the SKA challenges, rather than inventing our own solutions from scratch. Or if we do invent ab initio solutions, we should look at creating consumer markets to embrace them, so that the full benefits of mass production and manufacturing can be realized. The strawman science goals of the SKA are extremely ambitious. Today there are six primary design concepts being studied that attempt to meet some or all of these goals; phased arrays of active elements embedded into flat tiles, "super Arecibo" antennas constructed in individual limestone karst sinkholes and arrayed together, large arrays of small, spherical (or hemispherical) Luneberg lenses, large deformable apertures with long focal ratios and aerostat-borne focal plane array receivers, arrays of large parabolic antennas constructed from steel "ropes," and large arrays of small parabolic dishes derived from the TVRO industry. This talk summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of these various designs in their current, incomplete state. In the US, the US SKA Consortium of 10 academic and research organizations has generated a roadmap to guide and assess the technology development that will be required to produce a successful SKA design, with well understood costs, performance, and minimal risk. The design and construction efforts for the ATA, LOFAR and the EVLA will

  15. Identifying and Overcoming Threshold Concepts and Conceptions: Introducing a Conception-Focused Curriculum to Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Gerald F.; Burch, Jana J.; Bradley, Thomas P.; Heller, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Educators have been challenged to identify threshold concepts and develop transformed students. This stands in stark contrast to many curriculum design and delivery models that currently view students as repositories of knowledge. In this article, we argue that educators can reach both goals, identify stumbling blocks and transforming students,…

  16. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  17. Space interferometer mission (SIM) instrument design concepts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, A. L.

    SIM is a 12 meter baseline interferometer to be built as part of the NASA Origins program, designed to fly in space and provide high precision astrometry measurements of astronomical objects. SIM will provide angular measurements three orders of magnitude more precise than current space or ground based sensors, allowing the indirect detection of Earth-like planets around neighboring stars. The SIM mission will also include the ability to synthesize images by varying the interferometer baseline lengths and will demonstrate a nulling beam combiner as a technology pathfinder for future missions. A team at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space (LMMS) in Sunnyvale, CA has been chosen by JPL to enter a partnership to design and build the SIM instrument. This paper describes the overall LMMS SIM instrument concept and its unique features, including the full aperture laser metrology approach for high precision metrology.

  18. Design Concepts for Muon-Based Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R. D.; Berg, J. S.; Kirk, H. G.; Palmer, R. B.; Stratkis, D.; Alexahin, Y.; Bross, A.; Gollwitzer, K.; Mokhov, N. V.; Neuffer, D.; Palmer, M. A.; Yonehara, K.; Snopok, P.; Bogacz, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Delahaye, J. -P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon-based accelerators have the potential to enable facilities at both the Intensity and the Energy Frontiers. Muon storage rings can serve as high precision neutrino sources, and a muon collider is an ideal technology for a TeV or multi-TeV collider. Progress in muon accelerator designs has advanced steadily in recent years. In regard to 6D muon cooling, detailed and realistic designs now exist that provide more than 5 order-of-magnitude emittance reduction. Furthermore, detector performance studies indicate that with suitable pixelation and timing resolution, backgrounds in the collider detectors can be significantly reduced, thus enabling high-quality physics results. Thanks to these and other advances in design & simulation of muon systems, technology development, and systems demonstrations, muon storage-ring-based neutrino sources and a muon collider appear more feasible than ever before. A muon collider is now arguably among the most compelling approaches to a multi-TeV lepton collider. This paper summarizes the current status of design concepts for muon-based accelerators for neutrino factories and a muon collider.

  19. The Triton: Design concepts and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Singer, Michael; Vanryn, Percy; Brown, Rhonda; Tella, Gustavo; Harvey, Bob

    1992-01-01

    During the design of the C & P Aerospace Triton, a few problems were encountered that necessitated changes in the configuration. After the initial concept phase, the aspect ratio was increased from 7 to 7.6 to produce a greater lift to drag ratio (L/D = 13) which satisfied the horsepower requirements (118 hp using the Lycoming O-235 engine). The initial concept had a wing planform area of 134 sq. ft. Detailed wing sizing analysis enlarged the planform area to 150 sq. ft., without changing its layout or location. The most significant changes, however, were made just prior to inboard profile design. The fuselage external diameter was reduced from 54 to 50 inches to reduce drag to meet the desired cruise speed of 120 knots. Also, the nose was extended 6 inches to accommodate landing gear placement. Without the extension, the nosewheel received an unacceptable percentage (25 percent) of the landing weight. The final change in the configuration was made in accordance with the stability and control analysis. In order to reduce the static margin from 20 to 13 percent, the horizontal tail area was reduced from 32.02 to 25.0 sq. ft. The Triton meets all the specifications set forth in the design criteria. If time permitted another iteration of the calculations, two significant changes would be made. The vertical stabilizer area would be reduced to decrease the aircraft lateral stability slope since the current value was too high in relation to the directional stability slope. Also, the aileron size would be decreased to reduce the roll rate below the current 106 deg/second. Doing so would allow greater flap area (increasing CL(sub max)) and thus reduce the overall wing area. C & P would also recalculate the horsepower and drag values to further validate the 120 knot cruising speed.

  20. Deep Space Habitat ECLS Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank

    2011-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over as the mission definition also has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  1. Deep Space Habitat ECLSS Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly S.; Rotter, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over because the mission definition has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  2. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  3. Design study of prestressed rotor spar concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Studies on the Bell Helicopter 540 Rotor System of the AH-1G helicopter were performed. The stiffness, mass and geometric configurations of the Bell blade were matched to give a dynamically similar prestressed composite blade. A multi-tube, prestressed composite spar blade configuration was designed for superior ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost. The composite spar prestresses, imparted during fabrication, are chosen to maintain compression in the high strength cryogenically stretchformed 304-L stainless steel liner and tension in the overwrapped HTS graphite fibers under operating loads. This prestressing results in greatly improved crack propagation and fatigue resistance as well as enhanced fiber stiffness properties. Advantages projected for the prestressed composite rotor spar concept include increased operational life and improved ballistic survivability at low life cycle cost.

  4. A Concept Transformation Learning Model for Architectural Design Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yun-Wu; Weng, Kuo-Hua; Young, Li-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Generally, in the foundation course of architectural design, much emphasis is placed on teaching of the basic design skills without focusing on teaching students to apply the basic design concepts in their architectural designs or promoting students' own creativity. Therefore, this study aims to propose a concept transformation learning model to…

  5. Design concepts in lumbar total disc arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bellini, Chiara M.; Zweig, Thomas; Ferguson, Stephen; Raimondi, Manuela T.; Lamartina, Claudio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Fornari, Maurizio

    2008-01-01

    The implantation of lumbar disc prostheses based on different design concepts is widely accepted. This paper reviews currently available literature studies on the biomechanics of TDA in the lumbar spine, and is targeted at the evaluation of possible relationships between the aims of TDA and the geometrical, mechanical and material properties of the various available disc prostheses. Both theoretical and experimental studies were analyzed, by a PUBMED search (performed in February 2007, revised in January 2008), focusing on single level TDA. Both semi-constrained and unconstrained lumbar discs seem to be able to restore nearly physiological IAR locations and ROM values. However, both increased and decreased ROM was stated in some papers, unrelated to the clinical outcome. Segmental lordosis alterations after TDA were reported in most cases, for both constrained and unconstrained disc prostheses. An increase in the load through the facet joints was documented, for both semi-constrained and unconstrained artificial discs, but with some contrasting results. Semi-constrained devices may be able to share a greater part of the load, thus protecting the surrounding biological structure from overloading and possible early degeneration, but may be more susceptible to wear. The next level of development will be the biomechanical integration of compression across the motion segment. All these findings need to be supported by long-term clinical outcome studies. PMID:18946684

  6. Advanced Technology Display House. Volume 2: Energy system design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maund, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design concept for the energy systems in the Advanced Technology Display House is analyzed. Residential energy demand, energy conservation, and energy concepts are included. Photovoltaic arrays and REDOX (reduction oxidation) sizes are discussed.

  7. Advanced composites structural concepts and materials technologies for primary aircraft structures: Design/manufacturing concept assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Robert L.; Bayha, Tom D.; Davis, HU; Ingram, J. ED; Shukla, Jay G.

    1992-01-01

    Composite Wing and Fuselage Structural Design/Manufacturing Concepts have been developed and evaluated. Trade studies were performed to determine how well the concepts satisfy the program goals of 25 percent cost savings, 40 percent weight savings with aircraft resizing, and 50 percent part count reduction as compared to the aluminum Lockheed L-1011 baseline. The concepts developed using emerging technologies such as large scale resin transfer molding (RTM), automatic tow placed (ATP), braiding, out-of-autoclave and automated manufacturing processes for both thermoset and thermoplastic materials were evaluated for possible application in the design concepts. Trade studies were used to determine which concepts carry into the detailed design development subtask.

  8. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most

  9. Advanced design concepts in nuclear electric propulsion. [and spacecraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelgren, M. L.; Mondt, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of the nuclear propulsion programs are reported. Major areas of investigation were (1) design efforts on spacecraft configuration and heat rejection subsystem, (2) high-voltage thermionic reactor concepts, and (3) dual-mode spacecraft configuration study.

  10. Project Design Concept for Monitoring and Control System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    This Project Design Concept represents operational requirements established for use in design the tank farm Monitoring and Control System. These upgrades are included within the scope of Project W-314, Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.

  11. New Worlds Observer Telescope and Instrument Optical Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph M.; Noecker, Charlie; Kendrick, Steve; Woodgate, Bruce; Kilstron, Steve; Cash, Webster

    2008-01-01

    Optical design concepts for the telescope and instrumentation for NASA s New Worlds Observer program are presented. A four-meter multiple channel telescope is discussed, as well as a suite of science instrument concepts. Wide field instrumentation (imager and spectrograph) would be accommodated by a three-mirror-anastigmat telescope design. Planet finding and characterization, and a UV instrument would use a separate channel that is picked off after the first two mirrors (primary and secondary). Guiding concepts are also discussed.

  12. Design concept for pressure switch calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slingerland, M. G.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrator and switch design enables pressure switches to operate under 150 g shock loads. The design employs a saturated liquid-to-vapor phase transition at constant pressure to produce a known force independent of displacement over a usable range.

  13. Single stage rocket concept selection and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, J. A.

    1992-03-01

    The paper compares three concepts of a single-stage rocket for use as a reusable safe and reliable launch system: (1) horizontal takeoff and landing; (2) vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and vertical takeoff and horizontal landing. These concepts were evaluated during Phase I using the following ground rules: the 1992 technology availability; 7 d turnaround between flights with 350 man-days servicing; a 400-km polar orbit, 600 fps maneuver capability on orbit; 10,000 lb payload; 1170 nmi crossrange; two-man crew, 4-day duration, 14.7 psi cabin pressure, 1000 cu ft crew volume, 3 g maximum acceleration; winds amounting to 200 fps ascent, 73 fps landing; and return payload to base after single engine failure. On the basis of the comparison (done on the basis of the lowest cost to acquire and operate, the least sensitivity to uncertainties in predicted weight and performance, and the operational flexibility) the VTOL concept with nose-first reentry was chosen.

  14. Space Shuttle food galley design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C.; Fischer, R.; Cooper, B.

    1974-01-01

    A food galley has been designed for the crew compartment of the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter. The rationale for the definition of this design was based upon assignment of priorities to each functional element of the total food system. Principle priority categories were assigned in the following order: food quality, nutrition, food packaging, menu acceptance, meal preparation efficiency, total system weight, total system volume, and total power requirements. Hence, the galley was designed using an 'inside-out' approach which first considered the food and related biological functions and subsequently proceeded 'outward' from the food to encompass supporting hardware. The resulting galley is an optimal design incorporating appropriate priorities for trade-offs between biological and engineering constraints. This design approach is offered as a model for the design of life support systems.

  15. NGST NIRCam Scientific Program and Design Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Marcia J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Crampton, David; Doyon, Rene; Eisenstein, Daniel; Greene, Thomas P.; Hodapp, Klaus-Werner; Horner, Scott D.; Johnstone, Doug; Lesyna, Lawrence; Lilly, Simon; Meyer, Michael; Martin, Peter; McCarthy, Donald W., Jr.; Rieke, George H.; Roellig, Thomas L.; Stauffer, John; Trauger, John T.; Young, Erick T.

    2003-03-01

    The science program for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) relies heavily on a high performance nearinfrared imager. A design which supports the observations outlined in the Design Reference Mission (DRM) and which also supports enhanced searches for "first light" objects and planets has been developed. Key features of the design include use of refractive optics to minimize the volume and mass required, tunable filters for spectroscopic imaging, and redundant imagers for fail-safe wavefront sensing.

  16. RLIN Product Batch: Fundamental Design Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1984-01-01

    Considers fundamental decisions that shaped the output products of Research Libraries Information Network. Product Batch was designed using single data definition (RMARC) combined with standard PL/I, modular programing techniques, program documentation. Choice of software and programing languages, other design aspects (accountability, count…

  17. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Poston, Dave; Lipinski, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A report presents a design concept for an instrumented robotic vehicle (rover) to be used on a future mission of exploration of the planet Mars. The design incorporates a nuclear fission power system to provide long range, long life, and high power capabilities unachievable through the use of alternative solar or radioisotope power systems. The concept described in the report draws on previous rover designs developed for the 2009 Mars Science laboratory (MSL) mission to minimize the need for new technology developments.

  18. Engineering study for ISSTRS design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1997-01-31

    Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., is pleased to transmit the attached Conceptual Design Package for the Initial Single Shell Tank Retrieval System (ISSTRS), 90% Conceptual Design Review. The package includes the following: (1) ISSTRS Trade Studies: (a) Retrieval Facility Cooling Requirements; (b) Equipment Re-usability between Project W-320 and Tanks 241-C-103 and 241-C-1 05; (c) Sluice Line Options; and (d) Options for the Location of Tanks AX-103 and A-1 02 HVAC Equipment; (2) Drawings; (3) Risk Management Plan; (4) 0850 Interface Control Document; (5) Requirements Traceability Report; and (6) Project Design Specification.

  19. Ergonomic approach for pillow concept design.

    PubMed

    Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent. PMID:26360205

  20. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  1. 4MOST fiber feed concept design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, D. M.; Winkler, R.; Saviauk, Allar; Haynes, R.; Barden, S.; Bellido-Tirado, O.; Bauer, S.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Depagne, E.; Dionies, F.; Ehrlich, K.; Kelz, Andreas; Saunders, W.; Woche, M.

    2014-08-01

    4MOST, the 4m Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope, features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with ~2400 fibers in the focal plane that are configured by a fiber positioner based on the tilting spine principle (Echidna/FMOS) arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The fibers feed two types of spectrographs; ~1600 fibers go to two spectrographs with resolution R>5000 and ~800 fibers to a spectrograph with R>18,000. Part of the ongoing optimization of the fiber feed subsystem design includes early prototyping and testing of key components such as fiber connectors and fiber cable management. Performance data from this testing will be used in the 4MOST instrument simulator (TOAD) and 4MOST system design optimization. In this paper we give an overview of the current fiber feed subsystem design, simulations and prototyping plans.

  2. Innovative power conversion system for the French SFR prototype, ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Cachon, L.; Biscarrat, C.; Morin, F.; Haubensack, D.; Rigal, E.; Moro, I.; Baque, F.; Madeleine, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Laffont, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the prototype ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), foreseen in operation by the 20's, will have to demonstrate not only the minor actinide transmutation capability, but also the progress made in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology on an industrial scale, by qualifying innovative options. Some of these options still require improvements, especially in the field of operability and safety. In fact, one of the main issues with the standard steam/water Power Conversion System (PCS) of SFR is the fast and energetic chemical reaction between water and sodium, which could occur in steam generators in case of tube failure. To manage the sodium/water reaction, one way consists in minimizing the impact of such event: hence studies are carried out on steam generator design, improvement of the physical knowledge of this phenomenon, development of numerical simulation to predict the reaction onset and consequences, and associated detection improvement. On the other hand, the other way consists in eliminating sodium/water reaction. In this frame, the CEA contribution to the feasibility evaluation of an alternative innovative PCS (replacing steam/water by 180 bar pressurised nitrogen) is focused on the following main topics: - The parametric study leading to nitrogen selection: the thermodynamic cycle efficiency optimisation on Brayton cycles is performed with several gases at different pressures. - The design of innovative compact heat exchangers for the gas loop: here the key points are the nuclear codification associated with inspection capability, the innovative welding process and the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic optimisations. After a general introduction of the ASTRID project, this paper presents in detail these different feasibility studies being led on the innovative gas PCS for an SFR. (authors)

  3. Remote metrology system (RMS) design concept

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-19

    A 3D remote metrology system (RMS) is needed to map the interior plasma-facing components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The performance and survival of these components within the reactor vessel are strongly dependent on their precise alignment and positioning with respect to the plasma edge. Without proper positioning and alignment, plasma-facing surfaces will erode rapidly. A RMS design involving Coleman Research Corporation (CRC) fiber optic coherent laser radar (CLR) technology is examined in this study. The fiber optic CLR approach was selected because its high precision should be able to meet the ITER 0.1 mm accuracy requirement and because the CLR`s fiber optic implementation allows a 3D scanner to operate remotely from the RMS system`s vulnerable components. This design study has largely verified that a fiber optic CLR based RMS can survive the ITER environment and map the ITER interior at the required accuracy at a one measurement/cm{sup 2} density with a total measurement time of less than one hour from each of six or more vertically deployed measurement probes. The design approach employs a sealed and pressurized measurement probe which is attached with an umbilical spiral bellows conduit. This conduit bears fiber optic and electronic links plus a stream of air to lower the temperature in the interior of the probe. Lowering the probe temperature is desirable because probe electromechanical components which could survive the radiation environment often were not rated for the 200 C temperature. The tip of the probe whose outer shell has a flexible bellows joint can swivel in two degrees of freedom to allow mapping operations at each probe deployment level. This design study has concluded that the most successful scanner design will involve a hybrid AO beam deflector and mechanical scanner.

  4. Analysis and Multipoint Design of the TCA Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, Steven E.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Buning, Pieter G.

    1999-01-01

    The goal in this effort is to analyze the baseline TCA concept at transonic and supersonic cruise, then apply the natural flow wing design concept to obtain multipoint performance improvements. Analyses are conducted with OVERFLOW, a Navier-Stokes code for overset grids, using PEGSUS to compute the interpolations between the overset grids.

  5. Deep Throttle Turbopump Technology Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinzburg, Adiel; Williams, Morgan; Ferguson, Tom; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to increase the throttling range of turbopumps from 30 to 120% of the design value, while maintaining high performance levels. Details are given on wide flow range issues, H-Q characteristics, stall characteristics, energy levels, pressure fluctuations at impeller exit, WFR impeller characteristics, commercial diffuser pumps, slotted or tandem vanes, leading edge characteristics, leading edge models, throat models, diffusion passage models, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodologies, and CFD flow cases.

  6. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  7. Structural Design and Sizing of a Metallic Cryotank Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Martin, Robert A.; Johnson, Theodore F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the structural design and sizing details of a 33-foot (10 m) metallic cryotank concept used as the reference design to compare with the composite cryotank concepts developed by industry as part of NASA s Composite Cryotank Technology Development (CCTD) Project. The structural design methodology and analysis results for the metallic cryotank concept are reported in the paper. The paper describes the details of the metallic cryotank sizing assumptions for the baseline and reference tank designs. In particular, the paper discusses the details of the cryotank weld land design and analyses performed to obtain a reduced weight metallic cryotank design using current materials and manufacturing techniques. The paper also discusses advanced manufacturing techniques to spin-form the cryotank domes and compares the potential mass savings to current friction stir-welded technology.

  8. Interactive systems design and synthesis of future spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze and conduct parametric studies and modify Earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  9. Heat sink structural design concepts for a hypersonic research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Hypersonic research aircraft design requires careful consideration of thermal stresses. This paper relates some of the problems in a heat sink structural design that can be avoided by appropriate selection of design options including material selection, design concepts, and load paths. Data on several thermal loading conditions are presented on various conventional designs including bulkheads, longerons, fittings, and frames. Results indicate that conventional designs are inadequate and that acceptable designs are possible by incorporating innovative design practices. These include nonintegral pressure compartments, ball-jointed links to distribute applied loads without restraining the thermal expansion, and material selections based on thermal compatibility.

  10. Accelerator Design Concept for Future Neutrino Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    ISS Accelerator Working Group; Zisman, Michael S; Berg, J. S.; Blondel, A.; Brooks, S.; Campagne, J.-E.; Caspar, D.; Cevata, C.; Chimenti, P.; Cobb, J.; Dracos, M.; Edgecock, R.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fabich, A.; Fernow, R.; Filthaut, F.; Gallardo, J.; Garoby, R.; Geer, S.; Gerigk, F.; Hanson, G.; Johnson, R.; Johnstone, C.; Kaplan, D.; Keil, E.; Kirk, H.; Klier, A.; Kurup, A.; Lettry, J.; Long, K.; Machida, S.; McDonald, K.; Meot, F.; Mori, Y.; Neuffer, D.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R.; Paul, K.; Poklonskiy, A.; Popovic, M.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, T.; Sandstrom, R.; Sevior, R.; Sievers, P.; Simos, N.; Torun, Y.; Vretenar, M.; Yoshimura, K.; Zisman, Michael S

    2008-02-03

    This document summarizes the findings of the Accelerator Working Group (AWG) of the International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Future Neutrino Factory and Superbeam Facility. The work of the group took place at three plenary meetings along with three workshops, and an oral summary report was presented at the NuFact06 workshop held at UC-Irvine in August, 2006. The goal was to reach consensus on a baseline design for a Neutrino Factory complex. One aspect of this endeavor was to examine critically the advantages and disadvantages of the various Neutrino Factory schemes that have been proposed in recent years.

  11. Design concepts for hardened communications structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flathau, William J.; Smith, William G.

    1990-03-01

    An important component of any hardened command and control structure is the antenna system that provides communication with the outside world. Two types of antennae were considered; i.e., the whip type and the directional. The whip type is for short range communication and the directional is for use primarily with satellites. In the super high frequency range, the use of directional antennae having parabolic dishes greater than 8 feet in diameter are common. In the very extra high frequency range, dishes that are 2 to 3 feet in diameter are used. The whip type antenna should extend up to, say, 60 feet in the air. Based on this background, a family of structures was designed that can protect whip and directional antennae from the blast and shock effects from a 1-MT device for ground surface overpressure ranging from 15,000 to 500 psi. As the antennae, transmitters, receivers, power supplies, and lifting mechanisms will be located within such structures, appropriate shock spectra plots were developed to determine if the fragility level of pertinent equipment will be exceeded and for use in designing shock isolation systems. Button up periods of 1 and 4 weeks were considered.

  12. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis.

    PubMed

    Ganin, Alexander A; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today's complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks. PMID:26782180

  13. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  14. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks. PMID:26782180

  15. New Worlds Observer Telescope and Instrument Optical Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph; Kilston, Steve; Kendrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Optical design concepts for the telescope and instrumentation for NASA's New Worlds Observer program are presented. First order parameters are derived from the science requirements, and estimated performance metrics are shown using optical models. A four meter multiple channel telescope is discussed, as well as a suite of science instrument concepts. Wide field instrumentation (imager and spectrograph) would be accommodated by a three-mirror anastigmat telescope design. Planet finding and characterization would use a separate channel which is picked off after the first two mirrors (primary and secondary). Guiding concepts are also discussed.

  16. Design considerations for advanced battery concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H. F.; Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical representation for the charge and discharge of a sodium-sulfur cell is developed. These equations are then used as the basis for a computerized model to examine the effects of cell arrangement in the design of a large multi-kilowatt battery from a group of hypothetical individual cells with known variations in their ampere hour capacity and internal resistance. The cycling characteristics of 216 individual cells arranged in six different configurations are evaluated with the view towards minimizing the adverse effects that are introduced due to the stoichastic aspects of groupings of cells, as well as the possibility of cell failures in both the open and shorted mode. Although battery systems based on sodium-sulfur cells are described in this example, any of the newer electrochemical systems can be fitted into this framework by making appropriate modifications to the basic equations.

  17. Engineering CAR-T Cells: Design Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shivani; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being empirically designed based on a simple understanding of TCR signaling, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been remarkably successful in treating patients with advanced refractory B cell malignancies. However, many challenges remain in improving the safety and efficacy of this therapy and extending it toward the treatment of epithelial cancers. Other aspects TCR signaling beyond those directly provided by CD3ζ and CD28 phosphorylation strongly influence a T cell’s ability to differentiate and acquire full effector functions. Here, we discuss how the principles of TCR recognition, including spatial constraints, Kon/Koff rates, and synapse formation, along with in-depth analysis of CAR signaling might be applied to develop safer and more effective synthetic tumor targeting receptors. PMID:26169254

  18. Design concepts for low-cost composite turbofan engine frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.; Stoffer, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    Design concepts for low cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of a commercial, high bypass engine. Four alternative composite frame design concepts identified which consisted of generic type components and subcomponents that could be adapted to use in different locations in the engine and the different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were projected with a goal for the lowest number of parts at the lowest possible cost. After a preliminary evaluation of all four frame concepts, two designs were selected for an extended design and evaluation which narrowed the final selection down to one frame that was significantly lower in cost and slighty lighter than the other frame. An implementation plan for this lowest cost frame is projected for future development and includes prospects for reducing its weight with proposed unproven, innovative fabrication techniques.

  19. A Hierarchical Biology Concept Framework: A Tool for Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Khodor, Julia; Halme, Dina Gould; Walker, Graham C.

    2004-01-01

    A typical undergraduate biology curriculum covers a very large number of concepts and details. We describe the development of a Biology Concept Framework (BCF) as a possible way to organize this material to enhance teaching and learning. Our BCF is hierarchical, places details in context, nests related concepts, and articulates concepts that are inherently obvious to experts but often difficult for novices to grasp. Our BCF is also cross-referenced, highlighting interconnections between concepts. We have found our BCF to be a versatile tool for design, evaluation, and revision of course goals and materials. There has been a call for creating Biology Concept Inventories, multiple-choice exams that test important biology concepts, analogous to those in physics, astronomy, and chemistry. We argue that the community of researchers and educators must first reach consensus about not only what concepts are important to test, but also how the concepts should be organized and how that organization might influence teaching and learning. We think that our BCF can serve as a catalyst for community-wide discussion on organizing the vast number of concepts in biology, as a model for others to formulate their own BCFs and as a contribution toward the creation of a comprehensive BCF. PMID:15257339

  20. Trapped Ion Magnetic Resonance: Concepts and Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Pedro Jose

    A novel spectroscopy of trapped ions is proposed which will bring single-ion detection sensitivity to the observation of magnetic resonance spectra and resolve the apparent incompatibility in existing techniques between high information content and high sensitivity. Methods for studying both electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are designed. They assume established techniques for trapping ions in high magnetic field and observing electrically the trapping frequencies with high resolution (<1 Hz) and sensitivity (single -ion). A magnetic bottle field gradient couples the spin and spatial motions together and leads to the small spin -dependent force on the ion exploited by Dehmelt to observe directly the perturbation of the ground-state electron's axial frequency by its spin magnetic moment. A series of fundamental innovations is described to extend magnetic resonance to molecular ions ( cong 100 amu) and nuclear magnetic moments. It is demonstrated how time-domain trapping frequency observations before and after magnetic resonance can be used to make cooling of the particle to its ground state unnecessary. Adiabatic cycling of the magnetic bottle off between detection periods is shown to be practical and to allow high-resolution magnetic resonance to be encoded pointwise as the presence or absence of trapping frequency shifts. Methods of inducing spin -dependent work on the ion orbits with magnetic field gradients and Larmor frequency irradiation are proposed which greatly amplify the attainable shifts in trapping frequency. The first proposal presented builds on Dehmelt's experiment to reveal ESR spectra. A more powerful technique for ESR is then designed where axially synchronized spin transitions perform spin-dependent work in the presence of a magnetic bottle, which also converts axial amplitude changes into cyclotron frequency shifts. The most general approach presented is a continuous Stern-Gerlach effect in which a magnetic field

  1. Task-oriented display design - Concept and example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1989-01-01

    The general topic was in the area of display design alternatives for improved man-machine performance. The intent was to define and assess a display design concept oriented toward providing this task-oriented information. The major focus of this concept deals with the processing of data into parameters that are more relevant to the task of the human operator. Closely coupled to this concept of relevant information is the form or manner in which this information is actually presented. Conventional forms of presentation are normally a direct representation of the underlying data. By providing information in a form that is more easily assimilated and understood, a reduction in human error and cognitive workload may be obtained. A description of this proposed concept with a design example is provided. The application for the example was an engine display for a generic, twin-engine civil transport aircraft. The product of this concept was evaluated against a functionally similar, traditional display. The results of this evaluation showed that a task-oriented approach to design is a viable concept with regard to reducing user error and cognitive workload. The goal of this design process, providing task-oriented information to the user, both in content and form, appears to be a feasible mechanism for increasing the overall performance of a man-machine system.

  2. Task-oriented display design: Concept and example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1989-01-01

    The general topic was in the area of display design alternatives for improved man-machine performance. The intent was to define and assess a display design concept oriented toward providing this task-oriented information. The major focus of this concept deals with the processing of data into parameters that are more relevant to the task of the human operator. Closely coupled to this concept of relevant information is the form or manner in which this information is actually presented. Conventional forms of presentation are normally a direct representation of the underlying data. By providing information in a form that is more easily assimilated and understood, a reduction in human error and cognitive workload may be obtained. A description of this proposed concept with a design example is provided. The application for the example was an engine display for a generic, twin-engine civil transport aircraft. The product of this concept was evaluated against a functionally similar, traditional display. The results of this evaluation showed that a task-oriented approach to design is a viable concept with regard to reducing user error and cognitive workload. The goal of this design process, providing task-oriented information to the user, both in content and form, appears to be a feasible mechanism for increasing the overall performance of a man-machine system.

  3. Thermal design trades for SAFIR architecture concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, Harold W.; Paine, Christopher; Bradford, Matt; Dragovan, Mark; Nash, Al; Dooley, Jennifer; Lawrence, Charles

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR is a IO-meter, 4 K space telescope optimized for wavelengths between 20 microns and 1 mm. The combination of aperture diameter and telescope temperature will provide a raw sensitivity improvement of more than a factor of 1000 over presently-planned missions. The sensitivity will be comparable to that of the JWST and ALMA, but at the critical far-IR wavelengths where much of the universe's radiative energy has emerged since the origin of stars and galaxies. We examine several of the critical technologies for SAFIR which enable the large cold aperture, and present results of studies examining the telescope optics and the spacecraft thermal architecture. Both the method by which the aperture is filled, and the overall optical design for the telescope can impact the potential scientific return of SAFIR. Thermal architecture that goes far beyond the sunshades developed for the James Webb Space Telescope will be necessary to achieve the desired sensitivity of SAFIR. By combining active and passive cooling at critical points within the observatory, a significant reduction of the required level of active cooling can be obtained.

  4. Personalized radiotherapy: concepts, biomarkers and trial design.

    PubMed

    Ree, A H; Redalen, K R

    2015-07-01

    In the past decade, and pointing onwards to the immediate future, clinical radiotherapy has undergone considerable developments, essentially including technological advances to sculpt radiation delivery, the demonstration of the benefit of adding concomitant cytotoxic agents to radiotherapy for a range of tumour types and, intriguingly, the increasing integration of targeted therapeutics for biological optimization of radiation effects. Recent molecular and imaging insights into radiobiology will provide a unique opportunity for rational patient treatment, enabling the parallel design of next-generation trials that formally examine the therapeutic outcome of adding targeted drugs to radiation, together with the critically important assessment of radiation volume and dose-limiting treatment toxicities. In considering the use of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity, this may also include the identification of molecular, metabolic and imaging markers of treatment response and tolerability, and will need particular attention on patient eligibility. In addition to providing an overview of clinical biomarker studies relevant for personalized radiotherapy, this communication will highlight principles in addressing clinical evaluation of combined-modality-targeted therapeutics and radiation. The increasing number of translational studies that bridge large-scale omics sciences with quality-assured phenomics end points-given the imperative development of open-source data repositories to allow investigators the access to the complex data sets-will enable radiation oncology to continue to position itself with the highest level of evidence within existing clinical practice. PMID:25989697

  5. Personalized radiotherapy: concepts, biomarkers and trial design

    PubMed Central

    Redalen, K R

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, and pointing onwards to the immediate future, clinical radiotherapy has undergone considerable developments, essentially including technological advances to sculpt radiation delivery, the demonstration of the benefit of adding concomitant cytotoxic agents to radiotherapy for a range of tumour types and, intriguingly, the increasing integration of targeted therapeutics for biological optimization of radiation effects. Recent molecular and imaging insights into radiobiology will provide a unique opportunity for rational patient treatment, enabling the parallel design of next-generation trials that formally examine the therapeutic outcome of adding targeted drugs to radiation, together with the critically important assessment of radiation volume and dose-limiting treatment toxicities. In considering the use of systemic agents with presumed radiosensitizing activity, this may also include the identification of molecular, metabolic and imaging markers of treatment response and tolerability, and will need particular attention on patient eligibility. In addition to providing an overview of clinical biomarker studies relevant for personalized radiotherapy, this communication will highlight principles in addressing clinical evaluation of combined-modality-targeted therapeutics and radiation. The increasing number of translational studies that bridge large-scale omics sciences with quality-assured phenomics end points—given the imperative development of open-source data repositories to allow investigators the access to the complex data sets—will enable radiation oncology to continue to position itself with the highest level of evidence within existing clinical practice. PMID:25989697

  6. Concept Design of Cardiovascular Stents Based on Load Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.

    2015-04-01

    The concept design is an important design phase for the cardiovascular stents. The topology optimization methods can be applied to the concept design of the cardiovascular stents. However, the interaction analysis between the stent and artery involves material nonlinearity, geometrical nonlinearity and boundary nonlinearity. The interaction analysis is not easy to be successful if these three types of nonlinearities are considered simultaneously. Therefore, the topology optimization process may be suspended if the nonlinear interaction analysis fails. The aim of this paper is to develop a design method to obtain the concept design of cardiovascular stents based on the load identification and homogenization method. A displacement control method is proposed to identify the design load of the cardiovascular stents. The identified design load is then applied to the stent and the nonlinear interaction analysis is replaced by the linear analysis. Further, the nonlinear analysis is completely avoided in the topology optimization process. The numerical results show that the proposed design method can obtain the legible concept design of cardiovascular stents.

  7. Third Generation of AHSS: Microstructure Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlock, David K.; Speer, John G.

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on the development of new advanced high strength sheet steels (AHSS), particularly for automotive applications. Descriptive terminology has evolved to describe the “First Generation” of AHSS, i.e. steels that possess primarily ferrite-based microstructures, and the “Second Generation” of AHSS, i.e. austenitic steels with high manganese contents which include steels that are closely related to austenitic stainless steels. First generation AHSS have been referred to by a variety of names including dual phase (DP), transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), complex-phase (CP), and martensitic (MART). Second generation austenitic AHSS include twinninginduced plasticity (TWIP) steels, Al-added lightweight steels with induced plasticity (L-IP®), and shear band strengthened steels (SIP steels). Recently there has been increased interest in the development of the “Third Generation” of AHSS, i.e. steels with strength-ductility combinations significantly better than exhibited by the first generation AHSS but at a cost significantly less than required for second generation AHSS. Approaches to the development of third generation AHSS will require unique alloy/microstructure combinations to achieve the desired properties. Results from a recent composite modeling analysis have shown that the third generation of AHSS will include materials with complex microstructures consisting of a high strength phase (e.g. ultra-fine grained ferrite, martensite, or bainite) and significant amounts of a constituent with substantial ductility and work hardening (e.g. austenite). In this paper, design methodologies based on considerations of fundamental strengthening mechanisms are presented and evaluated to assess the potential for developing new materials. Several processing routes will be assessed, including the recently identified Quenching & Partitioning (Q&P) process developed in the authors’ own laboratory.

  8. Design and Evaluation of Nextgen Aircraft Separation Assurance Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter; Ho, Nhut; Arutyunov, Vladimir; Laue, John-Luke; Wilmoth, Ian

    2012-01-01

    To support the development and evaluation of future function allocation concepts for separation assurance systems for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, this paper presents the design and human-in-the-loop evaluation of three feasible function allocation concepts that allocate primary aircraft separation assurance responsibilities and workload to: 1) pilots; 2) air traffic controllers (ATC); and 3) automation. The design of these concepts also included rules of the road, separation assurance burdens for aircraft of different equipage levels, and utilization of advanced weather displays paired with advanced conflict detection and resolution automation. Results of the human-in-the-loop simulation show that: a) all the concepts are robust with respect to weather perturbation; b) concept 1 (pilots) had highest throughput, closest to assigned spacing, and fewest violations of speed and altitude restrictions; c) the energy of the aircraft during the descent phase was better managed in concepts 1 and 2 (pilots and ATC) than in concept 3 (automation), in which the situation awareness of pilots and controllers was lowest, and workload of pilots was highest. The paper also discusses further development of these concepts and their augmentation and integration with future air traffic management tools and systems that are being considered for NextGen.

  9. Investigating the Act of Design in Discharge Concept Using PMRI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lestariningsih; Anwar, Muhammad; Setiawan, Agus Mulyanto

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the act of design in discharge concept using Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI) approach with Lapindo's Mud phenomenon as a context. Design research was chosen as the method used in this research that consists of three phases, namely preparing for the experiment, teaching experiment, and…

  10. High Altitude Venus Operations Concept Trajectory Design, Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lugo, Rafael A.; Ozoroski, Thomas A.; Van Norman, John W.; Arney, Dale C.; Dec, John A.; Jones, Christopher A.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.

    2015-01-01

    A trajectory design and analysis that describes aerocapture, entry, descent, and inflation of manned and unmanned High Altitude Venus Operation Concept (HAVOC) lighter-than-air missions is presented. Mission motivation, concept of operations, and notional entry vehicle designs are presented. The initial trajectory design space is analyzed and discussed before investigating specific trajectories that are deemed representative of a feasible Venus mission. Under the project assumptions, while the high-mass crewed mission will require further research into aerodynamic decelerator technology, it was determined that the unmanned robotic mission is feasible using current technology.

  11. Lunar fission surface power system design and implementation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-01

    The request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  12. Lunar Fission Surface Power System Design and Implementation Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, John O.; Reh, Kim; MacPherson, Duncan

    2006-01-20

    At the request of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) in May of 2005, a team was assembled within the Prometheus Project to investigate lunar surface nuclear power architectures and provide design and implementation concept inputs to NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture 60-day Study (ESAS) team. System engineering tasks were undertaken to investigate the design and implementation of a Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) that could be launched as early as 2019 as part of a possible initial Lunar Base architecture. As a result of this activity, the Prometheus team evaluated a number of design and implementation concepts as well as a significant number of trades associated with lunar surface power, all culminating in a recommended approach. This paper presents the results of that study, including a recommended FSPS design and implementation concept.

  13. Symmetric Achromatic Low-Beta Collider Interaction Region Design Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Vasiliy S.; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Lin, Fanglei; Johnson, Rolland P.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new symmetry-based concept for an achromatic low-beta collider interaction region design. A specially-designed symmetric Chromaticity Compensation Block (CCB) induces an angle spread in the passing beam such that it cancels the chromatic kick of the final focusing quadrupoles. Two such CCB?s placed symmetrically around an interaction point allow simultaneous compensation of the 1st-order chromaticities and chromatic beam smear at the IP without inducing significant 2nd-order aberrations. We first develop an analytic description of this approach and explicitly formulate 2nd-order aberration compensation conditions at the interaction point. The concept is next applied to develop an interaction region design for the ion collider ring of an electron-ion collider. We numerically evaluate performance of the design in terms of momentum acceptance and dynamic aperture. The advantages of the new concept are illustrated by comparing it to the conventional distributed-sextupole chromaticity compensation scheme.

  14. Techniques for Conducting Effective Concept Design and Design-to-Cost Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Pietro, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Concept design plays a central role in project success as its product effectively locks the majority of system life cycle cost. Such extraordinary leverage presents a business case for conducting concept design in a credible fashion, particularly for first-of-a-kind systems that advance the state of the art and that have high design uncertainty. A key challenge, however, is to know when credible design convergence has been achieved in such systems. Using a space system example, this paper characterizes the level of convergence needed for concept design in the context of technical and programmatic resource margins available in preliminary design and highlights the importance of design and cost evaluation learning curves in determining credible convergence. It also provides techniques for selecting trade study cases that promote objective concept evaluation, help reveal unknowns, and expedite convergence within the trade space and conveys general practices for conducting effective concept design-to-cost studies.

  15. Systems analysis and futuristic designs of advanced biofuel factory concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, Russ; Leathers, James; Thoma, Steven George; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. is addicted to petroleum--a dependency that periodically shocks the economy, compromises national security, and adversely affects the environment. If liquid fuels remain the main energy source for U.S. transportation for the foreseeable future, the system solution is the production of new liquid fuels that can directly displace diesel and gasoline. This study focuses on advanced concepts for biofuel factory production, describing three design concepts: biopetroleum, biodiesel, and higher alcohols. A general schematic is illustrated for each concept with technical description and analysis for each factory design. Looking beyond current biofuel pursuits by industry, this study explores unconventional feedstocks (e.g., extremophiles), out-of-favor reaction processes (e.g., radiation-induced catalytic cracking), and production of new fuel sources traditionally deemed undesirable (e.g., fusel oils). These concepts lay the foundation and path for future basic science and applied engineering to displace petroleum as a transportation energy source for good.

  16. Interactive design and analysis of future large spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    An interactive computer aided design program used to perform systems level design and analysis of large spacecraft concepts is presented. Emphasis is on rapid design, analysis of integrated spacecraft, and automatic spacecraft modeling for lattice structures. Capabilities and performance of multidiscipline applications modules, the executive and data management software, and graphics display features are reviewed. A single user at an interactive terminal create, design, analyze, and conduct parametric studies of Earth orbiting spacecraft with relative ease. Data generated in the design, analysis, and performance evaluation of an Earth-orbiting large diameter antenna satellite are used to illustrate current capabilities. Computer run time statistics for the individual modules quantify the speed at which modeling, analysis, and design evaluation of integrated spacecraft concepts is accomplished in a user interactive computing environment.

  17. A design concept for an MMIC microstrip phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. Q.; Smetana, J.; Acosta, R.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka band advanced satellite communication antenna systems. The proposed design concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required. The proposed design concept takes into consideration the RF characteristics and actual phyical dimensions of the MMIC devices. Also, solutions to spatial constraints and interconnections associated with currently available packaging designs are discussed. Finally, the design of the microstrip radiating elements and their radiation characteristics are examined.

  18. Global cost and weight evaluation of fuselage keel design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, B. W.; Morris, M. R.; Metschan, S. L.; Swanson, G. D.; Smith, P. J.; Griess, K. H.; Schramm, M. R.; Humphrey, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Boeing program entitled Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structure (ATCAS) is focused on the application of affordable composite technology to pressurized fuselage structure of future aircraft. As part of this effort, a design study was conducted on the keel section of the aft fuselage. A design build team (DBT) approach was used to identify and evaluate several design concepts which incorporated different material systems, fabrication processes, structural configurations, and subassembly details. The design concepts were developed in sufficient detail to accurately assess their potential for cost and weight savings as compared with a metal baseline representing current wide body technology. The cost and weight results, along with an appraisal of performance and producibility risks, are used to identify a globally optimized keel design; one which offers the most promising cost and weight advantages over metal construction. Lastly, an assessment is given of the potential for further cost and weight reductions of the selected keel design during local optimization.

  19. Enroute flight planning: Evaluating design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, C. Elaine

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this research were to develop design concepts to support the task of enroute flight planning. And within this context, to explore and evaluate general design concepts and principles to guide the development of cooperative problem solving systems. A detailed model is to be developed of the cognitive processes involved in flight planning. Included in this model will be the identification of individual differences of subjects. Of particular interest will be differences between pilots and dispatchers. The effect will be studied of the effect on performance of tools that support planning at different levels of abstraction. In order to conduct this research, the Flight Planning Testbed (FPT) was developed, a fully functional testbed environment for studying advanced design concepts for tools to aid in flight planning.

  20. Design concepts for low cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  1. Design concepts for low-cost composite engine frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Design concepts for low-cost, lightweight composite engine frames were applied to the design requirements for the frame of commercial, high-bypass turbine engines. The concepts consist of generic-type components and subcomponents that could be adapted for use in different locations in the engine and to different engine sizes. A variety of materials and manufacturing methods were assessed with a goal of having the lowest number of parts possible at the lowest possible cost. The evaluation of the design concepts resulted in the identification of a hybrid composite frame which would weigh about 70 percent of the state-of-the-art metal frame and cost would be about 60 percent.

  2. Thermal design concept for a high resolution UV spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, P.; Stipandic, E.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal design concept described has been developed for the High Resolution UV Spectrometer/Polarimeter to be flown on the Solar Maximum Mission. Based on experience gained from a similar Orbiting Solar Observatory mission payload, it has been recognized that initial protection of the optical elements, contamination control, reduction of scattered light, tight bulk temperature, and gradient constraints are key elements that must be accommodated in any thermal control concept for this class of instrument. Salient features of the design include: (1) a telescope door providing contamination protection of an aplanatic Gregorian telescope; (2) a rastering system for the secondary mirror; (3) a unique solar heat absorbing device; (4) heat pipes and special radiators; (5) heaters for active temperature control and optics contamination protection; and (6) high precision platinum resistance thermometers. Viability of the design concept has been established by extensive thermal analysis and some subsystem testing. A summary of analytical and test results is included.

  3. Concept designs for NASA's Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David H.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kilogram spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kilogram of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kilogram spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload. Low-cost and maximum Delta-V capability variants of a spacecraft concept based on utilizing a secondary payload adapter as the primary bus structure were developed as were concepts designed to be co-manifested with another spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. Each of the Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission concepts developed included an estimated spacecraft cost. These data suggest estimated spacecraft costs of $200 million - $300 million if 30 kilowatt-class solar arrays and the corresponding electric propulsion system currently under development are used as the basis for sizing the mission concept regardless of launch vehicle costs. The most affordable mission concept developed based on subscale variants of the advanced solar arrays and electric propulsion technology currently under development by the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate has an estimated cost of $50M and could provide a Delta-V capability comparable to much larger spacecraft concepts.

  4. NASA LaRC Strain Gage Balance Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has been designing strain-gage balances for more than fifty years. These balances have been utilized in Langley's wind tunnels, which span over a wide variety of aerodynamic test regimes, as well as other ground based test facilities and in space flight applications. As a result, the designs encompass a large array of sizes, loads, and environmental effects. Currently Langley has more than 300 balances available for its researchers. This paper will focus on the design concepts for internal sting mounted strain-gage balances. However, these techniques can be applied to all force measurement design applications. Strain-gage balance concepts that have been developed over the years including material selection, sting, model interfaces, measuring, sections, fabrication, strain-gaging and calibration will be discussed.

  5. Design Concept for Garbage Bin with Situation Awareness Feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supattatham, Montri; Papasratorn, Borworn

    Many measures to prevent wide-spread of communicable diseases depends on embedded IT into objects found in public places. This makes it possible to have objects with awareness on surrounding environment, or having situation awareness. This paper presents design concept to add situation awareness features to automatic garbage bin. There are three design levels for including situation awareness features with garbage bin. From awareness goals, required features are identified. Perception, comprehension, and projection are then aligned with the required features, in order to have desired awareness. Automatic garbage bin is implemented using design specification from the proposed design concept. Result from convenience sampling survey reveals that users are satisfied with the implemented garbage bin.

  6. Design for All in Scandinavia - a strong concept.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Karin; Benktzon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Design for All is more than an appealing point of view. It is a concept that offers a set of challenges capable of generating innovation and giving design added value and weight. In the Scandinavian tradition, the concept has developed from a purely social dimension to a design topic that is discussed both in terms of its business potential and in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. This article gives a State of the Art of the development of Design for All in the Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland during the past 15 years, beginning with a common review and joint Scandinavian projects, followed by an overall review country by country which include selected case studies over the past 15 years. PMID:23755993

  7. Aerodynamic characteristics of missile configurations based on Soviet design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of several missile concepts are examined. The configurations, which are based on some typical Soviet design concepts, include fixed-wing missiles with either forward- or aft-tail controls, and wing-control missiles with fixed aft stabilizing surfaces. The conceptual missions include air-to-air, surface-to-air, air-to-surface, and surface-to-surface. Analytical and experimental results indicate that through the proper shaping and location of components, and through the exploitation of local flow fields, the concepts provide generally good stability characteristics, high control effectiveness, and low control hinge moments. In addition, in the case of some cruise-type missions, there are indications of the application of area ruling as a means of improving the aerodynamic efficiency. In general, a point-design philosophy is indicated whereby a particular configuration is developed for performing a particular mission.

  8. A study of spaceraft technology and design concepts, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zylius, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts for advancing the state of the art in the design of unmanned spacecraft, the requirements that gave rise to its configuration, and the programs of technology that are suggested as leading to its eventual development are examined. Particular technology issues discussed include: structures and materials; thermal control; propulsion; electrical power; communications; data management; and guidance, navigation, and control.

  9. Concepts and software for a rational design of polynucleotide probes.

    PubMed

    Moraru, Cristina; Moraru, Gabriel; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Amann, Rudolf

    2011-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of genes and mRNA is most often based on polynucleotide probes. However, so far there was no published framework for the rational design of polynucleotide probes. The well-established concepts for oligonucleotide probe design cannot be transferred to polynucleotides. Due to the high allele diversity of genes, a single probe is not sufficient to detect all alleles of a gene. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop a concept and software (PolyPro) for rational design of polynucleotide probe mixes to target particular genes. PolyPro consists of three modules: a GenBank Taxonomy Extractor (GTE), a Polynucleotide Probe Designer (PPD) and a Hybridization Parameters Calculator (HPC). The new concept proposes the construction of defined polynucleotide mixes to target the habitat specific sequence diversity of a particular gene. The concept and the software are intended as a first step towards a more frequent application of polynucleotides for in situ identification of mRNA and genes in environmental microbiology. PMID:23761233

  10. Designing Multimedia Games for Young Children's Taxonomic Concept Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En; Lee, Meng-Da

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to design and evaluate multimedia games which were based on the theories of children's development of taxonomic concepts. Factors that might affect children's classification skills, such as use of single physical characteristics of objects, competition between thematic and taxonomic relationships, difficulty in forming…

  11. Closed-pore Insulation Thermal Protection System Design Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varisco, A.; Harris, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a unique closed-pore ceramic foam insulation (CPI) produced from low cost fly ash cenospheres is reported for space shuttle external thermal protection. Two basic design approaches were developed: bonded and mechanically fastened. A description of the concepts is presented in addition to fabrication and test results.

  12. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  13. Evaluation of Design Concepts for Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Future long-duration missions to Mars using in situ resource production to obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere for use as a propellant or for life support will require long term oxygen storage facilities. This report describes preliminary analysis of design concepts for lightweight, collapsible liquid oxygen storage tanks to be used on the surface of Mars. With storage at relatively low pressures, an inflatable tank concept in which the cryogen is stored within a fiber-reinforced Teflon FEP bladder is an efficient approach. The technology required for such a tank is well-developed through similar previous applications in positive expulsion bladders for zero-g liquid fuel rocket tanks and inflatable space habitat technology, though the liquid oxygen environment presents unique challenges. The weight of the proposed structure is largely dominated by the support structure needed to hold the tank off the ground and permit a vacuum insulation space to be maintained around the tank. In addition to the inflatable tank concept, telescoping tank concepts are studied. For a telescoping tank, the greatest difficulty is in making effective joints and seals. The use of shape memory alloy to produce a passive clamping ring is evaluated. Although the telescoping tank concepts are a viable option, it appears that inflatable tank concepts will be more efficient and are recommended.

  14. Concept and design of a multiple-function laser (MFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karning, Heinrich; Ruger, James F.; Weispfenning, Martin

    1998-10-01

    The multifunctional properties of modern Laser sources for future military sensor applications will be studied. The goal of this study is the design of a modular laser source which covers various functions like: Laser rangefinding. Target designation (1.06 micrometer), Eyesafe target designation (1.5 micrometer), Laser radar for Automatic target recognition, Identification friend or foe using Laser interrogation with D- band response as well as allowance for Covert communication and Missile jamming with a laser in the 3 to 5 micrometer range. It is obvious that these applications require a wide range of power levels, wavelength agility and pulse repetition rates. The concept for a compact Laser source to cover these requirements will be presented. In addition a concept for the integrated sensor to provide the above mentioned functions will also be presented.

  15. Bionic Concept Applied to Flow Slab Design of PEMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. T.; Chang, C. P.

    A character of fuel cell with high potency and low pollution was known well and considered as a new generation of power technology. In this study a novel design of flow slab addressed and originated from bionic concept will be applied to improve the performance of PEMFC. Simulation results executed at Re = 100 show that the bionic flow type will possess a better uniformity of velocity and lower pressure drop. Besides, the integral performance concerned at SDR and PDR will also show the bionic flow type to be an outstanding design. Hence, this novel flow design addressed will be useful to promotion of PEMFC.

  16. Development of environmentally advanced hydropower turbine system design concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, G.F.; Webb, D.R.; Fisher, R.K. Jr.

    1997-08-01

    A team worked together on the development of environmentally advanced hydro turbine design concepts to reduce hydropower`s impact on the environment, and to improve the understanding of the technical and environmental issues involved, in particular, with fish survival as a result of their passage through hydro power sites. This approach brought together a turbine design and manufacturing company, biologists, a utility, a consulting engineering firm and a university research facility, in order to benefit from the synergy of diverse disciplines. Through a combination of advanced technology and engineering analyses, innovative design concepts adaptable to both new and existing hydro facilities were developed and are presented. The project was divided into 4 tasks. Task 1 investigated a broad range of environmental issues and how the issues differed throughout the country. Task 2 addressed fish physiology and turbine physics. Task 3 investigated individual design elements needed for the refinement of the three concept families defined in Task 1. Advanced numerical tools for flow simulation in turbines are used to quantify characteristics of flow and pressure fields within turbine water passageways. The issues associated with dissolved oxygen enhancement using turbine aeration are presented. The state of the art and recent advancements of this technology are reviewed. Key elements for applying turbine aeration to improve aquatic habitat are discussed and a review of the procedures for testing of aerating turbines is presented. In Task 4, the results of the Tasks were assembled into three families of design concepts to address the most significant issues defined in Task 1. The results of the work conclude that significant improvements in fish passage survival are achievable.

  17. A survey of aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul

    1987-01-01

    The five existing design concepts of the aerobraking orbital transfer vehicle (namely, the raked sphere-cone designs, conical lifting-brake, raked elliptic-cone, lifting-body, and ballute) are reviewed and critiqued. Historical backgrounds, and the geometrical, aerothermal, and operational features of these designs are reviewed first. Then, the technological requirements for the vehicle (namely, navigation, aerodynamic stability and control, afterbody flow impingement, nonequilibrium radiation, convective heat-transfer rates, mission abort and multiple atmospheric passes, transportation and construction, and the payload-to-vehicle weight requirements) are delineated by summarizing the recent advancements made on these issues. Each of the five designs are critiqued and rated on these issues. The highest and the lowest ratings are given to the raked sphere-cone and the ballute design, respectively.

  18. A centrifugal pump concept designed for multiple use in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, E.; Wulz, H. G.

    A centrifugal pump concept was elaborated for a multiple application in future spacecrafts. Based on this concept a prototype of a small centrifugal pump was manufactured and comprehensively tested. The model pump has been approved in different test series with the fluids liquid ammonia and demineralized water. The design of the model pump was driven by strict requirements of COLUMBUS, namely long life, noiseless operation, minimum mass and low energy consumption. Because of its modular design and as a result of selected materials of multiple compatibility, this pump is suited for the delivery of various further fluids, such as freons, hydrocarbons, propellants (hydrazine) etc.. It is also capable of pumping corrosive or toxic fluids for laboratory processes in space. The wide speed range from about 1,00 to 20,000 rpm which corresponds to a flow from about 1 to 20 l/min, permits an energy saving adaption and flow control.

  19. Design and Analysis of a Stiffened Composite Structure Repair Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam

    2011-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened thin-skin composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure is presented. Since the repair concept is a bolted repair using metal components, it can easily be applied in the operational environment. Initial analyses are aimed at validating the finite element modeling approach by comparing with available test data. Once confidence in the analysis approach is established several repair configurations are explored and the most efficient one presented. Repairs involving damage to the top of the stiffener alone are considered in addition to repairs involving a damaged stiffener, flange and underlying skin. High fidelity finite element modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners, elastic-plastic metallic material properties and geometrically nonlinear analysis are utilized in the effort. The results of the analysis are presented and factors influencing the design are assessed and discussed.

  20. Concept design of a new generation military vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Ursescu, Gabriel; Serrao, Lorenzo; Rizzoni, Giorgio; Bechtel, James; Udvare, Thomas; Letherwood, Mike

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an advanced concept for a next generation military vehicle based on state of the art technologies. The vehicle's platform will be directly suitable for high mobility applications for instance: Special Forces missions, Marine reconnaissance missions, and commercial racing in events such as Bajas and the Paris - Dakar. The platform will be a 10000 -14000 lbs high-speed multi-purpose vehicle, designed for extreme off-road operation. A completely new suspension concept is expected to be developed and the new vehicle topology will accommodate a new generation hybrid-electric power train. The dynamic performance targets are 125 mph off-road and 0-60 in 7 seconds. The concept design will focus also on survivability mainly through the use of a new vehicle topology (herein referred to as "island") specifically designed to enhance crew protection. The "island" topology consists in locating the powertrain and other vehicle equipment and subsystems around the crew compartment. Thus, even in the event of an external shield penetration the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment which serves in an additional role as a secondary shield. The paper presents vehicle specifications, performance capabilities, simulation models and virtual models of the vehicle.

  1. Nanoplasmonics: New Design Concepts For Nanoscale Optical Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Stefan A.

    2010-10-07

    The design of nanoplasmonic cavities exploiting coherent processes such as sub- and superradiance as well as Fano-type interactions will be discussed, under the framework of plasmon hybridization theory. In such cavities, interactions between bright and dark localized plasmon modes lead to a complex mode spectrum, which can be visualized using electron energy loss spectroscopy. First implementations fabricated using electron beam lithography will be presented. Furthermore, it will be shown how the concept of transformation optics can be utilized for the design of nanoresonators with a broadband absorption spectrum, showing high promise for light harvesting over the whole visible and infrared range of the spectrum.

  2. Marco (Medical Record Communications) - System Concept, Design and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, P. H.; Heisler, B. D.; Mela, W. D.; Alpert, J. J.; Goldstein, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    MARCO, an interfacility communication system, has been designed to promote safe relevant health care delivery to the inner city pediatric patient receiving care in a network consisting of Boston City Hospital and its affiliated Neighborhood Health Centers. This application of computer technology to communication of medical information compiled on an individual patient in multiple locations has implications for private group practice as well as other urban networks similar to our own. This paper provides the MARCO system concept, the system design and evaluation of its success after two years of operation.

  3. An optical reflectarray nanoantenna: the concept and design.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Akram; Ghadarghadr, Shabnam; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and design of a reflectarray nanoantenna at optical frequencies whose elements are nano-sized concentric spherical particles with the core made of ordinary dielectrics and the shell made of a plasmonic material. Modeling approaches based on finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical method and dipole-modes scattering theory are used to characterize and tune the reflectarray design. A 6x6 elements reflectarray nanoantenna operating at wavelength 357.1nm with narrow beamwidth is presented, and its scanned radiation characteristics for 15 degrees and 30 degrees are demonstrated. PMID:20173831

  4. Automating expert role to determine design concept in Kansei Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokman, Anitawati Mohd; Haron, Mohammad Bakri Che; Abidin, Siti Zaleha Zainal; Khalid, Noor Elaiza Abd

    2016-02-01

    Affect has become imperative in product quality. In affective design field, Kansei Engineering (KE) has been recognized as a technology that enables discovery of consumer's emotion and formulation of guide to design products that win consumers in the competitive market. Albeit powerful technology, there is no rule of thumb in its analysis and interpretation process. KE expertise is required to determine sets of related Kansei and the significant concept of emotion. Many research endeavors become handicapped with the limited number of available and accessible KE experts. This work is performed to simulate the role of experts with the use of Natphoric algorithm thus providing sound solution to the complexity and flexibility in KE. The algorithm is designed to learn the process by implementing training datasets taken from previous KE research works. A framework for automated KE is then designed to realize the development of automated KE system. A comparative analysis is performed to determine feasibility of the developed prototype to automate the process. The result shows that the significant Kansei is determined by manual KE implementation and the automated process is highly similar. KE research advocates will benefit this system to automatically determine significant design concepts.

  5. Generic repository design concepts and thermal analysis (FY11).

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Robert; Dupont, Mark; Blink, James A.; Fratoni, Massimiliano; Greenberg, Harris; Carter, Joe; Hardin, Ernest L.; Sutton, Mark A.

    2011-08-01

    Reference concepts for geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the U.S. are developed, including geologic settings and engineered barriers. Repository thermal analysis is demonstrated for a range of waste types from projected future, advanced nuclear fuel cycles. The results show significant differences among geologic media considered (clay/shale, crystalline rock, salt), and also that waste package size and waste loading must be limited to meet targeted maximum temperature values. In this study, the UFD R&D Campaign has developed a set of reference geologic disposal concepts for a range of waste types that could potentially be generated in advanced nuclear FCs. A disposal concept consists of three components: waste inventory, geologic setting, and concept of operations. Mature repository concepts have been developed in other countries for disposal of spent LWR fuel and HLW from reprocessing UNF, and these serve as starting points for developing this set. Additional design details and EBS concepts will be considered as the reference disposal concepts evolve. The waste inventory considered in this study includes: (1) direct disposal of SNF from the LWR fleet, including Gen III+ advanced LWRs being developed through the Nuclear Power 2010 Program, operating in a once-through cycle; (2) waste generated from reprocessing of LWR UOX UNF to recover U and Pu, and subsequent direct disposal of used Pu-MOX fuel (also used in LWRs) in a modified-open cycle; and (3) waste generated by continuous recycling of metal fuel from fast reactors operating in a TRU burner configuration, with additional TRU material input supplied from reprocessing of LWR UOX fuel. The geologic setting provides the natural barriers, and establishes the boundary conditions for performance of engineered barriers. The composition and physical properties of the host medium dictate design and construction approaches, and determine hydrologic and thermal responses of the

  6. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John O.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Poston, David I.

    2003-01-01

    A study was recently carried out by a team from JPL and the DOE to investigate the utility of a DOE-developed 3 kWe surface fission power system for Mars missions. The team was originally tasked to perform a study to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of incorporation of such a power system into a landed mission. In the course of the study it became clear that the application of such a power system was enabling to a wide variety of potential missions. Of these, two missions were developed, one for a stationary lander and one for a reactor-powered rover. This paper discusses the design of the rover mission, which was developed around the concept of incorporating the fission power system directly into a large rover chassis to provide high power, long range traverse capability. The rover design is based on a minimum extrapolation of technology, and adapts existing concepts developed at JPL for the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, lander and EDL systems. The small size of the reactor allowed its incorporation directly into an existing large MSL rover chassis design, allowing direct use of MSL aeroshell and pallet lander elements, beefed up to support the significantly greater mass involved in the nuclear power system and its associated shielding. This paper describes the unique design challenges encountered in the development of this mission architecture and incorporation of the fission power system in the rover, and presents a detailed description of the final design of this innovative concept for providing long range, long duration mobility on Mars.

  7. A concept ideation framework for medical device design.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Thomas J; Grosse, Ian R; Krishnamurty, Sundar

    2015-06-01

    Medical device design is a challenging process, often requiring collaboration between medical and engineering domain experts. This collaboration can be best institutionalized through systematic knowledge transfer between the two domains coupled with effective knowledge management throughout the design innovation process. Toward this goal, we present the development of a semantic framework for medical device design that unifies a large medical ontology with detailed engineering functional models along with the repository of design innovation information contained in the US Patent Database. As part of our development, existing medical, engineering, and patent document ontologies were modified and interlinked to create a comprehensive medical device innovation and design tool with appropriate properties and semantic relations to facilitate knowledge capture, enrich existing knowledge, and enable effective knowledge reuse for different scenarios. The result is a Concept Ideation Framework for Medical Device Design (CIFMeDD). Key features of the resulting framework include function-based searching and automated inter-domain reasoning to uniquely enable identification of functionally similar procedures, tools, and inventions from multiple domains based on simple semantic searches. The significance and usefulness of the resulting framework for aiding in conceptual design and innovation in the medical realm are explored via two case studies examining medical device design problems. PMID:25956618

  8. RASC-AL (Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage): 2002 Advanced Concept Design Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts-Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) is a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in collaboration with the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA) ICASE institute through the NASA Langley Research Center. The RASC-AL key objectives are to develop relationships between universities and NASA that lead to opportunities for future NASA research and programs, and to develop aerospace systems concepts and technology requirements to enable future NASA missions. The program seeks to look decades into the future to explore new mission capabilities and discover what's possible. NASA seeks concepts and technologies that can make it possible to go anywhere, at anytime, safely, reliably, and affordably to accomplish strategic goals for science, exploration, and commercialization. University teams were invited to submit research topics from the following themes: Human and Robotic Space Exploration, Orbital Aggregation & Space Infrastructure Systems (OASIS), Zero-Emissions Aircraft, and Remote Sensing. RASC-AL is an outgrowth of the HEDS-UP (University Partners) Program sponsored by the LPI. HEDS-UP was a program of the Lunar and Planetary Institute designed to link universities with NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. The first RASC-AL Forum was held November 5-8, 2002, at the Hilton Cocoa Beach Oceanfront Hotel in Cocoa Beach, Florida. Representatives from 10 university teams presented student research design projects at this year's Forum. Each team contributed a written report and these reports are presented.

  9. Design and analysis of advanced flight planning concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this continuing effort are to develop and evaluate new algorithms and advanced concepts for flight management and flight planning. This includes the minimization of fuel or direct operating costs, the integration of the airborne flight management and ground-based flight planning processes, and the enhancement of future traffic management systems design. Flight management (FMS) concepts are for on-board profile computation and steering of transport aircraft in the vertical plane between a city pair and along a given horizontal path. Flight planning (FPS) concepts are for the pre-flight ground based computation of the three-dimensional reference trajectory that connects the city pair and specifies the horizontal path, fuel load, and weather profiles for initializing the FMS. As part of these objectives, a new computer program called EFPLAN has been developed and utilized to study advanced flight planning concepts. EFPLAN represents an experimental version of an FPS. It has been developed to generate reference flight plans compatible as input to an FMS and to provide various options for flight planning research. This report describes EFPLAN and the associated research conducted in its development.

  10. Design Concepts for Cooled Ceramic Composite Turbine Vane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Parikh, Ankur H.; Nagpal, VInod K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop design concepts for a cooled ceramic vane to be used in the first stage of the High Pressure Turbine(HPT). To insure that the design concepts were relevant to the gas turbine industry needs, Honeywell International Inc. was subcontracted to provide technical guidance for this work. The work performed under this contract can be divided into three broad categories. The first was an analysis of the cycle benefits arising from the higher temperature capability of Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) compared with conventional metallic vane materials. The second category was a series of structural analyses for variations in the internal configuration of first stage vane for the High Pressure Turbine(HPT) of a CF6 class commercial airline engine. The third category was analysis for a radial cooled turbine vanes for use in turboshaft engine applications. The size, shape and internal configuration of the turboshaft engine vanes were selected to investigate a cooling concept appropriate to small CMC vanes.

  11. 3MI OPD optical design: concept and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, Riccardo; Bartoli, Alessandro; Maiorano, Michele; Bruno, Umberto; Belli, Fabio; Bove, Giuseppe; Caruso, Alberto; Calamai, Luciano; Manolis, Ilias; Labate, Demetrio

    2015-09-01

    The Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarisation Imager (3MI) is an imaging radiometer for the ESA/Eumetsat MetOp-SG programme. Based on the heritage of POLDER/PARASOL, 3MI will collect global observations of the top-of-atmosphere polarised bi-directional reflectance distribution function in 12 spectral bands, by observing the same target from multiple views using a push-broom scanning concept. In order to mitigate any technological risks associated with the 3MI instrument development, an Elegant Breadboard of representative form, function and performance to the 3MI VNIR lens was foreseen in the frame of the Optics Pre- Development (OPD) activity. The optical design and the performance results of the OPD VNIR lens are presented, from the top level requirements flow-down to the optical design solution and concept adopted. The large FOV and image irradiance uniformity, the extended VNIR spectral range, combined with the demanding polarisation and stray-light requirements are the main design drivers. The design concept is based on a Galilean telescope coupled to a focusing group. The aperture stop, placed in between, is located in such a way that the system is telecentric in image space. The system exhibits a fine control of the entrance pupil size as a function of the FOV, low distortion and correction of lateral chromatic aberration. Polarisation related performances are achieved by low polarisation sensitivity and low retardance anti-reflection coatings, as well as by a proper selection of glass material properties.

  12. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  13. Design challenges and safety concept for the AVANTI experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaias, G.; Ardaens, J.-S.

    2016-06-01

    AVANTI is a formation-flight experiment involving two noncooperative satellites. After a brief overview of the challenges that experiment design and scenario induce, this paper presents the safety concept retained to guarantee the safety of the formation. The peculiarity of the proposed approach is that it does not rely on the continuous availability of tracking data of the client spacecraft but rather exploits the concept of passive safety of special relative trajectories. To this end, the formation safety criterion based on the minimum distance normal to the flight direction has been extended in order to be applicable also to drifting relative orbits, resulting from non-vanishing relative semi-major axis encountered during a rendezvous or produced by the action of the differential aerodynamic drag.

  14. High Flux Isotope Reactor cold neutron source reference design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, D.L.; Lucas, A.T.; Hyman, C.R.

    1998-05-01

    In February 1995, Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) deputy director formed a group to examine the need for upgrades to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) system in light of the cancellation of the Advanced neutron Source Project. One of the major findings of this study was that there was an immediate need for the installation of a cold neutron source facility in the HFIR complex. In May 1995, a team was formed to examine the feasibility of retrofitting a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) cold source facility into an existing HFIR beam tube. The results of this feasibility study indicated that the most practical location for such a cold source was the HB-4 beam tube. This location provides a potential flux environment higher than the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) vertical cold source and maximizes the space available for a future cold neutron guide hall expansion. It was determined that this cold neutron beam would be comparable, in cold neutron brightness, to the best facilities in the world, and a decision was made to complete a preconceptual design study with the intention of proceeding with an activity to install a working LH{sub 2} cold source in the HFIR HB-4 beam tube. During the development of the reference design the liquid hydrogen concept was changed to a supercritical hydrogen system for a number of reasons. This report documents the reference supercritical hydrogen design and its performance. The cold source project has been divided into four phases: (1) preconceptual, (2) conceptual design and testing, (3) detailed design and procurement, and (4) installation and operation. This report marks the conclusion of the conceptual design phase and establishes the baseline reference concept.

  15. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Thomas; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the pre- and posttest stage in five courses (total n = 580 students) at a large research university in western Canada. Calculated difficulty and discrimination metrics indicated that BEDCI questions are able to effectively capture learning changes at the undergraduate level. A high correlation (r = 0.84) between responses by students in similar courses and at the same stage of their academic career, also suggests that the test is reliable. Students showed significant positive learning changes by the posttest stage, but some non–expert-like responses were widespread and persistent. BEDCI is a reliable and valid diagnostic tool that can be used in a variety of life sciences disciplines. PMID:25185236

  16. Evolution of design concepts for remotely maintainable equipment racks

    SciTech Connect

    Peishel, F.L.; Mouring, R.W.; Schrock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Equipment racks have been used to support process equipment in radioactive facilities for many years. Improvements in the design of these racks have evolved relatively slowly primarily as a result of limitations in the capabilities of maintenance equipment; that is, tasks could only be approached from above using bridge cranes with viewing primarily through periscopes. In recent years, however, technological advances have been made by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in bridge-mounted servomanipulators with onboard auxiliary hoists and television viewing systems. These advances permit full cell coverage by the manipulator arms which, in turn, allow maintenance tasks to be approached horizontally as well as from above. Maintainable equipment items can be stacked vertically on a rack because total overhead access is less important and maintenance tasks that would not have been attempted in the past can now be performed. These advances permit greater flexibility in the design and cell layout of the racks and lead to concepts that could significantly increase the availability of a facility. The evolution of rack design and a description of the alternative concepts based on present maintenance systems capabilities are presented in this paper. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Fundamental design concepts in multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2005-12-01

    The most fundamental concept in designing multi-lane smart electromechanical actuation systems, besides meeting performance requirements, is the realization of high integrity. The essential requirements for realizing high integrity (and in any safety-critical system) are hardware redundancy and intelligent monitoring. To correctly detect, identify, isolate and replace redundant components, an intelligent fault detection and fault isolation scheme is required. The effectiveness of any fault detection and fault isolation system is assessed by examining promptness of detection, sensitivity, missed fault detection, the rate of false alarms, and incorrect fault identification. These terms are very much dependent on the threshold values of the monitoring devices imbedded in the system. The main aim of this paper is to provide fundamental consolidation designs and monitoring schemes in different architectures. It will address single-type and two-type summing architectures and highlight feedback sensor integration and monitoring strategies in the former, and explore the suitability of different threshold setting methodologies such as a simulation-graphical based Monte Carlo method, decision theory and analysis of variance. The paper will also address other fundamentals that are essential at the design stage, such as control surface load estimation, force fight (between mismatch lanes) reduction through lane equalization, and threshold setting concepts (scheduled and unscheduled) in a multi-mode operation system. The analysis is based on a four-lane actuation system capable of driving aerodynamic and inertial loads (with two lanes failed) of an aileron control surface similar to that of the Sea Harrier.

  18. Concepts for the design of an antimatter annihilation rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Matter-antimatter annihilation is considered for spacecraft propulsion. Annihilation produces considerably more energy per unit mass of propellant than any other known means of energy production. An antimatter annihilation rocket requires several systems and components that are unique to its nature. Among these are an antimatter storage system, a means to extract the antimatter from storage, a system to transport the antimatter to the rocket engine, and the engine wherein annihilation occurs and thrust is produced. Design concepts of these systems and components are presented and discussed.

  19. A modular steel freeway bridge: design concept and earthquake resistance.

    PubMed

    Wattenburg, W H; McCallen, D B; Murray, R C

    1995-04-14

    A modular multilane steel freeway bridge has been constructed from surplus railroad flatcar decks. It can be erected on-site in a few days' time. It has been built and static-load tested for emergency freeway bridge repair. This inexpensive modular bridge may also have broad application around the world for low-cost bridges in areas where funds are limited. On the basis of static-load testing performed by the California Department of Transportation and computer dynamic analysis, this simple modular-design concept has the potential of providing a strong bridge that can withstand the severe aftershocks expected immediately after a major earthquake. PMID:17814794

  20. Structural Design Methodology Based on Concepts of Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, K. Y.; Du, Jiaji; Rusk, David

    2000-01-01

    In this report, an approach to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design is proposed based on the concept of an equivalent "Level of Safety" that incorporates past service experience in the design of new structures. The discrete "Level of Safety" for a single inspection event is defined as the compliment of the probability that a single flaw size larger than the critical flaw size for residual strength of the structure exists, and that the flaw will not be detected. The cumulative "Level of Safety" for the entire structure is the product of the discrete "Level of Safety" values for each flaw of each damage type present at each location in the structure. Based on the definition of "Level of Safety", a design procedure was identified and demonstrated on a composite sandwich panel for various damage types, with results showing the sensitivity of the structural sizing parameters to the relative safety of the design. The "Level of Safety" approach has broad potential application to damage-tolerant aircraft structural design with uncertainty.

  1. Hybrid propulsion technology program. Volume 1: Conceptional design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Gordon E.; Holzman, Allen L.; Leisch, Steven O.; Keilbach, Joseph; Parsley, Randy; Humphrey, John

    1989-01-01

    A concept design study was performed to configure two sizes of hybrid boosters; one which duplicates the advanced shuttle rocket motor vacuum thrust time curve and a smaller, quarter thrust level booster. Two sizes of hybrid boosters were configured for either pump-fed or pressure-fed oxygen feed systems. Performance analyses show improved payload capability relative to a solid propellant booster. Size optimization and fuel safety considerations resulted in a 4.57 m (180 inch) diameter large booster with an inert hydrocarbon fuel. The preferred diameter for the quarter thrust level booster is 2.53 m (96 inches). As part of the design study critical technology issues were identified and a technology acquisition and demonstration plan was formulated.

  2. Natural optical design concepts for highly miniaturized camera systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkel, Reinhard

    1999-08-01

    Microcameras for computers, mobile phones, watches, security system and credit cards is a very promising future market. Semiconductor industry is now able to integrate light reception, signal amplification and processing in a low- power-consuming microchip of a few mm2 size. Active pixel sensors supply each pixel in an image sensor with an individually programmable functionality. Beside the electronic receptor chip, a highly miniaturized lens system is required. Compared to the progress in microelectronics, optics has not yet made a significant step. Today's microcamera lenses are usually a downscaled version of a classical lens system and rarely smaller than 3 mm X 3 mm X 3 mm. This lagging of optics is quite surprising. Biologists have systematically studied all types of natural eye sensors since the 18th Century. Mother Nature provides a variety of highly effective examples for miniaturized imaging system. Single-aperture systems are the appropriate solution if the size is a free design parameter. If the budget is tight and optics limited to size, nature prefers multiple-aperture systems, the so-called compound eyes. As compound eyes are limited in resolution and night view, a cluster of single-aperture eyes, as jumping spiders use, is probably a better solution. The recent development in micro- optics offers the chance to imitate such natural design concepts. We have investigated miniaturized imaging systems based on microlens array and natural optical design concepts. Practical limitations for system design, packaging and assembling are given. Examples for micro-optical components and imaging systems are presented.

  3. Design Concepts for the Generation-X Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D.; Danner, R.; Pearson, D.; Shropshire, D.

    2010-03-01

    The Generation-X mission, proposed by Roger Brissenden at SAO, is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 time period. As currently conceived Gen-X would be a follow-on to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with a collecting area ≥ 50 m2, 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution, which would be launched in 2030 with an Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Our design concept assumes an Ares V with a 10-m diameter, 1,400 m3 volume fairing (or an equivalent launch vehicle) will be developed for NASA's exploration program. The key features of this design include a 16-m diameter deployable x-ray mirror provides a collecting area of 136 m2 a 60-m deployable optical bench which utilizes a Tensegrity structure to achieve high stiffness with low mass; and adaptive grazing incidence optics. Gen-X's combination of large collecting area and high spatial resolution will provide 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than IXO, enabling scientists to study the formation and growth of the first black holes at z ≈ 8-15 with 0.1 to 10 keV fluxes of ≈ 10-20 erg cm-2s-1.

  4. Design Concepts for the Generation-X Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Dailey, D.; Danner, R.; Shropshire, D.; Pearson, D.

    2009-09-01

    The Generation-X mission, proposed by Roger Brissenden at SAO, is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 time period. As currently conceived Gen-X would be a follow-on to the International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with a collecting area ≥ 50 m^2, 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution, which would be launched in ˜2030 with an Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Our design concept assumes an Ares V with a 10-m diameter, 1,400 m^3 volume fairing (or an equivalent launch vehicle) will be developed for NASA's exploration program. The key features of this design include a 16-m diameter deployable x-ray mirror provides a collecting area of 136 m^2; a 60-m deployable optical bench which utilizes a Tensegrity structure to achieve high stiffness with low mass; and adaptive grazing incidence optics. Gen-X's combination of large collecting area and high spatial resolution will provide 4 to 5 orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than IXO, enabling scientists to study the formation and growth of the first black holes at z ≈ 8-15 with 0.1 to 10 keV fluxes of ≈ 10-20 erg cm^{-2}s^{-1}.

  5. Design concepts for the Centrifuge Facility Life Sciences Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sidney C.; Horkachuck, Michael J.; Mckeown, Kellie A.

    1989-01-01

    The Life Sciences Glovebox will provide the bioisolated environment to support on-orbit operations involving non-human live specimens and samples for human life sceinces experiments. It will be part of the Centrifuge Facility, in which animal and plant specimens are housed in bioisolated Habitat modules and transported to the Glovebox as part of the experiment protocols supported by the crew. At the Glovebox, up to two crew members and two habitat modules must be accommodated to provide flexibility and support optimal operations. This paper will present several innovative design concepts that attempt to satisfy the basic Glovebox requirements. These concepts were evaluated for ergonomics and ease of operations using computer modeling and full-scale mockups. The more promising ideas were presented to scientists and astronauts for their evaluation. Their comments, and the results from other evaluations are presented. Based on the evaluations, the authors recommend designs and features that will help optimize crew performance and facilitate science accommodations, and specify problem areas that require further study.

  6. PIAA coronagraph design for the Exo-C Mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Krist, John; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-09-01

    The Exoplanet Coronagraph (Exo-C) mission concept consists of a 1.4m space telescope equipped with a high performance coronagraph to directly image exoplanets and disks around many nearby stars. One of the coronagraphs under consideration to be used for this mission is the highly efficient Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. This paper presents and describes: (a) the PIAA design for Exo-C; (b) an end-to-end performance analysis including sensitivity to jitter, and (c) the expected science yield of Exo-C with PIAA. The design is a "classic" PIAA, which is made possible by the unobstructed aperture. It consists of a pair of forward and inverse PIAA optics and a simple hard-edge focal plane mask. A mild binary pre-apodizer relaxes the radius of curvature on the PIAA mirrors to be easier than typical PIAA mirrors manufactured to date. This design has been optimized for high performance while being relatively insensitive to low order aberrations. The throughput is 90% relative to telescope PSF, while the inner working angle is 2.1 l/D and the contrast is ~1e-9 in a full 360-degree field of view (after wavefront control with two DMs), all for a 20% spectral band centered around 550nm. The design also has good tolerance to jitter: contrast at 1.6mas jitter is still within a factor of a few of 1e-9.

  7. Proceedings: Persepectives on adolescent medicine: concepts and program design.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M I; Litt, R F; Schonberg, S K; Sheehy, A J; Daum, F; Hein, K

    1975-01-01

    The concepts and goals of a program in adolescent medicine should include development of a capability to focus on current health needs of youth in a variety of settings; to plan clinical services to meet those needs with the flexibility necessary to respond to changing future requirements; and to deliver service within such a context while simulataneously creating a milieu conducive to education and investigation into the very process and definition of adolescence. The Division of Adolescent Medicine at Montefiore Hospital and Medical Center was designed 7 years ago to fulfill these goals and consequently may serve others as a functional model for health care delivery to teenagers. The Division is comprised of: (1) a 37 bed in-patient unit; (2) a hospital-based ambulatory program including general diagnostic and follow-up services, as well as a speciality service capability in the areas of gynecology and family planning, cardiology, gastroenterology and nutrition; (3) primary care health services within teenage dentention and prison facilities; (4) addictive disease diagnostic and treatment programs; (5) school health programs from intermediate school through college levels, and (6) the division also performs supportive and consultative functions for a variety of community-based agencies. Within the programatic design approximately 70,000 adolescents have been served. The cornerstone of the educational and investigative efforts has been the concept that all the above six functional units are clinical laboratories and classrooms so that training and research activities are integral parts of each of the service areas. This program design is continually undergoing revision and refinement so as to remain ever-responsive to new and emerging problems to meet additional training demands and, most importantly, to permit and encourage creativity and growth patients and staff. PMID:1065206

  8. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît

    2014-02-18

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  9. Development of electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) phased arrays for SFR inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdais, Florian; Marchand, Benoît

    2014-02-01

    A long-standing problem for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) instrumentation is the development of efficient under-sodium visualization systems adapted to the hot and opaque sodium environment. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT) are potential candidates for a new generation of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) probes well-suited for SFR inspection that can overcome drawbacks of classical piezoelectric probes in sodium environment. Based on the use of new CIVA simulation tools, we have designed and optimized an advanced EMAT probe for under-sodium visualization. This has led to the development of a fully functional L-wave EMAT sensing system composed of 8 elements and a casing withstanding 200° C sodium inspection. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the probe's ability to sweep an ultrasonic beam to an angle of 15 degrees. Testing in a specialized sodium facility has shown that it was possible to obtain pulse-echo signals from a target under several different angles from a fixed position.

  10. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) evolved design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, David; Duncan, Alan; Pitman, Joseph T.; Sigler, Robert; Kendrick, Rick; Smith, Eric H.; Mason, James

    2004-10-01

    An innovative approach to future space telescopes that enables order of magnitude increased science return for astronomical, Earth-observing and planetary science missions is described. Our concept, called Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes. MIDAS integrates many optical interferometry advances as an evolution of over a decade of technology development in distributed aperture optical imaging systems. Nine collector telescopes are integrated into MIDAS as the primary remote sensing science payload, supporting a collection of six back-end science instruments tailored to a specific mission. By interfacing to multiple science instruments, enabling sequential and concurrent functional modes, we expand the potential science return of future space science missions many fold. Passive imaging modes with MIDAS enable remote sensing at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each science instrument, as well as in somewhat lower resolution by multiple science instruments acting concurrently on the image, such as in different wavebands. Our MIDAS concept inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the science instruments. For Earth-observing and planetary science missions, the MIDAS optical design provides high-resolution imaging at high altitudes for long dwell times, thereby enabling real-time, wide-area remote sensing of dynamic planetary surface characteristics. In its active remote sensing modes, using an integrated solid-state laser source, MIDAS enables surface illumination, active spectroscopy, LIDAR, vibrometery, and optical communications. Our concept is directly scalable to telescope synthetic apertures of 5m, limited by launch vehicle fairing diameter, and above 5m diameter achieved by means of autonomous deployments or manned

  11. Test bed control center design concept for Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sundstrom, E.; Draper, J.V.; Fausz, A.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the design concept for the control center for the Single Shell Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System test bed and the design process behind the concept. The design concept supports all phases of the test bed mission, including technology demonstration, comprehensive system testing, and comparative evaluation for further development and refinement of the TWRMS for field operations.

  12. A new design concept for multifunctional fasteners using smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hwan-Sik

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, a new design concept for multifunctional fasteners using smart materials is presented. The proposed piezoelectric devices, named 'smart fasteners,' can be fabricated by modifying the design of ordinary fasteners such that they have a piezoelectric element and a control unit embedded in their body. These smart fasteners can not only clamp structural members like ordinary fasteners but also measure the response of the structure and generate forces to enhance the dynamic performance of the structure. Due to their fastener-type design, they are more convenient to install onto or remove from structures compared to conventional piezoceramic patch actuators for which a bonding epoxy layer needs to be applied. In order to demonstrate their applicability in active vibration controls, a simulation study was conducted on a fixed-fixed beam structure. Since the control force is applied at the boundary of the structure where the smart fasteners are attached, a new control algorithm called Active Boundary Control (ABC) was developed using the Lyapunov's direct method. The simulation results show that smart fasteners can be used to suppress vibration of the beam by applying the Lyapunov-based Active Boundary Control algorithm.

  13. Exploring Systematic Effects in the Mass-Metallicity-SFR Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, O. G.; Dalcanton, J.; Skillman, E.; Conroy, C.

    2016-06-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass-metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of the correlation between metallicity and SFR may be used along with chemical evolution models to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows), but the observed strength of this correlation varies widely among studies using both single-fiber and IFU spectroscopy. We analyze possible sources of systematic error that could affect the observed strength of this correlation, including choice of metallicity calibration. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity and SFR using a new set of theoretically calibrated abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. (2013) for ~150,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using any of these new strong emission line abundance diagnostics yields a relatively weak correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass, in contrast to the stronger correlation found by some previous studies using other metallicity diagnostics. We also consider other possible sources of bias that can affect the metallicity correlation with SFR, including uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. Finally, we present preliminary results from current work investigating the effect of the choice of binning technique on derivations of direct method metallicities for stacked galaxy spectra and the subsequent impact on the correlation between metallicity and SFR. The large uncertainty in the true strength of the relation between mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  14. Facilitating the Concept of Universal Design Among Design Students - Changes in Teaching in the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Vavik, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This short paper describes and reflects on how the teaching of the concept of Universal Design (UD) has developed in the last decade at the Institute of Design at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO). Four main changes are described. Firstly, the curriculum has evolved from teaching guidelines and principles to focusing on design processes. Secondly, an increased emphasis is put on cognitive accessibility. Thirdly, non-stigmatizing aesthetics expressions and solutions that communicate through different senses have become more important subjects. Fourthly the teaching of UD has moved from the second to the first year curriculum. PMID:27534301

  15. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  16. Improved design concepts for millimeter wave power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granatstein, V. L.; Guo, H.; Carmel, Y.

    1993-03-01

    This progress report summarizes the work done during the period from 15 Mar. 1992 to 14 Mar. 1993. In the past year, we have designed a phase-locked, harmonic, inverted gyro-twistron, known as the phigtron. The phigtron combines a subharmonic gyro-TWT amplifier input section with a gyroklystron type output cavity. The phigtron is expected to reach much higher phase-locking gain and wider bandwidth than the two cavity phase-locked gyroklystron oscillator. The efficient and stable operation of this phase-locked harmonic gyrotron will be obtained through the implementation of mode selective interaction circuits. The proof-of-principle cold test results of such circuitry have recently been obtained indicating that the technical realization of this research concept is feasible. The construction of the phigtron hot test laboratory facility is now actively proceeding.

  17. Application of Systems Engineering Principles for Concept Design of New Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karunakaran Nair Ajith; Jagathy Raj, Vettuvila Purushothaman

    2016-06-01

    A successful engineering design is one that meets the user requirements completely. Design essentially starts with concept design followed by detailed design. The importance of concept design is brought out in this paper. Systems engineering principles and practices are used to build the concept design starting from user requirements and user specified reference scenarios. Systems engineering methodology helps in proper understanding of the user requirements, identifying multiple solutions, short listing the candidate solutions and finally selecting one or two feasible designs. A case study analysis is presented to demonstrate the systems engineering practices followed for concept abstraction and preliminary design of a typical engineering system.

  18. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 7, Subsystem concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  19. Applying Quality by Design Concepts to Pharmacy Compounding.

    PubMed

    Timko, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Compounding of medications is an important part of the practice of the pharmacy profession. Because compounded medications do not have U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval, a pharmacist has the responsibility to ensure that compounded medications are of suitable quality, safety, and efficacy. The Federal Government and numerous states have updated their laws and regulations regarding pharmacy compounding as a result of recent quality issues. Compounding pharmacists are expected to follow good preparation prodecures in their compounding practices in much the same way pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to follow Current Good Manufacturing Procedures as detailed in the United States Code of Federal Regulations. Application of Quality by Design concepts to the preparation process for a compounded medication can help in understanding the potential pitfalls and the means to mitigate their impact. The goal is to build quality into the compounding process to ensure that the resultant compounded prescription meets the human or animal patients' requirements. PMID:26891559

  20. Design concepts to improve high performance solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juranek, H. J.; Frey, H. U.

    1986-01-01

    By improving several important components of the well known off-axis solar simulator system, a considerable step forward was made. The careful mathematical studies on the optics and the thermal side of the problem lead to a highly efficient system with low operational costs and a high reliability. The actual performance of the simulator is significantly better than the specified one, and the efficiency is outstanding. No more than 12 lamps operating at 18 kW are required to obtain one Solar Constant in the 6 m beam. It is now known that by using sophisticated optics, even larger facilities of high performance can be designed without leaving the proven off-axis concept and using a spherical mirror. Using high performance optics is a means of reducing costs at a given size of beam because the number of lamps is one of the most cost driving factors in the construction of a solar simulator.

  1. Requirements and design concept for a facility mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, R.E.; Burks, B.L.; Little, C.Q.

    1995-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has for some time been considering the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) of facilities which are no longer in use, but which are highly contaminated with radioactive wastes. One of the holdups in performing the D&D task is the accumulation of accurate facility characterizations that can enable a safe and orderly cleanup process. According to the Technical Strategic Plan for the Decontamination and Decommissioning Integrated Demonstration, {open_quotes}the cost of characterization using current baseline technologies for approximately 100 acres of gaseous diffusion plant at Oak Ridge alone is, for the most part incalculable{close_quotes}. Automated, robotic techniques will be necessary for initial characterization and continued surveillance of these types of sites. Robotic systems are being designed and constructed to accomplish these tasks. This paper describes requirements and design concepts for a system to accurately map a facility contaminated with hazardous wastes. Some of the technologies involved in the Facility Mapping System are: remote characterization with teleoperated, sensor-based systems, fusion of data sets from multiple characterization systems, and object recognition from 3D data models. This Facility Mapping System is being assembled by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the DOE Office of Technology Development Robotics Technology Development Program.

  2. IRSN working program status on tools for evaluation of SFR cores static neutronics safety parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, E.; Tiberi, V.; Ecrabet, F.; Chegrani, Y.; Canuti, E.; Bisogni, D.; Sargeni, A.; Bernard, F.

    2012-07-01

    As technical support of the French Nuclear Safety Authority, IRSN will be in charge of safety assessment of any future project of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) that could be built in France. One of the main safety topics will deal with reactivity control. Since the design and safety assessment of the last two SFR plants in France (Phenix and Superphenix, more than thirty years ago), methods, codes and safety objectives have evolved. That is why a working program on core neutronic simulations has been launched in order to be able to evaluate accuracy of future core characteristics computations. The first step consists in getting experienced with the ERANOS well-known deterministic code used in the past for Phenix and Superphenix. Then Monte-Carlo codes have been tested to help in the interpretation of ERANOS results and to define what place this kind of codes can have in a new SFR safety demonstration. This experience is based on open benchmark computations. Different cases are chosen to cover a wide range of configurations. The paper shows, as an example, criticality results obtained with ERANOS, SCALE and MORET, and the first conclusions based on these results. In the future, this work will be extended to other safety parameters such as sodium void and Doppler effects, kinetic parameters or flux distributions. (authors)

  3. Trade-off study on the power capacity of a prototype SFR in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, M. H.; Kim, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Bae, I. H.

    2012-07-01

    The major roles of a prototype SFR are to provide irradiation test capability for the fuel and structure materials, and to obtain operational experiences of systems. Due to a compromise between the irradiation capability and construction costs, the power level should be properly determined. In this paper, a trade-off study on the power level of the prototype SFR was performed from a neutronics viewpoint. To select candidate cores, the parametric study of pin diameters was estimated using 20 wt.% uranium fuel. The candidate cores of different power levels, 125 MWt, 250 MWt, 400 MWt, and 500 MWt, were compared with the 1500 MWt reference core. The resulting core performance and economic efficiency indices became insensitive to the power at about 400-500 MWt and sharply deteriorated at about 125-250 MWt with decreasing core sizes. Fuel management scheme, TRU core performance comparing with uranium core, and sodium void reactivity were also evaluated with increasing power levels. It is found that increasing the number of batches showed higher burnup performance and economic efficiency. However, increasing the cycle length showed the trends in lower economic efficiency. Irradiation performance of TRU and enriched TRU cores was improved about 20 % and 50 %, respectively. The maximum sodium void reactivity of 5.2$ was confirmed less than the design limit of 7.5$. As a result, the power capacity of the prototype SFR should not be less than 250 MWt and would be appropriate at {approx} 500 MWt considering the performance and economic efficiency. (authors)

  4. Design flood estimation in ungauged basins: probabilistic extension of the design-storm concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berk, Mario; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Design flood estimation in ungauged basins is an important hydrological task, which is in engineering practice typically solved with the design storm concept. However, neglecting the uncertainty in the hydrological response of the catchment through the assumption of average-recurrence-interval (ARI) neutrality between rainfall and runoff can lead to flawed design flood estimates. Additionally, selecting a single critical rainfall duration neglects the contribution of other rainfall durations on the probability of extreme flood events. In this study, the design flood problem is approached with concepts from structural reliability that enable a consistent treatment of multiple uncertainties in estimating the design flood. The uncertainty of key model parameters are represented probabilistically and the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) is used to compute the flood exceedance probability. As an important by-product, the FORM analysis provides the most likely parameter combination to lead to a flood with a certain exceedance probability; i.e. it enables one to find representative scenarios for e.g., a 100 year or a 1000 year flood. Possible different rainfall durations are incorporated by formulating the event of a given design flood as a series system. The method is directly applicable in practice, since for the description of the rainfall depth-duration characteristics, the same inputs as for the classical design storm methods are needed, which are commonly provided by meteorological services. The proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Trauchgauer Ach catchment in Bavaria, SCS Curve Number (CN) and Unit hydrograph models are used for modeling the hydrological process. The results indicate, in accordance with past experience, that the traditional design storm concept underestimates design floods.

  5. Design and Testing of a Low Noise Flight Guidance Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Oseguera-Lohr, Rosa M.; Lewis, Elliot T.

    2004-01-01

    A flight guidance concept was developed to assist in flying continuous descent approach (CDA) procedures designed to lower the noise under the flight path of jet transport aircraft during arrival operations at an airport. The guidance consists of a trajectory prediction algorithm that was tuned to produce a high-efficiency, low noise flight profile with accompanying autopilot and flight display elements needed by the flight control system and pilot to fly the approach. A key component of the flight guidance was a real-time display of energy error relative to the predicted flight path. The guidance was integrated with the conventional Flight Management System (FMS) guidance of a modern jet transport airplane and tested in a high fidelity flight simulation. A charted arrival procedure, which allowed flying conventional arrivals, CDA arrivals with standard guidance, and CDA arrivals with the new low noise guidance, was developed to assist in the testing and evaluation of the low noise guidance concept. Results of the simulation testing showed the low noise guidance was easy to use by airline pilot test subjects and effective in achieving the desired noise reduction. Noise under the flight path was reduced by at least 2 decibels in Sound Exposure Level (SEL) at distances from about 3 nautical miles out to about 17.5 nautical miles from the runway, with a peak reduction of 8.5 decibels at about 10.5 nautical miles. Fuel consumption was also reduced by about 17% for the LNG conditions compared to baseline runs for the same flight distance. Pilot acceptance and understanding of the guidance was quite high with favorable comments and ratings received from all test subjects.

  6. Molecular design concept for x-ray laser research

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.K.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.

    1992-12-10

    The goal of this program is the construction of an x-ray laser in the kilovolt regime. Recent experimental results indicate that a new technique for the generation of strong amplification of x-ray wavelengths is feasible. It involves the combination of (1) a new ultrahigh brightness subpicosecond laser technology and (2) a recently discovered unique mode of strong-field interaction, particularly applicable to molecules. A concept of molecular x-ray design emerges from the considerations which matches the mode of excitation to the structure of the molecular system. The molecular approach enables the combination of very highly electronically excited conditions with an environment characteristic of dense cold matter, a general situation exceptionally conducive to x-ray amplification. Both high efficiency and wavelength tunability are intrinsic features of this method. Recent results discussed in this report are revealing important characteristics of the molecular strong-field coupling pertinent to this goal. A continued program of research is proposed to evaluate this method for the production of x-ray amplification in the kilovolt region.

  7. Design concepts of solar thermoelectric generators in space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raag, V.; Hankins, L.; Swerdling, M.

    1978-01-01

    Several thermoelectric technologies have been examined as to their suitability for use in a solar thermoelectric generator (STG) as a nonpropulsive power source for space applications. The results show that of all the presently available thermoelectric technologies, i.e., lead telluride, bismuth telluride, selenide, and silicon-germanium alloys, the latter type provides the optimum STG. Detailed results are presented on the performance and configurational characteristics of various silicon-germanium alloy STGs, including the performance of such STGs as a function of time in a Mercury orbit and the orbit of Mercury around the sun. It is shown that an STG design based on the use of silicon germanium alloy thermoelectric material, using multiple high voltage thermopiles with individual solar concentrators, presents the optimum combination of technology and configuration for minimizing power source mass. Additional concepts studied and discussed are the flat plate individual thermopile type and single concentrator compact thermopile type. The STG possesses an attractive potential for this application and represents a useful addition to the family of power sources for consideration in various space applications.

  8. Sub-mSV breast XACT scanner: concept and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shanshan; Ren, Liqiang; Samant, Pratik; Chen, Jian; Liu, Hong; Xiang, Liangzhong

    2016-04-01

    Excessive exposure to radiation increases the risk of cancer. We present the concept and design of a new imaging paradigm, X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT). Applying this innovative technology to breast imaging, one single X-ray exposure can generate a 3D acoustic image, which dramatically reduces the radiation dose to patients when compared to beast CT. A theoretical model is developed to analyze the sensitivity of XACT. A noise equivalent pressure model is used for calculating the minimal radiation dose in XACT imaging. Furthermore, K-Wave simulation is employed to study the acoustic wave propagation in breast tissue. Theoretical analysis shows that the X-ray induced acoustic signal has a 100% relative sensitivity to the X-ray absorption (given that the percentage change in the X-ray absorption coefficient yields the same percentage change in the acoustic signal amplitude), but not to X-ray scattering. The final detection sensitivity is primarily limited by the thermal noise. The radiation dose can be reduced by a factor of 100 compared with the newly FDA approved breast CT. Reconstruction result shows that breast calcification with diameter of 80 μm can be observed in XACT image by using ultrasound transducers with 5.5 MHz center frequency. Therefore, with the proposed innovative technology, one can potentially reduce radiation dose to patient in breast imaging as compared with current x-ray modalities.

  9. HIV-1 Vaccine Trials: Evolving Concepts and Designs

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Missa P; De Groot, Anne S; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2012-01-01

    An effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine is needed to eradicate the HIV/AIDS pandemic but designing such a vaccine is a challenge. Despite many advances in vaccine technology and approaches to generate both humoral and cellular immune responses, major phase-II and -III vaccine trials against HIV/AIDS have resulted in only moderate successes. The modest achievement of the phase-III RV144 prime-boost trial in Thailand re-emphasized the importance of generating robust humoral and cellular responses against HIV. While antibody-directed approaches are being pursued by some groups, others are attempting to develop vaccines targeting cell-mediated immunity, since evidence show CTLs to be important for the control of HIV replication. Phase-I and -IIa multi-epitope vaccine trials have already been conducted with vaccine immunogens consisting of known CTL epitopes conserved across HIV subtypes, but have so far fallen short of inducing robust and consistent anti-HIV CTL responses. The concepts leading to the development of T-cell epitope-based vaccines, the outcomes of related clinical vaccine trials and efforts to enhance the immunogenicity of cell-mediated approaches are summarized in this review. Moreover, we describe a novel approach based on the identification of SIV and FIV antigens which contain conserved HIV-specific T-cell epitopes and represent an alternative method for developing an effective HIV vaccine against global HIV isolates. PMID:23289052

  10. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Sessions, Alaric M.; Beyon, Jeffrey; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. The existing power system was analyzed to rank components in terms of inefficiency, power dissipation, footprint and mass. Design considerations and priorities are compared along with the results of each design iteration. Overall power system improvements are summarized for design implementations.

  11. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Bruce W.; Sessions, Alaric M.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. The existing power system was analyzed to rank components in terms of inefficiency, power dissipation, footprint and mass. Design considerations and priorities are compared along with the results of each design iteration. Overall power system improvements are summarized for design implementations.

  12. Advanced-power-reactor design concepts and performance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davison, H. W.; Kirchgessner, T. A.; Springborn, R. H.; Yacobucci, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    Five reactor cooling concepts which allow continued reactor operation following a single rupture of the coolant system are presented for application with the APR. These concepts incorporate convective cooling, double containment, or heat pipes to ensure operation after a coolant line rupture. Based on an evaluation of several control system concepts, a molybdenum clad, beryllium oxide sliding reflector located outside the pressure vessel is recommended.

  13. Improved Engine Design Concepts Using the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-30

    This project was aimed at developing and using numerical tools which incorporate the second law of thermodynamics to better understand engine operation and particularly the combustion process. A major activity of this project was the continual enhancement and use of an existing engine cycle simulation to investigate a wide range of engine parameters and concepts. The major motivation of these investigations was to improve engine efficiency. These improvements were examined from both the first law and second law perspective. One of the most important aspects of this work was the identification of the combustion irreversibilities as functions of engine design and operating parameters. The combustion irreversibility may be quantified in a number of ways but one especially useful way is by determining the destruction of exergy (availability) during the combustion process. This destruction is the penalty due to converting the fuel exergy to thermal energy for producing work. The engine cycle simulation was used to examine the performance of an automotive (5.7 liter), V-8 spark-ignition engine. A base case was defined for operation at 1400 rpm, stoichiometric, MBT spark timing with a bmep of 325 kPa. For this condition, the destruction of exergy during the combustion process was 21.0%. Variations of many engine parameters (including speed, load, and spark timing) did not alter the level of destruction very much (with these variations, the exergy destruction was within the range of 20.5-21.5%). Also, the use of turbocharging or the use of an over-expanded engine design did not significantly change the exergy destruction. The exergy destruction during combustion was most affected by increased inlet oxygen concentration (which reduced the destruction due to the higher combustion temperatures) and by the use of cooled EGR (which increased the destruction). This work has demonstrated that, in general, the exergy destruction for conventional engines is fairly constant ({approx

  14. Design of a Synthesizing Lecture on Mechanics Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Natalie E.; Docktor, Jennifer L.; Gladding, Gary E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2010-10-01

    Within the context of traditional physics problem solving instruction, major concepts are mentioned but often marginalized by the focus on equation manipulation, resulting in students perceiving concepts as unimportant in problem solving. Additionally, since topics are covered as isolated pieces, students also perceive concepts as unrelated. In response to this disconnect, we discuss the development of a short, animated, web-delivered synthesizing presentation modeled after the "common learning resource" from the preparation for future learning construct. In the presentation, major concepts of introductory mechanics are structured hierarchically. More specifically, the presentation is an overview of major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and the conditions under which they are applied. It is linked to previous problems solved by the students and intended to prepare them for future learning by illustrating how concepts guide problem solving processes.

  15. Issues and design concepts for high-activity liquid packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meinert, N.M.; Riley, D.; Wells, A.H.

    1994-02-01

    The tank waste pretreatment process involves the separation of low-level and high-level constituents. The liquid high-level defense production waste will be vitrified into thousands of glass logs at the US DOE sites and then transported to a high-level repository for final disposal. Pretreatment and vitrification technology will need to be developed and tested to assess cost-effectiveness. The appropriate pretreatment strategy for complex high-activity liquid will depend on proving a competent process. As technology development matures, actual liquid will be substituted for simulants, and pilot scale plants will replace laboratory scale process demonstrations. Development of this strategy depends on tank waste sample analyses and a high-activity liquid supply for process testing. However, high-activity liquid transportation beyond DOE site boundaries is limited to Type B quantities in volumes less than 50 mL; no licensed packaging exists for greater than 50 mL quantities. The following paper summarizes the need for a high-activity liquid packaging, and identifies the agencies effecting packaging design and transportation. The high-activity liquid packaging concept retrofits licensed spent fuel casks by replacing the spent fuel basket with a sturdy containment vessel appropriate for the chemical nature of the liquid. A Nuclear Packaging (Pacific Nuclear`s NuPat{trademark} 125-B) spent fuel cask was hypothetically retrofitted with a containment vessel filled with liquid source term, the radionuclide inventory contained in the liquid. The structural, thermal, dose rate, and criticality consequences of retrofitting the cask body were evaluated based on data in the 125-B Cask Safety Analysis Report for Packaging. In addition, future packaging development work is discussed.

  16. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola,Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  17. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crasner, Aaron I.; Scola, Salvatore; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Thermal modeling software was used to run steady state thermal analyses, which were used to both validate the designs and recommend further changes. Analyses were run on each redesign, as well as the original system. Thermal Desktop was used to run trade studies to account for uncertainty and assumptions about fan performance and boundary conditions. The studies suggested that, even if the assumptions were significantly wrong, the redesigned systems would remain within operating temperature limits.

  18. Doppler Lidar System Design via Interdisciplinary Design Concept at NASA Langley Research Center - Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  19. Doppler lidar system design via interdisciplinary design concept at NASA Langley Research Center: Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Charles M.; Jackson, Trevor P.; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Petway, Larry B.

    2014-06-01

    Optimized designs of the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) instrument for Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) were accomplished via Interdisciplinary Design Concept (IDEC) at NASA Langley Research Center during the summer of 2013. Three branches in the Engineering Directorate and three students were involved in this joint task through the NASA Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) Program. The Laser Remote Sensing Branch (LRSB), Mechanical Systems Branch (MSB), and Structural and Thermal Systems Branch (STSB) were engaged to achieve optimal designs through iterative and interactive collaborative design processes. A preliminary design iteration was able to reduce the power consumption, mass, and footprint by removing redundant components and replacing inefficient components with more efficient ones. A second design iteration reduced volume and mass by replacing bulky components with excessive performance with smaller components custom-designed for the power system. Mechanical placement collaboration reduced potential electromagnetic interference (EMI). Through application of newly selected electrical components and thermal analysis data, a total electronic chassis redesign was accomplished. Use of an innovative forced convection tunnel heat sink was employed to meet and exceed project requirements for cooling, mass reduction, and volume reduction. Functionality was a key concern to make efficient use of airflow, and accessibility was also imperative to allow for servicing of chassis internals. The collaborative process provided for accelerated design maturation with substantiated function.

  20. An empirical SFR estimator for high redshift galaxies:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnouts, Stephane

    2015-08-01

    At high redshift, most of the SFR indicators are limited to the most massive galaxies (Far-IR, radio) and out of reach of optical spectroscopy (Halpha). The UV continuum is the only one available at all redshifts and for galaxies within a large range of mass. The main question is then to properly account for dust absorption. The SED fitting are always limited in the choice of popular attenuation laws (if not only one, starburst) which relies on the slope of the UV continuum. The alternative is to measure the net budget between the absorbed vs un-absorbed UV light i.e. the infrared excess (IRX= Lir/Luv).By using the deep 24 micron in the COSMOS field, we have observed a remarkable behaviour of IRX stripes within the (NUV-r)o vs (r-K)o color diagram which can be used to derive robust SFR estimates just with the Luv, Lr and Lk luminosities (Arnouts et al, 2013). We have shown that we can explain the correlation if we consider a two component models for the birth clouds and the ISM and also a complete model for galaxy inclination to explain the extrem IRX values. We are now extended the method with Herschel data at higher redshift (z~2) and lower masses (M~10^8Mo) by using stacking techniques and find that the IRX-NUVrK correlation persists (Le Floc’h , in prep). This method allows us to derive an accurate SFR for each individual galaxy based on its location in the NUVrK diagram and with no assumption on dust attenuation law, a main caveat for SED fitting technique.We investigated the behavior of the scatter of the SFR-Mass in GOODS and COSMOS fields and find that both SFR (Lir+Luv) or SFR(NUVrK) estimatesare consistent (Ilbert et al., 2015). Finally will investigate the dust-free UV luminosity functions in between 0SFR densities down to 10^8-8.5 Mo, with no resort to stacking technique as in Far-IR or radio wavelength.

  1. Viper cabin-fuselage structural design concept with engine installation and wing structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchesseault, B.; Carr, D.; Mccorkle, T.; Stevens, C.; Turner, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the process and considerations in designing the cabin, nose, drive shaft, and wing assemblies for the 'Viper' concept aircraft. Interfaces of these assemblies, as well as interfaces with the sections of the aircraft aft of the cabin, are also discussed. The results of the design process are included. The goal of this project is to provide a structural design which complies with FAR 23 requirements regarding occupant safety, emergency landing loads, and maneuvering loads. The design must also address the interfaces of the various systems in the cabin, nose, and wing, including the drive shaft, venting, vacuum, electrical, fuel, and control systems. Interfaces between the cabin assembly and the wing carrythrough and empennage assemblies were required, as well. In the design of the wing assemblies, consistency with the existing cabin design was required. The major areas considered in this report are materials and construction, loading, maintenance, environmental considerations, wing assembly fatigue, and weight. The first three areas are developed separately for the nose, cabin, drive shaft, and wing assemblies, while the last three are discussed for the entire design. For each assembly, loading calculations were performed to determine the proper sizing of major load carrying components. Table 1.0 lists the resulting margins of safety for these key components, along with the types of the loads involved, and the page number upon which they are discussed.

  2. Object Design: Twelve Concepts to Know, Understand and Apply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschalek, Douglas G.

    2005-01-01

    Some art teachers say that art is all around us when they actually mean that "design" is all around us. The everyday objects we view, purchase, and use are designed. Some are well designed, others are poorly designed, and many are in-between. Teachers need to develop learning strategies that enable their students to understand how design is part…

  3. An integrated mechanical design concept for the final focusingregion for the HIF point design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.; Sabbi, G.-L.; Barnard, J.J.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Chun,J.; Schmidt, J.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Abbott, R.P.; Callahan, D.A.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Pemberton, S.J.; Rose, D.V.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-21

    A design study was undertaken to develop a ''first cut'' integrated mechanical design concept of the final focusing region for a conceptual IFE power plant that considers the major issues which must be addressed in an integrated driver and chamber system. The conceptual design in this study requires a total of 120 beamlines located in two conical arrays attached on the sides of the target chamber 180 degrees apart. Each beamline consists of four large-aperture superconducting quadrupole magnets and a dipole magnet. The major interface issues include radiation shielding and thermal insulation of the superconducting magnets; reaction of electromagnetic loads between the quadrupoles; alignment of the magnets; isolation of the vacuum regions in the target chamber from the beamline, and assembly and maintenance.

  4. Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Design Concepts and Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Meister, Gerhard; Monosmith, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    800 nanometers with three additional discrete near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) ocean aerosol correction bands. Also, to avoid drift in sensor sensitivity from being interpreted as environmental change, climate change research requires rigorous monitoring of sensor stability. For SeaWiFS, monthly lunar imaging accurately tracked stability at an accuracy of approximately 0.1% that allowed the data to be used for climate studies [2]. It is now acknowledged by the international community that future missions and sensor designs need to accommodate lunar calibrations. An overview of ocean color remote sensing and a review of the progress made in ocean color remote sensing and the variety of research applications derived from global satellite ocean color data are provided. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the design options for ocean color satellite radiometers, performance and testing criteria, and sensor components (optics, detectors, electronics, etc.) that must be integrated into an instrument concept. These ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of data that can be delivered as a trade against mission cost. Historically, science and sensor technology have advanced in a "leap-frog" manner in that sensor design requirements for a mission are defined many years before a sensor is launched and by the end of the mission, perhaps 15-20 years later, science applications and requirements are well beyond the capabilities of the sensor. Section 3 provides a summary of historical mission science objectives and sensor requirements. This progression is expected to continue in the future as long as sensor costs can be constrained to affordable levels and still allow the incorporation of new technologies without incurring unacceptable risk to mission success. The IOCCG Report Number 13 discusses future ocean biology mission Level-1 requirements in depth.

  5. Developing Prospective Teachers' Conceptions with Well-Designed Tasks: Explaining Successes and Analyzing Conceptual Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thanheiser, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have documented prospective teachers' (PTs') conceptions of various mathematical topics. However, less is known about how PTs' conceptions develop. To address this gap, I designed two tasks with the goals of addressing the PTs' initial conceptions of multidigit whole numbers and helping them develop more sophisticated ones. I…

  6. Multivariable feedback design: concepts for a classical/modern synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J C; Stein, G

    1980-01-01

    A practical design perspective on multivariable feedback control problems is presented. The basic issue - feedback design in the face of uncertainites - is reviewed and known SISO statements and constraints of the design problem to MIMO cases are generalized. Two major MIMO design approaches are then evaluated in the context of these results.

  7. Multivariable feedback design - Concepts for a classical/modern synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, J. C.; Stein, G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a practical design perspective on multivariable feedback control problems. It reviews the basic issue - feedback design in the face of uncertainties - and generalizes known single-input, single-output (SISO) statements and constraints of the design problem to multiinput, multioutput (MIMO) cases. Two major MIMO design approaches are then evaluated in the context of these results.

  8. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase B report: Candidate RCS concept comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, G. F.; Schweickert, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    The competing auxiliary propulsion concepts for the reusable space shuttle vehicle are defined. The concepts are compared on the basis of selection criteria such as weight, reliability, and technology requirements. Propulsion systems using both cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen and earth storable propellants were considered. Three high value oxygen-hydrogen reaction control system concepts were evaluated. The final comparisons demonstrate that all three concepts are viable design approaches. The flexibility and growth potential of the parallel concept are considered to provide an advantage over the series concept.

  9. DESIGN AND LAYOUT CONCEPTS FOR COMPACT, FACTORY-PRODUCED, TRANSPORTABLE, GENERATION IV REACTOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Mynatt Fred R.; Townsend, L.W.; Williamson, Martin; Williams, Wesley; Miller, Laurence W.; Khan, M. Khurram; McConn, Joe; Kadak, Andrew C.; Berte, Marc V.; Sawhney, Rapinder; Fife, Jacob; Sedler, Todd L.; Conway, Larry E.; Felde, Dave K.

    2003-11-12

    The purpose of this research project is to develop compact (100 to 400 MWe) Generation IV nuclear power plant design and layout concepts that maximize the benefits of factory-based fabrication and optimal packaging, transportation and siting. The reactor concepts selected were compact designs under development in the 2000 to 2001 period. This interdisciplinary project was comprised of three university-led nuclear engineering teams identified by reactor coolant type (water, gas, and liquid metal) and a fourth Industrial Engineering team. The reactors included a Modular Pebble Bed helium-cooled concept being developed at MIT, the IRIS water-cooled concept being developed by a team led by Westinghouse Electric Company, and a Lead-Bismuth-cooled concept developed by UT. In addition to the design and layout concepts this report includes a section on heat exchanger manufacturing simulations and a section on construction and cost impacts of proposed modular designs.

  10. A Control Systems Concept Inventory Test Design and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, M.; Erkorkmaz, K.; Huissoon, J. P.; Jeon, Soo; Owen, W. S.; Waslander, S. L.; Stubley, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Any meaningful initiative to improve the teaching and learning in introductory control systems courses needs a clear test of student conceptual understanding to determine the effectiveness of proposed methods and activities. The authors propose a control systems concept inventory. Development of the inventory was collaborative and iterative. The…

  11. Preliminary weight and cost estimates for transport aircraft composite structural design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary weight and cost estimates have been prepared for design concepts utilized for a transonic long range transport airframe with extensive applications of advanced composite materials. The design concepts, manufacturing approach, and anticipated details of manufacturing cost reflected in the composite airframe are substantially different from those found in conventional metal structure and offer further evidence of the advantages of advanced composite materials.

  12. Design Concepts for a Global Telemetered Seismograph Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Jon; Orsini, Nicholas A.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study represents a first step in developing an integrated, real-tlme global seismic data acquisition system -- a Global Telemetered Seismograph Network (GTSN). The principal objective of the GTSN will be to acquire reliable, high-quality, real-time seismic data for rapid location and analysis of seismic events. A secondary, but important, objective of the GTSN is to augment the existing off-line seismic data base available for research. The deployment of the GTSN will involve a variety of interrelated activities -- development of the data acquisition and receiving equipment, establishment of satellite and terrestrial communication links, site selection and preparation, training of station personnel, equipment installation, and establishment of support facilities. It is a complex program and the develop- ment of a sound management plan will be essential. The purpose of this study is not to fix design goals or dictate avenues of approach but to develop work- ing concepts that may be used as a framework for program planning. The international exchange of seismic data has been an important factor in the progress that has been made during the past two decades in our under- standing of earthquakes and global tectonics. The seismic data base available for analysis and research is derived principally from the Global Seismograph Network (GSN), which is funded and managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The GSN comprises some 120 seismograph stations located in more than 60 countries of the world. Established during the 1960's with the installation of the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network (WWSSN), the GSN has been augmented in recent years by the installation of more advanced data systems, such as the Seismic Research Observatories (SRO), the modified High-Gain Long- Period (ASRO) seismographs, and the digital WWSSN (DWWSSN). The SRO, ASRO, and DWWSSN stations have the common, distinctive feature of digital data recording, so they are known

  13. Recent advances in approximation concepts for optimum structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    The basic approximation concepts used in structural optimization are reviewed. Some of the most recent developments in that area since the introduction of the concept in the mid-seventies are discussed. The paper distinguishes between local, medium-range, and global approximations; it covers functions approximations and problem approximations. It shows that, although the lack of comparative data established on reference test cases prevents an accurate assessment, there have been significant improvements. The largest number of developments have been in the areas of local function approximations and use of intermediate variable and response quantities. It also appears that some new methodologies are emerging which could greatly benefit from the introduction of new computer architecture.

  14. Performance evaluation of two-stage fuel cycle from SFR to PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, T.; Hoffman, E.A.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.

    2013-07-01

    One potential fuel cycle option being considered is a two-stage fuel cycle system involving the continuous recycle of transuranics in a fast reactor and the use of bred plutonium in a thermal reactor. The first stage is a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) fuel cycle with metallic U-TRU-Zr fuel. The SFRs need to have a breeding ratio greater than 1.0 in order to produce fissile material for use in the second stage. The second stage is a PWR fuel cycle with uranium and plutonium mixed oxide fuel based on the design and performance of the current state-of-the-art commercial PWRs with an average discharge burnup of 50 MWd/kgHM. This paper evaluates the possibility of this fuel cycle option and discusses its fuel cycle performance characteristics. The study focuses on an equilibrium stage of the fuel cycle. Results indicate that, in order to avoid a positive coolant void reactivity feedback in the stage-2 PWR, the reactor requires high quality of plutonium from the first stage and minor actinides in the discharge fuel of the PWR needs to be separated and sent back to the stage-1 SFR. The electricity-sharing ratio between the 2 stages is 87.0% (SFR) to 13.0% (PWR) for a TRU inventory ratio (the mass of TRU in the discharge fuel divided by the mass of TRU in the fresh fuel) of 1.06. A sensitivity study indicated that by increasing the TRU inventory ratio to 1.13, The electricity generation fraction of stage-2 PWR is increased to 28.9%. The two-stage fuel cycle system considered in this study was found to provide a high uranium utilization (>80%). (authors)

  15. On the [CII]-SFR Relation in High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallini, L.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Pallottini, A.; Yue, B.

    2015-11-01

    After two Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observing cycles, only a handful of [C ii] 158 μm emission line searches in z > 6 galaxies have reported a positive detection, questioning the applicability of the local [C ii]-star formation rate (SFR) relation to high-z systems. To investigate this issue we use the Vallini et al. (V13) model,based on high-resolution, radiative transfer cosmological simulations to predict the [C ii] emission from the interstellar medium of a z ≈ 7 (halo mass Mh = 1.17 × 1011 M⊙) galaxy. We improve the V13 model by including (a) a physically motivated metallicity (Z) distribution of the gas, (b) the contribution of photodissociation regions (PDRs), and (c) the effects of cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the [C ii] line luminosity. We study the relative contribution of diffuse neutral gas to the total [C ii] emission (Fdiff/Ftot) for different SFR and Z values. We find that the [C ii] emission arises predominantly from PDRs: regardless of the galaxy properties, Fdiff/Ftot ≤ 10%, since at these early epochs the CMB temperature approaches the spin temperature of the [C ii] transition in the cold neutral medium (TCMB ˜ {T}s{{CNM}} ˜ 20 K). Our model predicts a high-z [C ii]-SFR relation, consistent with observations of local dwarf galaxies (0.02 < Z/Z⊙ < 0.5). The [C ii] deficit suggested by actual data (LCii < 2.0 × 107 L⊙ in BDF3299 at z ≈ 7.1) if confirmed by deeper ALMA observations, can be ascribed to negative stellar feedback disrupting molecular clouds around star formation sites. The deviation from the local [C ii]-SFR would then imply a modified Kennicutt-Schmidt relation in z > 6 galaxies. Alternatively/in addition, the deficit might be explained by low gas metallicities (Z < 0.1 Z⊙).

  16. Trajectory Design for the Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Europa is one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for extant life. As such, NASA has funded the California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to jointly determine and develop the best mission concept to explore Europa in the near future. The result of nearly 4 years of work--the Europa Clipper mission concept--is a multiple Europa flyby mission that could efficiently execute a number of high caliber science investigations to meet Europa science priorities specified in the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, and is capable of providing reconnaissance data to maximize the probability of both a safe landing and access to surface material of high scientific value for a future Europa lander. This paper will focus on the major enabling component for this mission concept--the trajectory. A representative trajectory, referred to as 13F7-A21, would obtain global-regional coverage of Europa via a complex network of 45 flybys over the course of 3.5 years while also mitigating the effects of the harsh Jovian radiation environment. In addition, 5 Ganymede and 9 Callisto flybys would be used to manipulate the trajectory relative to Europa. The tour would reach a maximum Jovicentric inclination of 20.1 deg. have a deterministic (Delta)V of 164 m/s (post periapsis raise maneuver), and a total ionizing dose of 2.8 Mrad (Si).

  17. CAD framework concept for the design of integrated microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andras; Rencz, Marta; Szekely, Vladimir; Karam, Jean Michel; Courtois, Bernard; Hofmann, K.; Glesner, M.

    1995-09-01

    Besides foundry facilities, CAD-tools are also required to move microsystems from research prototypes to an industrial market. CAD tools of microelectronics have been developed for more than 20 years, both in the field of circuit design tools and in the area of TCAD tools. Usually a microelectronics engineer is involved only in one side of the design: either he deals with application design or he participates in the manufacturing design, but not in both. This is one point that is to be followed in case of microsystem design, if higher level of design productivity is expected. Another point is that certain standards should also be established in case of microsystem design too: based on selected technologies a set of standard components should be predesigned and collected in a standard component library. This component library should be available from within microsystem design frameworks which might well be established by a proper configuration and extension of existing IC design frameworks. A very important point is the development of proper simulation models of microsystem components that are based on e.g. the FEM results of the predesign phase and are provided in the form of an analog VHDL script. After detailing the above mentioned considerations we discuss the development work concerning a microsystem design framework. Its goal is to provide a set of powerful tools for microsystem application designers. This future framework will be composed of different industry-standard CAD programs and different design databases which in certain cases are completed with special interfaces and special purpose simulation tools.

  18. New silicon cell design concepts for 20 percent AMI efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic design principles for obtaining high efficiency in silicon solar cells are reviewed. They critically involve very long minority carrier lifetimes, not so much to attain high collection efficiency, but primarily for increased output voltages. Minority carrier lifetime, however, is sensitive to radiation damage, and particularly in low resistivity silicon, on which the high efficiency design is based. Radiation resistant space cells will therefore have to follow differing design principles than high efficiency terrestrial cells.

  19. Pulsed neutron source cold moderators --- concepts, design and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Guenter S.

    1997-01-01

    Moderator design for pulsed neutron sources is becoming more and more an interface area between source designers and instrument designers. Although there exists a high degree of flexibility, there are also physical and technical limitations. This paper aims at pointing out these limitations and examining ways to extend the current state of moderator technology in order to make the next generation neutron sources even more versatile and flexible tools for science in accordance with the users' requirements. (auth)

  20. The SFR and IMF of the galactic disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Andreas

    2003-04-01

    There is a long term dynamical heating of stellar populations with age observed in the age velocity dispersion relation (AVR). This effect allows a determination of the star formation history SFR(t) from local kinematical data of main sequence stars. Using a self-consistent disk model for the vertical structure of the disk, we find from the kinematics of the stars in the solar neighbourhood that the SFR shows a moderate star burst about 10 Gyr ago followed by a continuous decline to the present day value consistent with the observed number of OB stars. The gravitational potential of the gas component and of the Dark Matter Halo is included and the effect of chemical enrichment, finite lifetime of the stars and mass loss of the stellar component are taken into account. The scale heights for main sequence stars together with the SFR is then used to determine constistently the IMF from the observed local luminosity function. The main new result is that the power law break in the present day mass function (PDMF) around 1 M ⊙ is entirely due to evolutionary effects of the disk and does not appear in the IMF.

  1. Advanced Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Packaging Concept Mock-Up Design & Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O''Connell, Mary K.; Slade, Howard G.; Stinson, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    A concentrated development effort was begun at NASA Johnson Space Center to create an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) packaging concept. Ease of maintenance, technological flexibility, low weight, and minimal volume are targeted in the design of future micro-gravity and planetary PLSS configurations. Three main design concepts emerged from conceptual design techniques and were carried forth into detailed design, then full scale mock-up creation. "Foam", "Motherboard", and "LEGOtm" packaging design concepts are described in detail. Results of the evaluation process targeted maintenance, robustness, mass properties, and flexibility as key aspects to a new PLSS packaging configuration. The various design tools used to evolve concepts into high fidelity mock ups revealed that no single tool was all encompassing, several combinations were complimentary, the devil is in the details, and, despite efforts, many lessons were learned only after working with hardware.

  2. Design Concepts for Optimum Energy Use in HVAC Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Electric Energy Association, New York, NY.

    Much of the innovative work in the design and application of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is concentrated on improving the cost effectiveness of such systems through optimizing energy use. One approach to the problem is to reduce a building's HVAC energy demands by designing it for lower heat gains and losses in the…

  3. The SLAC Damped Detuned Structure: Concept and design

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, N.M. |

    1997-05-01

    The SLAC Damped Detuned Structure (DDS) is an accelerator structure designed to suppress the long range transverse wakefields which limit the performance of high current multibunch accelerators. We discuss the conceptual considerations which have led to its development and discuss the steps involved in arriving at a design.

  4. Essential Concepts of Engineering Design Curriculum in Secondary Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert; Smith, Phillip Cameron, Jr.; Kim, Soo Jung

    2009-01-01

    Technology education is a field of study that seeks to promote technological literacy for all students. Wright and Lauda defined technology education as a program designed to help students "develop an understanding and competence in designing, producing, and using technological products and systems, and in assessing the appropriateness of…

  5. Principles and Concepts for Information and Communication Technology Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ray; Langdon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a theory for evaluating information and communication technology design for individuals with disabilities. Simplex 1 evaluates designs in five zones: sensory and input zone; output zone; abstract working memory; long-term memory; and central executive functioning. Simplex 2 evaluates feedback, emotional responses, cognitive…

  6. All-Electric Concepts for Architecture. NECA Electrical Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Electrical Contractors Association, Washington, DC.

    In this monograph dealing with the suitability of electrically powered systems to emerging architectural trends, emphasis is upon the relationship of mechanical systems to overall building design. Topics discussed are--(1) All Electric Systems are Right for the Times, (2) Electric Systems Enlarge Freedom of Design, (3) Approaching the Question:…

  7. Parachute systems technology: Fundamentals, concepts, and applications: Advanced parachute design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.W.; Johnson, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in high-performance parachute systems and the technologies needed to design them are presented in this paper. New parachute design and performance prediction codes are being developed to assist the designer in meeting parachute system performance requirements after a minimum number of flight tests. The status of advanced design codes under development at Sandia National Laboratories is summarized. An integral part of parachute performance prediction is the rational use of existing test data. The development of a data base for parachute design has been initiated to illustrate the effects of inflated diameter, geometric porosity, reefing line length, suspension line length, number of gores, and number of ribbons on parachute drag. Examples of advancements in parachute materials are presented, and recent problems with Mil-Spec broadgoods are reviewed. Finally, recent parachute systems tested at Sandia are summarized to illustrate new uses of old parachutes, new parachute configurations, and underwater recovery of payloads.

  8. Prospective markets and design concepts for civilian remotely piloted aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Gregory, T. J.; Aderhold, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study that examines the technical, economic, and environmental aspects of remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) in the civil environment. A market survey was conducted in which 35 civil applications of RPVs were identified. For a number of these uses, vehicle and system concepts were defined, benefit and cost comparisons were made with present methods, and the influence of safety and environmental implications was assessed. The results suggest a sizable potential demand for the use of RPVs in the civil sector, and some of the applications show promising cost savings over established methods. A focussed technology effort could provide the safety assurances needed for routine civilian operation of RPVs.

  9. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Odeh, Mufeed

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  10. Design concept for the microwave interrogation structure in PARCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Klipstein, W. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Jefferts, S. R.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will describe key aspects of the conceptual design of the microwave interrogation structure in the laser-cooled cesium frequency standard that is part of the Primary Atomic Reference Clock in Space (PARCS) experiment.

  11. Site Analysis--Rudimentary Concept in Residential Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Dennis C.

    1969-01-01

    This article on site analysis is concerned with the external factors affecting the dwelling and surrounding area when planning a residential design. Schematic drawings as well as a list of important data to be considered when planning are included. (GR)

  12. Design Concept for the Retrofit KAO 1m Robotic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Won-Yong; Mack, Peter; Park, Jang-Hyun; Jin, Ho; Lee, Woo-Baik; Lee, Chung-Uk

    2000-12-01

    Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) is working to retrofit its 1m robotic telescope in collaboration with a company (ACE, Astronomical Consultants & Equipment). The telescope system is being totally refurbished to make a fully automatic telescope which can operate in both interactive and fully autonomous robotic modes. Progress has been made in design and manufacturing of the telescope mount, mechanics, and optical performance system tests are being made for re-configured primary and secondary mirrors. The optical system is designed to collect 80% incident light within 0.5 arcsec with f/7.5 Ritchey-Chretien design. The telescope mount is an equatorial fork with a friction drive system. The design allows fully programmable tracking speeds with typical range of 15 arcsec/sec with accuracy of +/-5 arcsec/hour. The mount system has integral pointing model software to correct for refraction, and all mechanical errors and misalignments. The pointing model will permit positioning to better than 30 arcsec RMS within 75o from zenith and 45 arcsec RMS elsewhere on the sky. The software is designed for interactive, remote and robotic modes of operation. In interactive and remote mode the user can manually enter coordinates or retrieve them from a computer file. In robotic mode the telescope controller downloads the coordinates in the order determined by the scheduler. The telescope will be equipped with a CCD camera and will be accessible via the internet.

  13. Design of experiments applications in bioprocessing: concepts and approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijesh; Bhalla, Akriti; Rathore, Anurag S

    2014-01-01

    Most biotechnology unit operations are complex in nature with numerous process variables, feed material attributes, and raw material attributes that can have significant impact on the performance of the process. Design of experiments (DOE)-based approach offers a solution to this conundrum and allows for an efficient estimation of the main effects and the interactions with minimal number of experiments. Numerous publications illustrate application of DOE towards development of different bioprocessing unit operations. However, a systematic approach for evaluation of the different DOE designs and for choosing the optimal design for a given application has not been published yet. Through this work we have compared the I-optimal and D-optimal designs to the commonly used central composite and Box-Behnken designs for bioprocess applications. A systematic methodology is proposed for construction of the model and for precise prediction of the responses for the three case studies involving some of the commonly used unit operations in downstream processing. Use of Akaike information criterion for model selection has been examined and found to be suitable for the applications under consideration. PMID:24123959

  14. A new design concept for an automated peanut processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Ertas, A.; Tanju, B.T.; Fair, W.T.; Butts, C.

    1996-12-31

    Peanut quality is a major concern in all phases of the peanut industry from production to manufacturing. Postharvest processing of peanuts can have profound effects on the quality and safety of peanut food products. Curing is a key step in postharvest processing. Curing peanuts improperly can significantly reduce quality, and result in significant losses to both farmers and processors. The conventional drying system designed in the 1960`s is still being used in the processing of the peanuts today. The objectives of this paper is to design and develop a new automated peanut drying system for dry climates capable of handling approximately 20 million lbm of peanuts per harvest season.

  15. Design concept for diffractive elements shaping partially coherent laser beams.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, D

    2001-11-01

    A new two-step design algorithm for the calculation of a diffractive phase element (DPE) for use with partially coherent laser beams is presented. The optical reconstruction of the DPE is modeled by the convolution of a coherent diffraction pattern and the far-field intensity distribution of a partially coherent laser beam. Numerical deconvolution is applied to derive a suitable amplitude pattern as signal input to a standard iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA). Theory and numerical results are presented. Compared with a single-step IFTA design, this new approach yields nearly equal diffraction efficiencies and a relative improvement of 15% in signal reconstruction error. PMID:11688882

  16. Boom-Constrained Drag Minimization for Design of Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.; Li, Wu; Geiselhart, Karl

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to modifying an existing baseline configuration that has been designed to achieve low-boom characteristics in order to minimize drag while not severely penalizing baseline sonic boom levels. The baseline configuration that was used is the result of using a mixed-fidelity CFD-based low-boom design process that has been tested and verified. Shape modifications are carried out by using arbitrary shape-deformation algorithms. The focus of this paper is the integration of several key enabling techniques and methods for efficient redesign under stringent constraints.

  17. Study of metallic structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1977-01-01

    A structural design study was made, to assess the relative merits of various metallic structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to ensure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, select structural concepts and materials, and define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented. The effect on design methods of using the computerized structural design system was appraised, and recommendations are presented concerning further development of design tools, development of materials and structural concepts, and research on basic technology.

  18. Basic concepts for the design of high-efficiency single-junction and multibandgap solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, J. C. C.

    1985-01-01

    Concepts for obtaining practical solar-cell modules with one-sun efficiencies up to 30 percent at air mass 1 are now well understood. Such high-efficiency modules utilize multibandgap structures. To achieve module efficiencies significantly above 30 percent, it is necessary to employ different concepts such as spectral compression and broad-band detection. A detailed description of concepts for the design of high-efficiency multibandgap solar cells is given.

  19. Development of a metal-clad advanced composite shear web design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laakso, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced composite web concept was developed for potential application to the Space Shuttle Orbiter main engine thrust structure. The program consisted of design synthesis, analysis, detail design, element testing, and large scale component testing. A concept was sought that offered significant weight saving by the use of Boron/Epoxy (B/E) reinforced titanium plate structure. The desired concept was one that was practical and that utilized metal to efficiently improve structural reliability. The resulting development of a unique titanium-clad B/E shear web design concept is described. Three large scale components were fabricated and tested to demonstrate the performance of the concept: a titanium-clad plus or minus 45 deg B/E web laminate stiffened with vertical B/E reinforced aluminum stiffeners.

  20. Development of preliminary design concept for a multifunction display and control system for the Orbiter crew station. Task 4: Design concept recommendation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Holcomb, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Application of multifunction display and control systems to the NASA Orbiter spacecraft offers the potential for reducing crew workload and improving the presentation of system status and operational data to the crew. A design concept is presented for the application of a multifunction display and control system (MFDCS) to the Orbital Maneuvering System and Electrical Power Distribution and Control System on the Orbiter spacecraft. The MFDCS would provide the capability for automation of procedures, fault prioritization and software reconfiguration of the MFDCS data base. The MFDCS would operate as a stand-alone processor to minimize the impact on the current Orbiter software. Supervisory crew command of all current functions would be retained through the use of several operating modes in the system. Both the design concept and the processes followed in defining the concept are described.

  1. Guard tower structural design concept for perimeter security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Risse, J.T.

    1983-07-01

    Facilities that require outdoor perimeter sensor fields to furnish perimeter penetration alarms can often benefit by the inclusion of manned guard towers in the total security plan. Acquisition and maintenance costs of closed circuit television to provide adequate visual assessment may be too costly and perhaps tower personnel could perform other functions such as monitoring vehicles or personnel in the vicinity of the protected area. Because there appeared to be no uniformity of design features for guard towers being built for nominally identical purposes, a program has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories to identify functions and features of towers, and to find a standard design such that security organizations, wishing to build a tower, would not find it necessary to start anew for each application. A tower design using prestressed concrete ''double tees'' has been worked out and reduced to practice that accomplishes many of the desired characteristics of a guard tower at reasonable cost. The prestressed concrete technology is available throughout the CONUS, Canada, Europe, etc. One such design is described and discussed.

  2. Concepts for a Staff Development Design on Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Horace B.

    The guiding principles that make up a cohesive design for training state community education coordinators is developed from four main constructs: (1) the major goal, of enhancing community quality of life, where the focus should be on synergy, citizen empowerment, and change agency leadership by the coordinators; (2) community education as a…

  3. Conceptions of Trust: How Designers Approach Usable Privacy and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birge, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Designers who create user interfaces are frequently required to ask users for personal information. For the user, this is a "trust question": Do I, the user, trust the system or entity that is asking me for this information? The creation and management of these trust questions is an important aspect of the research field called usable…

  4. Advance Approach to Concept and Design Studies for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M.; Nichols, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent automated and advanced techniques developed at JPL have created a streamlined and fast-track approach to initial mission conceptualization and system architecture design, answering the need for rapid turnaround of trade studies for potential proposers, as well as mission and instrument study groups.

  5. Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Richard D.

    Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are currently being researched for a wide range of tasks, including search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance, traffic monitoring, fire detection, pipe and electrical line inspection, and border patrol to name only a few of the application domains. Although small/miniature UAVs, including both Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) vehicles and small helicopters, have shown great potential in both civilian and military domains, including research and development, integration, prototyping, and field testing, these unmanned systems/vehicles are limited to only a handful of university labs. For VTOL type aircraft the number is less than fifteen worldwide! This lack of development is due to both the extensive time and cost required to design, integrate and test a fully operational prototype as well as the shortcomings of published materials to fully describe how to design and build a "complete" and "operational" prototype system. This dissertation overcomes existing barriers and limitations by describing and presenting in great detail every technical aspect of designing and integrating a small UAV helicopter including the on-board navigation controller, capable of fully autonomous takeoff, waypoint navigation, and landing. The presented research goes beyond previous works by designing the system as a testbed vehicle. This design aims to provide a general framework that will not only allow researchers the ability to supplement the system with new technologies but will also allow researchers to add innovation to the vehicle itself. Examples include modification or replacement of controllers, updated filtering and fusion techniques, addition or replacement of sensors, vision algorithms, Operating Systems (OS) changes or replacements, and platform modification or replacement. This is supported by the testbed's design to not only adhere to the technology it currently utilizes but to be general enough to adhere to a multitude of

  6. Preliminary design concept of a subcritical reactor using available resources

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, E.L.; Hoyny, V.; Chaudhuri, B.R.; Taprantzis, A.; Yavas, A.

    1993-12-31

    During the Fall 1993 semester, a project was initiated within the Nuclear Engineering Department of the University of Tennessee with the objective of developing a design for a subcritical reactor with maximized multiplication factor using materials currently available. Such a device, if constructed, would serve as a teaching tool for the Department of Nuclear Engineering. Design work was conducted as a large number of computer calculations, with trial pile configurations based on fundamental nuclear engineering principles, in an effort to maximize multiplication factor through fuel element geometry, moderator type, fissile/moderator ratio, and reflector character. The principal objective of the design group for the early phase of this project was to present several possible ``baseline`` reactor designs and identify directions for improvements. For the sake of calculational ease, the cores analyzes to date have been of nearly cubic shape. The SCALE CSAS25 software which runs KENO.Va, a Monte Carlo code, was used for all neutronics calculations. The baseline reactors resulting from work to date are cuboidal in shape and graphite reflected. Two types of fuel element geometries are proposed, a typical triangular pitch rod lattice and an arrangement of discrete fuel slugs placed in a lattice corresponding to body centered cubic packing. The latter arrangement provides slightly higher multiplication factors than the former. Calculations were performed for both graphite and heavy water moderation with heavy water moderation producing considerably higher multiplication factors, as expected. In general, the maximum k{sub eff} for the reactors are in the range of 0.5 to 0.9, well subcritical, except in the cases of the extreme possible values of fuel assay where critical configurations are possible. In these cases, designs with reduced fuel loading are recommended to assure a subcritical multiplication factor.

  7. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  8. Trainee Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning, Classroom Layout and Exam Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech; Artiga, Amparo Gomez

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study centres on identifying and classifying the conceptions of teaching and learning held by future secondary school teachers, and on analysing the relationship between these conceptions and the way classroom space is organized and exams are designed. The test instruments used were applied to a sample of 138 graduates, who…

  9. New Approach to Concept Feasibility and Design Studies for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, M. J.; McLaughlin, W.; Nichols, J.

    1998-01-01

    JPL has assembled a team of multidisciplinary experts with corporate knowledge of space mission and instrument development. The advanced Concept Design Team, known as Team X, provides interactive design trades including cost as a design parameter, and advanced visualization for pre-Phase A Studies.

  10. Conversations around Design Sketches: Use of Communication Channels for Sharing Mental Models during Concept Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariff, Nik Shahman Nik Ahmad; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Eris, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exploratory protocol study on the use of different communication channels during design sketching. We focus on how individual designers share their mental models with other designers in a group, and analyse their use of graphical, textual, and verbal communications during concept generation. Our findings suggest that…

  11. A space crane concept: Preliminary design and static analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Davis, Robert C.; Greene, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Future in-space construction and assembly facilities will require the use of space cranes capable of supporting and manipulating large and massive loads. The large size of the space components being considered for construction will require that these cranes have a reach on the order of 100 meters. A space crane constructed from an erectable four-longeron truss beam with 19 5-sq-m truss bays is considered. This concept was selected to be compatible with the Space Station truss. This truss is hinged at three locations along its bottom edge and attached at one end to a rotary joint cantilevered to the assembly depot's main truss structure. The crane's boom sections are rotated by extensible longeron actuators located along the top edge of the beam. To achieve maximum position maneuvering capability for the crane requires that the individual sections be capable of rotating 180 degrees about the hinge point. This can only be accomplished by offsetting the hinges from the longeron axes. Since offset hinges introduce bending moments in the truss members, an analysis of the effect of hinge offsets on the load-carrying capacity of the structure is required. The objective of the static finite element analysis described is to determine the effect of various offset lengths on the overall bending stiffness of the crane and on the maximum stresses.

  12. Initial Package Design Concepts Integrated Product Team (IPT) Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, J.; Luke, Dale Elden

    2000-03-01

    Initially, the question of transporting TRU waste to WIPP was raised as part of the EM Integration activities. The issue was re-examined as part of the system-wide view to re-engineer the TRU waste program. Consequently, the National Transportation Program and the National TRU Waste Program, in a cooperative effort, made a commitment to EM-20 to examine the feasibility of using rail to transport TRU waste material to WIPP. In December of 1999 Mr. Philip Altomare assembled a team of subject matter experts (SME) to define initial concepts for a Type B package capable of shipping TRU waste by rail (see Attachment 1 for a list of team members). This same team of experts also provided input to a preliminary study to determine if shipping TRU waste by rail could offer cost savings or other significant advantages over the current mode of operation using TRUPACT-II packages loaded on truck. As part of the analysis, the team also identified barriers to implementing rail shipments to WIPP and outlined a path forward. This report documents the findings of the study and its initial set of recommendations. As the study progressed, it was expanded to include new packages for truck as well as rail in recognition of the benefits of shipping large boxes and contaminated equipment.

  13. New Design Concept and Flight Test of Superpressure Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izutsu, Naoki; Yajima, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Shigeo; Honda, Hideyuki; Kurokawa, Haruhisa; Matsushima, Kiyoho

    A new ballon design method named ‘three-dimensional gore design’ was developed. It is based on a pumpkin shape balloon with bulges of small radii between adjacent load tapes without the help of film extensibility. This type of balloon can be manufactured with gores having a size larger than that of the conventional gore. The sides of each gore are fixed to the adjacent short load tapes with controlled shortening rates. The gore length is chosen so as not to create any meridional tension. Hence, the superpressure limit of these balloons is simply given as film strength divided by bulge radius. As the limit does not depend on the balloon size, a large balloon with a high superpressure limit can be easily constructed without strong films. A test flight as well as indoor inflation and burst experiment showed that this new design method can realize a larger and lighter superpressure balloon capable of suspending a heavy payload in the stratosphere.

  14. Cabin-fuselage-wing structural design concept with engine installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ariotti, Scott; Garner, M.; Cepeda, A.; Vieira, J.; Bolton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a fuselage structural assembly and wing structural design that will be able to withstand the given operational parameters and loads provided by Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 (FAR 23) and the Statement of Work (SOW). The goal is to provide a durable lightweight structure that will transfer the applied loads through the most efficient load path. Areas of producibility and maintainability of the structure will also be addressed. All of the structural members will also meet or exceed the desired loading criteria, along with providing adequate stiffness, reliability, and fatigue life as stated in the SOW. Considerations need to be made for control system routing and cabin heating/ventilation. The goal of the wing structure and carry through structure is also to provide a simple, lightweight structure that will transfer the aerodynamic forces produced by the wing, tailboom, and landing gear. These forces will be channeled through various internal structures sized for the pre-determined loading criteria. Other considerations were to include space for flaps, ailerons, fuel tanks, and electrical and control system routing. The difficulties encountered in the fuselage design include expanding the fuselage cabin to accept a third occupant in a staggered configuration and providing ample volume for their safety. By adding a third person the CG of aircraft will move forward so the engine needs to be moved aft to compensate for the difference in the moment. This required the provisions of a ring frame structure for the new position of the engine mount. The difficulties encountered in the wing structural design include resizing the wing for the increased capacity and weight, and compensating for a large torsion produced by the tail boom by placing a great number of stiffeners inside the boom, which will result in the relocation of the fuel tank. Finally, an adequate carry through structure for the wing and fuselage interface will be

  15. Experimental concept and design of DarkLight, a search for a heavy photon

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Ray F.

    2013-11-01

    This talk gives an overview of the DarkLight experimental concept: a search for a heavy photon A′ in the 10-90 MeV/c 2 mass range. After briefly describing the theoretical motivation, the talk focuses on the experimental concept and design. Topics include operation using a half-megawatt, 100 MeV electron beam at the Jefferson Lab FEL, detector design and performance, and expected backgrounds estimated from beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    SciTech Connect

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  17. Rotorcraft flight-propulsion control integration: An eclectic design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Ballin, Mark G.; Ruttledge, D. C. G.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames and Lewis Research Centers, in conjunction with the Army Research and Technology Laboratories, have initiated and partially completed a joint research program focused on improving the performance, maneuverability, and operating characteristics of rotorcraft by integrating the flight and propulsion controls. The background of the program, its supporting programs, its goals and objectives, and an approach to accomplish them are discussed. Results of the modern control governor design of the General Electric T700 engine and the Rotorcraft Integrated Flight-Propulsion Control Study, which were key elements of the program, are also presented.

  18. Advanced vehicle concepts systems and design analysis studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Mark H.; Huynh, Loc C.

    1994-01-01

    The work conducted by the ELORET Institute under this Cooperative Agreement includes the modeling of hypersonic propulsion systems and the evaluation of hypersonic vehicles in general and most recently hypersonic waverider vehicles. This work in hypersonics was applied to the design of a two-stage to orbit launch vehicle which was included in the NASA Access to Space Project. Additional research regarded the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) Project at NASA ARC and included detailed configuration studies of OAW transport aircraft. Finally, work on the modeling of subsonic and supersonic turbofan engines was conducted under this research program.

  19. N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greitzer, E. M.; Bonnefoy, P. A.; DelaRosaBlanco, E.; Dorbian, C. S.; Drela, M.; Hall, D. K.; Hansman, R. J.; Hileman, J. I.; Liebeck, R. H.; Levegren, J.; Mody, P.; Pertuze, J. A.; Sato, S.; Spakovszky, Z. S.; Tan, C. S.; Hollman, J. S.; Duda, J. E.; Fitzgerald, N.; Houghton, J.; Kerrebrock, J. L.; Kiwada, G. F.; Kordonowy, D.; Parrish, J. C.; Tylko, J.; Wen, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    MIT, Aerodyne Research, Aurora Flight Sciences, and Pratt & Whitney have collaborated to address NASA s desire to pursue revolutionary conceptual designs for a subsonic commercial transport that could enter service in the 2035 timeframe. The MIT team brings together multidisciplinary expertise and cutting-edge technologies to determine, in a rigorous and objective manner, the potential for improvements in noise, emissions, and performance for subsonic fixed wing transport aircraft. The collaboration incorporates assessment of the trade space in aerodynamics, propulsion, operations, and structures to ensure that the full spectrum of improvements is identified. Although the analysis focuses on these key areas, the team has taken a system-level approach to find the integrated solutions that offer the best balance in performance enhancements. Based on the trade space analyses and system-level assessment, two aircraft have been identified and carried through conceptual design to show both the in-depth engineering that underpins the benefits envisioned and also the technology paths that need to be followed to enable, within the next 25 years, the development of aircraft three generations ahead in capabilities from those flying today.

  20. A pointing system design concept for Space Station attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edward; Rathbun, Dave; Smith, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A study has been conducted to recommend a pointing system design and architecture that can accommodate the articulated pointing requirements levied on the Space Station Freedom Attached Payload Pointing System. A conceptual design of a control system is developed using classical rate and position control techniques. A high fidelity simulation testbed has been developed as the principal tool for the pointing performance evaluation. Techniques of model reduction are applied to reduce the model order to a manageable size for incorporation into the testbed. The disturbance rich space station environment has been modeled, and nonlinearities such as bearing friction, motor and sensor noise are also considered. Simulations were performed with representatie payloads at nominal pointing orientations. The results show that the tight instrument pointing requirements and the severe Space Station disturbance environment render a marginal performance for a conventional (direct drive and hardmount) gimbal pointing system, particularly for lightweight payloads. A gimbal system that incorporates a passive base isolator and reactionless actuation appears to provide a significant imporvement in pointing performance over the conventional pointing systems.

  1. Computer control of large accelerators, design concepts and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, F.; Gormley, M.

    1985-03-01

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. This presentation is an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies, and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented, since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided.

  2. The analysis of a state-switched absorber design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanese, Anne-Marie; Cunefare, Kenneth

    2002-11-01

    A tuned vibration absorber (TVA) is a spring-damper-mass system used in many industries for the suppression of a specific vibration frequency, and has application for the suppression of aircraft fuselage vibration. A state-switched absorber (SSA) is similar to a TVA, except that one or more components in the SSA is able to instantaneously and discretely change properties, thus increasing the effective bandwidth of vibration suppression. In order to design a replacement SSA for the classic TVA, the SSA must operate in the appropriate frequency range, be lightweight, and compact. An optimal SSA will also have a maximal frequency range between which it can switch. This paper discusses the development of a magnetorheological (MR) silicone gel used as the SSA switching element, the shape required to maintain a magnetic flux path, and the contribution of the magnet-mass to frequency shifting. The MR gel is iron-doped silicone, cured in the presence of a magnetic field. During operation, the applied magnetic flux is modified to change the natural frequency. The applied flux requirement forces the SSA to be a small ring. The SSA is designed to operate below 100 Hz.

  3. Computer control of large accelerators design concepts and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, F.; Gormley, M.

    1984-05-01

    Unlike most of the specialities treated in this volume, control system design is still an art, not a science. These lectures are an attempt to produce a primer for prospective practitioners of this art. A large modern accelerator requires a comprehensive control system for commissioning, machine studies and day-to-day operation. Faced with the requirement to design a control system for such a machine, the control system architect has a bewildering array of technical devices and techniques at his disposal, and it is our aim in the following chapters to lead him through the characteristics of the problems he will have to face and the practical alternatives available for solving them. We emphasize good system architecture using commercially available hardware and software components, but in addition we discuss the actual control strategies which are to be implemented since it is at the point of deciding what facilities shall be available that the complexity of the control system and its cost are implicitly decided. 19 references.

  4. Fuel system design concepts for broad property fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Versaw, E. F.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a study assessing the impact of using jet fuel with relaxed specification properties on an aircraft fuel system are given. The study objectives were to identify credible values for specific fuel properties which might be relaxed, to evolve advanced fuel system designs for airframe and engines which would permit use of the specified relaxed properties fuels, and to evaluate performance of the candidate advanced fuel systems and the relaxed property fuels in a typical transport aircraft. The study used, as a baseline, the fuel system incorporated in the Lockheed Tristar. This aircraft is powered by three RB.211-524 Rolls-Royce engines and incorporates a Pratt and Whitney ST6C-421 auxiliary power unit for engine starting and inflight emergency electrical power. The fuel property limits examined are compared with commercial Jet A kerosene and the NASA RFP fuel properties. A screening of these properties established that a higher freezing point and a lower thermal stability would impact fuel system design more significantly than any of the other property changes. Three candidate fuel systems which combine the ability to operate with fuels having both a high freeze point and a low thermal stability are described. All candidates employ bleed air to melt fuel freeze-out prior to starting the APU or an inoperable engine. The effects of incorporating these systems on aircraft weight and engine specific fuel consumption are given.

  5. A New Streamflow-Routing (SFR1) Package to Simulate Stream-Aquifer Interaction with MODFLOW-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.; Konikow, Leonard F.; Banta, Edward R.

    2004-01-01

    stream reach is based on a mass-balance approach and accounts for exchanges with (inputs from or losses to) ground-water systems. Two test examples are used to illustrate some of the capabilities of the SFR1 Package. The first test simulation was designed to illustrate how pumping of ground water from an aquifer connected to streams can affect streamflow, depth, width, and streambed conductance using the different options. The second test simulation was designed to illustrate solute transport through interconnected lakes, streams, and aquifers. Because of the need to examine time series results from the model simulations, the Gage Package first described in the LAK3 documentation was revised to include time series results of selected variables (streamflows, stream depth and width, streambed conductance, solute concentrations, and solute loads) for specified stream reaches. The mass-balance or continuity approach for routing flow and solutes through a stream network may not be applicable for all interactions between streams and aquifers. The SFR1 Package is best suited for modeling long-term changes (months to hundreds of years) in ground-water flow and solute concentrations using averaged flows in streams. The Package is not recommended for modeling the transient exchange of water between streams and aquifers when the objective is to examine short-term (minutes to days) effects caused by rapidly changing streamflows.

  6. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 1: Sections 1 through 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The structural approach best suited for the design of a Mach 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft was investigated. Results, procedures, and principal justification of results are presented. Detailed substantiation data are given. In general, each major analysis is presented sequentially in separate sections to provide continuity in the flow of the design concepts analysis effort. In addition to the design concepts evaluation and the detailed engineering design analyses, supporting tasks encompassing: (1) the controls system development; (2) the propulsion-airframe integration study; and (3) the advanced technology assessment are presented.

  7. Design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Bihari, Tom

    1992-01-01

    There are many problem-solving tasks that are too complex to fully automate given the current state of technology. Nevertheless, significant improvements in overall system performance could result from the introduction of well-designed computer aids. We have been studying the development of cognitive tools for one such problem-solving task, enroute flight path planning for commercial airlines. Our goal was two-fold. First, we were developing specific systems designs to help with this important practical problem. Second, we are using this context to explore general design concepts to guide in the development of cooperative problem-solving systems. These designs concepts are described.

  8. The application of some lifting-body reentry concepts to missile design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting-body concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of missiles. A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry and atmospheric flight. Some of the concepts appear to offer some novel design approaches for missiles for a variety of missions and flight profiles, including long-range orbital/reentry with transatmospheric operation for strategic penetration, low altitude penetration, and battlefield tactical. The concepts considered include right triangular pyramidal configurations, a lenticular configuration, and various 75-degree triangular planform configurations with variations in body camber and control systems. The aerodynamic features are emphasized but some observations are also made relative to other factors such as heat transfer, structures, carriage, observability, propulsion, and volumetric efficiency.

  9. Operationally Efficient Propulsion System Study (OEPSS) data book. Volume 4: OEPSS design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, George S.; Ziese, James M.; Farhangi, Shahram

    1990-01-01

    This study was initiated to identify operations problems and cost drivers for current propulsion systems and to identify technology and design approaches to increase the operational efficiency and reduce operations costs for future propulsion systems. To provide readily usable data for the Advanced Launch System (ALS) program, the results of the OEPSS study have been organized into a series of OEPSS Data Books. This volume describes three propulsion concepts that will simplify the propulsion system design and significantly reduce operational requirements. The concepts include: (1) a fully integrated, booster propulsion module concept for the ALS that avoids the complex system created by using autonomous engines with numerous artificial interfaces; (2) an LOX tank aft concept which avoids potentially dangerous geysering in long LOX propellant lines; and (3) an air augmented, rocket engine nozzle afterburning propulsion concept that will significantly reduce LOX propellant requirements, reduce vehicle size and simplify ground operations and ground support equipment and facilities.

  10. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements.

  11. Advanced combustor design concept to control NOx and air toxics

    SciTech Connect

    Eddings, E.G.; Pershing, D.W.; Molina, A.; Sarofim, A.F.; Spinti, J.P.; Veranth, J.

    1999-03-29

    Direct coal combustion needs to be a primary energy source for the electric utility industry and for heavy manufacturing during the next several decades because of the availability and economic advantage of coal relative to other fuels and because of the time required to produce major market penetration in the energy field. However, the major obstacle to coal utilization is a set of ever-tightening environmental regulations at both the federal and local level. It is, therefore, critical that fundamental research be conducted to support the development of low-emission, high-efficiency pulverized coal power systems. The objective of this program was to develop fundamental understanding regarding the impact of fuel and combustion changes on NOx formation, carbon burnout and air toxic emissions from pulverized coal (pc) combustion. During pc combustion, nitrogen in the coal can be oxidized to form nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments established much stricter NO{sub x} emissions limits for new and existing coal-fired plants, so there has been renewed interest in the processes by which NO{sub x} forms in pc flames. One of the least understood aspects of NO{sub x} formation from pc combustion is the process by which char-N (nitrogen remaining in the char after devolatilization) forms either NO{sub x} or N{sub 2}, and the development of a fundamental understanding of this process was a major focus of this research. The overall objective of this program was to improve the ability of combustion system designers and boiler manufacturers to build high efficiency, low emission pulverized coal systems by improving the design tools available to the industry. The specific program goals were to: Use laboratory experiments and modeling to develop fundamental understanding for a new submodel for char nitrogen oxidation (a critical piece usually neglected in most NOx models.); Use existing bench scale facilities to investigate alternative schemes to

  12. Development and Evaluation of Sensor Concepts for Ageless Aerospace Vehicles: Report 3 - Design of the Concept Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, David; Ables, Jon; Batten, Adam; Carpenter, David; Collings, Tony; Doyle, Briony; Dunlop, John; Edwards, Graeme; Farmer, Tony; Gaffney, Bruce; Hedley, Mark; Isaacs, Peter; Johnson, Mark; Joshi, Bhautik; Lewis, Chris; Poilton, Geoff; Price, Don; Prokopenko, Mikhail; Reda, Torsten; Rees, David; Scott, Andrew; Seneviratne, Sarath; Valencia, Philip; Wang, Peter; Whitnall, Denis

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an outline of the essential features of a Structural Health Monitoring Concept Demonstrator (CD) that will be constructed during the next eight months. It is emphasized that the design cannot be considered to be complete, and that design work will continue in parallel with construction and testing. A major advantage of the modular design is that small modules of the system can be developed, tested and modified before a commitment is made to full system development. The CD is expected to develop and evolve for a number of years after its initial construction. This first stage will, of necessity, be relatively simple and have limited capabilities. Later developments will improve all aspects of the functionality of the system, including sensing, processing, communications, intelligence and response. The report indicates the directions this later development will take.

  13. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Spacecraft Design Concept Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Daryl A.; Fiehler, Douglas I.

    2005-01-01

    Radioisotopic Electric Propulsion (REP) has the potential to provide certain advantages for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigation s for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a preliminary conceptual design of a REP-based spacecraft where the mission of interest involves a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating at a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to insure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current/impending technological advances, REP orbiter/explorer missions may provide a valuable tool for extended scientific investigations of small bodies in the outer solar system.

  14. Antenna design and characterization based on the elementary antenna concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligthart, L. P.

    An antenna-design technique based on an elementary-antenna model (an infinitesimal pillbox structure carrying electric and magnetic currents and containing propagating TEM fields) is developed and demonstrated. An EM description of a waveguide aperture is obtained by applying approximate boundary conditions at specific points; the transmitted field is developed locally into a set of TEM field components to compute the radiation pattern; and aperture matching is achieved by calculating the aperture reflection as well. Parallel-plate, circular, and rectangular waveguides; two single-polarization TEM waveguide radiators (with and without dielectric filling); a dielectric-filled dual-polarization TE(01) waveguide radiator; and a hybrid reflector array with limited beam switching based on the TE(01) radiator are presented.

  15. Design concepts of high power bipolar rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    The present study shows that current bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries using a 0.38 mm thick TiS2 bipolar plate can yield moderate specific power and also high specific energy battery. The computer design studies project that a 100 V, 10 A h bipolar Li/TiS2 battery can achieve 150 W h/kg, 210 W h/l, and 150 W/kg. The unoptimized experimental bipolar Li/TiS2 batteries (3 cells, 90 mA h) exhibited 47 W h/kg, 90 W h/l, and 140 W/kg. Preliminary results on the cycleability of the bipolar batteries are demonstrated. The results also show that enhanced rate capability can be achieved by using pulse discharge and longer rest period between pulses.

  16. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 1, Design concept. Part 2, Project management

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. This document provides Part I - Design Concept which describes the selected solution, and Part II - Project Management which describes the management system organization, the elements that make up the system, and the control and reporting system.

  17. The optical design concept of SPICA-SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jellema, Willem; Kruizinga, Bob; Visser, Huib; van den Dool, Teun; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Eggens, Martin; Ferlet, Marc; Swinyard, Bruce; Dohlen, Kjetil; Griffin, Doug; Gonzalez Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Belenguer, Tomas; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Doi, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    The Safari instrument on the Japanese SPICA mission is a zodiacal background limited imaging spectrometer offering a photometric imaging (R ≍ 2), and a low (R = 100) and medium spectral resolution (R = 2000 at 100 μm) spectroscopy mode in three photometric bands covering the 34-210 μm wavelength range. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled arrays of very sensitive TES detectors providing a 2’x2’ instantaneous field of view. The all-reflective optical system of Safari is highly modular and consists of an input optics module containing the entrance shutter, a calibration source and a pair of filter wheels, followed by an interferometer and finally the camera bay optics accommodating the focal-plane arrays. The optical design is largely driven and constrained by volume inviting for a compact three-dimensional arrangement of the interferometer and camera bay optics without compromising the optical performance requirements associated with a diffraction- and background-limited spectroscopic imaging instrument. Central to the optics we present a flexible and compact non-polarizing Mach-Zehnder interferometer layout, with dual input and output ports, employing a novel FTS scan mechanism based on magnetic bearings and a linear motor. In this paper we discuss the conceptual design of the focal-plane optics and describe how we implement the optical instrument functions, define the photometric bands, deal with straylight control, diffraction and thermal emission in the long-wavelength limit and interface to the large-format FPA arrays at one end and the SPICA telescope assembly at the other end.

  18. Aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting reentry concepts applicable to transatmospheric vehicle design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of some lifting reentry concepts are examined with a view to the applicability of such concepts to the design of possible transatmospheric vehicles (TAV). A considerable amount of research has been done in past years with vehicle concepts suitable for manned atmospheric-entry, atmospheric flight, and landing. Some of the features of these concepts that permit flight in or out of the atmosphere with maneuver capability should be useful in the mission requirements of TAV's. The concepts illustrated include some hypersonic-body shapes with and without variable geometry surfaces, and a blunt lifting-body configuration. The merits of these concepts relative to the aerodynamic behavior of a TAV are discussed.

  19. Concepts for operational period panel seal design at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Lin, M.S.; Van Sambeek, L.L.

    1993-07-01

    Concepts for underground panel or drift seals at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant are developed to satisfy sealing requirements of the operational period. The concepts are divided into two groups. In the ``NOW`` group, design concepts are considered in which a sleeve structure is installed in the panel access immediately after excavation and before waste is emplaced. In the ``LATER`` group, no special measures are taken during excavation or before waste emplacement; the seal is installed at a later date, perhaps up to 35 years after the drift is excavated. Three concepts are presented in both the NOW and LATER groups. A rigid sleeve, a yielding sleeve, and steel rings with inflatable tubes are proposed as NOW concepts. One steel ring concept and two concrete monoliths are proposed for seals emplaced in older drifts. Advantages and disadvantages are listed for each concept. Based on the available information, it appears most feasible to recommend a LATER concept using a concrete monolith as a preferred seal for the operational period. Each concept includes the potential of remedial grout and/or construction of a chamber that could be used for monitoring leakage from a closed panel during the operational period. Supporting in situ demonstrations of elements of the concepts are recommended.

  20. A concept study of a carbon spar cap design for a 80m wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosemeier, M.; Bätge, M.

    2014-06-01

    The buckling resistance is a key design driver for large wind turbine blades with a significant influence on the material costs. During the structural design process the choice was made for carbon spar caps and two shear webs, which were set relatively far apart in order to stabilize the panels. This design presented a major challenge for the stability of the spar caps. The topology of these spar caps has been modified with regard to stability, comparing a continuous spar cap with split spar cap concepts and considering both lay-ups with hybrid carbon glass spar caps or sandwich concepts. Within those concepts, parametric studies were conducted varying different geometrical parameters of the spar caps and its layups. In order to determine the buckling resistance of the spar cap, an analytical model considering a 2D cross section discretized blade model was utilized to select the basic concept, after which a 3D numerical finite element model taking the whole blade into account was used to evaluate the chosen design concepts. The stability limit state analysis was conducted according to the certification scheme of GL guideline 2012. The various concepts were evaluated based on the blade's mass, tip deflection and modal properties. The results of this design process of the spar caps and the evaluation of the used analysis tools are presented within the paper.

  1. Optofluidic solar concentrators using electrowetting tracking: Concept, design, and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, JT; Park, S; Chen, CL

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a novel optofluidic solar concentration system based on electrowetting tracking. With two immiscible fluids in a transparent cell, we can actively control the orientation of fluid fluid interface via electrowetting. The naturally-formed meniscus between the two liquids can function as a dynamic optical prism for solar tracking and sunlight steering. An integrated optofluidic solar concentrator can be constructed from the liquid prism tracker in combination with a fixed and static optical condenser (Fresnel lens). Therefore, the liquid prisms can adaptively focus sunlight on a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell sitting on the focus of the Fresnel lens as the sun moves. Because of the unique design, electrowetting tracking allows the concentrator to adaptively track both the daily and seasonal changes of the sun's orbit (dual-axis tracking) without bulky, expensive and inefficient mechanical moving parts. This approach can potentially reduce capital costs for CPV and increases operational efficiency by eliminating the power consumption of mechanical tracking. Importantly, the elimination of bulky tracking hardware and quiet operation will allow extensive residential deployment of concentrated solar power. In comparison with traditional silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) solar cells, the electrowetting-based self-tracking technology will generate,similar to 70% more green energy with a 50% cost reduction. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A VLSI design concept for parallel iterative algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C. C.; Götze, J.

    2009-05-01

    Modern VLSI manufacturing technology has kept shrinking down to the nanoscale level with a very fast trend. Integration with the advanced nano-technology now makes it possible to realize advanced parallel iterative algorithms directly which was almost impossible 10 years ago. In this paper, we want to discuss the influences of evolving VLSI technologies for iterative algorithms and present design strategies from an algorithmic and architectural point of view. Implementing an iterative algorithm on a multiprocessor array, there is a trade-off between the performance/complexity of processors and the load/throughput of interconnects. This is due to the behavior of iterative algorithms. For example, we could simplify the parallel implementation of the iterative algorithm (i.e., processor elements of the multiprocessor array) in any way as long as the convergence is guaranteed. However, the modification of the algorithm (processors) usually increases the number of required iterations which also means that the switch activity of interconnects is increasing. As an example we show that a 25×25 full Jacobi EVD array could be realized into one single FPGA device with the simplified μ-rotation CORDIC architecture.

  3. Water-soluble perylenediimides: design concepts and biological applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengmeng; Müllen, Klaus; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-03-21

    Water-soluble perylenediimides (PDIs) with high fluorescence intensity, photostability and biocompatibility have been successfully prepared and applied in the biological field. In this tutorial review, we briefly focus on the synthetic strategies for the preparation of water-soluble PDIs by incorporating ionic or non-ionic substituents with multiple polar groups into the bay-region, imide- or ortho-positions of PDIs. These ionic/non-ionic substituents can suppress π-π aggregation and shield the inner perylene chromophores, thus contributing to the water solubility which is essential for biological applications. The optical properties, absorption and emission maxima above 500 nm, minimize the autofluorescence background of cells and provide access to imaging in living cells. The biological applications of water-soluble PDIs are discussed from simple (basic) to complex (advanced) processes, including biosensing in vitro studies, imaging and gene/drug delivering in living cells, tissues and the whole body. The promising future of designed multi-functional water-soluble PDIs will be highlighted in this review. PMID:26797049

  4. Immunotoxicity and immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals: design concepts and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, Nirmala

    2010-10-01

    The biopharmaceutical market has grown steadily since the early 1980s and today over 150 protein biopharmaceuticals have been approved for clinical use. These products often exhibit forms of immunotoxicity that often only come to light during clinical studies. The predictive value of animal studies and traditional in vitro screens is questionable, with few existing methods able to predict immunotoxicity in a way that is useful for estimating risk for entire patient populations for a specific, and often unique, product. Here, the relative merits of rational design and alternative strategies for immunotoxicity testing are considered with reference to the outcomes of preclinical and clinical studies on biopharmaceuticals. Specific reference is made to the prediction of immunogenicity using organotypic models, transgenic models of autoimmunity and immunogenicity as well as rodent models of hypersensitivity, immunosuppression and immunostimulation. The role played by human cell-based assays and in silico prediction models that have been developed and validated for the assessment of chemical classes is also appraised. PMID:20615176

  5. Rotor compound concept for designing an industrial HTS synchronous motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani, M.; Hosseina, M.; Sarrafan, K.; Darabi, A.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, producing power with smaller amount of losses become as a goal in our daily life. Today, large amount of energy waste in power networks all around the world. The main reason is “resistive electric equipments” of power networks. Since early 1980s, simultaneous with the development of high temperature superconductive (HTS) technology, superconductors gently attracted the mankind attentions. Using superconductive equipments instead of conventional resistive ones are result in salient electric loss reduction in power systems. Especially to reduce losses in power networks superconductive industrial rotating machines can potentially perform a significant role. In early recent century, first generation of HTS rotating machines was born. But unfortunately they have long way to penetrate the commercial markets yet. In HTS rotating machines the conventional copper made windings are replaced with the HTS superconductors. In this paper an industrial HTS synchronous motor with YBCO coated conductor field windings was designed. As a new approach, model was equipped with a compound rotor that includes both magnetic and non-magnetic materials. So, large amount of heavy iron made part was replaced by light non-magnetic material such as G-10 fiberglass. Furthermore, in this structure iron loss in rotor could be reduced to its lowest value. Also less weight and more air gap energy density were the additional advantages. Regarding zero electric loss production in field windings and less iron loss in rotor construction, this model potentially is more effective than the other iron made HTS motors.

  6. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  7. 40 CFR 93.125 - Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforceability of design concept and... Transit Laws § 93.125 Enforceability of design concept and scope and project-level mitigation and control... determinations for a transportation plan or TIP and are included in the project design concept and scope which...

  8. Global Cost and Weight Evaluation of Fuselage Side Panel Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polland, D. R.; Finn, S. R.; Griess, K. H.; Hafenrichter, J. L.; Hanson, C. T.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Metschan, S. L.; Scholz, D. B.; Smith, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents preliminary design trades conducted under NASA contracts NAS1 18889 (Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, ATCAS) and NAS1-19349 (Task 3, Pathfinder Shell Design) for a subsonic wide body commercial aircraft fuselage side panel section utilizing composite materials. Included in this effort were (1) development of two complete design concepts, (2) generation of cost and weight estimates, (3) identification of technical issues and potential design enhancements, and (4) selection of a single design to be further developed. The first design concept featured an open-section stringer stiffened skin configuration while the second was based on honeycomb core sandwich construction. The trade study cost and weight results were generated from comprehensive assessment of each structural component comprising the fuselage side panel section from detail fabrication through airplane final assembly. Results were obtained in three phases: (1) for the baseline designs, (2) after global optimization of the designs, and (3) the results anticipated after detailed design optimization. A critical assessment of both designs was performed to determine the risk associated with each concept, that is the relative probability of achieving the cost and weight projections. Seven critical technical issues were identified as the first step towards side panel detailed design optimization.

  9. Influence of Selected Factors upon the Learning of Landscape Design Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Craig Stanley

    A study was designed to determine the relative effectiveness of a series of landscape meetings and a supplemental illustrated landscape circular in teaching landscape design concepts to interested groups. The cooperation of county agents was secured. Five counties were selected as experimental; five, as control. Teaching objectives were formulated…

  10. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the following topics:…

  11. Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Papers from the Third International Conference on Inverse Design Concepts and Optimization in Engineering Sciences (ICIDES) are presented. The papers discuss current research in the general field of inverse, semi-inverse, and direct design and optimization in engineering sciences. The rapid growth of this relatively new field is due to the availability of faster and larger computing machines.

  12. Concept Design of the Payload Handling Manipulator System. [space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, requirements, and interface definition of a remote manipulator system developed to handle orbiter payloads are presented. End effector design, control system concepts, and man-machine engineering are considered along with crew station requirements and closed circuit television system performance requirements.

  13. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Cavazos, J. Obedt; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Diaz-Elizondo, José A.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material). Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated. PMID:27578960

  14. Design Concepts of Polycarbonate-Based Intervertebral Lumbar Cages: Finite Element Analysis and Compression Testing.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Cavazos, J Obedt; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Diaz-Elizondo, José A; Martínez-Romero, Oscar; Rodríguez, Ciro A; Siller, Héctor R

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the viability of 3D printed intervertebral lumbar cages based on biocompatible polycarbonate (PC-ISO® material). Several design concepts are proposed for the generation of patient-specific intervertebral lumbar cages. The 3D printed material achieved compressive yield strength of 55 MPa under a specific combination of manufacturing parameters. The literature recommends a reference load of 4,000 N for design of intervertebral lumbar cages. Under compression testing conditions, the proposed design concepts withstand between 7,500 and 10,000 N of load before showing yielding. Although some stress concentration regions were found during analysis, the overall viability of the proposed design concepts was validated. PMID:27578960

  15. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 4: SPS point design definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The satellite power systems point design concept is described. The concept definition includes satellite, ground and space systems, and their relationships. Emphasis is placed on the definition of the GaAlAs photovoltaic satellite system. The major subsystems of the satellite system including power conversion, power distribution and control, microwave, attitude control and stationkeeping, thermal control, structures, and information management and control are discussed.

  16. Design and analysis of grid stiffened concepts for aircraft composite primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to buckling resistant design of general grid stiffened flat plates based on smeared stiffener theory for combined inplane loading is discussed. Some results from parametric studies performed to assess the validity of smeared stiffener for practical stiffener configurations and to illustrate the benefits of different stiffening concepts are given. Details of a design study are discussed where the present analysis method is used to design a grid stiffened panel for a fuselage application and verified using a finite element analysis results.

  17. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at Site SFR-4

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report for field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-4P and SFR-4T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  18. Summary of South Fence Road phase II 1993 field operations at site SFR-3

    SciTech Connect

    Foutz, W.L.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    This report is a basic data report fro field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-3P and SFR-3T. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  19. DNA homologous recombination factor SFR1 physically and functionally interacts with estrogen receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuxin; Singleton, David; Guo, Chun; Gardner, Amanda; Pakala, Suresh; Kumar, Rakesh; Jensen, Elwood; Zhang, Jinsong; Khan, Sohaib

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), a ligand-dependent transcription factor, mediates the expression of its target genes by interacting with corepressors and coactivators. Since the first cloning of SRC1, more than 280 nuclear receptor cofactors have been identified, which orchestrate target gene transcription. Aberrant activity of ER or its accessory proteins results in a number of diseases including breast cancer. Here we identified SFR1, a protein involved in DNA homologous recombination, as a novel binding partner of ERα. Initially isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen, the interaction of SFR1 and ERα was confirmed in vivo by immunoprecipitation and mammalian one-hybrid assays. SFR1 co-localized with ERα in the nucleus, potentiated ER's ligand-dependent and ligand-independent transcriptional activity, and occupied the ER binding sites of its target gene promoters. Knockdown of SFR1 diminished ER's transcriptional activity. Manipulating SFR1 expression by knockdown and overexpression revealed a role for SFR1 in ER-dependent and -independent cancer cell proliferation. SFR1 differs from SRC1 by the lack of an intrinsic activation function. Taken together, we propose that SFR1 is a novel transcriptional modulator for ERα and a potential target in breast cancer therapy. PMID:23874500

  20. Toroidal field coil design concept and structural support system for CTHR

    SciTech Connect

    Chianese, R. B.; Kelly, J. L.; Ruck, G. W.

    1980-09-01

    The CTHR conceptual design consists of a magnetically confined (tokamak) fusion reactor fitted with a fertile uranium blanket. The fusion driver concept was based on an ignited plasma. All concepts and parameters were selected on the basis that technical feasibility would be achieved by 1995 to assure a viable commercial operation in the early to mid-21st century. The reactor was designed to achieve good fissile fuel production, with electricity production being a second order priority. However, the resulting concepts that evolved were all excellent power producers which significantly improved the economic performance. The subsystems discussed in the following paragraphs provide a background of the application for the TF coil design described in this report.

  1. Operational concepts and implementation strategies for the design configuration management process.

    SciTech Connect

    Trauth, Sharon Lee

    2007-05-01

    This report describes operational concepts and implementation strategies for the Design Configuration Management Process (DCMP). It presents a process-based systems engineering model for the successful configuration management of the products generated during the operation of the design organization as a business entity. The DCMP model focuses on Pro/E and associated activities and information. It can serve as the framework for interconnecting all essential aspects of the product design business. A design operation scenario offers a sense of how to do business at a time when DCMP is second nature within the design organization.

  2. An overview of engineering concepts and current design algorithms for probabilistic structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, S. F.; Hu, J.; Hopkins, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    The article begins by examining the fundamentals of traditional deterministic design philosophy. The initial section outlines the concepts of failure criteria and limit state functions two traditional notions that are embedded in deterministic design philosophy. This is followed by a discussion regarding safety factors (a possible limit state function) and the common utilization of statistical concepts in deterministic engineering design approaches. Next the fundamental aspects of a probabilistic failure analysis are explored and it is shown that deterministic design concepts mentioned in the initial portion of the article are embedded in probabilistic design methods. For components fabricated from ceramic materials (and other similarly brittle materials) the probabilistic design approach yields the widely used Weibull analysis after suitable assumptions are incorporated. The authors point out that Weibull analysis provides the rare instance where closed form solutions are available for a probabilistic failure analysis. Since numerical methods are usually required to evaluate component reliabilities, a section on Monte Carlo methods is included to introduce the concept. The article concludes with a presentation of the technical aspects that support the numerical method known as fast probability integration (FPI). This includes a discussion of the Hasofer-Lind and Rackwitz-Fiessler approximations.

  3. Evaluation of AGNI SFR core neutronics parameters with VESTA and ERANOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecrabet, Fabrice; Haeck, Wim; Chaitanya Tadepalli, Sai

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the calculation of core neutronics parameters for so called AGNI Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) model performed with ERANOS code and Monte Carlo depletion interface software VESTA. The AGNI core has been developed at IRSN for its own R&D needs, i.e. to test performance of calculation codes for safety assessment of a generation IV SFR project. The ERANOS code is used as reference code for SFR core calculations at IRSN. In this work, VESTA calculations have been performed and compared with corresponding ERANOS results. These calculations have a double purpose: mastering the use of tools for the evaluation of SFR core static neutronics parameters and validate the use of VESTA for SFR cores.

  4. Preliminary design concepts for an advanced gas distribution system. Task report, August 1989-August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Hattery, G.R.; Newaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    Studies that were conducted in 1989 (GRI-89/0107.2) showed that the major problems that face the industry are third-party damage, locatability, and pipe supportability. These needs were translated into performance criteria for materials and designs of gas distribution system components. In Phase 2 to date, the performance criteria were refined and used as the basis for generation of concepts for materials and designs for enhancement of the gas distribution system. The screening criteria include long service life, damage tolerance, installation, and manufacturability. A scoring model that allows the criteria to have variable weights was applied to attain normalized scores and rankings for the concepts. The leading concepts include puncture-resistant polyethylene pipe via wrapping with an ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fabric or fiber, toughened thermoplastics (especially polyamides or acetal resin or polyester), thermoplastic fiber-reinforced thermoplastic resins, fiberglass-reinforced hose designs, and honeycomb-reinforced thermoplastic elastomer designs. Tentative research and development plans were developed for the leading concepts in which simple tests of manufacturability, impact resistance, and joinability are to be used to determine which concepts should be pursued further and which appear to have serious flaws.

  5. Structural Design Concepts for a Multi-Megawatt Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Hickman, J. Mark

    1991-01-01

    As a part of the Space Exploratory Initiative (SEI), NASA-Lewis is studying Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) spacecraft to be used as a cargo transport vehicle to Mars. Two preliminary structural design concepts are offered for SEP spacecraft: a split blanket array configuration, and a ring structure. The split blanket configuration is an expansion of the photovoltaic solar array design proposed for Space Station Freedom and consists of eight independent solar blankets stretched and supported from a central mast. The ring structural concept is a circular design with the solar blanket stretched inside a ring. This concept uses a central mast with guy wires to provide additional support to the ring. The two design concepts are presented, then compared by performing stability, normal modes, and forced response analyses for varying levels of blanket and guy wire preloads. The ring structure configuration is shown to be advantageous because it is much stiffer, more stable, and deflects less under loading than the split blanket concept.

  6. From Concepts of Motivation to Its Application in Instructional Design: Reconsidering Motivation from an Instructional Design Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yi-Chia; Yeh, Hsin-Te

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the concepts of motivation, including extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. It describes how motivation becomes a major concern in the field of instructional design (ID). Furthermore, a motivation model--the ARCS model--is identified and discussed. Finally, it provides an example of how to apply the motivational design…

  7. Evaluation of structural design concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach 2.7 arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near term start of design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low profile convex beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with boron polyimide composites. The fuselage shell consists of hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. A summary of the study effort is presented, and a discussion of the overall logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design are included.

  8. Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications. Task 1; Novel Wing Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, J. A.; Buttitta, C.; Flanagan, G.; DeSilva, T.; Egensteiner, W.; Bruno, J.; Mahon, J.; Rutkowski, C.; Collins, R.; Fidnarick, R.; Maiden, J.; Neves, J.

    1996-01-01

    Design trade studies were conducted to arrive at advanced wing designs that integrated new material forms with innovative structural concepts and cost-effective fabrication methods. A representative spar was selected for design, fabrication, and test to validate the predicted performance. Textile processes, such as knitting, weaving and stitching, were used to produce fiber preforms that were later fabricated into composite span through epoxy Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), Resin Film Infusion (RFI), and consolidation of commingled thermoplastic and graphite tows. The target design ultimate strain level for these innovative structural design concepts was 6000 mu in. per in. The spars were subjected to four-point beam bending to validate their structural performance. The various material form /processing combination Y-spars were rated for their structural efficiency and acquisition cost. The acquisition cost elements were material, tooling, and labor.

  9. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 3: Sections 12 through 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The design of an economically viable supersonic cruise aircraft requires the lowest attainable structural-mass fraction commensurate with the selected near-term structural material technology. To achieve this goal of minimum structural-mass fraction, various combinations of promising wing and fuselage primary structure were analyzed for the load-temperature environment applicable to the arrow wing configuration. This analysis was conducted in accordance with the design criteria specified and included extensive use of computer-aided analytical methods to screen the candidate concepts and select the most promising concepts for the in-depth structural analysis.

  10. "Masking Effect" And "Internal CEL" New Design Concepts For A Positive Working Photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Konoe; Ochiai, Tameichi; Kameyama, Yasuhiro; Kashi, Chie; Uoya, Shigeo; Nakajima, Masayuki; Kawai, Akira; Kishimura, Shinji

    1988-01-01

    Two new concepts,"masking effect" and "internal CEL", are proposed to design a high resolution quinonediazide-novolak type photoresist. On the basis of these two design concepts, we optimized the composition of the resist, and succeeded in developing a high resolution resist, which is composed of m-cresol/p-cresol/xylenol/formaldehyde novolak resin and 2 ,3 ,4 , 4' -tetrahydroxybenzophenone 1 , 2 -naphtoquinonediaz ide-5 -sulfonate. This resist can resolve as small as 0.6 um lines & spaces with aspect ratio of 2.7 (NA.0.42) and has the gamma value of 2.0.

  11. Taking a Concept to Commercialization: Designing Relevant Tests to Address Safety.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Lisa A

    2016-04-01

    Taking a product from concept to commercialization requires careful navigation of the regulatory pathway through a series of steps: (A) moving the idea through proof of concept and beyond; (B) evaluating new technologies that may provide added value to the idea; (C) designing appropriate test strategies and protocols; and (D) evaluating and mitigating risks. Moving an idea from the napkin stage of development to the final product requires a team effort. When finished, the product rarely resembles the original design, but careful steps throughout the product life cycle ensure that the product meets the vision. PMID:27015077

  12. Status of the Space Station environmental control and life support system design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. D.; Humphries, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of the Space Station (SS) environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) design is outlined. The concept has been defined at the subsystem level. Data supporting these definitions are provided which identify general configuratioons for all modules. Requirements, guidelines and assumptions used in generating these configurations are detailed. The basic 2 US module 'core' Space Station is addressed along with system synergism issues and early man-tended and future growth considerations. Along with these basic studies, also addressed here are options related to variation in the 'core' module makeup and more austere Station concepts such as commonality, automation and design to cost.

  13. A mechanism for proven technology foresight for emerging fast reactor designs and concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, Nuraslinda; Muhamad Pauzi, Anas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of emerging nuclear fast reactor designs and concepts viability requires a combination of foresight methods. A mechanism that allows for the comparison and quantification of the possibility of being a proven technology in the future, β for the existing fast reactor designs and concepts is proposed as one of the quantitative foresight method. The methodology starts with the identification at the national or regional level, of the factors that would affect β. The factors are then categorized into several groups; economic, social and technology elements. Each of the elements is proposed to be mathematically modelled before all of the elemental models can be combined. Once the overall β model is obtained, the βmin is determined to benchmark the acceptance as a candidate design or concept. The β values for all the available designs and concepts are then determined and compared with the βmin, resulting in a list of candidate designs that possess the β value that is larger than the βmin. The proposed methodology can also be applied to purposes other than technological foresight.

  14. The flight telerobotic servicer Tinman concept: System design drivers and task analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, J. F.; Hewitt, D. R.; Hinkal, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a preliminary definition of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) that could be used to understand the operational concepts and scenarios for the FTS. Called the Tinman, this design concept was also used to begin the process of establishing resources and interfaces for the FTS on Space Station Freedom, the National Space Transportation System shuttle orbiter, and the Orbital Maneuvering vehicle. Starting with an analysis of the requirements and task capabilities as stated in the Phase B study requirements document, the study identified eight major design drivers for the FTS. Each of these design drivers and their impacts on the Tinman design concept are described. Next, the planning that is currently underway for providing resources for the FTS on Space Station Freedom is discussed, including up to 2000 W of peak power, up to four color video channels, and command and data rates up to 500 kbps between the telerobot and the control station. Finally, an example is presented to show how the Tinman design concept was used to analyze task scenarios and explore the operational capabilities of the FTS. A structured methodology using a standard terminology consistent with the NASA/National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) was developed for this analysis.

  15. Identification of SFR6, a key component in cold acclimation acting post-translationally on CBF function.

    PubMed

    Knight, Heather; Mugford, Sarah G; Ulker, Bekir; Gao, Dahai; Thorlby, Glenn; Knight, Marc R

    2009-04-01

    The sfr6-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was identified previously on the basis of its failure to undergo acclimation to freezing temperatures following exposure to low positive temperatures. This failure is attributed to a defect in the pathway leading to cold on-regulated (COR) gene expression via CBF (C-box binding factor) transcription factors. We identified a region of chromosome 4 containing SFR6 by positional mapping. Fine mapping of the sfr6-1 mutation proved impossible as the locus resides very close to the centromere. Therefore, we screened 380 T-DNA lines with insertions in genes within the large region to which sfr6-1 mapped. This resulted in the identification of two further mutant alleles of SFR6 (sfr6-2 and sfr6-3); like the original sfr6-1 mutation, these disrupt freezing tolerance and COR gene expression. To determine the protein sequence, we cloned an SFR6 cDNA based on the predicted coding sequence, but this offered no indication as to the mechanism by which SFR6 acts. The SFR6 gene itself is not strongly regulated by cold, thus discounting regulation of SFR6 activity at the transcriptional level. We show that over-expression of CBF1 or CBF2 transcription factors, which constitutively activate COR genes in the wild-type, cannot do so in sfr6-1. We demonstrate that CBF protein accumulates to wild-type levels in response to cold in sfr6-1. These results indicate a role for the SFR6 protein in the CBF pathway -downstream of CBF translation. The fact that the SFR6 protein is targeted to the nucleus may suggest a direct role in modulating gene expression. PMID:19067974

  16. Active and passive structural design concepts for improved empennage effectiveness of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Franz; Schweiger, Johannes; Simpson, John; Kullrich, Thomas

    2000-06-01

    Active structures concepts for the design of aircraft have been investigated for several years. Concerning static aeroelastic applications, all concepts known to the authors are trying to improve the design of aircraft wings. In the case of wings however, the design space for active structures concepts is limited by a multitude of functional requirements. Empennage surfaces on the other hand only have to meet two basic requirements: sufficient stability and maneuverability for the longitudinal and lateral motion of the aircraft. In the case of vertical tails, the aerodynamic effectiveness for the side force and for the rudder yawing moment are usually reduced by the flexibility of the structure. This causes a weight increase for the structure, which is especially unpleasant for tail surfaces because of the rearward shift of the center of gravity. Today, multidisciplinary structural optimization methods can be used to minimize the weight penalty for static aeroelastic effectiveness requirements. But an amount of penalty still remains. A smart solution for additional weight savings, if possible below the conventional basic strength design of the structure, would therefore be very welcome for any new aircraft design. The paper will describe a new design approach for vertical tails. The concept is based on a smart system for the attachment of the complete tail surface to the fuselage. If properly designed, the variable stiffness of this system will provide improved aerodynamic effectiveness of the tail at any flight condition compared to the rigid aircraft. In a first step, the structure for the vertical tail of a fighter aircraft is designed for static strength and buckling stability by means of a structural optimization program, which is based on finite element methods. The impacts of static aeroelastic effectiveness and flutter stability criteria on the structural design are shown. A modified structural model is then used to incorporate the active system for the

  17. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. J.; Grande, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Based on estimated graphite and boron fiber properties, allowable stresses and strains were established for advanced composite materials. Stiffened panel and conventional sandwich panel concepts were designed and analyzed, using graphite/polyimide and boron/polyimide materials. The conventional sandwich panel was elected as the structural concept for the modified wing structure. Upper and lower surface panels of the arrow wing structure were then redesigned, using high strength graphite/polyimide sandwich panels, retaining the titanium spars and ribs from the prior study. The ATLAS integrated analysis and design system was used for stress analysis and automated resizing of surface panels. Flutter analysis of the hybrid structure showed a significant decrease in flutter speed relative to the titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium design by selective increase in laminate thickness and by using graphite fibers with properties intermediate between high strength and high modulus values.

  18. Enroute flight planning: Evaluating design concepts for the development of cooperative problem-solving systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.

    1995-01-01

    There are many problem-solving tasks that are too complex to fully automate given the current state of technology. Nevertheless, significant improvements in overall system performance could result from the introduction of well-designed computer aids. We have been studying the development of cognitive tools for one such problem-solving task, enroute flight path planning for commercial airlines. Our goal has been two-fold. First, we have been developing specific system designs to help with this important practical problem. Second, we have been using this context to explore general design concepts to guide in the development of cooperative problem-solving systems. These design concepts are described below, along with illustrations of their application.

  19. Alternate design concept for the SSC dipole magnet cryogenic support post

    SciTech Connect

    Lipski, A.; Nicol, T.H.; Richardson, R.

    1991-03-01

    New materials and developments in the field of advanced composites have created the opportunity to take a fresh look into the design of the cryogenic supports for SSC collider dipole cryostats. Although the present reentrant post design meets the structural and thermal requirements, its assembly requires precision and proficiency. The objective of the proposed alternate concept is to reduce the overall cost of the support post by means of simplifying and optimizing its component design and assembly process. The present shrink fitted tube assembly may potentially be replaced by injection molded parts. New resin systems with lower thermal conductivity and high strength properties enable the utilization of automated production techniques such as injection molding and filament winding. This paper will provide analysis and design information for the alternate support post concept and compare its test performance and cost to the present support post. 3 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The space station: Key to living in space. [design concepts for Manned Orbiting Laboratory and Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Design and scientific equipment for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory and Skylab are elaborated. Multideck designs accommodate both zero gravity and artificial gravity conditions as well as a core module potentially useful as a planetary mission module for a 12-man crew. Artificial gravity approaches consider assembly rotation and differential spin rates for the various decks. Counterrotation systems are projected to go from a station to a 50-man space base concept.

  1. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  2. Comparing Understanding of Programming Design Concepts Using Visual Basic and Traditional Basic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop-Clark, Cathy

    1998-01-01

    A study of 89 computer programming students in two instructional groups found that those using Visual Basic (VB) mastered programming design concepts as well as those using traditional BASIC. Concludes that VB is an excellent choice for a first programming course (high school or university) emphasizing sequence, selection, iteration, variables,…

  3. Developing Physics Concepts through Hands-On Problem Solving: A Perspective on a Technological Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Chen, Mei-Yung; Wong, Ashley; Hsu, Tsui-Fang; Peng, Chih-Chi

    2012-01-01

    In a contest featuring hands-on projects, college students were required to design a simple crawling worm using planning, self-monitoring and self-evaluation processes to solve contradictive problems. To enhance the efficiency of problem solving, one needs to practice meta-cognition based on an application of related scientific concepts. The…

  4. Crew aiding and automation: A system concept for terminal area operations, and guidelines for automation design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer, John P.

    1994-01-01

    This research and development program comprised two efforts: the development of guidelines for the design of automated systems, with particular emphasis on automation design that takes advantage of contextual information, and the concept-level design of a crew aiding system, the Terminal Area Navigation Decision Aiding Mediator (TANDAM). This concept outlines a system capable of organizing navigation and communication information and assisting the crew in executing the operations required in descent and approach. In service of this endeavor, problem definition activities were conducted that identified terminal area navigation and operational familiarization exercises addressing the terminal area navigation problem. Both airborne and ground-based (ATC) elements of aircraft control were extensively researched. The TANDAM system concept was then specified, and the crew interface and associated systems described. Additionally, three descent and approach scenarios were devised in order to illustrate the principal functions of the TANDAM system concept in relation to the crew, the aircraft, and ATC. A plan for the evaluation of the TANDAM system was established. The guidelines were developed based on reviews of relevant literature, and on experience gained in the design effort.

  5. Teaching of Cultural Concepts in Botswana Junior Secondary Schools Design and Technology Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moalosi, Richie

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the extent to which cultural concepts stipulated in Botswana Design and Technology curriculum are taught by teachers at junior secondary schools, a topic on which there is little previous research. The pinnacle of good product innovation is when it is grounded on sensitive cultural analysis of the society's culture. However,…

  6. A study of spacecraft technology and design concepts. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zylius, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    Electrical, mechanical, and software subsystem needs in the Post 1990 space operations environment are considered as well as the effect of radiation environment on spacecraft configuration. Criteria are given for selecting a specific design or technology concept from among the alternatives available.

  7. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  8. Study of an advanced transport airplane design concept known as Flatbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smethers, R. G.; Caldwell, E. W.; Warnock, W. E.; Wilson, J. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design concept and configuration of the Flatbed transport aircraft are presented. The Flatbed configuration combines into one frame, the ability to haul cargo, virtually unrestrained by cross sectional dimensions of the fuselage. The feasibility and capability of the Flatbed is discussed in depth.

  9. Concept em design of the 650 MHz cavities for the Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Lunin, A.; Kazakov, S.; Khabiboulline, T.; Solyak, N.; Saini, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Concept of the 650 MHz cavities for the Project X is presented. Choice of the basic parameters, i.e., number of cells, geometrical {beta}, apertures, coupling coefficients, etc., is discussed. The cavity optimization criteria are formulated. Results of the RF design are presented for the cavities of both the low-energy and high-energy sections.

  10. A new piezoelectric energy harvesting design concept: multimodal energy harvesting skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced design concept for a piezoelectric energy harvesting (EH), referred to as multimodal EH skin. This EH design facilitates the use of multimodal vibration and enhances power harvesting efficiency. The multimodal EH skin is an extension of our previous work, EH skin, which was an innovative design paradigm for a piezoelectric energy harvester: a vibrating skin structure and an additional thin piezoelectric layer in one device. A computational (finite element) model of the multilayered assembly - the vibrating skin structure and piezoelectric layer - is constructed and the optimal topology and/or shape of the piezoelectric layer is found for maximum power generation from multiple vibration modes. A design rationale for the multimodal EH skin was proposed: designing a piezoelectric material distribution and external resistors. In the material design step, the piezoelectric material is segmented by inflection lines from multiple vibration modes of interests to minimize voltage cancellation. The inflection lines are detected using the voltage phase. In the external resistor design step, the resistor values are found for each segment to maximize power output. The presented design concept, which can be applied to any engineering system with multimodal harmonic-vibrating skins, was applied to two case studies: an aircraft skin and a power transformer panel. The excellent performance of multimodal EH skin was demonstrated, showing larger power generation than EH skin without segmentation or unimodal EH skin. PMID:21429855

  11. Generation of SFR few-group constants using the Monte Carlo code Serpent

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Rachamin, R.; Shwageraus, E.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the Serpent Monte Carlo code was used as a tool for preparation of homogenized few-group cross sections for the nodal diffusion analysis of Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) cores. Few-group constants for two reference SFR cores were generated by Serpent and then employed by nodal diffusion code DYN3D in 2D full core calculations. The DYN3D results were verified against the references full core Serpent Monte Carlo solutions. A good agreement between the reference Monte Carlo and nodal diffusion results was observed demonstrating the feasibility of using Serpent for generation of few-group constants for the deterministic SFR analysis. (authors)

  12. The MSFC Collaborative Engineering Process for Preliminary Design and Concept Definition Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Jones, David; Hopkins, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative engineering process developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office for performing rapid preliminary design and mission concept definition studies for potential future NASA missions. The process has been developed and demonstrated for a broad range of mission studies including human space exploration missions, space transportation system studies and in-space science missions. The paper will describe the design team structure and specialized analytical tools that have been developed to enable a unique rapid design process. The collaborative engineering process consists of integrated analysis approach for mission definition, vehicle definition and system engineering. The relevance of the collaborative process elements to the standard NASA NPR 7120.1 system engineering process will be demonstrated. The study definition process flow for each study discipline will be will be outlined beginning with the study planning process, followed by definition of ground rules and assumptions, definition of study trades, mission analysis and subsystem analyses leading to a standardized set of mission concept study products. The flexibility of the collaborative engineering design process to accommodate a wide range of study objectives from technology definition and requirements definition to preliminary design studies will be addressed. The paper will also describe the applicability of the collaborative engineering process to include an integrated systems analysis approach for evaluating the functional requirements of evolving system technologies and capabilities needed to meet the needs of future NASA programs.

  13. Design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W. Z.; Hrgovan, I.; Okulov, V.; Zhu, W. J.; Madsen, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents the aerodynamic design of low noise wind turbine blades using Betz and Joukowski concepts. The aerodynamic model is based on Blade Element Momentum theory whereas the aeroacoustic prediction model is based on the BPM model. The investigation is started with a 3MW baseline/reference turbine rotor with a diameter of 80 m. To reduce the noise emission from the baseline rotor, the rotor is reconstructed with the low noise CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils which has been tested in the acoustic wind tunnel located at Virginia Tech. Finally, 3MW low noise turbine rotors are designed using the concepts of Betz and Joukowski, and the CQU-DTU-LN1 series of airfoils. Performance analysis shows that the newly designed turbine rotors can achieve an overall noise reduction of 6 dB and 1.5 dB(A) with a similar power output as compared to the reference rotor.

  14. Overview: Solar Electric Propulsion Concept Designs for SEP Technology Demonstration Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Melissa L.; Hack, Kurt J.; Manzella, David; Herman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    JPC presentation of the Concept designs for NASA Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration mission paper. Multiple Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Missions were developed to assess vehicle performance and estimated mission cost. Concepts ranged from a 10,000 kg spacecraft capable of delivering 4000 kg of payload to one of the Earth Moon Lagrange points in support of future human-crewed outposts to a 180 kg spacecraft capable of performing an asteroid rendezvous mission after launched to a geostationary transfer orbit as a secondary payload.

  15. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  16. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 5, Land disposal compliance and hydrogen generation restricted concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  17. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent go-to group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA s design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer s needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  18. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Phillips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Earth-to-Orbit Team (ETO) of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the pre-eminent "go-to" group for pre-phase A and phase A concept definition. Over the past several years the ETO team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a significant number of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Augustine Report, Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). The ACO ETO Team is called upon to address many needs in NASA's design community; some of these are defining extremely large trade-spaces, evaluating advanced technology concepts which have not been addressed by a large majority of the aerospace community, and the rapid turn-around of highly time critical actions. It is the time critical actions, those often limited by schedule or little advanced warning, that have forced the five member ETO team to develop a design process robust enough to handle their current output level in order to meet their customer's needs. Based on the number of vehicle concepts evaluated over the past year this output level averages to four completed vehicle concepts per day. Each of these completed vehicle concepts includes a full mass breakdown of the vehicle to a tertiary level of subsystem components and a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. A structural analysis of the vehicle to determine flight loads based on the trajectory output, material properties, and geometry of the concept is also performed. Due to working in this fast-paced and sometimes rapidly changing environment, the ETO Team has developed a finely tuned process to maximize their delivery capabilities. The objective of this paper is to describe the interfaces

  19. Infrared fiber-optic fire sensors - Concepts and designs for Space Station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Porter, Alan R.

    1990-01-01

    Various design configurations used for testing IR fiber-optic (IFO) fire-sensor concepts are presented. Responsibility measurements conducted to select the best concept are reviewed. The results indicate that IFO fire-sensor systems based on distributed fiber sensors are feasible for future aerospace applications. For Space Station Freedom, these systems offer alternative fire detectors for monitoring areas within equipment or stage compartments where the ventilation may be inadequate for proper operation of smoke detectors. They also allow a large number of areas to be monitored by a single central detector unit, which reduces the associated cost and weight.

  20. Infrared fiber-optic fire sensors - Concepts and designs for Space Station applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Porter, Alan R.

    1990-02-01

    Various design configurations used for testing IR fiber-optic (IFO) fire-sensor concepts are presented. Responsibility measurements conducted to select the best concept are reviewed. The results indicate that IFO fire-sensor systems based on distributed fiber sensors are feasible for future aerospace applications. For Space Station Freedom, these systems offer alternative fire detectors for monitoring areas within equipment or stage compartments where the ventilation may be inadequate for proper operation of smoke detectors. They also allow a large number of areas to be monitored by a single central detector unit, which reduces the associated cost and weight.

  1. A mechanical design concept for EAGLE on the revised E-ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.

    2014-07-01

    ESO have recently revisited the design of the E-ELT with a view to reducing cost, leading to de-scopes which include a smaller primary aperture and removal of the Gravity Invariant Focal Station (GIFS). In its original concept, the EAGLE instrument was designed to be located at the GIFS and consequently a major mechanical re-design was required to enable the instrument to be placed on its side in a conventional straight-through Nasmyth configuration. In this paper, a conceptual design for a new instrument structure is presented. A preliminary finite element analysis was carried out to assess the structure's behaviour under operating loading conditions (e.g. gravity loads). The results of this analysis demonstrate that the proposed design is viable, without any significant degradation in performance compared to the original GIFS design.

  2. The Concept of Fashion Design on the Basis of Color Coordination Using White LED Lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Yumiko; Taguchi, Tsunemasa

    This thesis focuses on the development of fashion design, especially a dress coordinated with White LED Lighting (=LED). As for the design concept a fusion of the advanced science and local culture was aimed for. For such a reason this development is a very experimental one. Here in particular I handled an Imperial Court dinner dress for the last Japanese First Lady, Mrs. Akie Abe who wore it at the Imperial Court dinner for the Indonesian First Couple held on November 2006 to. This dress made by Prof. T. Taguchi and I open up a new field in the dress design.

  3. A generalized concept for cost-effective structural design. [Statistical Decision Theory applied to aerospace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. M.; Hawk, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A generalized concept for cost-effective structural design is introduced. It is assumed that decisions affecting the cost effectiveness of aerospace structures fall into three basic categories: design, verification, and operation. Within these basic categories, certain decisions concerning items such as design configuration, safety factors, testing methods, and operational constraints are to be made. All or some of the variables affecting these decisions may be treated probabilistically. Bayesian statistical decision theory is used as the tool for determining the cost optimum decisions. A special case of the general problem is derived herein, and some very useful parametric curves are developed and applied to several sample structures.

  4. Design concepts and cost studies for magnetic suspension and balance systems. [wind tunnel apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    The application of superconducting magnets for suspension and balance of wind tunnel models was studied. Conceptual designs are presented for magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) configurations compatible with three high Reynolds number cases representing specified combinations of test conditions and model sizes. Concepts in general met initially specified performance requirements such as duty cycle, force and moment levels, model angular displacement and positioning accuracy with nominal design requirements for support subsystems. Other performance requirements, such as forced model sinusoidal oscillations, and control force magnitude and frequency, were modified so as to alleviate the magnitude of magnet, power, and cryogenic design requirements.

  5. A design concept for an MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) microstrip phased array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Smetana, Jerry; Acosta, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual design for a microstrip phased array with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplitude and phase controls is described. The MMIC devices used are 20 GHz variable power amplifiers and variable phase shifters recently developed by NASA contractors for applications in future Ka proposed design, which concept is for a general NxN element array of rectangular lattice geometry. Subarray excitation is incorporated in the MMIC phased array design to reduce the complexity of the beam forming network and the number of MMIC components required.

  6. Advanced Technology Subsonic Transport Study: N+3 Technologies and Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymer, Daniel P.; Wilson, Jack; Perkins, H. Douglas; Rizzi, Arthur; Zhang, Mengmeng; RamirezPuentes, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual Research Corporation, the Science of the Possible, has completed a two-year study of concepts and technologies for future airliners in the 180-passenger class. This NASA-funded contract was primarily focused on the ambitious goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption versus the market-dominating Boeing 737-800. The study is related to the N+3 contracts awarded in 2008 by NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to teams led by Boeing, GE Aviation, MIT, and Northrop Grumman, but with more modest goals and funding. CRC s contract featured a predominant emphasis on propulsion and fuel consumption, but since fuel consumption depends upon air vehicle design as much as on propulsion technology, the study included notional vehicle design, analysis, and parametric studies. Other NASA goals including NOx and noise reduction are of long-standing interest but were not highlighted in this study, other than their inclusion in the propulsion system provided to CRC by NASA. The B-737-800 was used as a benchmark, parametric tool, and design point of departure. It was modeled in the RDS-Professional aircraft design software then subjected to extensive parametric variations of parasitic drag, drag-due-to-lift, specific fuel consumption, and unsized empty weight. These studies indicated that the goal of a 70 percent reduction in fuel consumption could be attained with roughly a 30 percent improvement in all four parameters. The results were then fit to a Response Surface and coded for ease of use in subsequent trade studies. Potential technologies to obtain such savings were identified and discussed. More than 16 advanced concept designs were then prepared, attempting to investigate almost every possible emerging concept for application to this class airliner. A preliminary assessment of these concepts was done based on their total wetted area after design normalization of trimmed maximum lift. This assessment points towards a Tailless Airliner concept which

  7. Composite transport wing technology development: Design development tests and advanced structural concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Charles F.; Harvill, William E.

    1988-01-01

    Numerous design concepts, materials, and manufacturing methods were investigated for the covers and spars of a transport box wing. Cover panels and spar segments were fabricated and tested to verify the structural integrity of design concepts and fabrication techniques. Compression tests on stiffened panels demonstrated the ability of graphite/epoxy wing upper cover designs to achieve a 35 percent weight savings compared to the aluminum baseline. The impact damage tolerance of the designs and materials used for these panels limits the allowable compression strain and therefore the maximum achievable weight savings. Bending and shear tests on various spar designs verified an average weight savings of 37 percent compared to the aluminum baseline. Impact damage to spar webs did not significantly degrade structural performance. Predictions of spar web shear instability correlated well with measured performance. The structural integrity of spars manufactured by filament winding equalled or exceeded those fabricated by hand lay-up. The information obtained will be applied to the design, fabrication, and test of a full-scale section of a wing box. When completed, the tests on the technology integration box beam will demonstrate the structural integrity of an advanced composite wing design which is 25 percent lighter than the metal baseline.

  8. Operation and performance of the Supercritical Fluids Reactor (SFR)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanush, R.G.; Rice, S.F.; Hunter, T.B.; Aiken, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The Supercritical Fluids Reactor (SFR) at Sandia National Laboratories, CA has been developed to examine and solve engineering, process, and fundamental chemistry issues regarding the development of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO). This report details the experimental apparatus, procedures, analytical methods used in these experiments, and performance characteristics of the reactor. The apparatus consists of pressurization, feed, preheat, reactor, cool down, and separation subsystems with ancillary control and data acquisition hardware and software. Its operating range is from 375 - 650{degrees} at 3250 - 6300 psi with resident times from 0.09 to 250 seconds. Procedures required for experimental operations are described. They include maintenance procedures conducted between experiments, optical alignment for acquisition of spectroscopic data, setup of the experiment, reactor start up, experimental operations, and shutdown of apparatus. Analytical methods used are Total Organic Carbon analysis, Gas Chromatography, ion probes, pH probes, turbidity measurements and in situ Raman spectroscopy. Experiments conducted that verify the accuracy of measurement and sampling methods are described.

  9. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 4, Leach resistant/high integrity structure concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-10-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. The SDS results are published in eight volumes. Volume I contains an executive summary. The SDS summary and analysis of results are presented in Volume II. Volumes III through VII contain descriptions of twelve system and four subsystem concepts. Volume VIII contains the appendixes.

  10. Designing health care environments: Part I. Basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design.

    PubMed

    Cesario, Sandra K

    2009-06-01

    A 2001 Institute of Medicine report captured the nation's attention regarding the dangers that can result from the health care environment. This report, fueled by the need for new facilities to be constructed, led to an explosion of research that now links the physical structure and design of health care facilities to the health and well-being of patients, nurses, other health care workers, and visitors. Continuing nursing education that highlights the importance of evidence-based design has been associated with measurable improvement in health care facilities' clinical outcomes, economic performance, employee productivity, customer satisfaction, and cultural congruency. Three major categories of outcomes can be impacted by evidence-based design: stress reduction, safety, and overall health care quality and ecology. In this article, Part I of a two-part series, the basic concepts, principles, and issues related to evidence-based design are introduced. Part II will describe continuing education programs available for nurses. PMID:19639918

  11. Automated a complex computer aided design concept generated using macros programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal Ramly, Mohammad; Asrokin, Azharrudin; Abd Rahman, Safura; Zulkifly, Nurul Ain Md

    2013-12-01

    Changing a complex Computer Aided design profile such as car and aircraft surfaces has always been difficult and challenging. The capability of CAD software such as AutoCAD and CATIA show that a simple configuration of a CAD design can be easily modified without hassle, but it is not the case with complex design configuration. Design changes help users to test and explore various configurations of the design concept before the production of a model. The purpose of this study is to look into macros programming as parametric method of the commercial aircraft design. Macros programming is a method where the configurations of the design are done by recording a script of commands, editing the data value and adding a certain new command line to create an element of parametric design. The steps and the procedure to create a macro programming are discussed, besides looking into some difficulties during the process of creation and advantage of its usage. Generally, the advantages of macros programming as a method of parametric design are; allowing flexibility for design exploration, increasing the usability of the design solution, allowing proper contained by the model while restricting others and real time feedback changes.

  12. Design Concept for a Reusable/Propellantless MXER Tether Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, B., II; Kustas, F. m.; Marshall, L. S.; Lytle, W. B.; Hansen, N. P.

    2005-01-01

    The Momentum Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) tether facility is a transformational concept that significantly reduces the fuel requirements (and associated costs) in transferring payloads above low earth orbit (LEO). Facility reboost is accomplished without propellant by driving current against a voltage created by a conducting tether's interaction with the Earth's magnetic field (electrodynamic reboost). This system can be used for transferring a variety of payloads (scientific, cargo, and human space vehicles) to multiple destinations including geosynchronous transfer orbit, the Moon or Mars. MXER technology advancement requires development in two key areas: survivable, high tensile strength non-conducting tethers and reliable, lightweight payload catch/release mechanisms. Fundamental requirements associated with the MXER non-conducting strength tether and catch mechanism designs will be presented. Key requirements for the tether design include high specific-strength (tensile strength/material density), material survivability to the space environment (atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation), and structural survivability to micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MM/OD) impacts. The driving mechanism key,gequirements include low mass-to-capture-volume ratio, positional and velocity error tolerance, and operational reliability. Preliminary tether and catch mechanism design criteria are presented, which have been used as guidelines to "screen" and down-select initial concepts. Candidate tether materials and protective coatings are summarized along with their performance in simulated space environments (e.g., oxygen plasma, thermal cycling). A candidate catch mechanism design concept is presented along with examples of demonstration hardware.

  13. Study of advanced composite structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration, task 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A structural design study was conducted to assess the relative merits of structural concepts using advanced composite materials for an advanced supersonic aircraft cruising at Mach 2.7. The configuration and structural arrangement developed during Task I and II of the study, was used as the baseline configuration. Allowable stresses and strains were established for boron and advanced graphite fibers based on projected fiber properties available in the next decade. Structural concepts were designed and analyzed using graphite polyimide and boron polyimide, applied to stiffened panels and conventional sandwich panels. The conventional sandwich panels were selected as the structural concept to be used on the wing structure. The upper and lower surface panels of the Task I arrow wing were redesigned using high-strength graphite polyimide sandwich panels over the titanium spars and ribs. The ATLAS computer system was used as the basis for stress analysis and resizing the surface panels using the loads from the Task II study, without adjustment for change in aeroelastic deformation. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter analysis indicated a decrease in the flutter speed compared to the baseline titanium wing design. The flutter speed was increased to that of the titanium wing, with a weight penalty less than that of the metallic airplane.

  14. The influence of design concept and liquid properties on fuel injector performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, J. R.; Rizk, N. K.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the influence of design concept and liquid properties on fuel injector performances of airblast atomizers is carried out. Three injectors with distinctly different fuel filming concepts were employed in this program. The first nozzle is a dual-circuit atomizer with pressure swirl tip in the primary and a short prefilming secondary circuit. The second nozzle design is based on a single circuit prefilming concept. The last atomizer tested was a spray-prefilming concept in which the spray from a large pressure atomizer is directed onto an outer shroud. In the three designs the liquid sheet is exposed to high velocity airstreams on both sides once it leaves the filming surface. In the experiments designed in the present study the nozzle operating conditions, namely air/liquid ratio and nondimensional air pressure drop, and liquid properties were varied. Mean drop size and drop size distributions were measured with a laser-diffraction instrument and a photographic technique was employed for cone angle measurement. The results indicate that the method of spreading the liquid into a film has a significant effect on atomization quality. Also, for the practical range of properties of gas turbine fuels, surface tension has the most dominant effect on mean drop size for the three nozzle designs. The measurements indicate that the spray cone angle is governed by air velocity and liquid properties. The drop size distribution data followed the modified Rosin-Rammler type of distribution closely under almost all conditions. Equations to correlate mean drop sizes to the distribution parameters were derived to facilitate the prediction of the range of droplets in the spray.

  15. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR logo? The...

  16. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR logo? The...

  17. 50 CFR 86.93 - Where should I use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.93 Where should I use the SFR logo?...

  18. 50 CFR 86.93 - Where should I use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.93 Where should I use the SFR logo?...

  19. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR...

  20. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR...

  1. 50 CFR 86.92 - Who can use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.92 Who can use the SFR logo? The...

  2. 50 CFR 86.93 - Where should I use the SFR logo?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM BOATING INFRASTRUCTURE GRANT (BIG) PROGRAM State Use of Signs and Sport Fish Restoration Symbols § 86.93 Where should I use the SFR logo?...

  3. Design considerations for space radiators based on the liquid sheet (LSR) concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Chubb, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    Concept development work on space heat rejection subsystems tailored to the requirements of various space power conversion systems is proceeding over a broad front of technologies at NASA LeRC. Included are orbital and planetary surface based radiator concepts utilizing pumped loops, a variety of heat pipe radiator concepts, and the innovative liquid sheet radiator (LSR). The basic feasibility of the LSR concept was investigated in prior work which generated preliminary information indicating the suitability of the LSR concept for space power systems requiring cycle reject heat to be radiated to the space sink at low-to-mid temperatures (300 to 400 K), with silicon oils used for the radiator working fluid. This study is directed at performing a comparative examination of LSR characteristics as they affect the basic design of low earth orbit solar dynamic power conversion systems. The power systems considered were based on the closed Brayton (CBC) and the Free Piston Stirling (FPS) cycles, each with a power output of 2 kWe and using previously tested silicone oil (Dow-Corning Me2) as the radiator working fluid. Conclusions indicate that, due to its ability for direct cold end cooling, an LSR based heat rejection subsystem is far more compatible with a Stirling space power system than with a CBC, which requires LSR coupling by means of an intermediate gas/liquid heat exchanger and adjustment of cycle operating conditions.

  4. NASA Advanced Concepts Office, Earth-To-Orbit Team Design Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Garcia, Jessica; Beers, Benjamin; Philips, Alan; Holt, James B.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth to Orbit (ETO) Team of the Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) is considered the preeminent group to go to for prephase A and phase A concept definition. The ACO team has been at the forefront of a multitude of launch vehicle studies determining the future direction of the Agency as a whole due, in part, to their rapid turnaround time in analyzing concepts and their ability to cover broad trade spaces of vehicles in that limited timeframe. Each completed vehicle concept includes a full mass breakdown of each vehicle to tertiary subsystem components, along with a vehicle trajectory analysis to determine optimized payload delivery to specified orbital parameters, flight environments, and delta v capability. Additionally, a structural analysis of the vehicle based on material properties and geometries is performed as well as an analysis to determine the flight loads based on the trajectory outputs. As mentioned, the ACO Earth to Orbit Team prides themselves on their rapid turnaround time and often need to fulfill customer requests within limited schedule or little advanced notice. Due to working in this fast paced environment, the ETO team has developed some finely honed skills and methods to maximize the delivery capability to meet their customer needs. This paper will describe the interfaces between the 3 primary disciplines used in the design process; weights and sizing, trajectory, and structural analysis, as well as the approach each discipline employs to streamline their particular piece of the design process.

  5. Concept Design of High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Vehicles for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Manzella, David H.; Falck, Robert D.; Cikanek, Harry A., III; Klem, Mark D.; Free, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Human exploration beyond low Earth orbit will require enabling capabilities that are efficient, affordable and reliable. Solar electric propulsion (SEP) has been proposed by NASA s Human Exploration Framework Team as one option to achieve human exploration missions beyond Earth orbit because of its favorable mass efficiency compared to traditional chemical propulsion systems. This paper describes the unique challenges associated with developing a large-scale high-power (300-kWe class) SEP vehicle and design concepts that have potential to meet those challenges. An assessment of factors at the subsystem level that must be considered in developing an SEP vehicle for future exploration missions is presented. Overall concepts, design tradeoffs and pathways to achieve development readiness are discussed.

  6. Design and integrated operation of an innovative thermodynamic vent system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazah, Michel M.; Lak, Tibor; Nguyen, Han; Wood, Charles C.

    1993-01-01

    A unique zero-g thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Rockwell International to meet cryogenic propellant management requirements for future space missions. The design is highly innovative in that it integrates the functions of a spray-bar tank mixer and a TVS. This concept not only satisfies the requirement for efficient tank mixing and zero-g venting but also accommodates thermal conditioning requirements for other components (e.g., engine feed lines, turbopumps, and liquid acquisition devices). In addition, operations can be extended to accomplish tank chill-down, no-vent fill, and emergency venting during zero-g propellant transfer. This paper describes the system performance characterization and future test activities that are part of MSFC's Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) program. The testing will demonstrate the feasibility and merit of the design, and serve as a proof-of-concept development activity.

  7. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2012-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  8. Interactive Inverse Design Optimization of Fuselage Shape for Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Shields, Elwood; Le, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a tool called BOSS (Boom Optimization using Smoothest Shape modifications). BOSS utilizes interactive inverse design optimization to develop a fuselage shape that yields a low-boom aircraft configuration. A fundamental reason for developing BOSS is the need to generate feasible low-boom conceptual designs that are appropriate for further refinement using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based preliminary design methods. BOSS was not developed to provide a numerical solution to the inverse design problem. Instead, BOSS was intended to help designers find the right configuration among an infinite number of possible configurations that are equally good using any numerical figure of merit. BOSS uses the smoothest shape modification strategy for modifying the fuselage radius distribution at 100 or more longitudinal locations to find a smooth fuselage shape that reduces the discrepancies between the design and target equivalent area distributions over any specified range of effective distance. For any given supersonic concept (with wing, fuselage, nacelles, tails, and/or canards), a designer can examine the differences between the design and target equivalent areas, decide which part of the design equivalent area curve needs to be modified, choose a desirable rate for the reduction of the discrepancies over the specified range, and select a parameter for smoothness control of the fuselage shape. BOSS will then generate a fuselage shape based on the designer's inputs in a matter of seconds. Using BOSS, within a few hours, a designer can either generate a realistic fuselage shape that yields a supersonic configuration with a low-boom ground signature or quickly eliminate any configuration that cannot achieve low-boom characteristics with fuselage shaping alone. A conceptual design case study is documented to demonstrate how BOSS can be used to develop a low-boom supersonic concept from a low-drag supersonic concept. The paper also contains a study

  9. New design concepts for ferrite-tuned low-energy-booster cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, G.

    1991-05-01

    The design concepts for ferrite-tuned accelerating cavities discussed in this paper differ from conventional solutions using thick ferrite toroids for frequency tuning. Instead, tuners consisting of an array of ferrite-loaded striplines are investigated. These promise more efficient cooling and higher operational reliability. Layout examples for the SSC-LEB rf system are presented (tuning range 47.5 to 59.8 MHz, repetition frequency 10 Hz). 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  11. EDIN design study alternate space shuttle booster replacement concepts. Volume 2: Design simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demakes, P. T.; Hirsch, G. N.; Stewart, W. A.; Glatt, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Historical weight estimating relationships were developed for the liquid rocket booster (LRB) using Saturn technology, and modified as required to support the EDIN05 study. Mission performance was computed using February 1975 shuttle configuration groundrules to allow reasonable comparison of the existing shuttle with the EDIN05 designs. The launch trajectory was constrained to pass through both the RTLS/AOA and main engine cut-off points. Performance analysis was based on a point design trajectory model which optimized initial tilt rate and exo-atmospheric pitch profile. A gravity turn was employed during the boost phase in place of the shuttle angle-of-attack profile. Engine throttling add/or shutdown was used to constrain dynamic pressure and/or longitudinal acceleration where necessary.

  12. The Conceptional Design of the Shielding Layout and Beam Absorber at the PXIE

    SciTech Connect

    Eidelman, Yu.; Kerby, J.; Lebedev, V.; Leibfritz, J.; Leveling, T.; Nagaisev, S.; Stanek, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    Project X is a high intensity proton facility conceived to support a world-leading physics program at Fermilab. Project X will provide high intensity beams for neutrino, kaon, muon, and nuclei based experiments and for studies supporting energy applications. The Project X Injector Experiment (PIXIE) is a prototype of the Project X front end. A 30 MeV 50 kW beam will be used to validate the design concept of the Project X. This paper discusses a design of the accelerator enclosure radiation shielding and the beam dump.

  13. Arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft structural design concepts evaluation. Volume 4: Sections 15 through 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    The analyses performed to provide structural mass estimates for the arrow wing supersonic cruise aircraft are presented. To realize the full potential for structural mass reduction, a spectrum of approaches for the wing and fuselage primary structure design were investigated. The objective was: (1) to assess the relative merits of various structural arrangements, concepts, and materials; (2) to select the structural approach best suited for the Mach 2.7 environment; and (3) to provide construction details and structural mass estimates based on in-depth structural design studies. Production costs, propulsion-airframe integration, and advanced technology assessment are included.

  14. Full scale technology demonstration of a modern counterrotating unducted fan engine concept. Design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Unducted Fan engine (UDF trademark) concept is based on an ungeared, counterrotating, unducted, ultra-high-bypass turbofan configuration. This engine is being developed to provide a high thrust-to-weight ratio power plant with exceptional fuel efficiency for subsonic aircraft application. This report covers the design methodology and details for the major components of this engine. The design intent of the engine is to efficiently produce 25,000 pounds of static thrust while meeting life and stress requirements. The engine is required to operate at Mach numbers of 0.8 or above.

  15. Repair Concepts as Design Constraints of a Stiffened Composite PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened thin-skin composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure is presented. The concept is a bolted repair using metal components, so that it can easily be applied in the operational environment. The damage scenario considered is a midbay-to-midbay saw-cut with a severed stiffener, flange and skin. In a previous study several repair configurations were explored and their feasibility confirmed but refinement was needed. The present study revisits the problem under recently revised design requirements and broadens the suite of loading conditions considered. The repair assembly design is based on the critical tension loading condition and subsequently its robustness is verified for a pressure loading case. High fidelity modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners, elastic-plastic material properties for metal parts and geometrically nonlinear solutions are utilized in the finite element analysis. The best repair design is introduced, its analysis results are presented and factors influencing the design are assessed and discussed.

  16. Overview and Current Status of Analyses of Potential LEU Design Concepts for TREAT

    SciTech Connect

    Connaway, H. M.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Papadias, D. D.; Wright, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses have been performed to evaluate the performance of different low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel design concepts for the conversion of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) from its current high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel. TREAT is an experimental reactor developed to generate high neutron flux transients for the testing of nuclear fuels. The goal of this work was to identify an LEU design which can maintain the performance of the existing HEU core while continuing to operate safely. A wide variety of design options were considered, with a focus on minimizing peak fuel temperatures and optimizing the power coupling between the TREAT core and test samples. Designs were also evaluated to ensure that they provide sufficient reactivity and shutdown margin for each control rod bank. Analyses were performed using the core loading and experiment configuration of historic M8 Power Calibration experiments (M8CAL). The Monte Carlo code MCNP was utilized for steady-state analyses, and transient calculations were performed with the point kinetics code TREKIN. Thermal analyses were performed with the COMSOL multi-physics code. Using the results of this study, a new LEU Baseline design concept is being established, which will be evaluated in detail in a future report.

  17. Small Launch Vehicle Design Approaches: Clustered Cores Compared with Multi-Stage Inline Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Beers, Benjamin; Esther, Elizabeth; Philips, Alan; Threet, Grady E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to better define small launch vehicle design options two approaches were investigated from the small launch vehicle trade space. The primary focus was to evaluate a clustered common core design against a purpose built inline vehicle. Both designs focused on liquid oxygen (LOX) and rocket propellant grade kerosene (RP-1) stages with the terminal stage later evaluated as a LOX/methane (CH4) stage. A series of performance optimization runs were done in order to minimize gross liftoff weight (GLOW) including alternative thrust levels, delivery altitude for payload, vehicle length to diameter ratio, alternative engine feed systems, re-evaluation of mass growth allowances, passive versus active guidance systems, and rail and tower launch methods. Additionally manufacturability, cost, and operations also play a large role in the benefits and detriments for each design. Presented here is the Advanced Concepts Office's Earth to Orbit Launch Team methodology and high level discussion of the performance trades and trends of both small launch vehicle solutions along with design philosophies that shaped both concepts. Without putting forth a decree stating one approach is better than the other; this discussion is meant to educate the community at large and let the reader determine which architecture is truly the most economical; since each path has such a unique set of limitations and potential payoffs.

  18. The Design of a Primary Flight Trainer using Concurrent Engineering Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladesic, James G.; Eastlake, Charles N.; Kietzmann, Nicholas H.

    1993-01-01

    Concurrent Engineering (CE) concepts seek to coordinate the expertise of various disciplines from initial design configuration selection through product disposal so that cost efficient design solutions may be achieve. Integrating this methodology into an undergraduate design course sequence may provide a needed enhancement to engineering education. The Advanced Design Program (ADP) project at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (EMU) is focused on developing recommendations for the general aviation Primary Flight Trainer (PFT) of the twenty first century using methods of CE. This project, over the next two years, will continue synthesizing the collective knowledge of teams composed of engineering students along with students from other degree programs, their faculty, and key industry representatives. During the past year (Phase I). conventional trainer configurations that comply with current regulations and existing technologies have been evaluated. Phase I efforts have resulted in two baseline concepts, a high-wing, conventional design named Triton and a low-wing, mid-engine configuration called Viper. In the second and third years (Phases II and III). applications of advanced propulsion, advanced materials, and unconventional airplane configurations along with military and commercial technologies which are anticipated to be within the economic range of general aviation by the year 2000, will be considered.

  19. Design study of structural concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.; Davis, G. W.; Robinson, J. C.; Yates, E. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study was performed to determine the best structural approach for design of primary wing and fuselage structure of a Mach number 2.7 arrow-wing supersonic cruise aircraft. Concepts were evaluated considering near-term start-of-design. Emphasis was placed on the complex interactions between thermal stress, static aeroelasticity, flutter, fatigue and fail-safe design, static and dynamic loads, and the effects of variations in structural arrangements, concepts and materials on these interactions. Results indicate that a hybrid wing structure incorporating low-profile convex-beaded and honeycomb sandwich surface panels of titanium alloy 6Al-4V were the most efficient. The substructure includes titanium alloy spar caps reinforced with Boron-polyimide composites. The fuselage shell is a closed-hat stiffened skin and frame construction of titanium alloy 6Al-4V. This paper presents an executive summary of the study effort, and includes a discussion of the overall study logic, design philosophy and interaction between the analytical methods for supersonic cruise aircraft design.

  20. Application of sonic-boom minimization concepts in supersonic transport design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Barger, R. L.; Mack, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The applicability of sonic boom minimization concepts in the design of large supersonic transport airplanes capable of a 2500-nautical-mile range at a cruise Mach number of 2.7 is considered. Aerodynamics, weight and balance, and mission performance as well as sonic boom factors, have been taken into account. The results indicate that shock-strength nominal values of somewhat less than 48 newtons/sq m during cruise are within the realm of possibility. Because many of the design features are in direct contradiction to presently accepted design practices, further study of qualified airplane design teams is required to ascertain sonic boom shock strength levels actually attainable for practical supersonic transports.

  1. A Supersonic Business-Jet Concept Designed for Low Sonic Boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Ongoing human-response studies of sonic-boom noise indicated that a previous level of 1.0 psf might still be too annoying. This led to studies of a Supersonic Business Jet (SBJ), which might generate lower, more acceptable ground overpressures. To determine whether methods for designing a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) could be successfully applied, a SBJ concept was designed at the langley Research Center. It would cruise at Mach 2, carry 10 passengers for 4000 nautical miles, and generate a 0.50 psf or less on the ground under the flight path at start of cruise. Results indicated that a 10-passenger, low-boom SBJ design was just as technically demanding as a 300-passenger, low-boom HSCT design. In this report, the sources of these technical problems are identified, and ideas for addressing them are discussed.

  2. Feasibility study and verified design concept for new improved hot gas facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF) was fabricated in 1975 as a temporary facility to provide immediate turnaround testing to support the SRB and ET TPS development. This facility proved to be very useful and was used to make more than 1300 runs, far more than ever intended in the original design. Therefore, it was in need of constant repair and needed to be replaced with a new improved design to support the continuing SRB/ET TPS product improvement and/or removal efforts. MSFC contracted with Lockheed-Huntsville to work on this improved design through contract NAS8-36304 Feasibility Study and Verified Design Concept for the New Improved Hot Gas Facility. The results of Lockheed-Huntsville's efforts under this contract are summarized.

  3. ADRIANA project: Identification of research infrastructures for the SFR, within the frame of European industrial initiative for sustainable nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Latge, C.; Gastaldi, O.; Vala, L.; Gerbeth, G.; Homann, C.; Benoit, P.; Papin, J.; Girault, N.; Roelofs, F.; Bucenieks, I.; Paffumi, E.; Ciampichetti, A.

    2012-07-01

    Fast neutron reactors have a large potential as sustainable energy source. In particular, Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR) with a closed fuel cycle and potential for minor actinide burning may allow minimization of volume and heat load of high level waste and provide improved use of natural resources (as compared to only 1% energy recovery in the current once-through fuel cycle, with Thermal Reactors, such as EPR). The coordinating action ADRIANA (Advanced Reactor Initiative And Network Arrangement) has been initiated to set up a network dedicated to the construction and operation of research infrastructures in support of developments for the European Industrial Initiative for sustainable nuclear fission. The Project sets these objectives for the following reactor systems and related technologies: Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Gas Fast Reactor (GFR, including very high temperature technologies), Instrumentation, diagnostics and experimental devices, Irradiation facilities and hot laboratories, Zero power reactors. Among the fast reactor systems, the sodium cooled reactor has the most comprehensive technological basis as result of the experience gained from worldwide operation of several experimental, prototype and commercial size reactors, since the forties (see Appendix I). This concept is currently considered as the reference, within the European strategy. Innovations are needed to further enhance safety, reduce capital cost and improve efficiency reliability and operability, making the Generation IV SFR an attractive option for electricity production. Currently, in France, a moderate (500 to 600 MWe) power demonstrator named ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Test Reactor for Industrial Demonstration) has been proposed and endorsed by EU. Presently, the reference configuration is a pool concept. General R and D needs have been identified and experimental facilities required to satisfy these needs have been listed for the following domains: material and

  4. Design Principles and Concepts for Enhancing Long-Term Cap Performance and Confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Robert P. Breckenridge; Gregory J. White; Jacob J. Jacobson; Hilary I. Inyang

    2005-10-01

    The siting of new landfills is becoming increasing difficult as the public and stakeholders want more confidence of performance for longer times and landfill owners want to store more waste in the least area while knowing and limiting their long-term liabilities. These changes motivate re-examination of long-term performance mechanisms and their implications for cap and barrier designs. Accordingly, in this paper we first consider design principles from the standpoint of long-term performance and management, including the ability to monitor and repair barriers. We then consider some design concepts that may implement these principles, especially evapo-transpiration (ET) caps. We suggest five design principles based on experience in the cap and barrier field as well as other engineering disciplines. These principles are as follows: · Establish a clear and defendable design basis. · Design for ease of monitoring and repair. · Analyze the barrier as a dynamic system, not static. · Work with nature, not against. · Recognize that increased complexity can reduce, not enhance, net performance. ET caps are an excellent embodiment of these design principles. We apply the design principles to ET caps, as well as variants such as erosion armor, capillary breaks, bio-intrusion layers, and low permeability material layers.

  5. Full-Carpet Design of a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Wintzer, Mathias; Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2015-01-01

    The Cart3D adjoint-based design framework is used to mitigate the undesirable o -track sonic boom properties of a demonstrator concept designed for low-boom directly under the flight path. First, the requirements of a Cart3D design mesh are determined using a high-fidelity mesh adapted to minimize the discretization error of the CFD analysis. Low-boom equivalent area targets are then generated at the under-track and one off-track azimuthal position for the baseline configuration. The under-track target is generated using a trim- feasible low-boom target generation process, ensuring that the final design is not only low-boom, but also trimmed at the specified flight condition. The o -track equivalent area target is generated by minimizing the A-weighted loudness using an efficient adjoint-based approach. The configuration outer mold line is then parameterized and optimized to match the off-body pressure distributions prescribed by the low-boom targets. The numerical optimizer uses design gradients which are calculated using the Cart3D adjoint- based design capability. Optimization constraints are placed on the geometry to satisfy structural feasibility. The low-boom properties of the final design are verified using the adaptive meshing approach. This analysis quantifies the error associated with the CFD mesh that is used for design. Finally, an alternate mesh construction and target positioning approach offering greater computational efficiency is demonstrated and verified.

  6. Techniques for design and testing of iterative and systolic arrays. [C-testability concept

    SciTech Connect

    Elhuni, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis, the author studies the issue of testing array-type structures such as iterative arrays of combinational cells and systolic arrays with a constant number of test vectors independent of the array size (C-Testability). The main contribution of this work is the extension of the C-testability concept in different directions. It is extended to orthogonally connected iterative arrays in chapter three. This is a contribution to the C-testability theory because of the undecidability property of general two-dimensional arrays. The C-testability is extended further to hexagonal iterative arrays in chapter four. The application of the C-testability concept was limited to few arrays such as ripple-carry adders, bit-sliced microprocessors and array multipliers. In chapter five, the author extended the concept to systolic arrays and apply it to some systolic designs. The application to hexagonal systolic arrays is made in chapter six. It is shown that several systolic arrays such as those used for matrix multiplication can be tested with a small number of test vectors; twice the number required to test a single cell. The testing time of such arrays is also introduced and discussed. In chapter seven, he introduces a new concept called STV-testability for testing bilateral systolic arrays. STV-testable arrays have simple test generation and verification procedures.

  7. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students' Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy J

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students' competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new "experimentation assessments," 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  8. A design concept for reliable mobile radio networks with frequency-hopping signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ephremides, Anthony

    1988-09-01

    The design of a packet radio network must reflect the operational requirements and environmental constraints to which it is subject. In this report we outline those features that distinguish the High Frequency (HF) Intra Task Force (ITF) Network from other packet radio networks, and we present a design concept for this network that encompasses organizational structure, waveform design, and channel access. Network survivability is achieved through the use of distributed network control and frequency-hopping spread-spectrum signaling. We show how the execution of the fully distributed Linked Cluster Algorithm can enable a network to reconfigure itself when it is affected by connectivity changes such as those resulting from jamming. Additional resistance against jamming is provided by frequency hopping, which leads naturally to the use of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques that permit the simultaneous successful transmission by several users. Distributed algorithms that exploit CDMA properties have been developed to schedule contention-free transmissions for much of the channel access in this network. Contention-based channel access protocols can also be implemented in conjunction with the Linked Cluster network structure. The design concept presented in this report provides a high degree of survivability and flexibility to accommodate changing environment conditions and user demands.

  9. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  10. The impact of analogies on creative concept generation: lessons from an in vivo study in engineering design.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joel; Schunn, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Research on innovation often highlights analogies from sources outside the current problem domain as a major source of novel concepts; however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. We analyzed the temporal interplay between far analogy use and creative concept generation in a professional design team's brainstorming conversations, investigating the hypothesis that far analogies lead directly to very novel concepts via large steps in conceptual spaces (jumps). Surprisingly, we found that concepts were more similar to their preceding concepts after far analogy use compared to baseline situations (i.e., without far analogy use). Yet far analogies increased the team's concept generation rate compared to baseline conditions. Overall, these results challenge the view that far analogies primarily lead to novel concepts via jumps in conceptual spaces and suggest alternative pathways from far analogies to novel concepts (e.g., iterative, deep exploration within a functional space). PMID:24835377

  11. Low-Enriched Fuel Design Concept for the Prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor Core

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James W

    2007-05-01

    A new non-TRISO fuel and clad design concept is proposed for the prismatic, heliumcooled Very High Temperature Reactor core. The new concept could substantially reduce the current 10-20 wt% TRISO uranium enrichments down to 4-6 wt% for both initial and reload cores. The proposed fuel form would be a high-temperature, high-density uranium ceramic, for example UO2, configured into very small diameter cylindrical rods. The small diameter fuel rods significantly increase core reactivity through improved neutron moderation and fuel lumping. Although a high-temperature clad system for the concept remains to be developed, recent success in tube fabrication and preliminary irradiation testing of silicon carbide (SiC) cladding for light water reactor applications offers good potential for this application, and for future development of other carbide clad designs. A high-temperature ceramic fuel, together with a high-temperature clad material, could also lead to higher thermal safety margins during both normal and transient reactor conditions relative to TRISO fuel. The calculated neutronic results show that the lowenrichment, small diameter fuel rods and low thermal neutron absorbing clad retain the strong negative Doppler fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity that ensures inherent safe operation of the VHTR, and depletion studies demonstrate that an 18-month power cycle can be achieved with the lower enrichment fuel.

  12. Design concept definition study for an improved shuttle waste collection subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A no-risk approach for developing an Improved Waste Collection Subsystem (WCS) for the shuttle orbiter is described. The GE Improved WCS Concept builds on the experience of 14 Shuttle missions with over 400 man-days of service. This concept employs the methods of the existing flight-proven mature design, augmenting them to eliminate foreseen difficulties and to fully comply with the design requirements. The GE Improved WCS Concept includes separate storage for used wipes. Compaction of the wipes provides a solution to the capacity problem, fully satisfying the 210 man-day storage requirement. The added feature of in-flight serviceable storage space for the wipes creates a variable capacity feature which affords redundancy in the event of wipes compaction system failure. Addition of features permitting in-flight servicing of the feces storage tank creates a variable capacity WCS with easier post-flight servicing to support rapid turnaround of the Shuttle orbiter. When these features are combined with a vacuum pump to evacuate wipes and fecal storage tanks through replaceable odor/bacteria filters to the cabin, the GE Improved WCS satisfies the known requirements for Space Station use, including no venting to space.

  13. Managing facts and concepts: computer graphics and information graphics from a graphic designer's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.

    1983-01-01

    This book emphasizes the importance of graphic design for an information-oriented society. In an environment in which many new graphic communication technologies are emerging, it raises some issues which graphic designers and managers of graphic design production should consider in using the new technology effectively. In its final sections, it gives an example of the steps taken in designing a visual narrative as a prototype for responsible information-oriented graphic design. The management of complex facts and concepts, of complex systems of ideas and issues, presented in a visual as well as verbal narrative or dialogue and conveyed through new technology will challenge the graphic design community in the coming decades. This shift to visual-verbal communication has repercussions in the educational system and the political/governance systems that go beyond the scope of this book. If there is a single goal for this book, it is to stimulate the reader and then to provide references that will help you learn more about graphic design in an era of communication when know business is show business.

  14. Concepts for Multi-Speed Rotorcraft Drive System - Status of Design and Testing at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies and on-going developments for advanced rotorcraft, the need for variable multi-speed capable rotors has been raised. Speed changes of up to 50 have been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve vehicle performance. A rotor speed change during operation not only requires a rotor that can perform effectively over the operating speedload range, but also requires a propulsion system possessing these same capabilities. A study was completed investigating possible drive system arrangements that can accommodate up to a 50 speed change. Key drivers were identified from which simplicity and weight were judged as central. This paper presents the current status of two gear train concepts coupled with the first of two clutch types developed and tested thus far with focus on design lessons learned and areas requiring development. Also, a third concept is presented, a dual input planetary differential as leveraged from a simple planetary with fixed carrier.

  15. Concepts for Multi-Speed Rotorcraft Drive System - Status of Design and Testing at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Lewicki, David G.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies and on-going developments for advanced rotorcraft, the need for variable/multi-speed capable rotors has been raised. Speed changes of up to 50 percent have been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve vehicle performance. A rotor speed change during operation not only requires a rotor that can perform effectively over the operating speed/load range, but also requires a propulsion system possessing these same capabilities. A study was completed investigating possible drive system arrangements that can accommodate up to a 50 percent speed change. Key drivers were identified from which simplicity and weight were judged as central. This paper presents the current status of two gear train concepts coupled with the first of two clutch types developed and tested thus far with focus on design lessons learned and areas requiring development. Also, a third concept is presented, a dual input planetary differential as leveraged from a simple planetary with fixed carrier.

  16. Stiffener attachment concepts for graphite-epoxy panels designed for postbuckling strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, John N.; Biggers, Sherrill B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Stiffener attachment concepts for suppressing or delaying the onset of the skin-stiffener separation failure mode in graphite-epoxy compression panels designed for postbuckling strength were experimentally studied. The effectiveness of these concepts was evaluated using panels with 16-ply skins and a single centrally-located I-shaped stiffener with both static and cyclic compressive loadings. Analytical results suggest that tailoring the relative thicknesses of the panel skin, stiffener attachment flange, and the stiffener web rotational stiffness can minimize the adverse effects of high interface shear and normal stresses. Interface stress levels may be reduced by tapering the thickness of the stiffener attachment flange and properly selecting the stacking sequences of the skin and stiffener attachment flange laminates.

  17. Photovoltaic reliability engineering: quantification testing and probabilistic-design-reliability concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, Ephraim; Bechou, Laurent; Bensoussan, Alain; Nicolics, Johann

    2013-09-01

    Qualification testing (QT) is the major means for making a viable photovoltaic (PV) device into a reliable and marketable product. It is well known, however, that the today's PV modules (PVM) that passed the existing QT often exhibit premature field failures. Could the existing QT specifications and testing procedures be improved to an extent that if a PV device, module or a system passed the QT, there is a quantifiable and consistent way to assure that its performance in the field will be satisfactory and that its projected lifetime will indeed take place with the given confidence? The application of the probabilistic design for reliability (PDfR) concept enables one to provide an affirmative answer to this question. The attributes and challenges of this concept and the roles of its major constituents - failure oriented accelerated testing (FOAT) and physically meaningful predictive modeling (PM) - are addressed and discussed in detail.

  18. Design Concept for a Compact ERL to Drive a VUV/Soft X-Ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Tennant ,David Douglas

    2011-03-01

    We explore possible upgrades of the existing Jefferson Laboratory IR/UV FEL driver to higher electron beam energy and shorter wavelength through use of multipass recirculation to drive an amplifier FEL. The system would require beam energy at the wiggler of 600 MeV with 1 mA of average current. The system must generate a high brightness beam, configure it appropriately, and preserve beam quality through the acceleration cycle ? including multiple recirculations ? and appropriately manage the phase space during energy recovery. The paper will discuss preliminary design analysis of the longitudinal match, space charge effects in the linac, and recirculator design issues, including the potential for the microbunching instability. A design concept for the low energy recirculator and an emittance preserving lattice solution will be presented.

  19. Baseband-processed SS-TDMA communication system architecture and design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attwood, S.; Sabourin, D.

    1982-01-01

    The architecture and system design for a commercial satellite communications system planned for the 1990's was developed by Motorola for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The system provides data communications between individual users via trunking and customer premises service terminals utilizing a central switching satellite operating in a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) mode. The major elements of the design incorporating baseband processing include: demand-assigned multiple access reservation protocol, spectral utilization, system synchronization, modulation technique and forward error control implementation. Motorola's baseband processor design, which is being proven in a proof-of-concept advanced technology development, will perform data regeneration and message routing for individual users on-board the spacecraft.

  20. Perspective on the span-distributed-load concept for application to large cargo aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a simplified analysis of the span-distributed-load concept (in which payload is placed within the wing structure) are presented. It is shown that a design based on these principles has a high potential for application to future large air cargo transport. Significant improvements are foreseen in increased payload fraction and productivity and in reduced fuel consumption and operating costs. A review of the efforts in the 1940's to develop all-wing aircraft shows the potential of transferring those early technological developments to current design of distributed-load aircraft. Current market analyses are projected to 1990 to show the future commercial demand for large capacity freighters. Several configuration designs which would serve different market requirements for these large freighters are discussed as are some of the pacing-technology requirements.

  1. Baseband-processed SS-TDMA communication system architecture and design concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attwood, S.; Sabourin, D.

    The architecture and system design for a commercial satellite communications system planned for the 1990's was developed by Motorola for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The system provides data communications between individual users via trunking and customer premises service terminals utilizing a central switching satellite operating in a time-division multiple-access (TDMA) mode. The major elements of the design incorporating baseband processing include: demand-assigned multiple access reservation protocol, spectral utilization, system synchronization, modulation technique and forward error control implementation. Motorola's baseband processor design, which is being proven in a proof-of-concept advanced technology development, will perform data regeneration and message routing for individual users on-board the spacecraft.

  2. Concepts, requirements, and design approaches for building successful planning and scheduling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Willoughby, John K.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional practice of systems engineering management assumes requirements can be precisely determined and unambiguously defined prior to system design and implementation; practice further assumes requirements are held static during implementation. Human-computer decision support systems for service planning and scheduling applications do not conform well to these assumptions. Adaptation to the traditional practice of systems engineering management are required. Basic technology exists to support these adaptations. Additional innovations must be encouraged and nutured. Continued partnership between the programmatic and technical perspective assures proper balance of the impossible with the possible. Past problems have the following origins: not recognizing the unusual and perverse nature of the requirements for planning and scheduling; not recognizing the best starting point assumptions for the design; not understanding the type of system that being built; and not understanding the design consequences of the operations concept selected.

  3. GAMA/H-ATLAS: A meta-analysis of SFR indicators - comprehensive measures of the SFR-M relation and Cosmic Star Formation History at z < 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Grootes, M. W.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Hopkins, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S.; da Cunha, E.; Dunne, L.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sansom, A. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ibar, E.; Smith, M.; Bourne, N.

    2016-06-01

    We present a meta-analysis of star-formation rate (SFR) indicators in the GAMA survey, producing 12 different SFR metrics and determining the SFR-M★ relation for each. We compare and contrast published methods to extract the SFR from each indicator, using a well-defined local sample of morphologically-selected spiral galaxies, which excludes sources which potentially have large recent changes to their SFR. The different methods are found to yield SFR-M★ relations with inconsistent slopes and normalisations, suggesting differences between calibration methods. The recovered SFR-M★ relations also have a large range in scatter which, as SFRs of the targets may be considered constant over the different timescales, suggests differences in the accuracy by which methods correct for attenuation in individual targets. We then recalibrate all SFR indicators to provide new, robust and consistent luminosity-to-SFR calibrations, finding that the most consistent slopes and normalisations of the SFR-M★ relations are obtained when recalibrated using the radiation transfer method of Popescu et al. These new calibrations can be used to directly compare SFRs across different observations, epochs and galaxy populations. We then apply our calibrations to the GAMA II equatorial dataset and explore the evolution of star-formation in the local Universe. We determine the evolution of the normalisation to the SFR-M★ relation from 0 < z < 0.35 - finding consistent trends with previous estimates at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We then provide the definitive z < 0.35 Cosmic Star Formation History, SFR-M★ relation and its evolution over the last 3 billion years.

  4. GAMA/H-ATLAS: a meta-analysis of SFR indicators - comprehensive measures of the SFR-M* relation and cosmic star formation history at z < 0.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Grootes, M. W.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R. J.; Hopkins, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M. E.; Croom, S.; da Cunha, E.; Dunne, L.; Lara-López, M. A.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Moffett, A. J.; Owers, M.; Phillipps, S.; Sansom, A. E.; Taylor, E. N.; Michalowski, M. J.; Ibar, E.; Smith, M.; Bourne, N.

    2016-09-01

    We present a meta-analysis of star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey, producing 12 different SFR metrics and determining the SFR-M* relation for each. We compare and contrast published methods to extract the SFR from each indicator, using a well-defined local sample of morphologically selected spiral galaxies, which excludes sources which potentially have large recent changes to their SFR. The different methods are found to yield SFR-M* relations with inconsistent slopes and normalizations, suggesting differences between calibration methods. The recovered SFR-M* relations also have a large range in scatter which, as SFRs of the targets may be considered constant over the different time-scales, suggests differences in the accuracy by which methods correct for attenuation in individual targets. We then recalibrate all SFR indicators to provide new, robust and consistent luminosity-to-SFR calibrations, finding that the most consistent slopes and normalizations of the SFR-M* relations are obtained when recalibrated using the radiation transfer method of Popescu et al. These new calibrations can be used to directly compare SFRs across different observations, epochs and galaxy populations. We then apply our calibrations to the GAMA II equatorial data set and explore the evolution of star formation in the local Universe. We determine the evolution of the normalization to the SFR-M* relation from 0 < z < 0.35 - finding consistent trends with previous estimates at 0.3 < z < 1.2. We then provide the definitive z < 0.35 cosmic star formation history, SFR-M* relation and its evolution over the last 3 billion years.

  5. Research designs for proof-of-concept chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Gewandter, Jennifer S; Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C; McDermott, Michael P; Baron, Ralf; Gastonguay, Marc R; Gilron, Ian; Katz, Nathaniel P; Mehta, Cyrus; Raja, Srinivasa N; Senn, Stephen; Taylor, Charles; Cowan, Penney; Desjardins, Paul; Dimitrova, Rozalina; Dionne, Raymond; Farrar, John T; Hewitt, David J; Iyengar, Smriti; Jay, Gary W; Kalso, Eija; Kerns, Robert D; Leff, Richard; Leong, Michael; Petersen, Karin L; Ravina, Bernard M; Rauschkolb, Christine; Rice, Andrew S C; Rowbotham, Michael C; Sampaio, Cristina; Sindrup, Søren H; Stauffer, Joseph W; Steigerwald, Ilona; Stewart, Jonathan; Tobias, Jeffrey; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Wallace, Mark; White, Richard E

    2014-09-01

    Proof-of-concept (POC) clinical trials play an important role in developing novel treatments and determining whether existing treatments may be efficacious in broader populations of patients. The goal of most POC trials is to determine whether a treatment is likely to be efficacious for a given indication and thus whether it is worth investing the financial resources and participant exposure necessary for a confirmatory trial of that intervention. A challenge in designing POC trials is obtaining sufficient information to make this important go/no-go decision in a cost-effective manner. An IMMPACT consensus meeting was convened to discuss design considerations for POC trials in analgesia, with a focus on maximizing power with limited resources and participants. We present general design aspects to consider including patient population, active comparators and placebos, study power, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships, and minimization of missing data. Efficiency of single-dose studies for treatments with rapid onset is discussed. The trade-off between parallel-group and crossover designs with respect to overall sample sizes, trial duration, and applicability is summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of more recent trial designs, including N-of-1 designs, enriched designs, adaptive designs, and sequential parallel comparison designs, are summarized, and recommendations for consideration are provided. More attention to identifying efficient yet powerful designs for POC clinical trials of chronic pain treatments may increase the percentage of truly efficacious pain treatments that are advanced to confirmatory trials while decreasing the percentage of ineffective treatments that continue to be evaluated rather than abandoned. PMID:24865794

  6. An autonomous long-term fast reactor system and the principal design limitations of the concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetkova, Galina Valeryevna

    The objectives of this dissertation were to find a principal domain of promising and technologically feasible reactor physics characteristics for a multi-purpose, modular-sized, lead-cooled, fast neutron spectrum reactor fueled with an advanced uranium-transuranic-nitride fuel and to determine the principal limitations for the design of an autonomous long-term multi-purpose fast reactor (ALM-FR) within the principal reactor physics characteristic domain. The objectives were accomplished by producing a conceptual design for an ALM-FR and by analysis of the potential ALM-FR performance characteristics. The ALM-FR design developed in this dissertation is based on the concept of a secure transportable autonomous reactor for hydrogen production (STAR-H2) and represents further refinement of the STAR-H2 concept towards an economical, proliferation-resistant, sustainable, multi-purpose nuclear energy system. The development of the ALM-FR design has been performed considering this reactor within the frame of the concept of a self-consistent nuclear energy system (SCNES) that satisfies virtually all of the requirements for future nuclear energy systems: efficient energy production, safety, self-feeding, non-proliferation, and radionuclide burning. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of reactor design aspects including selection of technologically feasible fuels and structural materials, core configuration optimization, dynamics and safety of long-term operation on one fuel loading, and nuclear material non-proliferation. Plutonium and higher actinides are considered as essential components of an advanced fuel that maintains long-term operation. Flexibility of the ALM-FR with respect to fuel compositions is demonstrated acknowledging the principal limitations of the long-term burning of plutonium and higher actinides. To ensure consistency and accuracy, the modeling has been performed using state-of-the-art computer codes developed at Argonne National

  7. Low-earth-orbit Satellite Internet Protocol Communications Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slywezak, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a design concept for a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end Internet-Protocol- (IP-) based mission. The goal is to maintain an up-to-date communications infrastructure that makes communications seamless with the protocols used in terrestrial computing. It is based on the premise that the use of IPs will permit greater interoperability while also reducing costs and providing users the ability to retrieve data directly from the satellite. However, implementing an IP-based solution also has a number of challenges, since wireless communications have different characteristics than wired communications. This report outlines the design of a low-Earth-orbit end-to-end IP-based mission; the ideas and concepts of Space Internet architectures and networks are beyond the scope of this document. The findings of this report show that an IP-based mission is plausible and would provide benefits to the user community, but the outstanding issues must be resolved before a design can be implemented.

  8. United States Control Module Guidance, Navigation, and Control Subsystem Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.; Bartlow, B. E.

    1997-01-01

    Should the Russian Space Agency (RSA) not participate in the International Space Station (ISS) program, then the United States (U.S.) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) may choose to execute the ISS mission. However, in order to do this, NASA must build two new space vehicles, which must perform the functions that the Russian vehicles and hardware were to perform. These functions include periodic ISS orbit reboost, initial ISS attitude control, and U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) control Moment gyroscope (CMG) momentum desaturation. The two new NASA vehicles that must perform these functions are called the U.S. control module (USCM) and the U.S. resupply module. This paper presents a design concept for the USCM GN&C subsystem, which must play a major role in ISS orbit reboost and initial attitude control, plus USOS CMG momentum desaturation. The proposed concept is structured similar to the USOS GN&C subsystem, by design. It is very robust, in that it allows the USCM to assume a variety of vehicle attitudes and stay power-positive. It has a storage/safe mode that places the USCM in a gravity-gradient orientation and keeps it there for extended periods of time without consuming a great deal of propellant. Simulation results are presented and discussed that show the soundness of the design approach. An equipment list is included that gives detailed information on the baselined GN&C components.

  9. Interdisciplinary concepts for design and implementation of mixed reality interactive neurorehabilitation systems for stroke.

    PubMed

    Baran, Michael; Lehrer, Nicole; Duff, Margaret; Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan; Ingalls, Todd; Rymer, W Zev; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2015-03-01

    Interactive neurorehabilitation (INR) systems provide therapy that can evaluate and deliver feedback on a patient's movement computationally. There are currently many approaches to INR design and implementation, without a clear indication of which methods to utilize best. This article presents key interactive computing, motor learning, and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two INR systems are used as examples to show how the concepts can be applied within: (1) a small-scale INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy and (2) a pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these systems can form the basis of a scalable design methodology for other INR systems. A coherent approach to INR design is needed to facilitate the use of the systems by physical therapists, increase the number of successful INR studies, and generate rich clinical data that can inform the development of best practices for use of INR in physical therapy. PMID:25425694

  10. Interdisciplinary Concepts for Design and Implementation of Mixed Reality Interactive Neurorehabilitation Systems for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Nicole; Duff, Margaret; Venkataraman, Vinay; Turaga, Pavan; Ingalls, Todd; Rymer, W. Zev; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2015-01-01

    Interactive neurorehabilitation (INR) systems provide therapy that can evaluate and deliver feedback on a patient's movement computationally. There are currently many approaches to INR design and implementation, without a clear indication of which methods to utilize best. This article presents key interactive computing, motor learning, and media arts concepts utilized by an interdisciplinary group to develop adaptive, mixed reality INR systems for upper extremity therapy of patients with stroke. Two INR systems are used as examples to show how the concepts can be applied within: (1) a small-scale INR clinical study that achieved integrated improvement of movement quality and functionality through continuously supervised therapy and (2) a pilot study that achieved improvement of clinical scores with minimal supervision. The notion is proposed that some of the successful approaches developed and tested within these systems can form the basis of a scalable design methodology for other INR systems. A coherent approach to INR design is needed to facilitate the use of the systems by physical therapists, increase the number of successful INR studies, and generate rich clinical data that can inform the development of best practices for use of INR in physical therapy. PMID:25425694

  11. Design and Analysis of a Formation Flying System for the Cross-Scale Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornara, Stefania; Bastante, Juan C.; Jubineau, Franck

    2007-01-01

    The ESA-funded "Cross-Scale Technology Reference Study has been carried out with the primary aim to identify and analyse a mission concept for the investigation of fundamental space plasma processes that involve dynamical non-linear coupling across multiple length scales. To fulfill this scientific mission goal, a constellation of spacecraft is required, flying in loose formations around the Earth and sampling three characteristic plasma scale distances simultaneously, with at least two satellites per scale: electron kinetic (10 km), ion kinetic (100-2000 km), magnetospheric fluid (3000-15000 km). The key Cross-Scale mission drivers identified are the number of S/C, the space segment configuration, the reference orbit design, the transfer and deployment strategy, the inter-satellite localization and synchronization process and the mission operations. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the mission design and analysis for the Cross-Scale concept and outlines a technically feasible mission architecture for a multi-dimensional investigation of space plasma phenomena. The main effort has been devoted to apply a thorough mission-level trade-off approach and to accomplish an exhaustive analysis, so as to allow the characterization of a wide range of mission requirements and design solutions.

  12. A review of design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Myron E.; Tschen, Peter S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews preliminary fluid module design concepts for the Advanced Fluids Module (AFM) project. The objective of this effort is to provide a facility that can handle a wide variety of fluids experiments. Sample science requirements were written and conceptual designs were subsequently generated during the last year. Experiments from the following fluid physics subject areas were used as conceptual design drivers: static and dynamic interfacial phenomena; bubble/droplet thermocapillary migration; surface tension convection and instabilities; thermal/solutal convection; pool boiling; and multiphase flow. After the conceptual designs were completed, the next phase attempted to combine experiments capabilities into a multipurpose, multiuser apparatus configured for the Space Station Freedom. It was found that all the fluid subject areas considered could be accommodated by three basic types of fluids modules. These modules are the Static Fluid Cell Module, the Dynamic Fluid Cell Module, and the Multiphase Flow Module. Descriptions of these preliminary modules designs and their particular sub-systems (e.g., fluid and thermal systems) are discussed. These designs will be refined as the nature of the flight program becomes clearer over the next six to twelve months.

  13. Cell design concepts for aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries: A model-based assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grübl, Daniel; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2015-11-01

    Seven cell design concepts for aqueous (alkaline) lithium-oxygen batteries are investigated using a multi-physics continuum model for predicting cell behavior and performance in terms of the specific energy and specific power. Two different silver-based cathode designs (a gas diffusion electrode and a flooded cathode) and three different separator designs (a porous separator, a stirred separator chamber, and a redox-flow separator) are compared. Cathode and separator thicknesses are varied over a wide range (50 μm-20 mm) in order to identify optimum configurations. All designs show a considerable capacity-rate effect due to spatiotemporally inhomogeneous precipitation of solid discharge product LiOH·H2O. In addition, a cell design with flooded cathode and redox-flow separator including oxygen uptake within the external tank is suggested. For this design, the model predicts specific power up to 33 W/kg and specific energy up to 570 Wh/kg (gravimetric values of discharged cell including all cell components and catholyte except housing and piping).

  14. Structures and Mechanisms Design Concepts for Adaptive Deployable Entry Placement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yount, Bryan C.; Arnold, James O.; Gage, Peter J.; Mockelman, Jeffrey; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    System studies have shown that large deployable aerodynamic decelerators such as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) concept can revolutionize future robotic and human exploration missions involving atmospheric entry, descent and landing by significantly reducing the maximum heating rate, total heat load, and deceleration loads experienced by the spacecraft during entry [1-3]. ADEPT and the Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) [4] share the approach of stowing the entry system in the shroud of the launch vehicle and deploying it to a much larger diameter prior to entry. The ADEPT concept provides a low ballistic coefficient for planetary entry by employing an umbrella-like deployable structure consisting of ribs, struts and a fabric cover that form an aerodynamic decelerator capable of undergoing hypersonic flight. The ADEPT "skin" is a 3-D woven carbon cloth that serves as a thermal protection system (TPS) and as a structural surface that transfers aerodynamic forces to the underlying ribs [5]. This paper focuses on design activities associated with integrating ADEPT components (cloth, ribs, struts and mechanisms) into a system that can function across all configurations and environments of a typical mission concept: stowed during launch, in-space deployment, entry, descent, parachute deployment and separation from the landing payload. The baseline structures and mechanisms were selected via trade studies conducted during the summer and fall of 2012. They are now being incorporated into the design of a ground test article (GTA) that will be fabricated in 2013. It will be used to evaluate retention of the stowed configuration in a launch environment, mechanism operation for release, deployment and locking, and static strength of the deployed decelerator. Of particular interest are the carbon cloth interfaces, underlying hot structure, (Advanced Carbon- Carbon ribs) and other structural components (nose cap, struts, and

  15. Mars Surveyor '98 Landers MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Solutions are presented to some of the problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing resources. Problems addressed include 4-DOF forward and inverse kinematics, trajectory planning to minimize potential impact damage, joint drive train protection, Lander tilt prevention, hardware fault monitoring, and collision avoidance.

  16. Impact of the control rod consumption on the reactivity control of a SFR break-even core

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, D.; Fontaine, B.

    2012-07-01

    Current design studies on Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) differ from those performed in the past by the fact that design criteria are now those of the Generation IV reactors. In order to improve their safety, reactors with break-even cores are preferred because they minimize the needs in terms of reactivity control and limit the consequences of control rod withdrawal. Furthermore, as the reactivity control needs are low, break-even core enables the use of absorbing materials with reduced efficiency (natural boron, hafnium...). Nevertheless, the use of control rods with few absorbing materials may present the disadvantage of a non-negligible ({approx}10%) loss of efficiency due to their consumption under irradiation. This paper presents a methodology to calculate accurately and analyze this consumption. (authors)

  17. DISSECTING THE STELLAR-MASS-SFR CORRELATION IN z = 1 STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Salmi, F.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Sargent, M. T.; Bethermin, M.; Renzini, A.; Le Borgne, D. E-mail: edaddi@cea.fr

    2012-07-20

    Using a mass-limited sample of 24 {mu}m detected, star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.3, we study the mass-star formation rate (SFR) correlation and its tightness. The correlation is well defined ({sigma} = 0.28 dex) for disk galaxies (n{sub Sersic} < 1.5), while more bulge-dominated objects often have lower specific SFRs (sSFRs). For disk galaxies, a much tighter correlation ({sigma} = 0.19 dex) is obtained if the rest-frame H-band luminosity is used instead of stellar mass derived from multi-color photometry. The sSFR correlates strongly with rest-frame optical colors (hence luminosity-weighted stellar age) and also with clumpiness (which likely reflects the molecular gas fraction). This implies that most of the observed scatter is real, despite its low level, and not dominated by random measurement errors. After correcting for these differential effects a remarkably small dispersion remains ({sigma} = 0.14 dex), suggesting that measurement errors in mass or SFR are {approx}< 0.10 dex, excluding systematic uncertainties. Measurement errors in stellar masses, the thickening of the correlation due to real sSFR variations, and varying completeness with stellar mass, can spuriously bias the derived slope to lower values due to the finite range over which observables (mass and SFR) are available. When accounting for these effects, the intrinsic slope for the main sequence for disk galaxies gets closer to unity.

  18. Role of the RAD51-SWI5-SFR1 Ensemble in homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Su, Guan-Chin; Yeh, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Wei; Chung, Chan-I; Huang, Yu-Shan; Liu, Yi-Chung; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Chi, Peter

    2016-07-27

    During DNA double-strand break and replication fork repair by homologous recombination, the RAD51 recombinase catalyzes the DNA strand exchange reaction via a helical polymer assembled on single-stranded DNA, termed the presynaptic filament. Our published work has demonstrated a dual function of the SWI5-SFR1 complex in RAD51-mediated DNA strand exchange, namely, by stabilizing the presynaptic filament and maintaining the catalytically active ATP-bound state of the filament via enhancement of ADP release. In this study, we have strived to determine the basis for physical and functional interactions between Mus musculus SWI5-SFR1 and RAD51. We found that SWI5-SFR1 preferentially associates with the oligomeric form of RAD51. Specifically, a C-terminal domain within SWI5 contributes to RAD51 interaction. With specific RAD51 interaction defective mutants of SWI5-SFR1 that we have isolated, we show that the physical interaction is indispensable for the stimulation of the recombinase activity of RAD51. Our results thus help establish the functional relevance of the trimeric RAD51-SWI5-SFR1 complex and provide insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of homology-directed DNA repair in mammalian cells. PMID:27131790

  19. Proof of Concept Study of Trade Space Configuration Tool for Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glidden, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft design is a very difficult and time consuming process because requirements and criteria are often changed or modified as the design is refined. Accounting for these adjustments in the design constraints plays a significant role in furthering the overall progress. There are numerous aspects and variables that hold significant influence on various characteristics of the design. This can be especially frustrating when attempting to conduct rapid trade space analysis on system configurations. Currently, the data and designs considered for trade space evaluations can only be displayed by using the traditional interfaces of Excel spreadsheets or CAD (Computer Aided Design) models. While helpful, these methods of analyzing the data from a systems engineering approach can be rather complicated and overwhelming. As a result, a proof of concept was conducted on a dynamic data visualization software called Thinkmap SDK (Software Developer Kit) to allow for better organization and understanding of the relationships between the various aspects that make up an entire design. The Orion Crew Module Aft Bay Subsystem was used as the test case for this study because the design and layout of many of the subsystem components will be significant in ensuring the overall center of gravity of the capsule is correct. A simplified model of this subsystem was created and programmed using Thinkmap SDK to create a preliminary prototype application of a Trade Space Configuration Tool. The completed application ensures that the core requirements for the Tool can be met. Further development is strongly suggested to produce a full prototype application to allow final evaluations and recommendations of the software capabilities.

  20. Inverse Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Concepts Using Reversed Equivalent-Area Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu; Rallabhand, Sriam

    2011-01-01

    A promising path for developing a low-boom configuration is a multifidelity approach that (1) starts from a low-fidelity low-boom design, (2) refines the low-fidelity design with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) equivalent-area (Ae) analysis, and (3) improves the design with sonic-boom analysis by using CFD off-body pressure distributions. The focus of this paper is on the third step of this approach, in which the design is improved with sonic-boom analysis through the use of CFD calculations. A new inverse design process for off-body pressure tailoring is formulated and demonstrated with a low-boom supersonic configuration that was developed by using the mixed-fidelity design method with CFD Ae analysis. The new inverse design process uses the reverse propagation of the pressure distribution (dp/p) from a mid-field location to a near-field location, converts the near-field dp/p into an equivalent-area distribution, generates a low-boom target for the reversed equivalent area (Ae,r) of the configuration, and modifies the configuration to minimize the differences between the configuration s Ae,r and the low-boom target. The new inverse design process is used to modify a supersonic demonstrator concept for a cruise Mach number of 1.6 and a cruise weight of 30,000 lb. The modified configuration has a fully shaped ground signature that has a perceived loudness (PLdB) value of 78.5, while the original configuration has a partially shaped aft signature with a PLdB of 82.3.

  1. Large scale prop-fan structural design study. Volume 1: Initial concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, L. C.; Gruska, C. J.; Ladden, R. M.; Leishman, D. K.; Turnberg, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been directed toward improving aircraft fuel consumption. Studies have shown that the inherent efficiency advantage that turboprop propulsion systems have demonstrated at lower cruise speeds may now be extended to the higher speeds of today's turbofan and turbojet-powered aircraft. To achieve this goal, new propeller designs will require features such as thin, high speed airfoils and aerodynamic sweep, features currently found only in wing designs for high speed aircraft. This is Volume 1 of a 2 volume study to establish structural concepts for such advanced propeller blades, to define their structural properties, to identify any new design, analysis, or fabrication techniques which were required, and to determine the structural tradeoffs involved with several blade shapes selected primarily on the basis of aero/acoustic design considerations. The feasibility of fabricating and testing dynamically scaled models of these blades for aeroelastic testing was also established. The preliminary design of a blade suitable for flight use in a testbed advanced turboprop was conducted and is described in Volume 2.

  2. Improving product quality and productivity using better guidelines for concept design

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, C.M.; Barkan, P.

    1995-08-01

    The remarkable effectiveness of Japanese practices has led to a growing interest in the US in the development and application of rules and methodologies which attempt to capture design experience. US companies have found unexpected benefits and pitfalls in the application of these rules and methods. In this article, the authors critically examine one of the most widely accepted rules of Design for Manufacturability (DFM): minimize the number of parts. An examination of 240 assemblies and subassemblies has shown that rigid adherence to this rule can lead to unnecessarily complex parts and assembly. Quantitative insights derived from this study have led to a better design goal: minimize and simplify assembly operations. This new rule, which should not be rigidly interpreted, tends to reduce part count, while having the benefit of assuring improved assembly. Another significant advantage of the new design rule is that it results in lower product defect rates as demonstrated by correlations observed for a wide range of products from two different manufacturers. This research links quality to the product concept, enabling a new approach to improving quality at the earliest stages of design.

  3. Preliminary analysis of the span-distributed-load concept for cargo aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified computer analysis of the span-distributed-load airplane (in which payload is placed within the wing structure) has shown that the span-distributed-load concept has high potential for application to future air cargo transport design. Significant increases in payload fraction over current wide-bodied freighters are shown for gross weights in excess of 0.5 Gg (1,000,000 lb). A cruise-matching calculation shows that the trend toward higher aspect ratio improves overall efficiency; that is, less thrust and fuel are required. The optimal aspect ratio probably is not determined by structural limitations. Terminal-area constraints and increasing design-payload density, however, tend to limit aspect ratio.

  4. Design concept for an IR mapping spectrometer for the Pluto fast flyby mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, U.; Low, F.; Hubbard, B.; Rieke, M.; Rieke, G.; Mumma, M.; Nozette, S.; Neukum, G.; Hamel, H.; Disanti, M.

    1993-01-01

    The design of an IR mapping spectrometer that exceeds all the criteria of the Pluto Fast Flyby Mission will be presented. The instrument has a mass of approximately 1700 g and uses less than 4 W of power. The design concept is based on an f/3 spectrograph using an aberration-corrected concave holographic grating. Up to four spectral regions can be covered simultaneously by dividing the grating into two to four sections, each imaging the entrance slit on a different area of the array. The spectrography will be fed by a lightweight 5 in. f/3 telescope based on SDIO precepts. In order to provide spectroscopic access to the fundamental molecule frequencies, an extended-range NICMOS array to approximately 3.5 microns and an InSb array going to 5.8 microns will be considered.

  5. The Enabler: A reevaluation of design concepts and construction of a scaled model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bess, David; Fye, Stephen; Gale, Thomas; Haldopolous, Dean; Looney, Michael; Milam, Ken; Smith, Dan; Sosebee, Frank

    1992-01-01

    The basic objective of the student's work this quarter was to make an in depth examination of the design concepts used on the lunar vehicle 'The Enabler'. Several changes were made to the vehicle including a redesigned wheel, a more compact boom and a reduced articulation angle. The vehicle's final dimensions were determined through an optimization process by defining mathematical equations for several of the vehicle's defined objectives. These included the ability to scale a one meter object, traverse a one meter crevice, and maintain a wheel-to-wheel clearance of three inches while at maximum articulation. The final dimensions of the vehicle were used to construct an approximate 1/4 scale model of the chassis and wheels. The boom, however, was constructed on a 1/5 scale (from the original design). This was due to the redesign of the boom and the limitations of the constructing material and PVC fittings.

  6. Design Concept and Parameters of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ Dipole Demonstrator for a 100 TEV Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A. V.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Novitski, I.

    2015-06-01

    FNAL has started the development of a 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator for a 100 TeV scale hadron collider. This paper describes the design concept and parameters of the 15 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole demonstrator. The dipole magnetic, mechanical and quench protection concept and parameters are presented and discussed.

  7. Preliminary design concepts for command and control modeling using Time Warp/hypercube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, S. J.; Nugent, R. O.; Sokol, L. M.

    1985-08-01

    The objective of this task was to develop and evaluate preliminary design concepts for modeling command and control (C2) on the hypercube parallel processing computer architecture using the associated Time Warp operating system. MITRE performed this task in support of the Army Model Improvement Program (AMIP) Management Office (AMMO) systems research and planning efforts required as part of the development of a new family of Army models. Command and control can be thought of as large complex system of facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel through which command and control of forces and resources is exercised in performing the missions and functions assigned to them. Modeling C2 provides a means of analyzing the process and the effects of alternative doctrine, tactics, and C2 systems. The size and complexity of the command and control decision process make it difficult to model; simulation is one means of making the modeling problem tractable. The objective of this effort was to develop and evaluate design concepts for modeling command and control on the hypercube parallel processing computer architecture using the associated Time Warp operating system. In particular, the evaluation was to be responsive to two basic questions: Can Time Warp on a hypercub e architecture be used in conjunction with object-oriented techniques to significantly speed up the processing time associated with command and control modeling?

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Lead or Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) Test Facility - R&D Requirements, Design Criteria, Design Concept, and Concept Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Loewen; Paul Demkowicz

    2005-05-01

    (in addition to the Pool Unit and Storage Unit) are the Bench Scale Unit and Supporting Systems, principal of which are the O2 Sensor/Calibration System, Feed System, Transfer System, Off- Gas System, Purge and Evacuation System, Oxygen Sensor and Control System, Data Acquisition and Control System, and the Safety Systems. Parallel and/or independent corrosion studies and convective heat transfer experiments for cylindrical and annular geometries will support investigation of heat transfer phenomena into the secondary side. In addition, molten metal pumping concepts and power requirements will be measured for future design use.

  9. Application of powered lift and mechanical flap concepts for civil short-haul transport aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, J. A.; Bowles, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to determine various design and performance parameters, including wing loading and thrust loading requirements, for powered-lift and mechanical flap conceptual aircraft constrained by field length and community noise impact. Mission block fuel and direct operating costs (DOC) were found for optimum designs. As a baseline, the design and performance parameters were determined for the aircraft using engines without noise suppression. The constraint of the 90 EPNL noise contour being less than 2.6 sq km (1.0 sq mi) in area was then imposed. The results indicate that for both aircraft concepts the design gross weight, DOC, and required mission block fuel decreased with field length. At field lengths less than 1100 m (3600 ft) the powered lift aircraft had lower DOC and block fuel than the mechanical flap aircraft but produced higher unsuppressed noise levels. The noise goal could easily be achieved with nacelle wall treatment only and thus resulted in little or no performance or weight penalty for all studied aircraft.

  10. System design in an evolving system-of-systems architecture and concept of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovekamp, Roger N., Jr.

    Proposals for space exploration architectures have increased in complexity and scope. Constituent systems (e.g., rovers, habitats, in-situ resource utilization facilities, transfer vehicles, etc) must meet the needs of these architectures by performing in multiple operational environments and across multiple phases of the architecture's evolution. This thesis proposes an approach for using system-of-systems engineering principles in conjunction with system design methods (e.g., Multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithms, etc) to create system design options that perform effectively at both the system and system-of-systems levels, across multiple concepts of operations, and over multiple architectural phases. The framework is presented by way of an application problem that investigates the design of power systems within a power sharing architecture for use in a human Lunar Surface Exploration Campaign. A computer model has been developed that uses candidate power grid distribution solutions for a notional lunar base. The agent-based model utilizes virtual control agents to manage the interactions of various exploration and infrastructure agents. The philosophy behind the model is based both on lunar power supply strategies proposed in literature, as well as on the author's own approaches for power distribution strategies of future lunar bases. In addition to proposing a framework for system design, further implications of system-of-systems engineering principles are briefly explored, specifically as they relate to producing more robust cross-cultural system-of-systems architecture solutions.

  11. MM wave SAR sensor design: Concept for an airborne low level reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesswetter, C.

    1986-07-01

    The basic system design considerations for a high resolution SAR system operating at 35 GHz or 94 GHz are given. First it is shown that only the focussed SAR concept in the side looking configuration matches the requirements and constraints. After definition of illumination geometry and airborne modes the fundamental SAR parameters in range and azimuth direction are derived. A review of the performance parameters of some critical mm wave components (coherent pulsed transmitters, front ends, antennas) establish the basis for further analysis. The power and contrast budget in the processed SAR image shows the feasibility of a 35/94 GHz SAR sensor design. The discussion of the resulting system parameters points out that this unusual system design implies both benefits and new risk areas. One of the benefits besides the compactness of sensor hardware turns out to be the short synthetic aperture length simplifying the design of the digital SAR processor, preferably operating in real time. A possible architecture based on current state-of-the-art correlator hardware is shown. One of the potential risk areas in achieving high resolution SAR imagery in the mm wave frequency band is motion compensation. However, it is shown that the short range and short synthetic aperture lengths ease the problem so that correction of motion induced phase errors and thus focussed synthetic aperture processing should be possible.

  12. Design concept of K-DEMO for near-term implementation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, K.; Im, K.; Kim, H. C.; Oh, S.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.; Lee, Y. S.; Yeom, J. H.; Lee, C.; Lee, G -S.; et al

    2015-04-22

    A Korean fusion energy development promotion law (FEDPL) was enacted in 2007. As a following step, a conceptual design study for a steady-state Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) was initiated in 2012. After the thorough 0D system analysis, the parameters of the main machine characterized by the major and minor radii of 6.8 and 2.1 m, respectively, were chosen for further study. The analyses of heating and current drives were performed for the development of the plasma operation scenarios. Preliminary results on lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive are included herein. A high performance Nb₃Sn-based superconducting conductor is adopted,more » providing a peak magnetic field approaching 16 T with the magnetic field at the plasma centre above 7 T. Pressurized water is the prominent choice for the main coolant of K-DEMO when the balance of plant development details is considered. The blanket system adopts a ceramic pebble type breeder. Considering plasma performance, a double-null divertor is the reference configuration choice of K-DEMO. For a high availability operation, K-DEMO incorporates a design with vertical maintenance. A design concept for K-DEMO is presented together with the preliminary design parameters.« less

  13. Design concept of K-DEMO for near-term implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.; Im, K.; Kim, H. C.; Oh, S.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.; Lee, Y. S.; Yeom, J. H.; Lee, C.; Lee, G -S.; Neilson, G.; Kessel, C.; Brown, T.; Titus, P.; Mikkelsen, D.; Zhai, Y.

    2015-04-22

    A Korean fusion energy development promotion law (FEDPL) was enacted in 2007. As a following step, a conceptual design study for a steady-state Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) was initiated in 2012. After the thorough 0D system analysis, the parameters of the main machine characterized by the major and minor radii of 6.8 and 2.1 m, respectively, were chosen for further study. The analyses of heating and current drives were performed for the development of the plasma operation scenarios. Preliminary results on lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive are included herein. A high performance Nb₃Sn-based superconducting conductor is adopted, providing a peak magnetic field approaching 16 T with the magnetic field at the plasma centre above 7 T. Pressurized water is the prominent choice for the main coolant of K-DEMO when the balance of plant development details is considered. The blanket system adopts a ceramic pebble type breeder. Considering plasma performance, a double-null divertor is the reference configuration choice of K-DEMO. For a high availability operation, K-DEMO incorporates a design with vertical maintenance. A design concept for K-DEMO is presented together with the preliminary design parameters.

  14. Design concept of K-DEMO for near-term implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Im, K.; Kim, H. C.; Oh, S.; Park, J. S.; Kwon, S.; Lee, Y. S.; Yeom, J. H.; Lee, C.; Lee, G.-S.; Neilson, G.; Kessel, C.; Brown, T.; Titus, P.; Mikkelsen, D.; Zhai, Y.

    2015-05-01

    A Korean fusion energy development promotion law (FEDPL) was enacted in 2007. As a following step, a conceptual design study for a steady-state Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) was initiated in 2012. After the thorough 0D system analysis, the parameters of the main machine characterized by the major and minor radii of 6.8 and 2.1 m, respectively, were chosen for further study. The analyses of heating and current drives were performed for the development of the plasma operation scenarios. Preliminary results on lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive are included herein. A high performance Nb3Sn-based superconducting conductor is adopted, providing a peak magnetic field approaching 16 T with the magnetic field at the plasma centre above 7 T. Pressurized water is the prominent choice for the main coolant of K-DEMO when the balance of plant development details is considered. The blanket system adopts a ceramic pebble type breeder. Considering plasma performance, a double-null divertor is the reference configuration choice of K-DEMO. For a high availability operation, K-DEMO incorporates a design with vertical maintenance. A design concept for K-DEMO is presented together with the preliminary design parameters.

  15. Z-Pinch Magneto-Inertial Fusion Propulsion Engine Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Statham, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert B.; Polsgrove, Tara; Fincher, Sharon; Fabisinski, Leo; Maples, C. Dauphne; Percy, Thomas K.; Cortez, Ross J.; Cassibry, Jason

    2011-01-01

    , configuration, and materials of the nozzle must meet many severe requirements. The configuration would focus, in a conical manner, the Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel and Lithium-6/7 liner fluid to meet at a specific point that acts as a cathode so the Li-6 can serve as a current return path to complete the circuit. In addition to serving as a current return path, the Li liner also serves as a radiation shield. The advantage to this configuration is the reaction between neutrons and Li-6 results in the production of additional Tritium, thus adding further fuel to the fusion reaction and boosting the energy output. To understand the applicability of Z-Pinch propulsion to interplanetary travel, it is necessary to design a concept vehicle that uses it. The propulsion system significantly impacts the design of the electrical, thermal control, avionics, radiation shielding, and structural subsystems of a vehicle. The design reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with the intention that the vehicle be reused for other missions. Several aspects of this vehicle are based on a previous crewed fusion vehicle study called Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE), which employed a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) propulsion concept. Analysis of this propulsion system concludes that a 40-fold increase of Isp over chemical propulsion is predicted. This along with a greater than 30% predicted payload mass fraction certainly warrants further development of enabling technologies. The vehicle is designed for multiple interplanetary missions and conceivably may be suited for an automated one-way interstellar voyage.

  16. Major Design Drivers for LEO Space Surveillance in Europe and Solution Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkrad, Heiner

    Europe is preparing for the development of an autonomous system for space situational aware-ness. One important segment of this new system will be dedicated to surveillance and tracking of space objects in Earth orbits. First concept and capability analysis studies have led to a draft system proposal. This proposal foresees, in a first deployment step, a groundbased system consisting of radar sensors and a network of optical telescopes. These sensors will be designed to have the capability of building up and maintaining a catalogue of space objects. A number of related services will be provided, including collision avoidance and the prediction of uncontrolled reentry events. Currently, the user requirements are consolidated, defining the different services, and the related accuracy and timeliness of the derived products. In this consolidation process parameters like the lower diameter limit above which catalogue coverage is to be achieved, the degree of population coverage in various orbital regions and the accuracy of the orbit data maintained in the catalogue are important design drivers for the selection of number and location of the sensors, and the definition of the required sensor performance. Further, the required minimum time for the detection of a manoeuvre, a newly launched object or a fragmentation event, significantly determines the required surveillance performance. In the requirement consolidation process the performance to be specified has to be based on a careful analysis which takes into account accuracy constraints of the services to be provided, the technical feasibility, complexity and costs. User requirements can thus not be defined with-out understanding the consequences they would pose on the system design. This paper will outline the design definition process for the surveillance and tracking segment of the European space situational awareness system. The paper will focus on the low-Earth orbits (LEO). It will present the core user

  17. Zinc-air design concept for the DOE-EHP IDSEP van

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The present Zn-air battery concept design exhibits some of the same characteristics as earlier versions of this battery, in particular, the energy densities of 100 to 110 Wh/kg and 50 to 60 Wh/L are typical of all the previous circulating electrolyte designs. These energy densities are much lower than the ''golden rule'' of 25% of the theoretical (894 Wh/kg), but this result is inherent in the fact that he electrolyte is really the active material rather than Zn metal (12 M KOH containing 260 g Zn/L has a theoretical energy density of 368 Wh/L or ca. 230 Wh/kg). The major departure of the present system from all other Zn-air versions is in the power density, electrical efficiency, cycle life, and cost. The new zinc electrode concept has eliminated the zinc electrode as a life limiting factor, and the improvements in power, efficiency, and cost have come from the improvements made in air electrode technology.The advantages of the Zn-air battery, as realized in this design for the IDSEP van, over other battery systems are: (1) energy capacity, exceeds the minimum by 50%; (2) low weight, less than maximum allowed weight by 50%; (3) minimal environmental impact and superior safety; (4) constructed entirely of common materials; (5) low materials cost, uncomplicated manufacture. The anticipated difficulties in realizing these advantages will be in sustaining the power required for acceleration over the lifetime needed for economic life-cycle cost. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. EMERGENCE OF THE KENNICUTT-SCHMIDT RELATION FROM THE SMALL-SCALE SFR-DENSITY RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Tasker, Elizabeth J.; Fujimoto, Yusuke

    2014-05-20

    We use simulations of isolated galaxies with a few parsec resolution to explore the connection between the small-scale star formation rate (SFR)-gas density relation and the induced large-scale correlation between the SFR surface density and the surface density of the molecular gas (the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation). We find that, in the simulations, a power-law small-scale ''star formation law'' directly translates into an identical power-law Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. If this conclusion holds in the reality as well, it implies that the observed approximately linear Kennicutt-Schmidt relation must reflect the approximately linear small-scale ''star formation law''.

  19. Design and evaluation of a foam-filled hat-stiffened panel concept for aircraft primary structural applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.

    1995-01-01

    A structurally efficient hat-stiffened panel concept that utilizes a structural foam as stiffener core has been designed for aircraft primary structural applications. This stiffener concept utilizes a manufacturing process that can be adapted readily to grid-stiffened structural configurations which possess inherent damage tolerance characteristics due to their multiplicity of load paths. The foam-filled hat-stiffener concept in a prismatically stiffened panel configuration is more efficient than most other stiffened panel configurations in a load range that is typical for both fuselage and wing structures. The prismatically stiffened panel concept investigated here has been designed using AS4/3502 preimpregnated tape and Rohacell foam core and evaluated for its buckling and postbuckling behavior with and without low-speed impact damage. The results from single-stiffener and multi-stiffener specimens suggest that this structural concept responds to loading as anticipated and has good damage tolerance characteristics.

  20. Design for multipurpose use: an application of DfE concept in a developing economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunmade, Israel

    2004-12-01

    Design for Environment (DfE) has been defined as the systematic integration of environmental considerations into product and process design. And it has been discovered that material and space can be saved when several functions are integrated into a single product by taking advantage of common components. In this design and development project, a multipurpose thresher was designed based on an integrated concept of design for modularity, disassembly, demanufacturing and remanufacturing. The machine can be used to thresh various types of farm produce such as rice, sorghum, cowpea and rye by changing the concave and the cylinder (threshing drum). The configuration of the machine enables access to most of the component parts without changing the tools needed for disassembly because the same type of fasteners was used. Furthermore, the functional units (the shelling unit, the separation unit and the grading unit) were assembled into modules such that only the faulty part needs to be replaced if necessary. The design was so simplified that the operator can make the changes for different uses without any difficulty. The machine has been successfully tested with a number of these products and it is scheduled for tests with other produce like corn and peanuts. The modularity of the functional unit will facilitate multi-lifecycle use of machine and/or its component parts. The uniformity of the liaisons and simplification of the configuration will reduce both the disassembly times and maintenance cost. By this integration, the material requirements for four different machines are conserved, environmental emissions that would be associated with the manufacture, transportation and disposal of four machines are eliminated while the capital requirements by farmers for machinery are reduced to about a quarter. Consequently the total lifecycle cost is kept minimum while the eco-efficiency is maximized.

  1. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  2. Preliminary report on a new concept stent prototype designed for venous implant.

    PubMed

    Lugli, M; Maleti, O

    2015-08-01

    Venous obstruction at iliocaval level in both forms, primary and secondary, is a significant cause of severe chronic venous insufficiency. A new therapeutic approach to this pathology emerged with the introduction of stenting procedures that proved effective, leading to good long-term results. However, at present, the majority of implanted stents have been designed for arterial implant and this can pose a limit in particular districts. The purpose of this preliminary acute study was to verify the deliverability and safety of a new stent specially designed for venous-vessel implant. We assess the safety and deliverability of two braided, self-expanding, nickel-titanium stents (Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) specially designed for endovascular implant in veins. The two stents, despite being based on the same concept, have a different design: stent A presents a proximal tapering shape specially designed to reduce migration, while stent B does not. Both of them are enlarged at their distal extremity and present variable radial force the length of the stent itself, the said force becoming very high in the intermediate segment. Stents were implanted in the internal jugular vein of a sheep, showing optimal deliverability. The completion venography showed the migration of stent B into the right atrium. Stent A maintained its location, confirmed by intravascular ultrasound examination. No scaffolding effect was detected and an adequate adherence and adaptability to the vein wall was obtained. In conclusions, the stent A design matches the characteristics required by vein implants. Stability is achieved even where difficult anatomical conditions apply, such as in the jugular vein. Deployment is easy and precise in a given landing zone. Radial resistive force is very high, as required in specific vein districts, but is also associated with good flexibility. Following this preliminary acute report, further studies are required. PMID:24920424

  3. Concept Designed and Developed for Distortion- Tolerant, High-Stability Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Engine Control Future aircraft turbine engines, both commercial and military, must be able to successfully accommodate expected increased levels of steady-state and dynamic engine-face distortion. Advanced tactical aircraft are likely to use thrust vectoring to enhance their maneuverability. As a result, the engines will see more extreme aircraft angles-of-attack and sideslip levels than are currently encountered with present-day aircraft. Also, the mixed-compression inlets needed for the High Speed Civil Transport will likely encounter disturbances similar to those seen by tactical aircraft, in addition to planar pulse, inlet buzz, and high distortion levels at low flight speed and off-design operation. The current approach of incorporating a sufficient component design stall margin to tolerate these increased levels of distortion would significantly reduce performance. The objective of the High Stability Engine Control (HISTEC) program is to design, develop, and flight demonstrate an advanced, high-stability, integrated engine-control system that uses measurement-based, real-time estimates of distortion to enhance engine stability. The resulting distortion-tolerant control reduces the required design stall margin, with a corresponding increase in performance and decrease in fuel burn. The HISTEC concept has been designed and developed, and the software implementing the concept has successfully accommodated time-varying distortion. The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently overseeing the development and validation of the hardware and software necessary to flight test the HISTEC concept. HISTEC is a contracted effort with Pratt & Whitney of West Palm Beach, Florida. The HISTEC approach includes two major systems: A Distortion Estimation System (DES) and Stability Management Control (SMC). DES is an aircraft-mounted, high-speed processor that estimates the amount and type of distortion present and its effect on the engine. It uses high-response pressure

  4. Design and analysis of megawatt-class heat-pipe reactor concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, D.; Kapernick, R.

    2012-07-01

    There is growing interest in finding an alternative to diesel-powered systems at locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. One promising option is a 1- to 10-MW mobile reactor system, that could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term ({>=} 5 years) power in any environment. The reactor and required infrastructure could be transported to any location within one or a few standard transport containers. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than 'traditional' reactors that rely on pumped coolant through the core. This paper examines a heat pipe reactor that is fabricated and shipped as six identical core segments. Each core segment includes a heat-pipe-to-gas heat exchanger that is coupled to the condenser end of the heat pipes. The reference power conversion system is a CO{sub 2}-Brayton system. The segments by themselves are deeply subcritical during transport, and they would be locked into an operating configuration (with control inserted) at the final destination. Two design options are considered: a near-term option and an advanced option. The near-term option is a 5-MWt concept that uses uranium-dioxide fuel, a stainless-steel structure, and potassium as the heat-pipe working fluid. The advanced option is a 15-MWt concept that uses uranium-nitride fuel, a molybdenum/TZM structure, and sodium as the heat-pipe working fluid. The materials used in the advanced option allow for higher temperatures and power densities, and enhanced power throughput in the heat pipes. Higher powers can be obtained from both concepts by increasing the core size and the number of heat pipes. (authors)

  5. Design studies of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) wing concepts using superplastics forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Alternate concepts and design approaches were developed for suction panels and techniques were defined for integrating these panel designs into a complete LFC 200R wing. The design concepts and approaches were analyzed to assure that they would meet the strength, stability, and internal volume requirements. Cost and weight comparisions of the concepts were also made. Problems of integrating the concepts into a complete aircraft system were addressed. Methods for making splices both chordwise and spanwise, fuel light joints, and internal duct installations were developed. Manufacturing problems such as slot aligment, tapered slot spacing, production methods, and repair techniques were addressed. An assessment of the program was used to developed recommendations for additional research in the development of SPF/DB for LFC structure.

  6. Special report. Designing security for a garage serving a new medical school: from concept to reality.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    The Paterson Street Deck, New Brunswick, NJ, cited by the International Parking Institute (IPI) for excellence in design, employs a number of modern security concepts to protect its customers. The deck was built by the New Brunswick Parking Authority, which worked with the city's medical community to develop the 1,010-space structure located next to the newly built Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. The spaces are used by approximately 800 medical patrons--students of the medical school and employees of Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, as well as an additional 200 visitors. Staffers and students pay for parking services biweekly on a graduated scale based on the level of their job title, according to Joseph Bernasz, director of administrator, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. And they have been very receptive to the new facility, says Kevin McTernan, vice president of administrative services, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick. In this report, we'll present in detail the security concepts employed, the reasons behind them, and how they have been employed since the deck opened about two years ago. PMID:10164688

  7. 2009 Melbourne metropolitan sewerage strategy: a portfolio of decentralised and on-site concept designs.

    PubMed

    Brown, V; Jackson, D W; Khalifé, M

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and retail water companies of the greater Melbourne area are developing the 2009 Metropolitan Sewerage Strategy to provide sustainable sewerage services to 2060. The objective of the strategy is to establish long term principles and near term actions to produce a robust sewage management system for Melbourne. Melbourne's existing sewerage system is largely centralised and discharges to two major treatment plants. Several small satellite treatment plants service local urban areas generally more distant from the centralised system. Decentralised and on-site wastewater systems are options for future sewage management and could play a role in local recycling. A portfolio of 18 on-site and decentralised concept designs was developed, applicable to the full range of urban development types in Melbourne. The concepts can be used in evaluation of metropolitan system configurations as part of future integrated water cycle planning. The options included secondary and tertiary treatment systems incorporating re-use of water for non potable uses, urine separation, black and greywater separation and composting toilets. On-site and cluster treatment systems were analysed. Each option is described by its indicative capital and operating costs, energy use and water and nutrient balances. This paper summarises and compares the portfolio mix of decentralized and on-site options in Melbourne's context. PMID:20705997

  8. Design, simulation and evaluation of advanced display concepts for the F-16 control configured vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. W.; Hollister, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Advanced display concepts to augment the tracking ability of the F-16 Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) were designed, simulated, and evaluated. A fixed-base simulator was modified to represent the F-16 CCV. An isometric sidearm control stick and two-axis CCV thumb button were installed in the cockpit. The forward cockpit CRT was programmed to present an external scene (numbered runway, horizon) and the designed Heads Up Display. The cockpit interior was modified to represent a fighter and the F-16 CCV dynamics and direct lift and side force modes were programmed. Compensatory displays were designed from man-machine considerations. Pilots evaluated the Heads up Display and compensatory displays during simulated descents in the presence of several levels of filtered, zero-mean winds gusts. During a descent from 2500 feet to the runway, the pilots tracked a point on the runway utilizing the basic F-16, F-16 CCV, and F-16 CCV with advanced displays. Substantial tracking improvements resulted utilizing the CCV modes, and the displays were found to even further enhance the tracking ability of the F-16 CCV.

  9. The Gas-Grain Simulation Facility (GGSF) for Space Station Freedom - Design concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, N.; Kropp, J. L.; Huntington, J. L.; Fonda, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The GGSF is specifically designed to accommodate micro-g experiments that investigate long-term effects and interactions between submicron to centimeter size particles. The paper introduces the science disciplines and the type of experiments that are currently envisioned for the GGSF. The broad range of science and technology requirements are discussed, and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) accommodations, and available utilities are reviewed. Based on the requirements and the available accommodations, a facility conceptual design is outlined. The required subsystems are listed, and the rationale and considerations that lead to the selected approach, delineated. The present GGSF concept is that of a modular facility system comprising a flight rack and an array of fully compatible and interchangeable subsystems that are designed to meet a diverse set of science requirements. The modularity allows for future upgrade of various subsystems as technology evolves and for introduction of new modules to accommodate new or different experiments. These features are essential for a facility that is expected to be in service on board the SSF for 10 years or more.

  10. The electrical power subsystem design for the high energy solar physics spacecraft concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Milind

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) requirements, architecture, design description, performance analysis, and heritage of the components for two spacecraft concepts for the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) Mission. It summarizes the mission requirements and the spacecraft subsystems and instrument power requirements, and it describes the EPS architecture for both options. A trade study performed on the selection of the solar cells - body mounted versus deployed panels - and the optimum number of panels is also presented. Solar cell manufacturing losses, array manufacturing losses, and the radiation and temperature effects on the GaAs/Ge and Si solar cells were considered part of the trade study and are included in this paper. Solar cell characteristics, cell circuit description, and the solar array area design are presented, as is battery sizing analysis performed based on the power requirements during launch and initial spacecraft operations. This paper discusses Earth occultation periods and the battery power requirements during this period as well as shunt control, battery conditioning, and bus regulation schemes. Design margins, redundancy philosophy, and predicted on-orbit battery and solar cell performance are summarized. Finally, the heritage of the components and technology risk assessment are provided.

  11. Design concepts and principle of operation of the HeartWare ventricular assist system.

    PubMed

    Larose, Jeffrey A; Tamez, Daniel; Ashenuga, Michael; Reyes, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Implantable left ventricular assist devices provide circulatory support for patients at risk of death from refractory, end-stage heart failure. Rotary blood pumps have been designed for increased reliability and smaller size for use in a broader population of patients than the first-generation pulsatile devices. The design concepts and principle of operation of the HeartWare System are discussed. The HeartWare Ventricular Assist System (HVAD) is a small centrifugal flow pump with a displacement volume of 50 ml and an output capacity of 10 L/min. A unique wide-blade impeller is suspended by hybrid passive magnets and hydrodynamic forces. An integrated inflow cannula is inserted into the left ventricle and is held in position by an adjustable sewing ring; the pump is positioned in the pericardial space. The 10-mm outflow graft is anastomosed to the ascending aorta. External system components include the microprocessor-based controller, a monitor, lithium-ion battery packs, alternating current and direct current power adapters, and a battery charger. Physiologic control algorithms are incorporated for safe operation. Preclinical life cycle tests have shown the HVAD to be highly reliable. This system design offers reliability, portability, and ease of use for ambulatory patients. PMID:20559135

  12. Concept Design for a 1-Lead Wearable/Implantable ECG Front-End: Power Management.

    PubMed

    George, Libin; Gargiulo, Gaetano Dario; Lehmann, Torsten; Hamilton, Tara Julia

    2015-01-01

    Power supply quality and stability are critical for wearable and implantable biomedical applications. For this reason we have designed a reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter that, aside from having an extremely small footprint (with an active on-chip area of only 0.04 mm²), uses a novel output voltage control method based upon a combination of adaptive gain and discrete frequency scaling control schemes. This novel DC-DC converter achieves a measured output voltage range of 1.0 to 2.2 V with power delivery up to 7.5 mW with 75% efficiency. In this paper, we present the use of this converter as a power supply for a concept design of a wearable (15 mm × 15 mm) 1-lead ECG front-end sensor device that simultaneously harvests power and communicates with external receivers when exposed to a suitable RF field. Due to voltage range limitations of the fabrication process of the current prototype chip, we focus our analysis solely on the power supply of the ECG front-end whose design is also detailed in this paper. Measurement results show not just that the power supplied is regulated, clean and does not infringe upon the ECG bandwidth, but that there is negligible difference between signals acquired using standard linear power-supplies and when the power is regulated by our power management chip. PMID:26610497

  13. Concept Design for a 1-Lead Wearable/Implantable ECG Front-End: Power Management

    PubMed Central

    George, Libin; Gargiulo, Gaetano Dario; Lehmann, Torsten; Hamilton, Tara Julia

    2015-01-01

    Power supply quality and stability are critical for wearable and implantable biomedical applications. For this reason we have designed a reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter that, aside from having an extremely small footprint (with an active on-chip area of only 0.04 mm2), uses a novel output voltage control method based upon a combination of adaptive gain and discrete frequency scaling control schemes. This novel DC-DC converter achieves a measured output voltage range of 1.0 to 2.2 V with power delivery up to 7.5 mW with 75% efficiency. In this paper, we present the use of this converter as a power supply for a concept design of a wearable (15 mm × 15 mm) 1-lead ECG front-end sensor device that simultaneously harvests power and communicates with external receivers when exposed to a suitable RF field. Due to voltage range limitations of the fabrication process of the current prototype chip, we focus our analysis solely on the power supply of the ECG front-end whose design is also detailed in this paper. Measurement results show not just that the power supplied is regulated, clean and does not infringe upon the ECG bandwidth, but that there is negligible difference between signals acquired using standard linear power-supplies and when the power is regulated by our power management chip. PMID:26610497

  14. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  15. A new design concept for knitted external vein-graft support mesh.

    PubMed

    Singh, Charanpreet; Wang, Xungai

    2015-08-01

    Autologous vein-graft failure significantly limits the long-term efficacy of coronary artery bypass procedures. The major cause behind this complication is biomechanical mismatch between the vein and coronary artery. The implanted vein experiences a sudden increase (10-12 fold) in luminal pressures. The resulting vein over-distension or 'ballooning' initiates wall thickening phenomenon and ultimate occlusion. Therefore, a primary goal in improving the longevity of a coronary bypass procedure is to inhibit vein over-distension using mechanical constriction. The idea of using an external vein-graft support mesh has demonstrated sustained benefits and wide acceptance in experimental studies. Nitinol based knitted structures have offered more promising mechanical features than other mesh designs owing to their unique loosely looped construction. However, the conventional plain knit construction still exhibits limitations (radial compliance, deployment ease, flexibility, and bending stresses) which limit this design from proving its real clinical advantage. The new knitted mesh design presented in this study is based on the concept of composite knitting utilising high modulus (nitinol and polyester) and low modulus (polyurethane) material components. The experimental comparison of the new design with a plain knit design demonstrated significant improvement in biomechanical (compliance, flexibility, extensibility, viscoelasticity) and procedural (deployment limit) parameters. The results are indicative of the promising role of new mesh in restoring the lost compliance and pulsatility of vein-graft at high arterial pressures. This way it can assist in controlled vein-graft remodelling and stepwise restoration of vein mechanical homoeostasis. Also, improvement in deployment limit parameter offers more flexibility for a surgeon to use a wide range of vein diameters, which may otherwise be rendered unusable for a plain knit mesh. PMID:25916819

  16. An X-band spacecraft transponder for deep space applications - Design concepts and breadboard performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Perret, Jonathan D.; Kermode, Arthur W.

    1992-01-01

    The design concepts and measured performance characteristics are summarized of an X band (7162 MHz/8415 MHz) breadboard deep space transponder (DSP) for future spacecraft applications, with the first use scheduled for the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini missions in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The DST consists of a double conversion, superheterodyne, automatic phase tracking receiver, and an X band (8415 MHz) exciter to drive redundant downlink power amplifiers. The receiver acquires and coherently phase tracks the modulated or unmodulated X band (7162 MHz) uplink carrier signal. The exciter phase modulates the band (8415 MHz) downlink signal with composite telemetry and ranging signals. The receiver measured tracking threshold, automatic gain control, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the breadboard DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The measured results show a receiver tracking threshold of -158 dBm and a dynamic signal range of 88 dB.

  17. Design concepts and performance of NASA X-band transponder (DST) for deep space spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Perret, Jonathan D.; Kermode, Arthur W.

    1991-01-01

    The design concepts and measured performance characteristics of an X band (7162 MHz/8415 MHz) breadboard deep space transponder (DST) for future spacecraft applications, with the first use scheduled for the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) and Cassini missions in 1995 and 1996, respectively. The DST consists of a double conversion, superheterodyne, automatic phase tracking receiver, and an X band (8415 MHz) exciter to drive redundant downlink power amplifiers. The receiver acquires and coherently phase tracks the modulated or unmodulated X band (7162 MHz) uplink carrier signal. The exciter phase modulates the X band (8415 MHz) downlink signal with composite telemetry and ranging signals. The receiver measured tracking threshold, automatic gain control static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the breadboard DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The measured results show a receiver tracking threshold of -158 dBm and a dynamic signal range of 88 dB.

  18. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers.

  19. The design concept of the 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker at ESTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkman, P. W.; Kretz, D.

    1992-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has decided to extend its test facilities at the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) at Noordwijk, The Netherlands, by implementing a 6-degree-of-freedom hydraulic shaker. This shaker will permit vibration testing of large payloads in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 100 Hz. Conventional single axis sine and random vibration modes can be applied without the need for a configuration change of the test set-up for vertical and lateral excitations. Transients occurring during launch and/or landing of space vehicles can be accurately simulated in 6-degrees-of-freedom. The performance requirements of the shaker are outlined and the results of the various trade-offs, which are investigated during the initial phase of the design and engineering program are provided. Finally, the resulting baseline concept and the anticipated implementation plan of the new test facility are presented.

  20. Rational Concept for Designing Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Single Crystalline Metal Oxide Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Klamchuen, Annop; Suzuki, Masaru; Nagashima, Kazuki; Yoshida, Hideto; Kanai, Masaki; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Meng, Gang; Kai, Shoichi; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji; Yanagida, Takeshi

    2015-10-14

    Metal oxide nanowires hold great promise for various device applications due to their unique and robust physical properties in air and/or water and also due to their abundance on Earth. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of metal oxide nanowires offers the high controllability of their diameters and spatial positions. In addition, VLS growth has applicability to axial and/or radial heterostructures, which are not attainable by other nanowire growth methods. However, material species available for the VLS growth of metal oxide nanowires are substantially limited even though the variety of material species, which has fascinating physical properties, is the most interesting feature of metal oxides. Here we demonstrate a rational design for the VLS growth of various metal oxide nanowires, based on the "material flux window". This material flux window describes the concept of VLS nanowire growth within a limited material flux range, where nucleation preferentially occurs only at a liquid-solid interface. Although the material flux was previously thought to affect primarily the growth rate, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the material flux is the important experimental variable for the VLS growth of metal oxide nanowires. On the basis of the material flux window concept, we discover novel metal oxide nanowires, composed of MnO, CaO, Sm2O3, NiO, and Eu2O3, which were previously impossible to form via the VLS route. The newly grown NiO nanowires exhibited stable memristive properties superior to conventional polycrystalline devices due to the single crystallinity. Thus, this VLS design route offers a useful guideline for the discovery of single crystalline nanowires that are composed of functional metal oxide materials. PMID:26372675

  1. Teaching Art a Greener Path: Integrating Sustainability Concepts of Interior Design Curriculum into the Art Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasio, Cindy; Crane, Tommy J.

    2014-01-01

    Interior design is seldom integrated within the general art education curriculum because the subject matter is generally segregated as a commercial art. However, the importance of interior design concepts of sustainability in art education can really help a student understand the scale and proportion of space and mass, and how sustainability is…

  2. Application of reliability and fiber probabilistic strength distribution concepts to composite vessel burst strength design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David

    1992-01-01

    A composite pressure vessel design approach that is based on reliability and probabilistic fiber strength distribution concepts is discussed. The method is based on the fiber strain-strength interference reliability theory. The way in which fiber strength distribution parameters generated by two tensile tests of impregnated carbon fiber strands can be used in pressure vessel strength design is examined. It is shown that the bimodal Weibull distribution functions fits the impregnated fiber strand strength distribution data much better than the single mode Weibull function. The A-basis fiber strength allowable calculated from the strand data was slightly lower (3 percent) than those calculated from the full-scale pressure vessel strength data, whereas the B-basis allowables calculated from the strand and the full-scale pressure vessel strength data were the same. Because A-basis and/or B-basis allowables require many data points from many material lots, the use of fiber lot qualification data is advantageous because it meets these requirements.

  3. Extended charge accumulation in ruthenium-4H-imidazole-based black absorbers: a theoretical design concept.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Stephan

    2016-05-11

    A theoretical-guided design concept aiming to achieve highly efficient unidirectional charge transfer and multi-charge separation upon successive photoexcitation for light-harvesting dyes in the scope of supramolecular photocatalysts is presented. Four 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) complexes incorporating a biimidazole-based electron-donating ligand sphere have been designed based on the well-known 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl dyes. The quantum chemical evaluation, performed at the density functional and time-dependent density functional level of theory, revealed extraordinary unidirectional charge transfer bands from the near-infrared to the ultraviolet region of the absorption spectrum upon multi-photoexcitation. Spectro-electrochemical simulations modeling photoexcited intermediates determined the outstanding multi-electron storage capacity for this novel class of black dyes. These remarkable photochemical and photophysical properties are found to be preserved upon site-specific protonation rendering 4H-imidazole-ruthenium(ii) biimidazole dyes ideal for light-harvesting applications in the field of solar energy conversion. PMID:27121270

  4. Design Concept for nu-STORM: An Initial Very Low-Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Liu, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Ankenbrandt, C.; Roberts, T.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    We present a design concept for a {nu} source from a STORage ring for Muons ({nu}STORM). In this initial design a high-intensity proton beam produces {approx}5 GeV pions that provide muons that are captured using 'stochastic injection' within a 3.6 GeV racetrack storage ring. In 'stochastic injection', the {approx}5 GeV pion beam is transported from the target into the storage ring, dispersion-matched into a long straight section. (Circulating and injection orbits are separated by momentum.) Decays within that straight section provide muons that are within the {approx}3.6 GeV/c ring momentum acceptance and are stored for the muon lifetime of {approx}1000 turns. Muon (and pion) decays in the long straight sections provide neutrino beams of precisely known flux and flavor that can be used for precision measurements of electron and muon neutrino interactions, and neutrino oscillations or disappearance at L/E = {approx}1m/MeV. The facility is described, and variations are discussed.

  5. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne; Alajo, A.B.; Johnson, T. R.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Youssef, M. E.; Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-11-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

  6. Advanced limiter test (ALT-1) in the TEXTOR tokamak: concept and experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.W.; Grontz, S.P.; Prinja, A.K.; Gauster, W.B.; Malinowski, H.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Blewer, R.S.; Whitley, J.B.; Dippel, K.H.; Fuchs, G.

    1983-01-01

    The concept and experimental design of a pump-limiter for the TEXTOR tokamak is described. The module is constructed of stainless steel with a compound curvature head designed to limit the maximum heat flux to 300 W/cm/sup 2/. The head is made of TiC-coated graphite containing a variable-aperture slot to admit plasma to a deflector plate for ballistic pumping action. The assembly is actively pumped using Zr-Al getters with an estimated hydrogen pumping speed of 3 x 10/sup 4/ 1/s. The aspect ratio of the pump duct and the length of the plasma channel are both variable to permit study of plasma plugging, ballistic scattering, and enhanced gas-conduction effects. The module can be moved radially by 10 cm to permit its operation either as the primary or secondary limiter. Major diagnostics include Langmuir and solid state probes, bolometers, infrared thermography, thermocouples, ion gauges, manometers, and a gas mass analyzer.

  7. CONCEPT DESIGN OF THE TARGET/HORN SYSTEM FOR THE BNL NEUTRINO OSCILLATION EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    SIMOS,N.KIRK,H.KAHN,S.CARROL,A.LUDEWIG,H.WENG,W.T.DIWAN,M.RAPARIA,D.MCDONALD,K.EVANGELAKIS,G.

    2003-05-12

    The design concept for the integration of the target and the focusing horn system for the proposed BNL neutrino oscillation experiment is described in this paper. Also presented are issues associated with the functionality and thermo-mechanical response of the selected target intercepting the 28 GeV protons of the 1 MW upgraded AGS beam, the loading and mechanical response of the focusing horn subjected to high currents and energy deposited due to beam/target interaction, the integration of the two systems, and the heat removal schemes. The proposed target intercepts the 8.9 x 10{sup 13}, 28 GeV protons with a 2.5 Hz cycle time over a spot that encloses the 3{sigma} of the beam. In the baseline. design the inner conductor of the aluminum horn encloses the target while allowing for an annular space for forced cooling. Approximately 250 kA pulse of current of 20{micro}s duration will flow through the horn at 2.5 Hz repetition rate inducing high compressive forces, vibration and heat. The paper addresses these issues of horn mechanical response, heat removal scenario, and useful life estimation including radiation damage.

  8. Application of Nuclear Energy for Seawater Desalination: Design Concepts of Nuclear Desalination Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Faibish, R.S.; Konishi, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation, producing 16% of the world's electricity. However, most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat, in which case nuclear energy could also play an important role. In particular, process heat for seawater desalination using nuclear energy has been of growing interest to some Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency over the past two decades. This growing interest stems from increasingly acute freshwater shortages in many arid and semi-arid zones around the world. Indeed, several national and international nuclear desalination demonstration programs are already under way or being planned. Of particular interest are projects for seawater nuclear desalination plants in coastal regions, where saline feed water can serve the dual purpose of cooling water for the nuclear reactor and as feed water for the desalination plant. In principle any nuclear reactor can provide energy (low-grade heat and/or electricity), as required by desalination processes. However, there are some additional requirements to be met under specific conditions in order to introduce nuclear desalination. Technical issues include meeting more stringent safety requirements (nuclear reactors themselves and nuclear-desalination integrated complexes in particular), and performance improvement of the integrated systems. Economic competitiveness is another important factor to be considered for a broader deployment of nuclear desalination. For technical robustness and economic competitiveness a number of design variants of coupling configurations of nuclear desalination integrated plant concepts are being evaluated. This paper identifies and discusses various factors, which support the attractiveness of nuclear desalination. It further summarizes some of the key approaches recommended for nuclear desalination complex design and gives an overview of various design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, which

  9. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Volume II of IV, Results of Laboratory and Field Research on New Concepts in Weir and Pool Fishways, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Aaserude, Robert G.; Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    A comprehensive review of fishway design practice led to new design concepts that had previously been untested. This concept was based on the observation that fish can be stimulated to leap when presented with certain hydraulic conditions. A laboratory test program was conducted to develop this concept into a new fishway configuration. Field testing revealed that components of the new design improved fish passage. Verification of the initial premise that fish can be stimulated to leap needs further study.

  10. Conceptual design and evaluation of selected Space Station concepts, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Space Station configuration concepts are defined to meet the NASA Headquarters Concept Development Group (CDG) requirements. Engineering and programmatic data are produced on these concepts suitable for NASA and industry dissemination. A data base is developed for input to the CDG's evaluation of generic Space Station configurations and for use in the critique of the CDG's generic configuration evaluation process.

  11. Changing Concepts in Activity: Descriptive and Design Studies of Consequential Learning in Conceptual Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Rogers; Jurow, A. Susan

    2015-01-01

    Concepts and conceptual change have been studied extensively as phenomena of individual thinking and action, but changing circumstances of social or cultural groups using concepts are treated as external conditions. We describe research on consequential learning in conceptual practices, where concepts include representational infrastructure that…

  12. New Concepts in Fish Ladder Design, Part I of IV, Summary Report, 1982-1984 Final Project Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Orsborn, John F.

    1985-08-01

    The report looks at the most active periods of fishway research since 1938 as background for a project to apply fundamental fluid and bio-mechanics to fishway design, and develop more cost effective fish passage facilities with primary application to small scale hydropower facilities. Also discussed are new concepts in fishway design, an assessment of fishway development and design, and an analysis of barriers to upstream migration. (ACR)

  13. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  14. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz; Stepinski, Tadeusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-01

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an array's aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays' elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  15. Design concept and beam optics for a pulsed beam chopper at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, S.; Wangler, T.P.

    1994-12-31

    There has been a recent study at Los Alamos of an upgrade to the LAMPF-PSR linac/accumulator-ring facility for a next generation pulsed neutron spallation source providing 1 MW of average beam power. The 800 MeV H{sup {minus}} beam from the linac must have a chopped structure with approximately 200 ns beam-free segments every 600 ns. This is necessary so that the stacked beam in the ring will not be lost, producing high radioactivation, when the fast extraction magnet is turned on. The required chopping is most easily done at sufficiently low energies, where the beam is easily deflected, and beam powers are not too large, but high enough so that space-charge blow-up of the beam can be controlled with adequate focusing. LAMPF presently uses a traveling-wave beam chopper at 750 keV, before injection into the drift-tube linac. In the new linac design a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac will bunch and accelerate the high-intensity H{sup {minus}} beam from 100 keV to 7 MeV. A new low-energy chopper must be designed to operate either at the 100 keV injection energy, or at the 7 MeV extraction energy to the IGQ. In this paper the authors present a concept for a three-stage 7 MeV, beam-chopper system that deflects, collimates, and restores the high-intensity beam from the RFQ to the nominal beam axis. The beam-optics design is presented, together with numerical simulations of the beam bunches, corresponding to different conditions with respect to the deflecting waveform.

  16. Designing of sparse 2D arrays for Lamb wave imaging using coarray concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ambroziński, Łukasz Stepinski, Tadeusz Uhl, Tadeusz

    2015-03-31

    2D ultrasonic arrays have considerable application potential in Lamb wave based SHM systems, since they enable equivocal damage imaging and even in some cases wave-mode selection. Recently, it has been shown that the 2D arrays can be used in SHM applications in a synthetic focusing (SF) mode, which is much more effective than the classical phase array mode commonly used in NDT. The SF mode assumes a single element excitation of subsequent transmitters and off-line processing the acquired data. In the simplest implementation of the technique, only single multiplexed input and output channels are required, which results in significant hardware simplification. Application of the SF mode for 2D arrays creates additional degrees of freedom during the design of the array topology, which complicates the array design process, however, it enables sparse array designs with performance similar to that of the fully populated dense arrays. In this paper we present the coarray concept to facilitate synthesis process of an array’s aperture used in the multistatic synthetic focusing approach in Lamb waves-based imaging systems. In the coherent imaging, performed in the transmit/receive mode, the sum coarray is a morphological convolution of the transmit/receive sub-arrays. It can be calculated as the set of sums of the individual sub-arrays’ elements locations. The coarray framework will be presented here using a an example of a star-shaped array. The approach will be discussed in terms of beampatterns of the resulting imaging systems. Both simulated and experimental results will be included.

  17. Molecular design concept for x-ray laser research. Progress report, 15 December--30 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.K.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Boyer, K.

    1992-12-10

    The goal of this program is the construction of an x-ray laser in the kilovolt regime. Recent experimental results indicate that a new technique for the generation of strong amplification of x-ray wavelengths is feasible. It involves the combination of (1) a new ultrahigh brightness subpicosecond laser technology and (2) a recently discovered unique mode of strong-field interaction, particularly applicable to molecules. A concept of molecular x-ray design emerges from the considerations which matches the mode of excitation to the structure of the molecular system. The molecular approach enables the combination of very highly electronically excited conditions with an environment characteristic of dense cold matter, a general situation exceptionally conducive to x-ray amplification. Both high efficiency and wavelength tunability are intrinsic features of this method. Recent results discussed in this report are revealing important characteristics of the molecular strong-field coupling pertinent to this goal. A continued program of research is proposed to evaluate this method for the production of x-ray amplification in the kilovolt region.

  18. Designs and concept reliance of a fully automated high-content screening platform.

    PubMed

    Radu, Constantin; Adrar, Hosna Sana; Alamir, Ab; Hatherley, Ian; Trinh, Trung; Djaballah, Hakim

    2012-10-01

    High-content screening (HCS) is becoming an accepted platform in academic and industry screening labs and does require slightly different logistics for execution. To automate our stand-alone HCS microscopes, namely, an alpha IN Cell Analyzer 3000 (INCA3000), originally a Praelux unit hooked to a Hudson Plate Crane with a maximum capacity of 50 plates per run, and the IN Cell Analyzer 2000 (INCA2000), in which up to 320 plates could be fed per run using the Thermo Fisher Scientific Orbitor, we opted for a 4 m linear track system harboring both microscopes, plate washer, bulk dispensers, and a high-capacity incubator allowing us to perform both live and fixed cell-based assays while accessing both microscopes on deck. Considerations in design were given to the integration of the alpha INCA3000, a new gripper concept to access the onboard nest, and peripheral locations on deck to ensure a self-reliant system capable of achieving higher throughput. The resulting system, referred to as Hestia, has been fully operational since the new year, has an onboard capacity of 504 plates, and harbors the only fully automated alpha INCA3000 unit in the world. PMID:22797489

  19. Adaptation of the quality by design concept in early pharmaceutical development of an intranasal nanosized formulation.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory science based pharmaceutical development and product manufacturing is highly recommended by the authorities nowadays. The aim of this study was to adapt regulatory science even in the nano-pharmaceutical early development. Authors applied the quality by design (QbD) concept in the early development phase of nano-systems, where the illustration material was meloxicam. The meloxicam nanoparticles produced by co-grinding method for nasal administration were studied according to the QbD policy and the QbD based risk assessment (RA) was performed. The steps were implemented according to the relevant regulatory guidelines (quality target product profile (QTPP) determination, selection of critical quality attributes (CQAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs)) and a special software (Lean QbD Software(®)) was used for the RA, which represents a novelty in this field. The RA was able to predict and identify theoretically the factors (e.g. sample composition, production method parameters, etc.) which have the highest impact on the desired meloxicam-product quality. The results of the practical research justified the theoretical prediction. This method can improve pharmaceutical nano-developments by achieving shorter development time, lower cost, saving human resource efforts and more effective target-orientation. It makes possible focusing the resources on the selected parameters and area during the practical product development. PMID:26134895

  20. Designs and Concept-Reliance of a Fully Automated High Content Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Constantin; Adrar, Hosna Sana; Alamir, Ab; Hatherley, Ian; Trinh, Trung; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    High content screening (HCS) is becoming an accepted platform in academic and industry screening labs and does require slightly different logistics for execution. To automate our stand alone HCS microscopes, namely an alpha IN Cell Analyzer 3000 (INCA3000) originally a Praelux unit hooked to a Hudson Plate Crane with a maximum capacity of 50 plates per run; and the IN Cell Analyzer 2000 (INCA2000) where up to 320 plates could be fed per run using the Thermo Fisher Scientific Orbitor, we opted for a 4 meter linear track system harboring both microscopes, plate washer, bulk dispensers, and a high capacity incubator allowing us to perform both live and fixed cell based assays while accessing both microscopes on deck. Considerations in design were given to the integration of the alpha INCA3000, a new gripper concept to access the onboard nest, and peripheral locations on deck to ensure a self reliant system capable of achieving higher throughput. The resulting system, referred to as Hestia, has been fully operational since the New Year, has an onboard capacity of 504 plates, and harbors the only fully automated alpha INCA3000 unit in the World. PMID:22797489

  1. Advanced concepts for a 1200-kV shunt reactor. Volume I. Exploration of new concepts for inductive shunt reactor designs for integration into a 1200-kV gas insulated substation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-27

    The objective of this program is to explore new concepts for inductive shunt reactor designs for integration into a 1200 kV gas insulated substation. The most promising design should exhibit low dimensional profile with reduced weight, lower losses, and lower noise level when compared with units of equivalent rating designed with present day technology. To meet the objectives several advanced concepts of shunt reactor design were studied. The major concepts explored in this project reactor design were studied. The major concepts explored in this project included: sulfur hexafluoride gas insulated, foil type windings, high reluctance core materials, and heat transfer via the gaseous medium. As a result of the study, a shunt reactor was designed through an application of the advanced concepts with the conclusions that the program objectives could be attained.

  2. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jacky C. Prucz; Samir N. Shoukry; Gergis W. William

    2005-08-31

    vehicles. The research work planed for the first year of this project (June 1, 2003 through May 30, 2004) focused on a theoretical investigation of weight benefits and structural performance tradeoffs associated with the design, fabrication, and joining of MMC components for heavy-duty vehicles. This early research work conducted at West Virginia University yielded the development of integrated material-structural models that predicted marginal benefits and significant barriers to MMC applications in heavy trailers. The results also indicated that potential applications of MMC materials in heavy vehicles are limited to components identified as critical for either loadings or weight savings. Therefore, the scope of the project was expanded in the following year (June 1, 2004 through May 30, 2005) focused on expanding the lightweight material-structural design concepts for heavy vehicles from the component to the system level. Thus, the following objectives were set: (1) Devise and evaluate lightweight structural configurations for heavy vehicles. (2) Study the feasibility of using Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for critical structural components and joints in heavy vehicles. (3) Develop analysis tools, methods, and validated test data for comparative assessments of innovative design and joining concepts. (4) Develop analytical models and software for durability predictions of typical heavy vehicle components made of particulate MMC or fiber-reinforced composites. This report summarizes the results of the research work conducted during the past two years in this projects.

  3. A computer modeling methodology and tool for assessing design concepts for the Space Station Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A computer modeling tool is being developed to assess candidate designs for the Space Station Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is to be a complex distributed computer system including the processor, storage devices, local area networks, and software that will support all processing functions onboard the Space Station. The modeling tool will allow a candidate design for the DMS, or for other subsystems that use the DMS, to be evaluated in terms of parameters. The tool and its associated modeling methodology are intended for use by DMS and subsystem designers to perform tradeoff analyses between design concepts using varied architectures and technologies.

  4. Study of structural design concepts for an arrow wing supersonic transport configuration, volume 1. Tasks 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A structural design study was made, based on a 1975 level of technology, to assess the relative merits of structural concepts and materials for an advanced supersonic transport cruising at Mach 2.7. Preliminary studies were made to insure compliance of the configuration with general design criteria, to integrate the propulsion system with the airframe, to select structural concepts and materials, and to define an efficient structural arrangement. An advanced computerized structural design system was used, in conjunction with a relatively large, complex finite element model, for detailed analysis and sizing of structural members to satisfy strength and flutter criteria. A baseline aircraft design was developed for assessment of current technology and for use in future studies of aerostructural trades, and application of advanced technology. Criteria, analysis methods, and results are presented.

  5. Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

  6. A Constructivist Approach to Designing Computer Supported Concept-Mapping Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Li Siu

    2006-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a proliferation of research activities on exploring the use of concept maps to support teaching and learning of various knowledge disciplines which range from science to language subjects. MindNet, which is a collaborative concept mapping environment that supports both synchronous and asynchronous modes of…

  7. Blended Learning in Vocational Education: Teachers' Conceptions of Blended Learning and Their Approaches to Teaching and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Casey, Grant; Bachfischer, Agnieszka; Goodyear, Peter; Ellis, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research exploring teachers' experiences of using blended learning in vocational education. Teachers involved in designing and teaching using blended learning from a major Australian vocational education provider participated in the study. They received open-ended questionnaires asking to describe their conceptions of blended…

  8. Designing the Self: The Transformation of the Relational Self-Concept through Social Encounters in a Virtual Immersive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutzen, K. Brant; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a 3-month study on how social encounters mediated by an online Virtual Immersive Environment (VIE) impacted on the relational self-concept of adolescents. The study gathered data from two groups of students as they took an Introduction to Design and Programming class. Students in group 1 undertook course…

  9. Effects of the Wisconsin Reading Design Comprehension Program on Reading Achievement and Self-Concept of Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negley, Sandra Anne

    The main purpose of this study was to determine and describe the effects of the comprehension component of the criterion-referenced reading program, Wisconsin Design for Reading Skills Development (WDRSD), on reading achievement and self-concept of sixth-grade students. Parametric techniques were employed in a quasi-experimental study involving 44…

  10. Design and performance at a local Mach number of 6 of an inlet for an integrated Scramjet concept. [wind tunnel models - aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trexler, C. A.; Souders, S. W.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a concept for a modular supersonic combustion ramjet which is designed to integrate with the airframe of a hypersonic vehicle is presented. The design philosophy and results of experiments at Mach 6 to evaluate the performance of the scramjet inlet are given. The inlet was designed with modest contraction ratio, fixed geometry, and three fuel injection struts which contributed to the inlet flow compression and provided a short combustor design that resulted in low internal cooling requirements. Results indicate that the inlet performance is well within the acceptable range for high engine performance.

  11. LWR codes capability to address SFR BDBA scenarios: Modeling of the ABCOVE tests

    SciTech Connect

    Herranz, L. E.; Garcia, M.; Morandi, S.

    2012-07-01

    The sound background built-up in LWR source term analysis in case of a severe accident, make it worth to check the capability of LWR safety analysis codes to model accident SFR scenarios, at least in some areas. This paper gives a snapshot of such predictability in the area of aerosol behavior in containment. To do so, the AB-5 test of the ABCOVE program has been modeled with 3 LWR codes: ASTEC, ECART and MELCOR. Through the search of a best estimate scenario and its comparison to data, it is concluded that even in the specific case of in-containment aerosol behavior, some enhancements would be needed in the LWR codes and/or their application, particularly with respect to consideration of particle shape. Nonetheless, much of the modeling presently embodied in LWR codes might be applicable to SFR scenarios. These conclusions should be seen as preliminary as long as comparisons are not extended to more experimental scenarios. (authors)

  12. OSCAR-Na: A New Code for Simulating Corrosion Product Contamination in SFR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génin, J.-B.; Brissonneau, L.; Gilardi, T.

    2016-07-01

    A code named OSCAR-Na has been developed to calculate the mass transfer of corrosion products in the primary circuit of sodium fast reactors (SFR). It is based on a solution/precipitation model, including diffusion in the steel (enhanced under irradiation), diffusion through the sodium boundary layer, equilibrium concentration of each element, and velocity of the interface (bulk corrosion or deposition). The code uses a numerical method for solving the diffusion equation in the steel and the complete mass balance in sodium for all elements. Corrosion and deposition rates are mainly determined by the iron equilibrium concentration in sodium and its oxygen-enhanced dissolution rate. All parameters of the model have been assessed from a literature review, but iron solubility had to be adjusted. A simplified primary system description of PHENIX French SFR was able to assess the correct amounts and profiles of contamination on heat exchanger surfaces for the main radionuclides.

  13. Design and evaluation of low-cost laminated wood composite blades for intermediate size wind turbines: Blade design, fabrication concept, and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieblein, S.; Gaugeon, M.; Thomas, G.; Zueck, M.

    1982-01-01

    As part of a program to reduce wind turbine costs, an evaluation was conducted of a laminated wood composite blade for the Mod-OA 200 kW wind turbine. The effort included the design and fabrication concept for the blade, together with cost and load analyses. The blade structure is composed of laminated Douglas fir veneers for the primary spar and nose sections, and honeycomb cored plywood panels for the trailing edges sections. The attachment of the wood blade to the rotor hub was through load takeoff studs bonded into the blade root. Tests were conducted on specimens of the key structural components to verify the feasibility of the concept. It is concluded that the proposed wood composite blade design and fabrication concept is suitable for Mod-OA size turbines (125-ft diameter rotor) at a cost that is very competitive with other methods of manufacture.

  14. Design Concepts for Co-Production of Power, Fuels & Chemicals Via Coal/Biomass Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, A. D.; Chen, Q.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of the program is to develop design concepts, incorporating advanced technologies in areas such as oxygen production, feed systems, gas cleanup, component separations and gas turbines, for integrated and economically viable coal and biomass fed gasification facilities equipped with carbon capture and storage for the following scenarios: (i) coproduction of power along with hydrogen, (ii) coproduction of power along with fuels, (iii) coproduction of power along with petrochemicals, and (iv) coproduction of power along with agricultural chemicals. To achieve this goal, specifically the following objectives are met in this proposed project: (i) identify advanced technology options and innovative preliminary design concepts that synergistically integrate plant subsections, (ii) develop steady state system simulations to predict plant efficiency and environmental signature, (iii) develop plant cost estimates by capacity factoring major subsystems or by major equipment items where required, and then capital, operating and maintenance cost estimates, and (iv) perform techno- economic analyses for the above described coproduction facilities. Thermal efficiencies for the electricity only cases with 90% carbon capture are 38.26% and 36.76% (HHV basis) with the bituminous and the lignite feedstocks respectively. For the coproduction cases (where 50% of the energy exported is in the form of electricity), the electrical efficiency, as expected, is highest for the hydrogen coproduction cases while lowest for the higher alcohols (ethanol) coproduction cases. The electrical efficiencies for Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases are slightly higher than those for the methanol coproduction cases but it should be noted that the methanol (as well as the higher alcohol) coproduction cases produce the finished coproduct while the Fischer-Tropsch coproduction cases produce a coproduct that requires further processing in a refinery. The cross comparison of the thermal

  15. A novel design concept for space-based polar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Malcolm; Anderson, Pamela; Warren, Carl

    2012-09-01

    Space-based remote sensing of the Earth is conducted from a fleet of spacecraft in two basic orbital positions, near-polar low-Earth orbits and geosynchronous orbits, with each offering its own advantages and disadvantages. Low-Earth orbits provide high-resolution observations at the expense of large-scale contextual information, while geosynchronous orbits provide near-global, continuous coverage at reduced resolutions. However, due to the rapidly decreasing horizontal resolution data-products derived from geosynchronous orbits are of degraded value beyond approximately 55 degrees of latitude. A novel mission design is introduced to enable continuous observation of all longitudes at latitudes between 55 and 90 degrees with an observation zenith angle of less than 60 degrees, without the use of composite images. A single Soyuz launch is used to deliver three spacecraft to 12-hr, highly eccentric true-polar orbits with apogee at 40170 km and electric propulsion is used to maintain the orbit apse-line coincident with the Earth's poles. It is shown that the science payload mass can be traded against the mission duration, with a payload mass varying between 120 - 90 kg for mission durations between 3 - 5 years, respectively. It is further shown that the payload would have approximately of 2kW of power available during operations as the electric propulsion system is not operated at these times. Whilst the payload mass is less than a typical remote sensing platform in geosynchronous orbit it is considered that the concept would offer an excellent technology demonstrator mission for operational missions, whilst also enabling unique and valuable science.

  16. A Potential Operational CryoSat Follow-on Mission Concept and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.

    2015-12-01

    CryoSat was a planned as a 3 year mission with clear mission objectives to allow the assessment rates of change of thickness in the land and marine ice fields with reduced uncertainties with relation to other non-dedicated missions. Although CryoSat suffered a launch failure in Oct 2005, the mission was recovered with a launch in April 2010 of CryoSat-2. The nominal mission has now been completed, all mission requirements have been fulfilled and CryoSat has been shown to be most successful as a dedicated polar ice sheet measurement system demonstrated by nearly 200 peer reviewed publications within the first four years of launch. Following the completion of the nominal mission in Oct 2013 the platform was shown to be in good health and with a scientific backing provided by the ESA Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) the mission has been extended until Feb 2017 by the ESA Programme Board for Earth Observation. Though not designed to provide data for science and operational services beyond its original mission requirements, a number of services have been developed for exploitation and these are expected to increase over the next few years. Services cover a number of aspects of land and marine ice fields in addition to complementary activities covering glacial monitoring, inland water in addition to coastal and open ocean surface topography science that CryoSat has demonstrated world leading advances with. This paper will present the overall concept for a potential low-cost follow-on to the CryoSat mission with the objective to provide both continuity of the existing CryoSat based data sets, i.e., longer term science and operational services that cannot be provided by the existing Copernicus complement of satellites. This is, in part, due to the high inclination (92°) drifting orbit and state of the art Synthetic Aperture Interferometer Radar Altimeter (SIRAL). In addition, further improvements in performance are expected by use of the instrument timing and

  17. Innovative Structural and Joining Concepts for Lightweight Design of Heavy Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Prucz, Jacky C; Shoukry, Samir N; William, Gergis W; Evans, Thomas H

    2006-09-30

    The extensive research and development effort was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2002 at West Virginia University (WVU) in order to investigate practical ways of reducing the structural weight and increasing the durability of heavy vehicles through the judicious use of lightweight composite materials. While this project was initially focused on specific Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) material, namely Aluminum/Silicon Carbide (Al/SiC) commercially referenced as ''LANXIDE'', the current research effort was expanded from the component level to the system level and from MMC to other composite material systems. Broadening the scope of this research is warranted not only by the structural and economical deficiencies of the ''LANXIDE'' MMC material, but also by the strong coupling that exists between the material and the geometric characteristics of the structure. Such coupling requires a truly integrated design approach, focused on the heaviest sections of a van trailer. Obviously, the lightweight design methods developed in this study will not be implemented by the commercial industry unless the weight savings are indeed impressive and proven to be economically beneficial in the context of Life Cycle Costs (LCC). ''Bulk Haul'' carriers run their vehicles at maximum certified weight, so that each pound saved in structural weight would translate into additional pound of cargo, and fewer vehicles necessary to transport a given amount of freight. It is reasonable to ascertain that a typical operator would be ready to pay a premium of about $3-4 for every additional pound of cargo, or every pound saved in structural weight. The overall scope of this project is to devise innovative, lightweight design and joining concepts for heavy vehicle structures, including cost effective applications of components made of metal matrix composite (MMC) and other composite materials in selected sections of such systems. The major findings generated by this research effort

  18. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  19. A Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Actuator using a Persistent High Temperature Superconducting Magnet, Part 1: Concept and Design. Part 1; Concept and Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, Garnett C.; Bromberg, Leslie; Teter, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Cryogenic magnetostrictive materials, such as rare earth zinc crystals, offer high strains and high forces with minimally applied magnetic fields, making the material ideally suited for deformable optics applications. For cryogenic temperature applications, such as Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST), the use of superconducting magnets offer the possibility of a persistent mode of operation, i.e., the magnetostrictive material will maintain a strain field without power. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are attractive options if the temperature of operation is higher than 10 degrees Kelvin (K) and below 77 K. However, HTS wires have constraints that limit the minimum radius of winding, and even if good wires can be produced, the technology for joining superconducting wires does not exist. In this paper, the design and capabilities of a rare earth zinc magnetostrictive actuator using bulk HTS is described. Bulk superconductors can be fabricated in the sizes required with excellent superconducting properties. Equivalent permanent magnets, made with this inexpensive material, are persistent, do not require a persistent switch as in HTS wires, and can be made very small. These devices are charged using a technique which is similar to the one used for charging permanent magnets, e.g., by driving them into saturation. A small normal conducting coil can be used for charging or discharging. Very fast charging and discharging of HTS tubes, as short as 100 microseconds, has been demonstrated. Because of the magnetic field capability of the superconductor material, a very small amount of superconducting magnet material is needed to actuate the rare earth zinc. In this paper, several designs of actuators using YBCO and BSCCO 2212 superconducting materials are presented. Designs that include magnetic shielding to prevent interaction between adjacent actuators will also be described. Preliminary experimental results and comparison with theory for BSSCO 2212 with a

  20. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. Volume 3, Process in-place/leave in-place concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  1. Computer-aided design of large-scale integrated circuits - A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schansman, T. T.

    1971-01-01

    Circuit design and mask development sequence are improved by using general purpose computer with interactive graphics capability establishing efficient two way communications link between design engineer and system. Interactive graphics capability places design engineer in direct control of circuit development.

  2. One-Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Stratification in AHTR and SFR Coolant Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2007-10-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are very common in pool type reactor systems, such as the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) and liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems such as the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). It is important to accurately predict the temperature and density distributions both for design optimation and accident analysis. Current major reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP5 (for LWR’s, and recently extended to analyze high temperature reactors), TRAC (for LWR’s), and SASSYS (for liquid metal fast reactors) only provide lumped-volume based models which can only give very approximate results and can only handle simple cases with one mixing source. While 2-D or 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide for studying the reactor response to transients due to computational expense. Therefore, new methods are needed to support design optimization and safety analysis of Generation IV pool type reactor systems. Previous scaling has shown that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code was originally developed at UC Berkeley to implement such ideas. This code solves mixing and heat transfer problems in stably stratified enclosures. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. By including liquid salt properties, BMIX++ code is

  3. Design and Control of a Proof-of-Concept Active Jet Engine Intake Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing; Ma, Ning; Penney, Nicholas; Barr, Todd; Lee, Ho-Jun; Arnold, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    The design and control of a novel proof-of-concept active jet engine intake using Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti or Nitinol) shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators is used to demonstrate the potential of an adaptive intake to improve the fuel efficiency of a jet engine. The Nitinol SMA material is selected for this research due to the material's ability to generate large strains of up to 5 percent for repeated operations, a high power-to-weight ratio, electrical resistive actuation, and easy fabrication into a variety of shapes. The proof-of-concept engine intake employs an overlapping leaf design arranged in a concentric configuration. Each leaf is mounted on a supporting bar that rotates upon actuation by SMA wires electrical resistive heating. Feedback control is enabled through the use of a laser range sensor to detect the movement of a leaf and determine the radius of the intake area. Due to the hysteresis behavior inherent in SMAs, a nonlinear robust controller is used to direct the SMA wire actuation. The controller design utilizes the sliding-mode approach to compensate for the nonlinearities associated with the SMA actuator. Feedback control experiments conducted on a fabricated proof-of-concept model have demonstrated the capability to precisely control the intake area and achieve up to a 25 percent reduction in intake area. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of engine intake area control using the proposed design.

  4. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  5. Trajectory-Based Takeoff Time Predictions Applied to Tactical Departure Scheduling: Concept Description, System Design, and Initial Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Current aircraft departure release times are based on manual estimates of aircraft takeoff times. Uncertainty in takeoff time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route streams and lead to lost throughput. However, technology exists to improve takeoff time estimates by using the aircraft surface trajectory predictions that enable air traffic control tower (ATCT) decision support tools. NASA s Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) is designed to use automated surface trajectory-based takeoff time estimates to improve en route tactical departure scheduling. This is accomplished by integrating an ATCT decision support tool with an en route tactical departure scheduling decision support tool. The PDRC concept and prototype software have been developed, and an initial test was completed at air traffic control facilities in Dallas/Fort Worth. This paper describes the PDRC operational concept, system design, and initial observations.

  6. Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof-of-concept system functional design I/O network system services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The function design of the Input/Output (I/O) services for the Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) proof of concept system is described. The data flow diagrams, which show the functional processes in I/O services and the data that flows among them, are contained. A complete list of the data identified on the data flow diagrams and in the process descriptions are provided.

  7. Integrating Multimedia Instructional Design Principles with Complex Physiological Concepts in Reproductive Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oki, Angela Christine

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effect of digital multimedia presentations as a method to teach complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The digital presentations developed for this research consisted of two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) animations, scriptmessaging and narration. The topics were "Mammalian Ovarian…

  8. Designing and Teaching Business & Society Courses from a Threshold Concept Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Natalia; Smith, Renae; Spetic, Wellington

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the redesign of an undergraduate course in Business & Society using a threshold concept approach. Business & Society courses may be troublesome for students because they depart from the premise that business is limited to creating value for shareholders. We argue that Business & Society courses contain a web of…

  9. Variably spaced superlattice energy filter, a new device design concept for high-energy electron injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, C. J.; Brennan, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    A new variably spaced superlattice energy filter is proposed which provides high-energy injection of electrons into a bulk semiconductor layer based on resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum well levels which are brought into alignment by an applied bias. Applications of this concept to a variety of optoelectronic devices and to thin-film electroluminescent devices and photodetectors are discussed.

  10. Designs of Concept Maps and Their Impacts on Readers' Performance in Memory and Reasoning while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzeng, Jeng-Yi

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fuzzy Trace Theory, this study investigated the impacts of concept maps with two strategic orientations (comprehensive and thematic representations) on readers' performance of cognitive operations (such as perception, verbatim memory, gist reasoning and syntheses) while the readers were reading two history articles that…

  11. Designing and Redesigning a Framework for Assessing Students' Understanding of Foundational Fractions Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendiburo, Maria; Williams, Laura; Henson, Robert; Hasselbring, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The fact that research has shown that fractions are among the most difficult mathematical concepts for elementary school students to master (Behr, Harel, Post, & Lesh, 1992; Bezuk & Cramer, 1989; Moss & Case, 1999) provides a compelling motivation for research and innovation focused on improving the available assessment and…

  12. Backtracking to Policy Design (Un retour au point de conception de la politique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Hanne B.

    The diverse literature on policy design and policy instruments is reviewed in this paper, which also addresses such issues as the definition of a policy design perspective, the categorization and variables of policy instruments, and improvement of the design process. The first part presents a general discussion of the perspective of policy…

  13. From Concept to Software: Developing a Framework for Understanding the Process of Software Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punyashloke; Zhao, Yong; Tan, Sophia

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of technological innovation and the process of design focuses on the design of computer software. Offers a framework for understanding the design process by examining two computer programs: FliPS, a multimedia program for learning complex problems in chemistry; and Tiger, a Web-based program for managing and publishing electronic…

  14. A concept design of three rudders-shaped like body in columns for low-drag USV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzeri, M. N.; Adnan, F. A.; Adi, M.; Zain, M. Z. Md

    2016-06-01

    This paper presented a new design for the unmanned surface vessel (USV) platform with a self-manoeuvring system which is capable of collecting the same data as a hydrography boat. This platform was designed with three hulls that were placed in triangle position. The hulls designed were in the form of rudders-shape and were vertically placed as a slender body shape using NACA 64-0012 profile. This provides the USV with low-drag characteristic. The application of stability and resistance theories investigated the effect of the configuration position of the three hulls for this platform. The results revealed that a larger configuration distance between the three hulls will lead to a reduction in resistance and the platform will be in highly stable condition. The relationships derived from these findings should produce a stable and low-drag platform to accomplish the design concept of three rudders-shaped like body in columns for low-drag USV. This concept may help us to accomplish the design requirements that are related to low-drag and minimum power operation.

  15. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  16. Designing a concept for an IT-infrastructure for an integrated research and treatment center.

    PubMed

    Stäubert, Sebastian; Winter, Alfred; Speer, Ronald; Löffler, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare and medical research in Germany are heading to more interconnected systems. New initiatives are funded by the German government to encourage the development of Integrated Research and Treatment Centers (IFB). Within an IFB new organizational structures and infrastructures for interdisciplinary, translational and trans-sectoral working relationship between existing rigid separated sectors are intended and needed. This paper describes how an IT-infrastructure of an IFB could look like, what major challenges have to be solved and what methods can be used to plan such a complex IT-infrastructure in the field of healthcare. By means of project management, system analyses, process models, 3LGM2-models and resource plans an appropriate concept with different views is created. This concept supports the information management in its enterprise architecture planning activities and implies a first step of implementing a connected healthcare and medical research platform. PMID:20841898

  17. Modeling, simulation, and concept design for hybrid-electric medium-size military trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzoni, Giorgio; Josephson, John R.; Soliman, Ahmed; Hubert, Christopher; Cantemir, Codrin-Gruie; Dembski, Nicholas; Pisu, Pierluigi; Mikesell, David; Serrao, Lorenzo; Russell, James; Carroll, Mark

    2005-05-01

    A large scale design space exploration can provide valuable insight into vehicle design tradeoffs being considered for the U.S. Army"s FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles). Through a grant from TACOM (Tank-automotive and Armaments Command), researchers have generated detailed road, surface, and grade conditions representative of the performance criteria of this medium-sized truck and constructed a virtual powertrain simulator for both conventional and hybrid variants. The simulator incorporates the latest technology among vehicle design options, including scalable ultracapacitor and NiMH battery packs as well as a variety of generator and traction motor configurations. An energy management control strategy has also been developed to provide efficiency and performance. A design space exploration for the family of vehicles involves running a large number of simulations with systematically varied vehicle design parameters, where each variant is paced through several different mission profiles and multiple attributes of performance are measured. The resulting designs are filtered to remove dominated designs, exposing the multi-criterial surface of optimality (Pareto optimal designs), and revealing the design tradeoffs as they impact vehicle performance and economy. The results are not yet definitive because ride and drivability measures were not included, and work is not finished on fine-tuning the modeled dynamics of some powertrain components. However, the work so far completed demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to design space exploration, and the results to date suggest the powertrain configuration best suited to the FMTV mission.

  18. Concept design and alternate arrangements of orbiter mid-deck habitability features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Church, R. A.; Ciciora, J. A.; Porter, K. L.; Stevenson, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The evaluations and recommendations for habitability features in the space shuttle orbiter mid-deck are summarized. The orbiter mission plans, the mid-deck dimensions and baseline arrangements along with crew compliments and typical activities were defined. Female and male anthropometric data based on zero-g operations were also defined. Evaluations of baseline and alternate feasible concepts provided several recommendations which are discussed.

  19. Concepts for the design of a completely active helicopter isolation system using output vector feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, G.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of output vector feedback (a few measured quantities) is used to derive completely active oscillation isolation functions for helicopters. These feedback controller concepts are tested with various versions of the BO 105 helicopter and their performance is demonstrated. A compensation of the vibrational excitations from the rotor and harmonics of the number of blades are considered. There is also a fast and automatic trim function for maneuvers.

  20. A generic concept to overcome bandgap limitations for designing highly efficient multi-junction photovoltaic cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Fei; Li, Ning; Fecher, Frank W.; Gasparini, Nicola; Quiroz, Cesar Omar Ramirez; Bronnbauer, Carina; Hou, Yi; Radmilović, Vuk V.; Radmilović, Velimir R.; Spiecker, Erdmann; Forberich, Karen; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    The multi-junction concept is the most relevant approach to overcome the Shockley–Queisser limit for single-junction photovoltaic cells. The record efficiencies of several types of solar technologies are held by series-connected tandem configurations. However, the stringent current-matching criterion presents primarily a material challenge and permanently requires developing and processing novel semiconductors with desired bandgaps and thicknesses. Here we report a generic concept to alleviate this limitation. By integrating series- and parallel-interconnections into a triple-junction configuration, we find significantly relaxed material selection and current-matching constraints. To illustrate the versatile applicability of the proposed triple-junction concept, organic and organic-inorganic hybrid triple-junction solar cells are constructed by printing methods. High fill factors up to 68% without resistive losses are achieved for both organic and hybrid triple-junction devices. Series/parallel triple-junction cells with organic, as well as perovskite-based subcells may become a key technology to further advance the efficiency roadmap of the existing photovoltaic technologies. PMID:26177808