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Sample records for shared worldview mental

  1. Vantage Theory, Statistics and the Mental Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niewiara, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates Polish punk and hip hop (rap) song lyrics broken down into frequency lists. In an analysis inspired by MacLaury's view of categorization, the construals of punk and hip hop worldviews are shown to vary in the distance of the observer from the world, the width of the viewing frame, as well as the granularity and density of…

  2. Spiritual Exchange in Pluralistic Contexts: Sharing Narratives across Worldview Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Bachenheimer, Aaron; Conley, Abigail Holland; Grays, Shaefny

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in narrative inquiry, this study explored the ways in which graduate and undergraduate students representing different worldview identities come together in dyads to share stories that reflect their existential and spiritual development. The study revealed two contrasting types of exchange: (1) deep, personal exchanges that involved a…

  3. Multicultural Counseling and Qualitative Research: Shared Worldview and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Niloufer; Dupuy, Paula

    1996-01-01

    Identifies similarities between multicultural counseling competencies and the basic assumptions and methodology of qualitative research. Examines how various characteristics shared by these two approaches (i.e., using appropriate strategies and skills) are addressed under aspects of qualitative research, such as selection of the research question…

  4. Team Learning: Building Shared Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Bossche, Piet; Gijselaers, Wim; Segers, Mien; Woltjer, Geert; Kirschner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight in the social processes that underlie knowledge sharing in teams, this article questions which team learning behaviors lead to the construction of a shared mental model. Additionally, it explores how the development of shared mental models mediates the relation between team learning behaviors and team effectiveness. Analyses were…

  5. The Conceptual Framework of Factors Affecting Shared Mental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Miyoung; Johnson, Tristan; Lee, Youngmin; O'Connor, Debra; Khalil, Mohammed

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have paid attention to the potentiality and possibility of the shared mental model because it enables teammates to perform their job better by sharing team knowledge, skills, attitudes, dynamics and environments. Even though theoretical and experimental evidences provide a close relationship between the shared mental model and…

  6. Measuring Team Shared Understanding Using the Analysis-Constructed Shared Mental Model Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tristan E.; O'Connor, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Teams are an essential part of successful performance in learning and work environments. Analysis-constructed shared mental model (ACSMM) methodology is a set of techniques where individual mental models are elicited and sharedness is determined not by the individuals who provided their mental models but by an analytical procedure. This method…

  7. A Yupiaq Worldview: A Pathway to Ecology and Spirit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawagley, A. Oscar

    Written from a Yupiaq perspective, this book examines and compares Yupiaq and Western worldviews and their relationship to the learning and use of scientific knowledge. Chapter 1 discusses shared characteristics of the worldviews of Alaska Natives and then focuses specifically on the Yupiaq worldview, which is based on maintaining a balance among…

  8. Conceptualizing Death in a Worldview Consistent, Meaningful Way and Its Effects on Worldview Defense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Research within terror management theory (TMT) has shown that when mortality is made salient, people subsequently engage in worldview defense: an increase in derogation of an individual who does not share their worldview along with an increase in veneration of an individual who does. Research has also shown that high levels of self-esteem (either…

  9. Sharing mental simulations and stories: Hippocampal contributions to discourse integration

    PubMed Central

    Race, Elizabeth; Keane, Margaret M.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mental simulation of the future and past relies on common processes supported by the hippocampus. However, it is currently unknown whether the hippocampus also supports the ability to share these mental simulations with others. Recently, it has been proposed that language and language-related structures in the brain are particularly important for communicating information not tied to the immediate environment, and indeed specifically evolved so that humans could share their mental time travels into the future and the past with others. The current study investigated whether processes supported by the hippocampus are necessary for effectively communicating the contents of one's mental simulations by examining the discourse of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe damage. In Experiment 1 we tested whether patients can produce integrated discourse about future and past events by measuring lower-level discourse cohesion and higher-level discourse coherence. Striking reductions in both measures were observed in amnesic patients’ narratives about novel future events and experienced past events. To investigate whether these deficits simply reflected concurrent reductions in narrative content, in Experiment 2 we examined the status of discourse integration in patients’ verbal narratives about pictures, which contained an equivalent amount of narrative content as controls’. Discourse cohesion and coherence deficits were also present when patients generated narratives based on pictures, and these deficits did not depend on the presence of neural damage outside the hippocampus. Together, these results reveal a pervasive linguistic integration deficit in amnesia that is not limited to discourse about the past or the future and is not simply secondary to reductions in narrative content. More broadly, this study demonstrates that the hippocampus supports the integration of individual narrative elements into coherent and cohesive

  10. Team Knowledge Sharing Intervention Effects on Team Shared Mental Models and Student Performance in an Undergraduate Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikorski, Eric G.; Johnson, Tristan E.; Ruscher, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared mental model (SMM) based intervention on student team mental model similarity and ultimately team performance in an undergraduate meteorology course. The team knowledge sharing (TKS) intervention was designed to promote team reflection, communication, and improvement planning.…

  11. The Relationship between Shared Mental Models and Task Performance in an Online Team- Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tristan E.; Lee, Youngmin

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to better understand learning teams, this study examines the effects of shared mental models on team and individual performance. The results indicate that each team's shared mental model changed significantly over the time that subjects participated in team-based learning activities. The results also showed that the shared mental…

  12. Science, Worldviews, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauch, Hugh G., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Whether science can reach conclusions with substantial worldview import, such as whether supernatural beings exist or the universe is purposeful, is a significant but unsettled aspect of science. For instance, various scientists, philosophers, and educators have explored the implications of science for a theistic worldview, with opinions spanning…

  13. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  14. Two Cheers for Worldview: A Response to Elmer John Thiessen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James K. A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents Smith's response to Elmer John Thiessen's review of his book "Desiring the Kingdom." Before attending to specific concerns, the author first begins with an affirmation that he shares with Thiessen: He, too, found "worldview thinking" to be revolutionary. He said he is a whole-hearted worldview convert, as it were. Smith…

  15. Science, Worldviews, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauch, Hugh G.

    2009-06-01

    Whether science can reach conclusions with substantial worldview import, such as whether supernatural beings exist or the universe is purposeful, is a significant but unsettled aspect of science. For instance, various scientists, philosophers, and educators have explored the implications of science for a theistic worldview, with opinions spanning the spectrum from positive to neutral to negative. To delineate a mainstream perspective on science, seven key characterizations or “pillars” of science are adopted from position papers from the world’s largest scientific organization, the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Based on those pillars and an examination of scientific method, I argue that the presuppositions and reasoning of science can and should be worldview independent, but empirical and public evidence from the sciences and humanities can support conclusions that are worldview distinctive. I also critique several problematic perspectives: asserting that science can say nothing about worldviews and the opposite extreme of insisting that science decisively supports one particular worldview; weakening science so severely that it lacks truth claims; and burdening science with unnecessary presuppositions. Worldview-distinctive conclusions based on empirical evidence are suitable for individual convictions and public discussions, but not for institutional endorsements and scientific literacy requirements.

  16. Blurry Worldview: Understanding Myopia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worldview Wise Choices Links To Correct Myopia Prescription lenses , either eyeglasses or contacts, are precisely curved to ... that light hits the retina properly. Phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs), a new option for people who are ...

  17. The importance of shared mental models and shared situation awareness for transforming robots from tools to teammates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ososky, Scott; Schuster, David; Jentsch, Florian; Fiore, Stephen; Shumaker, Randall; Lebiere, Christian; Kurup, Unmesh; Oh, Jean; Stentz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    Current ground robots are largely employed via tele-operation and provide their operators with useful tools to extend reach, improve sensing, and avoid dangers. To move from robots that are useful as tools to truly synergistic human-robot teaming, however, will require not only greater technical capabilities among robots, but also a better understanding of the ways in which the principles of teamwork can be applied from exclusively human teams to mixed teams of humans and robots. In this respect, a core characteristic that enables successful human teams to coordinate shared tasks is their ability to create, maintain, and act on a shared understanding of the world and the roles of the team and its members in it. The team performance literature clearly points towards two important cornerstones for shared understanding of team members: mental models and situation awareness. These constructs have been investigated as products of teams as well; amongst teams, they are shared mental models and shared situation awareness. Consequently, we are studying how these two constructs can be measured and instantiated in human-robot teams. In this paper, we report results from three related efforts that are investigating process and performance outcomes for human robot teams. Our investigations include: (a) how human mental models of tasks and teams change whether a teammate is human, a service animal, or an advanced automated system; (b) how computer modeling can lead to mental models being instantiated and used in robots; (c) how we can simulate the interactions between human and future robotic teammates on the basis of changes in shared mental models and situation assessment.

  18. Relationships of Shared Decision Making with Parental Perceptions of Child Mental Health Functioning and Care

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Bridget; Titus, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    Experts encourage parents and practitioners to engage in shared decision making (SDM) to provide high quality child mental health care. However, little is known regarding SDM among families of children with common mental health conditions. The objectives of this study were to examine associations between parental report of SDM and parental perceptions of (a) receiving child mental health care and (b) child mental health functioning. We analyzed cross-sectional data on children with a common mental health condition (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant or conduct disorder, anxiety, or depression) from the 2009/2010 National Survey of Children with Special Healthcare Needs (N = 9,434). The primary independent variable was parent-reported SDM, and the dependent variables were parental perception of (a) their child receiving all needed mental health care (b) their children's impairment in school attendance and extracurricular activity participation, and (c) severity of their children's mental health condition. Multivariate logistic and multinomial regression analyses were conducted. Greater parent-reported SDM was associated with parental perceptions of receiving all needed child mental health care and children not having school or extracurricular impairment. Greater SDM was also associated with perceptions of children having a mild mental health condition compared to children having a moderate or severe condition. Findings provide a basis for future longitudinal and intervention studies to examine the benefit of SDM for improving parental perceptions of the quality of child mental health care and mental health functioning among children with common mental health conditions. PMID:25577238

  19. The influence of shared mental models on team process and performance.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, J E; Heffner, T S; Goodwin, G F; Salas, E; Cannon-Bowers, J A

    2000-04-01

    The influence of teammates' shared mental models on team processes and performance was tested using 56 undergraduate dyads who "flew" a series of missions on a personal-computer-based flight-combat simulation. The authors both conceptually and empirically distinguished between teammates' task- and team-based mental models and indexed their convergence or "sharedness" using individually completed paired-comparisons matrices analyzed using a network-based algorithm. The results illustrated that both shared-team- and task-based mental models related positively to subsequent team process and performance. Furthermore, team processes fully mediated the relationship between mental model convergence and team effectiveness. Results are discussed in terms of the role of shared cognitions in team effectiveness and the applicability of different interventions designed to achieve such convergence. PMID:10783543

  20. Worldview: Some Unanswered Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Christian worldview thinking has become an increasingly prominent framework for thinking about education since its uptake by a new and rapidly growing constituency of Evangelicals. On the surface this popular surge vindicates the methodology yet the literature demonstrates a concerning lack of engagement with apparently debilitating critiques…

  1. Underlying Mechanisms in the Relationship Between Africentric Worldview and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Neblett, Enrique W.; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines underlying mechanisms in the relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms. Participants were 112 African American young adults. An Africentric worldview buffered the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms was mediated by perceived stress and emotion-focused coping. These findings highlight the protective function of an Africentric worldview in the context of African Americans’ stress experiences and psychological health and offer promise for enhancing African American mental health service delivery and treatment interventions. PMID:20445815

  2. The Effects of the Coordination Support on Shared Mental Models and Coordinated Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyunsong; Kim, Dongsik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of coordination support (tool support and tutor support) on the development of shared mental models (SMMs) and coordinated action in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Eighteen students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions, including the tool condition, the…

  3. Shared Mental Models on the Performance of e-Learning Content Development Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to investigate team-based e-Learning content development projects from the perspective of the shared mental model (SMM) theory. The researcher conducted a study of 79 e-Learning content development teams in Korea to examine the relationship between taskwork and teamwork SMMs and the performance of the teams.…

  4. Conversations around Design Sketches: Use of Communication Channels for Sharing Mental Models during Concept Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariff, Nik Shahman Nik Ahmad; Badke-Schaub, Petra; Eris, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an exploratory protocol study on the use of different communication channels during design sketching. We focus on how individual designers share their mental models with other designers in a group, and analyse their use of graphical, textual, and verbal communications during concept generation. Our findings suggest that…

  5. Implicit and explicit social mentalizing: dual processes driven by a shared neural network

    PubMed Central

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Recent social neuroscientific evidence indicates that implicit and explicit inferences on the mind of another person (i.e., intentions, attributions or traits), are subserved by a shared mentalizing network. Under both implicit and explicit instructions, ERP studies reveal that early inferences occur at about the same time, and fMRI studies demonstrate an overlap in core mentalizing areas, including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results suggest a rapid shared implicit intuition followed by a slower explicit verification processes (as revealed by additional brain activation during explicit vs. implicit inferences). These data provide support for a default-adjustment dual-process framework of social mentalizing. PMID:24062663

  6. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-01-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper…

  7. Adult Education and Worldview Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Leon

    This book frames the higher purposes of adult education in terms of worldview construction. Building on the work of Martin Heidegger, the first of the book's eight chapters defines worldview in two ways: as a vantage point in time and culture that conditions a person's experience of the world and as a person's understanding of the world. Chapter 2…

  8. Pilot study of records of shared care for people with mental illnesses.

    PubMed Central

    Essex, B; Doig, R; Renshaw, J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop and evaluate a record of shared care to be held by the patient designed to increase the effectiveness of long term care of patients with severe mental illness. DESIGN--Questionnaires completed by medical staff, community psychiatric nurse, and patients to evaluate the shared care record. SETTING--General practices, a psychiatric outpatient clinic, and a mental health resource centre in south east London. PATIENTS--84 Patients held shared care records over an 18 month period. They were selected by general practitioners, a psychiatrist, or a community psychiatric nurse, the criterion being that their care was shared between the general practitioner and the psychiatrist or community psychiatric nurse. Patients who had been admitted to hospital several times with short remissions were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire to assess their views on the acceptability, usefulness, and problems of the shared care record. A questionnaire for health staff was designed to identify patients for whom the shared care record was most and least appropriate. It also assessed the patients' compliance and the way the record affected communication between all concerned. RESULTS--Patients found the shared care records very acceptable and were enthusiastic about their use. They valued being consulted about what was recorded and found the record of their treatment and progress useful. Patients also thought that they were in a better position to challenge their doctor. Those least likely to comply were people with severe paranoia. The acceptability of the record to patients greatly exceeded that to the psychiatrists and nurse managers, none of whom were interested in using the record. Communication among health staff was greatly improved by the shared care record, and it facilitated the identification of potentially dangerous drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS--Shared care records were acceptable to patients with severe mental

  9. A critical narrative analysis of shared decision-making in acute inpatient mental health care.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Gemma; Felton, Anne; Morgan, Alastair; Stickley, Theo; Willis, Martin; Diamond, Bob; Houghton, Philip; Johnson, Beverley; Dumenya, John

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is a high priority in healthcare policy and is complementary to the recovery philosophy in mental health care. This agenda has been operationalised within the Values-Based Practice (VBP) framework, which offers a theoretical and practical model to promote democratic interprofessional approaches to decision-making. However, these are limited by a lack of recognition of the implications of power implicit within the mental health system. This study considers issues of power within the context of decision-making and examines to what extent decisions about patients' care on acute in-patient wards are perceived to be shared. Focus groups were conducted with 46 mental health professionals, service users, and carers. The data were analysed using the framework of critical narrative analysis (CNA). The findings of the study suggested each group constructed different identity positions, which placed them as inside or outside of the decision-making process. This reflected their view of themselves as best placed to influence a decision on behalf of the service user. In conclusion, the discourse of VBP and SDM needs to take account of how differentials of power and the positioning of speakers affect the context in which decisions take place. PMID:26833106

  10. Mentalizing and the Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Sharing Others' Embarrassment.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Jansen, Andreas; Gazzola, Valeria; Krach, Sören

    2015-08-01

    The experience of embarrassment provides a highly salient cue for the human moral apparatus. Interestingly, people also experience embarrassment on behalf of others' inappropriate conditions. The perceiver's embarrassment often lacks an equivalent expression of embarrassment in the social counterpart. The present study examines this phenomenon and distinguishes neural circuits involved in embarrassment with and embarrassment for another person's mishaps. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that the embarrassment on behalf of others engages the temporal pole and the medial prefrontal cortex, central structures of the mentalizing network, together with the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, sharing others' embarrassment additionally stimulated the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), which exhibited increased functional integration with inferior parietal and insular cortex areas. These findings characterize common neural circuits involved in the embodied representation of embarrassment and further unravel the unique role of the posterior STS in sharing others' affective state. PMID:24518753

  11. Simulation: a shared learning experience for child and mental health pre-registration nursing students.

    PubMed

    Felton, Anne; Holliday, Laura; Ritchie, Dawn; Langmack, Gill; Conquer, Alistair

    2013-11-01

    Learning through the use of simulation is perceived as an innovative means to help manage some of the contemporary challenges for pre-registration nurse education. Mental health and child nurses need to have the knowledge and skills to effectively address the holistic needs of service users. This article reports on a pilot simulated learning experience that was designed with key stakeholders for pre-registration child and mental health nursing students. This involved young actors playing the role of someone who had self-harmed to help students develop their skills for working with young people who experience emotional distress. Focus groups and a questionnaire were used to evaluate the pilot. Students valued the practical approach that simulation entailed and identified the benefits of the shared learning experience across the different fields of practice of nursing. However, some students reported anxiety performing in front of peers and indicated they would perform differently in practice. The pilot identified simulation as a potentially useful approach to help child and mental health student nurses develop skills for caring for young people. However, there is a need for caution in the claims to be made regarding the impact of simulation to address gaps in nursing skills. PMID:23660414

  12. Relative Influence of Genetics and Shared Environment on Child Mental Health Symptoms Depends on Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Maier, Rose; Davidson, Richard J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbidity among childhood mental health symptoms is common in clinical and community samples and should be accounted for when investigating etiology. We therefore aimed to uncover latent classes of mental health symptoms in middle childhood in a community sample, and to determine the latent genetic and environmental influences on those classes. Methods The sample comprised representative cohorts of twins. A questionnaire-based assessment of mental health symptoms was used in latent class analyses. Data on 3223 twins (1578 boys and 1645 girls) with a mean age of 7.5 years were analyzed. The sample was predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasian (92.1%). Results Latent class models delineated groups of children according to symptom profiles–not necessarily clinical groups but groups representing the general population, most with scores in the normative range. The best-fitting models suggested 9 classes for both girls and boys. Eight of the classes were very similar across sexes; these classes ranged from a “Low Symptom” class to a “Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing” class. In addition, a “Moderately Anxious” class was identified for girls but not boys, and a “Severely Impulsive & Inattentive” class was identified for boys but not girls. Sex-combined analyses implicated moderate genetic influences for all classes. Shared environmental influences were moderate for the “Low Symptom” and “Moderately Internalizing & Severely Externalizing” classes, and small to zero for other classes. Conclusions We conclude that symptom classes are largely similar across sexes in middle childhood. Heritability was moderate for all classes, but shared environment played a greater role for classes in which no one type of symptom predominated. PMID:25077799

  13. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  14. Protocol for an exploration of knowledge sharing for improved discharge from a mental health ward

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Emma; Wright, Nicola; Waring, Justin; Gregoriou, Kyri; Chopra, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to reduce hospital admissions for mental health service users have received vast amounts of attention, yet the transfer of care from hospital to the community has been ignored. The discharge process is complex, messy, disjointed and inefficient, relying on cross-agency and organisational working. Focusing on one acute mental health admission ward, we will investigate whether the discharge process for people with severe mental health problems can be enhanced through the creation, implementation and utilisation of a knowledge sharing proforma that is used on their admission to the ward. Methods and analysis The project uses qualitative interviews to understand the complex processes associated with being admitted and discharged from inpatient mental health wards. Practitioners will be asked to identify and map the relevant stakeholders involved in admission and discharge, and discuss any problems with the process. The study team will work with clinicians to develop a knowledge collection proforma, which will be piloted for 2 months. Qualitative interviews will be carried out to collect reflections on the experiences of using the tool, with data used for further refinement of the intervention. Baseline and repeat quantitative measures will be taken to illustrate any changes to length of stay and readmission rates achieved as a result of the study. Ethics and dissemination A key issue is that participants are able to comment frankly on something that is a core part of their work, without fear or reprise. It is equally important that all participants are offered the opportunity to develop and coproduce the knowledge collection proforma, in order that the intervention produced is fit for purpose and usable in the real world, away from a research environment. The study has received ethical approval from Nottingham University Business School ethics committee, and has all appropriate National Health Service research governance clearances. PMID

  15. Worldviews in Transition: Using Ecological Autobiographies to Explore Students' Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurin, Richard R.; Hutchinson, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    College students (n=292), after completing an American environmental history course, selfselected, defined and defended their ecological worldview in an ecological autobiography essay that used historic content about different philosophies concerning the environment and natural resource use. The whole sample divided into groups along a spectrum of…

  16. Can Science Test Supernatural Worldviews?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Yonatan I.

    2009-06-01

    Several prominent scientists, philosophers, and scientific institutions have argued that science cannot test supernatural worldviews on the grounds that (1) science presupposes a naturalistic worldview (Naturalism) or that (2) claims involving supernatural phenomena are inherently beyond the scope of scientific investigation. The present paper argues that these assumptions are questionable and that indeed science can test supernatural claims. While scientific evidence may ultimately support a naturalistic worldview, science does not presuppose Naturalism as an a priori commitment, and supernatural claims are amenable to scientific evaluation. This conclusion challenges the rationale behind a recent judicial ruling in the United States concerning the teaching of “Intelligent Design” in public schools as an alternative to evolution and the official statements of two major scientific institutions that exert a substantial influence on science educational policies in the United States. Given that science does have implications concerning the probable truth of supernatural worldviews, claims should not be excluded a priori from science education simply because they might be characterized as supernatural, paranormal, or religious. Rather, claims should be excluded from science education when the evidence does not support them, regardless of whether they are designated as ‘natural’ or ‘supernatural’.

  17. The Night Sky and Native American Worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, A.

    2004-05-01

    I will share the results of having used some of the exercises and techniques of science integration in astronomy courses that I teach through the University of Colorado Upward Bound (CUUB) Programs. CUUB targets Native American high school students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds from as many as eighteen tribes and ten states, typically from schools which are on or near major reservations across the nation. Two-thirds of CUUB students meet federal low-income guidelines and are potential first-generation college students in their families. I will also discuss whether and how the students integrated the concepts and discoveries of modern astronomy with their personal worldviews and with the history of their peoples.

  18. The Interface between Mental Health Providers, Families, and Schools: Parent and Child Attitudes about Information-Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Vuppala, Aparna; Lamps, Christopher; Miller, Terri L.; Thrush, Carol R.

    2006-01-01

    Youth with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) are at an increased risk for school problems and negative consequences into adulthood, increasing the need for collaboration between families, school personnel and mental health providers. Current treatment guidelines emphasize the importance of information-sharing between providers and schools,…

  19. Effects of Role Division, Interaction, and Shared Mental Model on Team Performance in Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Il-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive mechanism of project-based learning teams of college students on the basis of the Shared Mental Model (SMM) theory. The study participants were 237 female college students in Korea organized into 51 project teams. To test the study hypotheses, a structural equation modeling was employed.…

  20. Case Studies' Effect on Undergraduates' Achievement, Attitudes, and Team Shared Mental Models in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzouk, Rim; Johnson, Tristan E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of case studies on learning outcomes, attitudes toward instructions, and team shared mental models (SMM) in a team-based learning environment in an undergraduate educational psychology course. Approximately 105 students who participated in this study were randomly assigned to either a case-study…

  1. Science, Worldviews and Education: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    This special issue of Science & Education deals with the theme of ‘Science, Worldviews and Education’. The theme is of particular importance at the present time as many national and provincial education authorities are requiring that students learn about the Nature of Science (NOS) as well as learning science content knowledge and process skills. NOS topics are being written into national and provincial curricula. Such NOS matters give rise to questions about science and worldviews: What is a worldview? Does science have a worldview? Are there specific ontological, epistemological and ethical prerequisites for the conduct of science? Does science lack a worldview but nevertheless have implications for worldviews? How can scientific worldviews be reconciled with seemingly discordant religious and cultural worldviews? In addition to this major curricular impetus for refining understanding of science and worldviews, there are also pressing cultural and social forces that give prominence to questions about science, worldviews and education. There is something of an avalanche of popular literature on the subject that teachers and students are variously engaged by. Additionally the modernisation and science-based industrialisation of huge non-Western populations whose traditional religions and beliefs are different from those that have been associated with orthodox science, make very pressing the questions of whether, and how, science is committed to particular worldviews. Hugh Gauch Jr. provides a long and extensive lead essay in the volume, and 12 philosophers, educators, scientists and theologians having read his paper, then engage with the theme. Hopefully the special issue will contribute to a more informed understanding of the relationship between science, worldviews and education, and provide assistance to teachers who are routinely engaged with the subject.

  2. Silencing Whom? Linking Campus Climates for Religious, Spiritual, and Worldview Diversity to Student Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.; Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of campus climate among students of diverse worldviews. Results from this study suggest that climate perceptions and experiences were more negative among worldview majority students (e.g., Protestants, Catholics) than among worldview minority students (e.g., Muslims, Jews) and nonreligious students. Theoretical…

  3. Potentially Traumatic Events at Different Points in the Life Span and Mental Health: Findings From SHARE-Israel

    PubMed Central

    Shrira, Amit; Shmotkin, Dov; Litwin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the association between adversity cumulated at different points in the life span and present mental health. Data of 1,130 participants aged 50+ were drawn from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Measures included an inventory of potentially traumatic events, mental distress (depressive symptoms), and well-being (quality of life, life satisfaction). Adversity reported to have occurred early in life was positively related to mental health (i.e., to lower distress and higher well-being), whereas adversity reported to occur in late life was negatively related (i.e., to higher distress and lower well-being). Additional analyses showed that the positive association between early-life adversity and mental health was mainly restricted to adversity in which the primary harm was to another person (other-oriented adversity). In contrast, the negative association between late-life adversity and mental health was mainly restricted to adversity in which the primary harm was to the self (self-oriented adversity). This study suggests that the differential association between cumulative adversity and mental health is best captured when accounting for both time of occurrence and adversity type. PMID:22506527

  4. A Three-Dimensional Concept of Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine G.; Swezey, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Several Christian school associations and many Christian schools identify developing a Biblical worldview in their students as an essential component of their organizational mission, yet few report on their level of success. This study investigates the concept of worldview from an Evangelical Christian perspective. The first step in investigating…

  5. Worldview and Counseling: Perceptions of Singaporean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soong, Cecilia

    This paper examines the worldviews of Singapore students, comprised of Chinese, Malays, and Indians, and explores students' perceptions of and preference for counseling approaches. A modified version of Ibrahim and Kahn's Scale to Assess World Views (1994) was used to assess 970 Secondary Four students' worldviews with the independent variables…

  6. Responses and Clarifications regarding Science and Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauch, Hugh G., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article responds to the other 10 papers in this thematic issue on science and worldviews and it clarifies some of the points in my lead article. The Bayesian framework provides helpful structure for worldview inquiries by recognizing and integrating both public and personal evidence. Drawing upon the other 10 papers, six kinds of potential…

  7. Shared decision-making in mental health care—A user perspective on decisional needs in community-based services

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Katarina; Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra; Schön, Ulla-Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Shared decision-making (SDM) is an emergent research topic in the field of mental health care and is considered to be a central component of a recovery-oriented system. Despite the evidence suggesting the benefits of this change in the power relationship between users and practitioners, the method has not been widely implemented in clinical practice. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate decisional and information needs among users with mental illness as a prerequisite for the development of a decision support tool aimed at supporting SDM in community-based mental health services in Sweden. Methods Three semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with 22 adult users with mental illness. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using a directed content analysis. This method was used to develop an in-depth understanding of the decisional process as well as to validate and conceptually extend Elwyn et al.'s model of SDM. Results The model Elwyn et al. have created for SDM in somatic care fits well for mental health services, both in terms of process and content. However, the results also suggest an extension of the model because decisions related to mental illness are often complex and involve a number of life domains. Issues related to social context and individual recovery point to the need for a preparation phase focused on establishing cooperation and mutual understanding as well as a clear follow-up phase that allows for feedback and adjustments to the decision-making process. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The current study contributes to a deeper understanding of decisional and information needs among users of community-based mental health services that may reduce barriers to participation in decision-making. The results also shed light on attitudinal, relationship-based, and cognitive factors that are important to consider in adapting SDM in the mental health system. PMID:27167556

  8. Worldviews of Introductory Astronomy Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Chrystin; Wallace, C. S.; Brissenden, G.; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS)

    2014-01-01

    As a part of a larger project to study introductory astronomy students’ worldviews and beliefs about the role of science in society, we examined students’ responses to a subset of questions designed to probe students’ worldviews and how they change after taking a general education, introductory astronomy course (Astro 101). Specifically, we looked at about 400 students’ choices for the top ten scientific discoveries in the past 150 years. We collected students’ rankings twice: Once at the start of their Astro 101 class and once at the end. We created a rubric that we used to categorize the responses and we established the inter-rater reliability of the rubric. Our results show that students preferentially answered with topics related to technology and health and medicine. The data also show that there was an increase, pre- to post-instruction, in the number of responses in the technology and health and medicine categories. We also saw a decrease in the number of responses in the science category. These results imply that an aspect of the course specifically implemented to broaden student’s views on science in relation to society was successful. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0847170, for the California-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE) program. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  9. 78 FR 45217 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...) were contained in the Federal Register published on July 24, 2012 (77 FR 43301). For purposes of... Federal Register (77 FR 43301). 2. Calculation of the Preliminary FY 2013 Federal Share State DSH... published in the July 24, 2012 Federal Register (77 FR 43301). The increase in the final FY 2012...

  10. Shared Decision Making for Clients with Mental Illness: A Randomized Factorial Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukens, Jonathan M.; Solomon, Phyllis; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to test the degree to which client clinical characteristics and environmental context and social workers' practice values and experience influenced support for client's autonomy and willingness to engage in shared decision making (SDM), and whether willingness to engage in SDM was mediated by support…

  11. 77 FR 43301 - Medicaid Program; Disproportionate Share Hospital Allotments and Institutions for Mental Diseases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Disproportionate Share Hospital Limits'' notice published in the January 3, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 148). II... in the ``Background'' section of the January 3, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR 148) notice, the... (75 FR 21314). The final FY 2011 DSH allotments being published in this notice are approximately...

  12. Chains of (dis)trust: exploring the underpinnings of knowledge-sharing and quality care across mental health services.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patrick R; Calnan, Michael W

    2016-02-01

    Quality and safety in healthcare settings are underpinned by organisational cultures, which facilitate or impede the refinement, sharing and application of knowledge. Avoiding the use of the term culture as a residual category, we focus specifically on describing chains of (dis)trust, analysing their development across relatively low-trust service contexts and their impact upon knowledge-sharing and caregiving. Drawing upon data from in-depth interviews with service users, healthcare professionals, service managers and other stakeholders across three mental healthcare (psychosis) teams in southern England, we identify micro-mechanisms that explain how (dis)trust within one intra-organisational relationship impacts upon other relationships. Experiences and inferences of vulnerability, knowledge, uncertainty, interests and time, among actors who are both trustees and trusters across different relationships, are pertinent to such analyses. This more micro-level understanding facilitates detailed conceptualisations of trust chains as meso-level tendencies that contribute to wider vicious or virtuous cycles of organisational (dis)trust. We explore how knowledge-sharing and caregiving are vitally interwoven within these chains of trust or distrust, enhancing and/or inhibiting the instrumental and communicative aspects of quality healthcare as a result. PMID:26614364

  13. Responses and Clarifications Regarding Science and Worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauch, Hugh G.

    2009-06-01

    This article responds to the other 10 papers in this thematic issue on science and worldviews and it clarifies some of the points in my lead article. The Bayesian framework provides helpful structure for worldview inquiries by recognizing and integrating both public and personal evidence. Drawing upon the other 10 papers, six kinds of potential evidence or considerations are identified: the problem of evil, evolution, miracles and prayer, the Anthropic Principle, religious experience, and natural theology. The thesis is defended that considerations informing worldview convictions include public evidence from the sciences and the humanities and personal evidence from individual experience. Additional topics addressed briefly include scientific realism, the tentativeness of scientific knowledge, science’s presuppositions, the relationship between natural science and natural theology, the nature of religious faith, and the importance of philosophy in science education. Seven questions are posed for which further leadership from the AAAS and NAS would benefit the scientific community.

  14. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover,…

  15. A shared neural substrate for mentalizing and the affective component of sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Razafimandimby, Annick; Jobard, Gaël; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Using event-related fMRI in a sample of 42 healthy participants, we compared the cerebral activity maps obtained when classifying spoken sentences based on the mental content of the main character (belief, deception or empathy) or on the emotional tonality of the sentence (happiness, anger or sadness). To control for the effects of different syntactic constructions (such as embedded clauses in belief sentences), we subtracted from each map the BOLD activations obtained during plausibility judgments on structurally matching sentences, devoid of emotions or ToM. The obtained theory of mind (ToM) and emotional speech comprehension networks overlapped in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior temporal lobe, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the left inferior frontal sulcus. These regions form a ToM network, which contributes to the emotional component of spoken sentence comprehension. Compared with the ToM task, in which the sentences were enounced on a neutral tone, the emotional sentence classification task, in which the sentences were play-acted, was associated with a greater activity in the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, in line with the presence of emotional prosody. Besides, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was more active during emotional than ToM sentence processing. This region may link mental state representations with verbal and prosodic emotional cues. Compared with emotional sentence classification, ToM was associated with greater activity in the caudate nucleus, paracingulate cortex, and superior frontal and parietal regions, in line with behavioral data showing that ToM sentence comprehension was a more demanding task. PMID:23342148

  16. A Shared Neural Substrate for Mentalizing and the Affective Component of Sentence Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, Pierre-Yves; Razafimandimby, Annick; Jobard, Gaël; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Using event-related fMRI in a sample of 42 healthy participants, we compared the cerebral activity maps obtained when classifying spoken sentences based on the mental content of the main character (belief, deception or empathy) or on the emotional tonality of the sentence (happiness, anger or sadness). To control for the effects of different syntactic constructions (such as embedded clauses in belief sentences), we subtracted from each map the BOLD activations obtained during plausibility judgments on structurally matching sentences, devoid of emotions or ToM. The obtained theory of mind (ToM) and emotional speech comprehension networks overlapped in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior temporal lobe, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the left inferior frontal sulcus. These regions form a ToM network, which contributes to the emotional component of spoken sentence comprehension. Compared with the ToM task, in which the sentences were enounced on a neutral tone, the emotional sentence classification task, in which the sentences were play-acted, was associated with a greater activity in the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, in line with the presence of emotional prosody. Besides, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was more active during emotional than ToM sentence processing. This region may link mental state representations with verbal and prosodic emotional cues. Compared with emotional sentence classification, ToM was associated with greater activity in the caudate nucleus, paracingulate cortex, and superior frontal and parietal regions, in line with behavioral data showing that ToM sentence comprehension was a more demanding task. PMID:23342148

  17. Worldviews in Collision: Jesus as Critical Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary connotations of "teacher" don't do justice to Jesus' educating activity. "Worldview" understood as a comprehensive social environment helps us to perceive the scale of Jesus' struggle in his society and also Christian teachers' struggle in their settings. Jesus is Israel's teacher in a deeper way than we hear by the term "teacher."…

  18. Science and Worldviews in the Marxist Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skordoulis, C. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the relationship between Marxism, Science and Worldviews. In Section I, the paper gives a descriptive definition of the scientific viewpoint based on a materialist ontology, a realist epistemology, and the recognition that science is a social activity. The paper shows in Section II that there are currents in contemporary…

  19. Can Cultural Worldviews Influence Network Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaisey, Stephen; Lizardo, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Most sociological research assumes that social network composition shapes individual beliefs. Network theory and research has not adequately considered that internalized cultural worldviews might affect network composition. Drawing on a synthetic, dual-process theory of culture and two waves of nationally-representative panel data, this article…

  20. Contemporary Science and Worldview-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of…

  1. Motion along the mental number line reveals shared representations for numerosity and space

    PubMed Central

    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M; Bernstein, Benjamin; Melloni, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Perception of number and space are tightly intertwined. It has been proposed that this is due to ‘cortical recycling’, where numerosity processing takes over circuits originally processing space. Do such ‘recycled’ circuits retain their original functionality? Here, we investigate interactions between numerosity and motion direction, two functions that both localize to parietal cortex. We describe a new phenomenon in which visual motion direction adapts nonsymbolic numerosity perception, giving rise to a repulsive aftereffect: motion to the left adapts small numbers, leading to overestimation of numerosity, while motion to the right adapts large numbers, resulting in underestimation. The reference frame of this effect is spatiotopic. Together with the tuning properties of the effect this suggests that motion direction-numerosity cross-adaptation may occur in a homolog of area LIP. ‘Cortical recycling’ thus expands but does not obliterate the functions originally performed by the recycled circuit, allowing for shared computations across domains. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10806.001 PMID:26771249

  2. Recurrent rearrangements in synaptic and neurodevelopmental genes and shared biologic pathways in schizophrenia, autism, and mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Guilmatre, Audrey; Dubourg, Christèle; Mosca, Anne-Laure; Legallic, Solenn; Goldenberg, Alice; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Layet, Valérie; Rosier, Antoine; Briault, Sylvain; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Odent, Sylvie; Le Vacon, Gael; Joly-Helas, Géraldine; David, Véronique; Bendavid, Claude; Pinoit, Jean-Michel; Henry, Céline; Impallomeni, Caterina; Germano, Eva; Tortorella, Gaetano; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Barthelemy, Catherine; Andres, Christian; Faivre, Laurence; Frébourg, Thierry; Saugier Veber, Pascale; Campion, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Context Comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the etiology of mental retardation (MR), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. Objective The goal of the present paper was (i) to provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent/overlapping CNVs in three different groups of patients as compared with healthy controls and (ii) to assess whether each CNV is present in more than one clinical category. Design, setting and population We have investigated 28 candidate loci previously identified by array-CGH studies for gene dosage alteration in 247 subjects with MR, 260 with ASD, 236 with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 236 healthy controls. Main outcome measures Collective and individual frequency of the analyzed CNVs in patients as compared with controls. Results Recurrent or overlapping CNVs were found in patients at 40% of the selected loci. We show that the collective frequency of CNVs at these loci is significantly increased in autistic patients, patients with schizophrenia and patients with MR as compared with controls (p= 0.005, p< 0.001 and p= 0.001 respectively, Fisher exact test). Individual significance (p= 0.02) was reached for association between autism and a 350 kb deletion located in 22q11 and spanning the PRODH gene. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that weakly to moderately recurrent CNVs, either transmitted or occurring de novo, are causing or contributory factors for these diseases. Second, we show that most of these CNVs, which contain genes involved in neurotransmission or synapse formation and maintenance, are present in the 3 pathological conditions, supporting the existence of shared biological pathways between these neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:19736351

  3. Contemporary Science and Worldview-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2009-06-01

    This paper discusses the impact of contemporary scientific knowledge on worldviews. The first three sections provide epistemological background for the arguments that follow. Sections 2 and 3 discuss the reliable part of science, specifically the characterization, scope and limits of the present scientific canon. Section 4 deals with the mode of thinking responsible for both the canon’s credibility and its power to guide speculative activity. With these preliminaries in place, the remainder of the paper addresses the issue of tolerance to “alternative perspectives”. The analyses in this part focus on the extent to which mature scientific thought embodies open-mindedness, with pluralism and competition between perspectives as central themes. I argue for four related claims, concerning scientific literacy, the impact of the canon on rational speculation, the limits of scientific pluralism, and the popular idea that recent forms of “scientific (natural) theology” have rational merit and can help worldview-making in our age, respectively: (C1) Which theories and narratives (or parts of them) belong in the scientific canon, and whether they are worldview independent, are matters contingent upon the state of knowledge—not something one can convincingly determine on metascientific or transcendental insight. (C2) The current scientific canon and its associated methodology provide research with strong directionality, often against popular currents. (C3) Current science does marginalize some views dear to many people. (C4) Although natural theology “officially” purports to embody scientific methodology, all it presently has on offer are poorly thought out ventures embodying (at best) only relaxed versions of that methodology; if so, the relationship between current projects in natural theology and science cannot (without begging the question) be reasonably described as one of “partial overlap”, “mutual modification”, or “ongoing complementarity”.

  4. Is There a Teacher-Librarian Worldview? This We Believe...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewbank, Ann Dutton; Moreillon, Judi

    2007-01-01

    A worldview is composed of beliefs, values, and perceptions. It creates a lens through which individuals, organizations, and institutions analyze and evaluate their experiences and the world around them. As the authors think beyond their individual perceptions, they wonder about the worldview of their profession. They have wondered aloud (on more…

  5. The Emergence of Three Distinct Worldviews among American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keysar, Ariela

    2013-01-01

    American college students' worldviews affect what they value, the way they behave and potentially how they learn. The study described in this article finds that today's students are divided not dichotomously, between religious and secular, but rather among three distinct worldviews: religious, secular, and spiritual. The author asserts that…

  6. The Environmental Worldview of Children: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Petegem, Peter; Blieck, An

    2006-01-01

    The authors' research investigated young people's environmental worldviews using the revised "New Ecological Paradigm" scale for children. The scale is a widely used measure of people's shifting worldviews from a human dominant view to an ecological one, with humans as part of nature. However, the scale has not been used with children. By…

  7. Integrating Client and Clinician Perspectives on Psychotropic Medication Decisions: Developing a Communication-Centered Epistemic Model of Shared Decision Making for Mental Health Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mikesell, Lisa; Bromley, Elizabeth; Young, Alexander S; Vona, Pamela; Zima, Bonnie

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) interventions aim to improve client autonomy, information sharing, and collaborative decision making, yet implementation of these interventions has been variably perceived. Using interviews and focus groups with clients and clinicians from mental health clinics, we explored experiences with and perceptions about decision support strategies aimed to promote SDM around psychotropic medication treatment. Using thematic analysis, we identified themes regarding beliefs about participant involvement, information management, and participants' broader understanding of their epistemic expertise. Clients and clinicians highly valued client-centered priorities such as autonomy and empowerment when making decisions. However, two frequently discussed themes revealed complex beliefs about what that involvement should look like in practice: (a) the role of communication and information exchange and (b) the value and stability of clinician and client epistemic expertise. Complex beliefs regarding these two themes suggested a dynamic and reflexive approach to information management. Situating these findings within the Theory of Motivated Information Management, we discuss implications for conceptualizing SDM in mental health services and adapt Siminoff and Step's Communication Model of Shared Decision Making (CMSDM) to propose a Communication-centered Epistemic Model of Shared Decision Making (CEM-SDM). PMID:26529605

  8. Investigation of worldview theory in a south african context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrenz, Frances; Gray, Brian

    This article reports on an exploratory investigation carried out to identify conceptions of some components of worldview, based on logicostructural worldview theory, held by science student teachers in a South African context. It explores relationships among worldviews, student characteristics, and scientific concepts. The sample included 48 final-year science student teachers. Data were gathered by a questionnaire with follow-up interviews. Questions were based on Kearney's model of worldview with stimulus items related to each of seven worldview categories. Responses were categorized and examined for possible relationships. Results of the investigation indicated that students' conceptions of time and distance were nonmechanistic and psychologically bound and that authoritarian scientific explanation was considered as sufficient for proof. Some significant relationships were found between items as well as between field of study and scientific conceptions.Received: 30 March 1994; Revised: 1 December 1994;

  9. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover, in virtue of reflecting a suitable variety of worldviews and value outlooks, perhaps including some religious ones, science is better able to further its aim. An extended argument is made that, although the materialist worldview has de facto been widely associated with the development of modern science, the scope of scientific inquiry is improperly limited when constraints, derived from materialism, are generally placed upon admissible scientific theories. Some implications for science education are sketched in the conclusion.

  10. Science and worldviews in the marxist tradition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skordoulis, C. D.

    2008-06-01

    This paper is about the relationship between Marxism, Science and Worldviews. In Section I, the paper gives a descriptive definition of the scientific viewpoint based on a materialist ontology, a realist epistemology, and the recognition that science is a social activity. The paper shows in Section II that there are currents in contemporary Marxism which relate favourably to science. In Section III, the paper examines Marx's encounter with Natural Philosophy and Materialism by analysing the influence of Epicurus on Marx. Section IV examines Marx's positive attitude towards natural science. Section V discusses the relation between science and ideology and proposes a scheme to defend the thesis that science establishes a conceptual autonomy from the forms of social consciousness existing in the social formation. Finally Section VI examines the historical infusion of Marxism into the Western scientific community in the 1930s, and the positions adopted by Marxists when they have considered science education.

  11. Conspiracy theory and cognitive style: a worldview

    PubMed Central

    Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Denovan, Andrew; Parton, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assessed whether belief in conspiracy theories was associated with a particularly cognitive style (worldview). The sample comprised 223 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling and included undergraduates, postgraduates, university employees, and alumni. Respondents completed measures assessing a range of cognitive-perceptual factors (schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hallucination proneness) and conspiratorial beliefs (general attitudes toward conspiracist thinking and endorsement of individual conspiracies). Positive symptoms of schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual factor, correlated positively with conspiracist beliefs. The best predictor of belief in conspiracies was delusional ideation. Consistent with the notion of a coherent conspiratorial mindset, scores across conspiracy measures correlated strongly. Whilst findings supported the view that belief in conspiracies, within the sub-clinical population, was associated with a delusional thinking style, cognitive-perceptual factors in combination accounted for only 32% of the variance. PMID:25762969

  12. Conspiracy theory and cognitive style: a worldview.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Drinkwater, Kenneth; Parker, Andrew; Denovan, Andrew; Parton, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This paper assessed whether belief in conspiracy theories was associated with a particularly cognitive style (worldview). The sample comprised 223 volunteers recruited via convenience sampling and included undergraduates, postgraduates, university employees, and alumni. Respondents completed measures assessing a range of cognitive-perceptual factors (schizotypy, delusional ideation, and hallucination proneness) and conspiratorial beliefs (general attitudes toward conspiracist thinking and endorsement of individual conspiracies). Positive symptoms of schizotypy, particularly the cognitive-perceptual factor, correlated positively with conspiracist beliefs. The best predictor of belief in conspiracies was delusional ideation. Consistent with the notion of a coherent conspiratorial mindset, scores across conspiracy measures correlated strongly. Whilst findings supported the view that belief in conspiracies, within the sub-clinical population, was associated with a delusional thinking style, cognitive-perceptual factors in combination accounted for only 32% of the variance. PMID:25762969

  13. Ideas about Earthquakes after Experiencing a Natural Disaster in Taiwan: An Analysis of Students' Worldviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2001-01-01

    Explores students' worldviews as revealed by their ideas about the causality of earthquakes after experiencing the natural disaster. Finds that students accept scientific ideas and abandon their original worldviews, accept scientific ideas and retain their original worldviews, or retain their original worldviews and ignore the scientific…

  14. The impact of services that offer individualised funds, shared management, person-centred relationships, and self-direction on the lived experiences of consumers with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health service providers across Australia, including Western Australia (WA), have begun to offer individualised funds, shared management, person-centred and self-directed (SPS) services. No research exists on the impact of SPS services on the lived experiences of these particular consumers. This study explored the impact of a SPS service offered for the first time in WA to consumers with mental illness. Methods Data on sixteen consumers’ lived experiences were analysed using an abbreviated grounded theory approach. These data had been developed by the consumers, Guides (staff) and an independent evaluator, and most of it had been collected in the past prior to the commencement of the study. Results Three over-arching categories, and related subcategories, emerged indicating that 1) access to individualised funds enabled practical and psychological benefits to consumers; 2) consistent contact in shared management and person-centred relationships enhanced the provision of timely and meaningful staff support to consumers; and 3) high quality shared management and person-centred relationships with staff and the opportunity to self-direct enabled consumers’ change and growth. Conclusions SPS services enhanced consumers’ lived experiences and enabled staff to provide and consumers to experience timely access to recovery resources, consistent contact, responsive and high quality support, and self-direction of services. In this, consumers changed, grew and achieved desired recovery experiences. The overall impact of the SPS service seemed to be founded on the goodness of fit between person characteristics of staff and consumers, which enabled rich support that provided for corrective emotional experiences. This enabled consumers to build meaningful and hopeful lives where they started to live with, and beyond, their mental illness. PMID:24944564

  15. Dem Generation with WORLDVIEW-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyüksalih, G.; Baz, I.; Alkan, M.; Jacobsen, K.

    2012-07-01

    For planning purposes 42 km coast line of the Black Sea, starting at the Bosporus going in West direction, with a width of approximately 5 km, was imaged by WorldView-2. Three stereo scenes have been oriented at first by 3D-affine transformation and later by bias corrected RPC solution. The result is nearly the same, but it is limited by identification of the control points in the images. Nevertheless after blunder elimination by data snooping root mean square discrepancies below 1 pixel have been reached. The root mean square discrepancy at control point height reached 0.5 m up to 1.3 m with a base to height relation between 1:1.26 and 1:1.80. Digital Surface models (DSM) with 4 m spacing have been generated by least squares matching with region growing, supported by image pyramids. A higher percentage of the mountainous area is covered by forest, requiring the approximation based on image pyramids. In the forest area the approximation just by region growing leads to larger gaps in the DSM. Caused by the good image quality of WorldView-2 the correlation coefficients reached by least squares matching are high and even in most forest areas a satisfying density of accepted points was reached. Two stereo models have an overlapping area of 1.6 km times 6.7 km allowing an accuracy evaluation. Small, but nevertheless significant differences in scene orientation have been eliminated by least squares shift of both overlapping height models to each other. The root mean square differences of both independent DSM are 1.06m or as a function of terrain inclination 0.74 m + 0.55 m  tangent (slope). The terrain inclination in the average is 7° with 12% exceeding 17°. The frequency distribution of height discrepancies is not far away from normal distribution, but as usual, larger discrepancies are more often available as corresponding to normal distribution. This also can be seen by the normalized medium absolute deviation (NMAS) related to 68% probability level of 0.83m

  16. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...

  17. Worldviews: A New Paradigm for Astronomy Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Colin Scott; Prather, E. E.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2012-01-01

    Much of astronomy education research focuses on improving students’ conceptual understandings of key astronomy topics. But are we missing something important if we restrict our efforts to conceptual change? In this talk, we argue that we also need to shape our instruction such that it affects students’ worldviews. By worldview, we mean a set of (often implicit and often non-rational) beliefs, presuppositions, and assumptions about reality that affect our emotions, thoughts, and behaviors, and determine what constitutes valid and important knowledge about the world. Prior science education research has shown that a students’ worldview plays a fundamental role in his or her acceptance or rejection of science. We believe that our instruction must be informed by the interplay between students’ worldviews and the worldview of science if we want our students to become advocates for science. By advocates for science, we mean they feel motivated and obliged to communicate science to those around them, and they recognize the importance of science for their society, especially as evidenced by the amount of funding they are willing to support for scientific research. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  18. Conceptual closure. How memories are woven into an interconnected worldview.

    PubMed

    Gabora, L M

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a tentative model for how discrete memories transform into an interconnected conceptual network, or worldview, wherein relationships between memories are forged by way of abstractions. The model draws on Kauffman's theory of how an information-evolving system can emerge through the formation and closure of an autocatalytic network. Here, the information units are not catalytic molecules, but memories and abstractions, and the process that connects them is not catalysis but reminding events (i.e., one memory evokes another). The result is a worldview that both structures, and is structured by, self-triggered streams of thought. PMID:10818556

  19. Science teachers' worldviews and values regarding nature and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Wendy P.

    According to the National Science Education Standards (1996), science educators are challenged with the goal of educating future citizens and policy makers to make informed decisions concerning socio-scientific issues. Previous science education research has not explored the influence of science teachers' personal worldviews and values in achieving this educational goal. The purpose of this study was to investigate secondary science teachers' worldviews and values as they relate to nature and environmental education in their science classrooms. The participants' descriptions of their environmental personae and their perception of its influence in their classrooms were also examined. The participants represented a purposeful sample of twelve certified secondary school science teachers who teach in a suburban Atlanta, Georgia school. The study employed an interpretive, qualitative methodology using a constant comparative, inductive analysis design to develop grounded theory. Each participant's worldview, values, and environmental personae regarding the natural world and the environment were explored using William Cobern's (2000) Nature Card Sort instrument, responses to five environmental scenarios and individual interviews that addressed each participant's interpretation of the effect that personal worldviews and values have in their science classrooms. The participants' worldviews and values were disproportionately reflective of both science and society with far more weight given to the contextual values of society rather than the constitutive values of science. Most of these teachers had strong spiritual worldviews of nature; however, these views were of a Puritanical nature rather than Aboriginal. The participants felt conflicted about the appropriate course of action in many environmental issues. Contrary to other studies conducted in this field, there were few philosophical differences between teachers in the different disciplines of science, with the exception

  20. Underlying Mechanisms in the Relationship between Africentric Worldview and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neblett, Enrique W., Jr.; Hammond, Wizdom Powell; Seaton, Eleanor K.; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines underlying mechanisms in the relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms. Participants were 112 African American young adults. An Africentric worldview buffered the association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms. The relationship between an Africentric worldview and depressive symptoms…

  1. "Worldview": The Meaning of the Concept and the Impact on Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kooij, Jacomijn C.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Miedema, Siebren

    2013-01-01

    The article analyzes the concept of "worldview" in religious education. A distinction is introduced between organized worldviews, more or less established systems with a group of believers, and personal worldviews, individuals' views on life and humanity. The focus of the first section is on presenting a more precise description of these concepts…

  2. Sleep and Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Sleep Tips for Children's Mental Health Page Content ​​​Sleep has become a casualty ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/23/2016 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care ...

  3. [Power of personal goal sharing--treatment plan using personal goal maps for patients with mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yueren

    2011-01-01

    A female patient in her sixties with schizophrenia had secretly disposed of all her medication and was not cooperating with hospital staff for about four months. During one of our consultations she mentioned that she wanted to be out of hospital by a certain date. That date happened to be her grandchild's birthday. It was at this point that she shared her goals with us, and voluntarily started having treatment. She was able to return home three months later, just in time to celebrate her grandchild's birthday with her family. A male patient in his sixties was able to leave the seclusion room after 10 years. The first doctor in charge and other hospital staff had firmly believed that releasing him from the seclusion room wasn't a possibility. However the patient decided he wanted to be discharged and was interested in finding out how to go about it. The moment he realized it was possible, his outlook changed immensely. He gradually started to open up and communicate better with his new doctor in charge, and was able to work towards his newly found goals. Staff members were also surprised when he was able to leave the seclusion room. They realized this patient was another person like them who had dreams and goals, and stopped stereotyping patients who seemed to be 'difficult to handle'. I have always experienced the power of goal sharing at clinical scenes, and have noticed its importance for patients making a start on the road to recovery. In order to discuss goals and the way to go about achieving them, I use a simple drawing of a mountain. I call this mountain 'A Personal Goal Map'. I like to think of myself (the doctor) as the mountain guide, and my patient as the mountain climber. The three key philosophies are acknowledging individuality, diversity and freedom. These are important when we think about where we are now, where we are going, and where we want to be. Firstly at the start point, we need to define the patient's problem and discuss ideas and goals

  4. The Worldview Dimensions of Individualism and Collectivism: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bryant

    2003-01-01

    A recent article, "Rethinking Individualism and Collectivism: Evaluation of Theoretical Assumptions and Meta-Analyses" (D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, & M. Kemmelmeier, 2002), revealed that 170 studies have been conducted on the worldview dimensions of individualism and collectivism. This article reviews the results of the authors' analyses and…

  5. The Thanksgiving Address: An Expression of Haudenosaunee Worldview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Provides overview of Thanksgiving Address of Haudenosaunee, which defines and expresses Native American worldview. Summarizes three epic narratives: Creation Story, which explains forces of good and evil on earth; Great Law of Peace, which provides system of government; and Code of Handsome Lake, which outlines way to continue old ways and adapt…

  6. Collective Worldviews and Health of Pacific American Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihara, Emily S.; Vakalahi, Halaevalu F. Ofahengaue

    2012-01-01

    The community as part of the social environment is a key social determinant of health and is a central organizing feature of Pacific culture. A collective worldview informs the way social support is conceived in Pacific cultures, and it is core to Samoan and Tongan elders' perceptions of the influence of community on health and well-being. In…

  7. Diversifying Science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as Scientific Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today.…

  8. Emergent Learning Focused Teachers and Their Ecological Complexity Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy I.; Storey, Brian; Robson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Although Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) has gained ground, pedagogical models are sustainable only when situated in a comprehensive worldview and consistent epistemology. After considering the five values orientations offered by Jewett, Bain, and Ennis, the authors conclude that ecological integration offers a useful starting point in…

  9. Science and Worldviews in the Classroom: Joseph Priestley and Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the life and publications of Joseph Priestley, the eighteenth-century polymath. The paper outlines his particular place in the European Enlightenment; it stresses the importance of philosophy and worldview in his scientific work on pneumatic chemistry, the composition of air, and his discovery of the process of…

  10. Exploring Prospective Teachers' Worldviews and Conceptions of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shiang-Yao; Lederman, Norman G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationship, if any, between an individual's culturally based worldviews and conceptions of nature of science. In addition, the implications of this relationship (or lack of relationship) for science teaching and learning are discussed. Participants were 54 Taiwanese prospective science teachers. Their conceptions of…

  11. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world. PMID:26385997

  12. Systems of meaning and transference: Implicit significant-other activation evokes shared reality.

    PubMed

    Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Andersen, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Evidence shows that representations of significant others (SOs) are used in interpersonal relations-for example, in the social-cognitive process of transference (see Andersen & Chen, 2002), a process that is assumed to serve meaning-making functions (Glassman & Andersen, 1999b). Five studies tested the more specific notion that implicit activation of an SO representation in transference should indirectly activate the worldview shared with the SO, leading to its active pursuit, validation, and protection. Shared worldviews were assessed beforehand, both idiographically, as values (Studies 1 and 4), and nomothetically, as political ideology or religious beliefs (Studies 2, 3, and 5). In each experiment, participants learned about new persons, one subtly resembling their own SO. Transference was assessed (memory bias; positive evaluation; see Andersen, Reznik, & Manzella, 1996) and, crucially, as predicted, when considering the new person resembling their SO (vs. the control persons), participants showed faster response latencies in a lexical decision task to words reflecting the worldview shared with the SO (vs. held only personally, Studies 1-3, or only by the SO, Study 3). With this person, they also anticipated a more meaningful interaction and actively socially tuned to the SO-shared worldview, selecting conversation topics reflecting the SO-shared worldview (vs. personally held or SO-held topics, Studies 1-3). Finally, threatening the SO-shared worldview with this person (vs. threatening personally held, SO-held, or irrelevant worldviews) prompted goal activation to restore the disrupted meaning (Studies 4 and 5), assessed by response latency in a lexical decision task. Transference thus evokes shared meaning systems and serves epistemic functions. PMID:26414844

  13. Constructing a philosophy of chiropractic: evolving worldviews and premodern roots☆

    PubMed Central

    Senzon, Simon A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The philosophy of chiropractic can be framed as an attempt to correct the problems inherited from the Western Enlightenment. Its origins can be found in the long tradition of Western philosophy. The purpose of this article is to describe in a broad context chiropractic’s roots in premodernity and establish the structural and hermeneutical differences between chiropractic’s original philosophical ideas and those of premodern philosophers. Discussion The worldview or cultural mindset the philosophy arose from must be situated in the context of its time, the birth of the unique postmodern worldview, aperspectival consciousness, and the modern sense of self. This is accomplished by exploring several metatheories about the development of the self through history, with an emphasis on the premodern roots to the chiropractic terms; Universal Intelligence and Innate Intelligence. By contextualizing the philosophy of chiropractic in terms of a structural genealogy of the self and of ideas, a new approach to philosophy in chiropractic emerges. Conclusion Without accounting for chiropractic’s origins as a reflection of the unique time, place, and culture, in terms of the evolution of worldviews through history, any approach to construct or reconstruct a philosophy of chiropractic will potentially miss the seminal feature of chiropractic’s emergence. PMID:22693478

  14. Mapping Vineyard Areas Using WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertel, E.; Ozelkan, E.; Yay, I.; Seker, D. Z.; Ormeci, C.

    2011-12-01

    The observation of Earth surface from the space has lead to new research possibilities in many fields like agriculture, hydrology, geology, geodesy etc. Different satellite image data have been used for agricultural monitoring for different scales namely local, regional and global. It is important to monitor agricultural field in local scale to determine the crop yield, diseases, and to provide Farmer Registries. Worldview-2 is a new satellite system that could be used for agricultural applications especially in local scale. It is the first high resolution 8-band multispectral commercial satellite launched in October 2009. The satellite has an altitude of 770 kilometers and its spatial resolution for panchromatic mode and multispectral mode are 46 cm and 1.85 meter, respectively. In addition to red (630 - 690 nm), blue (450 - 510 nm), Green (510 - 580 nm) and Near Infrared (770 - 895 nm) bands, Worldview-2 has four new spectral bands lying on beginning of blue (400 - 450 nm), yellow (585 - 625 nm), red edge (705 - 745 nm) and Near Infrared (860 - 1040 nm) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since Worldview-2 data are comparatively new, there have not been many studies in the literature about the usage of these new data for different applications. In this research, Worldview-2 data were used to delineate the vineyard areas and identify different grape types in Sarkoy, Turkey. Phenological observations of grape fields have been conducted for the last three years over a huge test area owned by the Government Viniculture Institute. Based on the phenological observations, it was found that July and August period is the best data acquisition time for satellite data since leaf area index is really higher. In August 2011, Worldview-2 data of the region were acquired and spectral measurements were collected in the field for different grape types using a spectroradiometer. Satellite image data and spectral measurements were correlated and satellite image data were

  15. The Worldviews Network: Innovative Strategies for Increasing Climate and Ecological Literacy in Your Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, R.; Yu, K.; McConville, D.; Sickler, J.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.; Gardiner, N.; Hamilton, H.

    2011-12-01

    Informal science Institutions (ISI) are in the unique position to convene and support community dialogues surrounding local ecological impacts of global change. The Worldviews Network-a collaboration between museums, scientists, and community-based organizations-is developing and testing innovative approaches for promoting and encouraging ecological literacy with the American public. In this session, we will share strategies for sparking and sustaining dialogue and action in local communities through high-impact visual presentations and real-world examples of successful projects that are increasing the healthy functioning of regional and global ecosystems. Educating the public about interconnected global change issues can be a daunting task. ISIs can help communities by facilitating dialogues about realistic and regionally relevant approaches for systemically addressing global challenges. Managing the complexity of these challenges requires going far beyond the standard prescriptions for behavior change; it requires inspiring participants with positive examples of system-wide solutions as well as actively involving the audience in scientifically informed design processes. This session will demonstrate how you can implement and sustain these community dialogues, using real-world examples from our partners' national events. We present visualization story templates and a model for facilitating dialogues that can be adapted at your institution. Based on video and written assessment feedback from visitors of our first Worldviews events, we will present initial evaluation findings about the impact that these strategies are having on our audiences and ISI partners. These findings show that engaging the public and NGO partners in sustainability and design dialogues is a powerful way to maintain the relevance of ISIs within their communities.

  16. Utilizing worldview theory to determine the factors influencing the understanding of evolutionary concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Ronald S.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors impacting students' ability to develop understanding of evolutionary theory. A novel approach to worldview theory was employed according to which individuals are seen as having one worldview that is comprised of many perspectives. One's worldview is comprised of numerous worldview assumptions, some of which coalesce to form worldview perspectives. Some assumptions are consistent with a scientific perspective while others are more consistent with a religious perspective. Scientific and religious perspectives were quantified based on participants' agreement with assumptions associated with each perspective. Participants completed a 103-item questionnaire addressing several variables: understanding of evolution, understanding of photosynthesis (non-confounding variable), strength of worldview perspectives and exposure to factors influencing the development of worldview perspectives. Increased exposure to factors influencing the development of a strong scientific worldview perspective was hypothesized to cause an increased understanding of evolution. The dependent variable understanding was measured by scores on two Likert-type measures. A causal-comparative study was conducted with 13 high school biology teachers and 67 high school biology students. To determine causation t-tests compared the mean scores on the variables measured. Extreme-group methods were used and data was analyzed for statistical differences between mean scores. Strong scientific worldview perspectives (t=1.003, p=3.19) and exposure to scientific factors (t=2.373, p=.02) were associated with a higher understanding of evolution. Strong religious worldview perspectives (t=-1.991, p=.05) and exposure to religious factors (t=-1.059, p=.31) were associated with a lower understanding of evolution. The results suggest that scientific worldview perspectives play an important role in increasing understanding of evolution; however, religious worldview

  17. The Worldviews Network: Transformative Global Change Education in Immersive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, H.; Yu, K. C.; Gardiner, N.; McConville, D.; Connolly, R.; "Irving, Lindsay", L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our modern age is defined by an astounding capacity to generate scientific information. From DNA to dark matter, human ingenuity and technologies create an endless stream of data about ourselves and the world of which we are a part. Yet we largely founder in transforming information into understanding, and understanding into rational action for our society as a whole. Earth and biodiversity scientists are especially frustrated by this impasse because the data they gather often point to a clash between Earth's capacity to sustain life and the decisions that humans make to garner the planet's resources. Immersive virtual environments offer an underexplored link in the translation of scientific data into public understanding, dialogue, and action. The Worldviews Network is a collaboration of scientists, artists, and educators focused on developing best practices for the use of immersive environments for science-based ecological literacy education. A central tenet of the Worldviews Network is that there are multiple ways to know and experience the world, so we are developing scientifically accurate, geographically relevant, and culturally appropriate programming to promote ecological literacy within informal science education programs across the United States. The goal of Worldviews Network is to offer transformative learning experiences, in which participants are guided on a process integrating immersive visual explorations, critical reflection and dialogue, and design-oriented approaches to action - or more simply, seeing, knowing, and doing. Our methods center on live presentations, interactive scientific visualizations, and sustainability dialogues hosted at informal science institutions. Our approach uses datasets from the life, Earth, and space sciences to illuminate the complex conditions that support life on earth and the ways in which ecological systems interact. We are leveraging scientific data from federal agencies, non-governmental organizations, and our

  18. Therapist-Worldview Matching: Not as Important as Matching to Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blow, Adrian J.; Davis, Sean D.; Sprenkle, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, we respond to Simon's article (2012). We discuss our view that therapy works best when therapists can match therapeutic interventions to the worldview of clients. We see this matching to client worldview as rooted in research evidence, and we suggest that therapists can practice authentically and effectively using more than one…

  19. Dynamics of Race and Prosocial Involvement Experiences in Developing an Ecumenical Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In this study the differences in ecumenical worldview development are examined by race for 3,300 college students from 135 institutions. Results indicate that all students exhibited significant growth through college in ecumenical worldview, and students of color (Black, Asian, and Latino students) exhibited significantly higher levels of…

  20. Undergraduate Students' Science-Related Ideas as Embedded in Their Environmental Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2014-01-01

    This study explored environmental worldviews of selected undergraduate students in Taiwan and located the associations of these worldviews with science. The "environment" is represented as nature or the natural world, as opposed to the social and spiritual world. The participants were undergraduate students (14 science and 15 nonscience…

  1. When Worldviews Collide: What Linguistic Style Matching and Distal Language Reveal about Deception in Political Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Lucille M.

    2012-01-01

    Political discourse is an observable, measurable, and testable manifestation of political worldviews. However, when worldviews collide, notions of truth and of lies are put to the test. The challenge for researchers is how to establish confidence in their analysis. Despite the growing interest in deception research from a diversity of fields and…

  2. Students' Epistemic Worldview Preferences Predict Selective Recall across History and Physics Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Benjamin Robert

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the psychological reality of two sets of epistemic beliefs, or epistemic "worldviews", called "mechanism" and "organicism." One author who described these two worldviews, Stephen Pepper, hypothesised that they appear to possess domain-general characteristics. Although Pepper's ideas have had a…

  3. The Campus Spiritual Climate: Predictors of Satisfaction among Students with Diverse Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Mayhew, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Using data collected via the Campus Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey (CRSCS), we examined how dimensions of the campus spiritual climate shape student satisfaction. The findings reveal that structural worldview diversity, space for support and spiritual expression, and provocative experiences with worldview diversity positively relate to…

  4. Imagining the World: The Significance of Religious Worldviews for Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This article begins by examining whether "science" and "religion" can better be seen as distinct or related worldviews, focusing particularly on scientific and religious understandings of biodiversity. I then explore how people can see the natural world, depending on their worldview, by looking at two contrasting treatments of penguin behaviour,…

  5. The Connection between Interfaith Engagement and Self-Authored Worldview Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interfaith engagement and self-authored worldview commitment among 13,776 students enrolled at one of 52 institutions. Results indicated an association between formal and informal interfaith engagement and that this relationship was conditioned upon self-identified worldview.…

  6. Cognitive Educational Approaches as Means of Envisioning and Effecting Worldview Transformation via Theological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittwede, Steven K.

    2013-01-01

    Although much done in the name of discipleship and theological education pronounces lofty goals, such as movement from orthodoxy to orthopraxy, in many cases mere doctrinal assent is assumed to reflect deep change. An analysis of discipleship, worldview theory, and certain cognitive approaches to education suggests that worldview-level…

  7. Teaching the Philosophical and Worldview Components of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    A common feature of contemporary science education curricula is the expectation that as well as learning science content, students will learn something about science—its nature, its history, how it differs from non-scientific endeavours, and its interactions with culture and society. These curricular pronouncements provide an ‘open cheque’ for the inclusion of history and philosophy of science in science teacher education programmes, and for their utilisation in classrooms. Unfortunately this open cheque is too often not cashed. This paper will discuss an important aspect of the contribution of science to culture, namely its role in the development of worldviews in society. A case study of the adjustments to a central Roman Catholic doctrine occasioned by the metaphysics of Atomism which was embraced at the Scientific Revolution will be presented. Options for the reconciliation of seemingly conflicting scientific and religious worldviews are laid out, and it is claimed that as far as liberal education is concerned, the important thing is to have students first recognise what are the options, and then carefully examine them to come to their own conclusions about reconciliation or otherwise.

  8. Did I Say Cosmology? On Modern Cosmologies and Ancient World-views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, S.

    2009-08-01

    The modern cosmology that emerged from observational astronomy in 16th century Europe meant a radical break-away from earlier conceptions of the world. While all ancient and nonwestern worldviews usually describe a multidimensional reality in which diverse environmental, economic, sociopolitical and ideological factors intersect, modern cosmologies espouse the vision of a radically different universe which is completely dehumanized, ethically indifferent and universally valid. Despite these differences cosmology and worldview tend to be used interchangeably to depict ancient and nonwestern worldviews.Any correspondences which can be found between different parts of ancient and/or nonwestern worldviews and modern cosmologies tend to transfer modern conceptions to the premodern world. Ignoring ancient cultural contexts, we risk imposing modern cosmological concepts on past worldview categories. While we have to describe ancient astronomies in our own terms, our ultimate goal is to understand them on their own terms.

  9. Fighting death with death: the buffering effects of learning that worldview violators have died.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Joseph; Schimel, Jeff; Williams, Todd J

    2008-05-01

    According to terror management theory, the annihilation of people who threaten one's worldview should serve the function of defending that worldview. The present research assessed this hypothesis. A sample of Christian participants read either a worldview-threatening news article reporting on the Muslimization of Nazareth or a nonthreatening article about the aurora borealis. Half of the participants in the worldview-threat condition were informed at the end of the article that a number of Muslims had died in a plane crash on their way to Nazareth. Although reading the threatening news article increased death-thought accessibility and worldview defense relative to reading the neutral article, these increases were not observed among participants who learned that a number of Muslims were dead. Implications for understanding protracted intergroup conflict are discussed. PMID:18466412

  10. Science and Worldviews in the Classroom: Joseph Priestley and Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    This paper elaborates on the life and publications of Joseph Priestley, the eighteenth-century polymath. The paper outlines his particular place in the European Enlightenment; it stresses the importance of philosophy and worldview in his scientific work on pneumatic chemistry, the composition of air, and his discovery of the process of photosynthesis (or the ‘restoration of air’ as it was called at the time); finally the paper indicates ways in which Priestley’s work on photosynthesis can be utilised in the school classroom to advance the understanding of scientific subject matter, to promote an understanding of the nature of scientific procedure and methodology, and finally to evaluate some basic tenets of the European Enlightenment that Priestley so passionately advocated.

  11. Diabetes: Christian Worldview, Medical Distrust & Self-Management

    PubMed Central

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbuah, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-01-01

    To inform development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N=44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical mistrust, and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754

  12. Emerging worldviews: the supplicate order-invocation of the sacred.

    PubMed

    Brown, Patricia MacDonald

    2013-12-01

    Approaches to supplication, such as faith and single-minded devotion to an ultimate value or deity, are proposed to constitute the human interface between the manifest and the unmanifest. A reciprocal, resonant interchange between the unmanifest and human summoning of the holy can bring the sacred to expression in cultural forms and personal experience. Addressing the boundaries between the human and the divine, this paper presents a cross-cultural model for spiritual supplication. This model utilizes the anthropological term ritual frame and provides an integrative worldview with which to examine the dynamics of sacred contact and invocation. This suggests that supplication is the universal and fundamental human orientation to invoke the reception of profound healings, as well as spiritual blessings, cross-cultural understandings and innumerable gifts of creativity. PMID:22311474

  13. Diabetes: Christian worldview, medical distrust and self-management.

    PubMed

    Newlin Lew, Kelley; Arbauh, Nancy; Banach, Paul; Melkus, Gail

    2015-06-01

    To inform the development of a combined diabetes prevention and self-management intervention in partnership with church communities, this study sampled African American church leaders and members (N = 44) to qualitatively study religious beliefs and practices, diabetes prevention and self-management behaviors, and related community actions. Prior to commencing the study, internal review board approval was obtained. Although not required, community consent was officially provided by the church pastors. Individual consent was subsequently obtained from eligible community members who expressed an interest in participating in the study. Following a participatory action research approach, the inquiry group method was used. Qualitative data were analyzed with content analysis. Findings revealed Christian worldview, medical distrust and self-management as prominent themes. Findings suggest that diabetes providers address religious orientation in the provision of care with attention to rebuilding trust with the African-American community to improve health outcomes. PMID:25735754

  14. The relationship of high school students' attitudes towards creation and evolution with the students' worldview philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Donald David, Jr.

    This prospectus examines the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview philosophy. Chapter 1 presents the purpose of the research, which is to discover if there is a positive correlation in the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution and other aspects of worldview such as politics, economics, education, religion, and social issues. Also, the study will examine the frequency and comparative magnitude of the worldviews of homeschool, public school and Christian school students. Chapter 2 surveys precedents in the literature that are appropriate to the study. The significant literature to the study begins with the analysis of the relevant theological presuppositions pertaining to the topics of creation, evolution, and worldview. The analysis then moves to the literature on the relevant educational assumptions, which include theories, philosophies and practices related to high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with worldviews. Chapter 3 describes the methodological design for the study. Included in the chapter are the selection and profile of the sample, the selection and development of the instruments, namely the Creationist Worldview Test developed by Steve Deckard, and the PEERS Test---a worldview opinion survey developed by the Nehemiah Institute. Finally, the step-by-step protocol used in gathering the data completes the section. Chapter 4 presents the analysis of the data developed from the responses to the Creationist Worldview Test and the PEERS Test provided by the Nehemiah Institute and by the researcher. Profiles of each of the subgroups will be provided along with comparative analysis of the profiles. Concluding the chapter are summaries of profiles and comparative analysis. Chapter 5 presents a summary of the data describes the relationship of high school students' attitudes toward creation and evolution with the student's worldview

  15. Diversifying science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as scientific worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today. Research has shown that as issues increase in both size and complexity, so does the need for cultural and intellectual diverse frames of reference for identifying solutions to problems. By necessity Indigenous peoples have developed their own science-based understandings of the world. Passed on through oral traditions, Indigenous peoples have both maintained and expanded their understandings over time. Until recently Indigenous worldviews have been forcefully removed and placed outside of the realm of science. Focusing on Indigenous stories as scientific knowledge-wells and storytelling as a vital means of transmitting that knowledge, I discuss science through the stories of four Indigenous educators and practitioners. In addition, I highlight the importance of relationships: relationships to place, to each other, to the stories, and to the storyteller. In particular I examine relational accountability, a framework in which the researcher is held accountable to the people, research, and elements around him or her because of their strong foundational relationships to them. Using relational accountability as a base and stories and storytelling as the methodology, I argue that although IKS look and feel different than the colonizer's dominant Western science paradigm, IKS are supersaturated with scientific information that needs to be brought into the scientific discussions for policy and practice today.

  16. Bathymetric Extraction Using WORLDVIEW-2 High Resolution Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2012-07-01

    The fundamental principle underlying the methods used to extract bathymetric information from remote-sensed imagery is that different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water body to different depths. In order to extract bathymetric values from multispectral satellite imagery we implemented the Jupp method (Jupp, 1988), in IDL language and integrated it in the ENVI menu structure. In this experiment we apply this method to two images of the Poetto beach in Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) acquired from the new-generation WorldView-2 sensor. Launched in October 2009, the WorldView-2 sensor provides, among others, one (named Coastal) that was designed specifically for this kind of analysis; we chose to use the Coastal band in place of the Blue one when applying the model. The images (a stereoscopic pair) were acquired on June 17, 2011. The 5419 scene was pre-processed in order to separate the sea bottom classes. This class was then georeferenced to overlap on the 5318 scene. A traditional bathymetric survey was performed, up to 1,50 m, planned and carried out in order to calibrate the model. For each scene, 10 calibration areas were selected, and for each of them a digital model of the sea bottom was generated. Precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated by analyzing the results extracted from the stereo-pairs and by examining the correlation between the surveyed depth values and the calculated ones, between the different models calculated from the same scene using different calibration areas, and between the models obtained from the two images.

  17. Implications of Different Worldviews to Assess Soil Organic Carbon Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, S.

    2012-04-01

    Profound shifts have occurred over the last three centuries in which human actions have become the main driver to global environmental change. In this new epoch, the Anthropocene, human-driven changes such as climate and land use change, are pushing the Earth system well outside of its normal operating range causing severe and abrupt environmental change. Changes in land use management and land cover are intricately linked to the carbon cycle, but our knowledge on its spatially and temporally explicit impact on carbon dynamics across different scales is still poorly understood. To elucidate on the magnitude of change in soil organic carbon (SOC) due to human-induced stressors different philosophical worldviews may be considered including (i) empiricism - direct measurements of properties and processes at micro, site-specific or field scales; (ii) metaphysics and ontology - conceptual models to assess soil change (e.g., STEP-AWBH); (iii) epistemology - indirect approaches (e.g., meta-analysis or spectral informed prediction models); (iv) reductionism - e.g., carbon flux measurements; (iv) determinism - mechanistic simulation models and biogeochemical investigations (e.g., Century or DNDC); (v) holism - national or global soil databases and aggregate maps; or (vi) integral - fusing individual, social, economic, cultural and empirical perspectives. The strengths and limitations of each of these philosophical approaches are demonstrated using case examples from Florida and U.S.A. The sensitivity to assess SOC change and uncertainty, backcasting and forecasting ability, scaling potential across space and time domains, and limitations and constraints of different worldviews are discussed.

  18. From Shattered Assumptions to Weakened Worldviews: Trauma Symptoms Signal Anxiety Buffer Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Edmondson, Donald; Chaudoir, Stephenie R.; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.; Holub, Julie; Bartkowiak, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental assertion of worldview-based models of posttraumatic stress disorder is that trauma symptoms result when traumatic experiences cannot be readily assimilated into previously held worldviews. In two studies, we test the anxiety buffer disruption hypothesis, which states that trauma symptoms result from the disruption of normal death anxiety-buffering functions of worldview. In Study 1, participants with trauma symptoms greater than the cutoff for PTSD evinced greater death-thought accessibility than those with sub-clinical or negligible symptoms after a reminder of death. In Study 2, participants with clinically significant trauma symptoms showed no evidence of worldview defense though death-thoughts were accessible. These results support the anxiety buffer disruption hypothesis, and suggest an entirely new approach to experimental PTSD research. PMID:24077677

  19. Unconscious Vigilance: Worldview Defense Without Adaptations for Terror, Coalition, or Uncertainty Management

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this “worldview defense” effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. PMID:21644809

  20. Unconscious vigilance: worldview defense without adaptations for terror, coalition, or uncertainty management.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Colin; Sousa, Paulo; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer

    2011-09-01

    Individuals subtly reminded of death, coalitional challenges, or feelings of uncertainty display exaggerated preferences for affirmations and against criticisms of their cultural in-groups. Terror management, coalitional psychology, and uncertainty management theories postulate this "worldview defense" effect as the output of mechanisms evolved either to allay the fear of death, foster social support, or reduce anxiety by increasing adherence to cultural values. In 4 studies, we report evidence for an alternative perspective. We argue that worldview defense owes to unconscious vigilance, a state of accentuated reactivity to affective targets (which need not relate to cultural worldviews) that follows detection of subtle alarm cues (which need not pertain to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty). In Studies 1 and 2, death-primed participants produced exaggerated ratings of worldview-neutral affective targets. In Studies 3 and 4, subliminal threat manipulations unrelated to death, coalitional challenges, or uncertainty evoked worldview defense. These results are discussed as they inform evolutionary interpretations of worldview defense and future investigations of the influence of unconscious alarm on judgment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:21644809

  1. When the world collapses: changed worldview and social reconstruction in a traumatized community

    PubMed Central

    Biruski, Dinka Corkalo; Ajdukovic, Dean; Stanic, Ajana Löw

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic experience can affect the individual's basic beliefs about the world as a predictable and safe place. One of the cornerstones in recovery from trauma is reestablishment of safety, connectedness, and the shattered schema of a worldview. Objective This study explored the role of negatively changed worldview in the relationship between war-related traumatization and readiness for social reconstruction of intergroup relations in a post-conflict community measured by three processes: intergroup rapprochement, rebuilding trust, and need for apology. It was hypothesized that more traumatized people are less supportive of social reconstruction and that this relationship is mediated by the changed worldview. Method The study included a community random sample of 333 adults in the city of Vukovar, Croatia, that was most devastated during the 1991–1995 war. Six instruments were administered: Stressful Events Scale, Impact of Event Scale-Revised, Changed Worldview Scale, and three scales measuring the post-conflict social reconstruction processes: Intergroup Rapprochement, Intergroup Trust and Need for Apology. Results Mediation analyses showed that the worldview change fully mediated between traumatization and all three aspects of social reconstruction. Conclusions In a population exposed to war traumatization the worldview change mediates post-conflict social recovery of community relations. PMID:25279101

  2. Householders’ Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people’s energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders’ perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally ‘went together’, there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people’s categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  3. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    PubMed

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself. PMID:27467206

  4. WorldView Environmental Scan on Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Podnieks, Elizabeth; Anetzberger, Georgia J; Wilson, Susannah J; Teaster, Pamela B; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2010-01-01

    In response to a growing and worldwide recognition of elder abuse, the WorldView Environmental Scan on Elder Abuse was undertaken. It represented an attempt to collect both information on the nature of the problem of elder abuse and responses to it from a global perspective. The first of its kind, the Scan gathered information about elder abuse as well as on related legislation and policy, services and programs, educational resources and needs, training, and past and ongoing research. A total of 53 countries responded to the survey questionnaire, with 362 respondents representing the six world regions designated by the World Health Organization. Findings revealed that factors contributing to elder abuse include changing social and economic structures, isolation of victims, inadequate knowledge of laws and services, intergenerational conflict, and poverty. Barriers to seeking resources to intervene and protect older adults include the culture of the country, language issues, literacy, stigma, lack of mobility, lack of funding, and insufficient familiarity with and access to the internet. The data serve as a catalyst to take action, both globally and nationally, while emphasizing the changes necessary to protect the rights and dignity of older adults. PMID:20390830

  5. Mapping urban vegetation cover using WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavayas, François; Ramos, Yuddy; Boyer, André

    2012-06-01

    There are clear indications that densification of built-up areas within cities and new developments in their outskirts, in conjunction with urban population activities, are at the origin of climate changes at the local level and have a direct impact on air and water quality. Densification of the vegetation cover is often mentioned as one of the most important means to mitigate the impacts of climate changes and to improve the quality of the urban environment. Decision making on vegetation cover densification presupposes that urban planners and managers know exactly the actual situation in terms of vegetation location, types and biomass. However, in many cities, inventories of vegetation cover are usually absent. This study examines the feasibility of an automatic system for vegetation cover inventory and mapping in urban areas based on WorldView-2 imagery. The city of Laval, Canada, was chosen as the experimental site. The principal conclusions are as follows: a) conversion of digital counts to ground reflectances is a crucial step in order to fully exploit the potential of WV-2 multispectral images for mapping vegetation cover and recognizing vegetation classes; b) the combined use of NDVIs computed using the three infrared available bands and the red band provides an accurate means of differentiating vegetation cover from other land covers; and c) it is possible to separate trees from other vegetation types and to identify tree species even in dense urban areas using spectral signature characteristics and segmentation algorithms.

  6. Imagining the World: The Significance of Religious Worldviews for Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2009-06-01

    This article begins by examining whether ‘science’ and ‘religion’ can better be seen as distinct or related worldviews, focusing particularly on scientific and religious understandings of biodiversity. I then explore how people can see the natural world, depending on their worldview, by looking at two contrasting treatments of penguin behaviour, namely that provided in the film March of the Penguins and in the children’s book And Tango Makes Three. I end by drawing some initial conclusions as to what might and what might not be included about religion in school science lessons. Science educators and teachers need to take account of religious worldviews if some students are better to understand the compass of scientific thinking and some of science’s key conclusions. It is perfectly possible for a science teacher to be respectful of the worldviews that students occupy, even if these are scientifically limited, while clearly and non-apologetically helping them to understand the scientific worldview on a particular issue.

  7. See It First: Interactively and Visually Discovering Interesting Satellite Data with NASA Worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; McGann, J. M.; Ilavajhala, S.; Timmons, E.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Davies, D.

    2013-12-01

    Complementing NASA's traditional method to data discovery via "metadata-first" searching, the Worldview web mapping client takes a "see it first" approach for visually discovering interesting satellite data. It uses the responsive Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) to provide an interactive interface for browsing 90+ products from Terra, Aqua, and Aura in full resolution and generally within three hours of observation. Launched at Fall 2011 AGU, Worldview's original domain was near-real time applications such as monitoring wildfires and flooding events. Since then, its scope and available imagery have expanded to include science applications and functionality such as the ability to download full-resolution image representations of the data and the original data granules. Worldview is also mobile-friendly and can be used on most tablet and smartphone devices.

  8. Worldviews and discursive construction of GMO-related risk perceptions in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Giuseppe A; Suerdem, Ahmet K

    2013-02-01

    This paper analyses the discursive construction of the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) issue in the Turkish political arena following the public debate on the pending legislation on biosecurity. The study proposes an operational approach to semiotic/actor network theory (Latour) applied to public representations of a new technology within the theoretical frameworks of social representation theory and cultural theory of risks. It aims to highlight how different worldviews produce different risk discourses of GMOs in Turkey. Using cluster analysis to inductively extract evaluative categories, we use these to identify themes by human coding. Lastly, we apply formal concept analysis to link themes to actors and their worldviews, establishing their semantic networks. Formal concept analysis revealed four discourse networks reflecting nationalist, Islamist, progressive (left) and neo-liberal worldviews. Finally, these structures will be grounded back in the articles for a richer interpretive analysis. PMID:23833021

  9. Youth hedonistic behaviour: moderating role of peer attachment on the effect of religiosity and worldview

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, Siti Raba'ah; Suandi, Turiman; Krauss, Steven Eric; Hamzah, Azimi; Tamam, Ezhar

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on the moderating effect of peer attachment on the relationships between religiosity and worldview, and on how hedonistic behaviour among Malaysian undergraduate students is shaped by such influences. With regard to peer attachment, the study focused on the influences of communication, trust and alienation among youth. Bronfenbrenner's theory of human ecology and Armsden and Greenberg's attachment model were used as the framework. Drawing on a quantitative survey of 394 Malaysian university students (M age = 21.0, SD = 0.40), structural equation modelling and path analysis revealed a significant relationship between worldview and hedonistic behaviour. Peer attachment moderated the relationships between religiosity and religious worldview. The results further showed that the unique moderating effect of the lower level of attachment with peers is positively related to the hedonistic behaviour. Implications from the findings are discussed. PMID:25431513

  10. Worldview, Identity, and Prevention in American Indian Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Grace Powless

    Those who come from non-American Indian cultures have dominated traditional models for healing and prevention. The assumption that current training strategies, program manuals, and levels of competence with regard to cross-cultural skills and knowledge are sufficient is arguable. If training programs for mental health, physical health, and…

  11. Estimation of leaf water content using spectral bands from the commercial satellite, DigitalGlobe WorldView-3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently-launched high-resolution commercial satellite, DigitalGlobe’s WorldView-3, has 8 bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) wavelength region, which may be capable of estimating canopy water content at 3.7-m spatial resolution. WorldView-3 also has 8 multispectral bands at 1.24-m resolution ...

  12. An Instrument Validation for a Three-Dimensional Worldview Survey among Undergraduate Christian University Students Using Principal Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Kathy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the structure, validity, and reliability of the "Three-Dimensional Worldview Survey-Form C" ("3DWS-Form C") for potential use in postsecondary Christian institutions. This instrument delineates from other worldview instruments in that it purports to measure three components of a person's…

  13. Students' Views Concerning Worldview Presuppositions Underpinning Science: Is the World Really Ordered, Uniform, and Comprehensible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Lena

    2014-01-01

    That nature and the universe are ordered, uniform, and comprehensible is a starting point in science. However, such worldview presuppositions are often taken for granted, rather than explicitly mentioned, in science and in science class. This article takes a worldview perspective and reports from interviews (N = 26) with upper secondary students…

  14. The "Beyond in the Midst": An Incarnational Response to the Dynamic Dance of Christian Worldview, Faith and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Darren; Meteyard, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Although widespread consensus exists that the integration of Christian worldview, faith and learning lies at the heart of effective Christian education, such an aspiration has not always resulted in the embodiment of worldview principles within Christian educational contexts. In response to this dissonance, an alternative approach to integration…

  15. Do Negative Changes in Worldview Mediate Links Between Mass Trauma and Reckless Behavior? A Longitudinal Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Claire E; Wusik, Michael F; Sullivan, Connor P; Jones, Russell T; Hughes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Trauma exposure heightens the risk of reckless behavior and is now included in DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Individuals exposed to trauma may be likely to engage in reckless behavior because of negative changes in their worldview (referred to as disrupted worldview). The current study investigates the relationship between DSM-IV posttraumatic stress symptoms, disrupted worldview, and increased reckless behavior among 1145 students exposed to mass violence. Total posttraumatic stress symptomatology was associated with increased and persistent reckless behavior, supporting DSM-5 diagnostic inclusion. Although posttraumatic stress symptomatology predicted reckless behavior among those with varying levels of posttraumatic symptomatology, individuals with high symptomatology reported significantly higher recklessness. Disrupted worldview mediated the relationship between posttraumatic symptomatology and reckless behavior among individuals with high symptomatology, while only partially mediating the relationship among those with low symptomatology. These findings provide support for worldview disruptions as a mechanism by which prolonged reckless behavior may be manifested. PMID:26148489

  16. The Liberal Arts and Environmental Awareness: Exploring Endorsement of an Environmental Worldview in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rideout, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore student endorsement of an environmental worldview during the college years through a sampling of freshmen and seniors. Nine independent samples of freshman and senior class undergraduates (N = 779) were surveyed over a five year period in a small, independent liberal arts college. The survey instrument…

  17. Whose Science and Whose Religion? Reflections on the Relations between Scientific and Religious Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennan, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Arguments about the relationship between science and religion often proceed by identifying a set of essential characteristics of scientific and religious worldviews and arguing on the basis of these characteristics for claims about a relationship of conflict or compatibility between them. Such a strategy is doomed to failure because science, to…

  18. Knowing Self and Others: A Worldview Model for Religious Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selcuk, Mualla; Valk, John

    2012-01-01

    Turkish religious education's focus on religion from a social science and prescriptive Islamic perspective faces challenges today. This article presents a new model and approach that assists students in exploring their beliefs and values, those of others, and their Islamic heritage from an interdisciplinary worldview perspective. (Contains 2…

  19. Opposing Standards within the Cultural Worldview: Terror Management and American Women's Desire for Uniqueness versus Inclusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Penny E.; Smith, Jessi L.

    2007-01-01

    Two different standards within American women's overall cultural worldview were examined in two studies: standing out and fitting in. American culture prescribes and values uniqueness, yet gender norms for women prescribe and value inclusiveness. Thus, unlike American men, American women encounter incongruent cultural norms that make it unclear…

  20. The Influence of Moral Education on the Personal Worldview of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kooij, Jacomijn C.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Miedema, Siebren

    2015-01-01

    This article researches whether approaches to moral education aim to influence the development of the personal worldview of students. An example of a Dutch moral education programme is presented and the findings are used to analyse various approaches to moral education. Our analysis demonstrates that every approach aims to influence the personal…

  1. A Feminist Perspective on Technical Communicative Action: Exploring How Alternative Worldviews Affect Environmental Remediation Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Susan Mallon

    1994-01-01

    Describes the current practices in public environmental debate and reform movements as relevant to technical communicators. Reviews a case in which the Mohawk community clashed with the Environmental Protection Agency. Explores the clash of worldviews and shows how a feminist perspective might aid in such a conflict. (HB)

  2. The Order of Importance of Component Parts of the Biblical Worldview in Christian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Meter, Kenneth G.

    2009-01-01

    This micro-ethnographic study is an exploration of the relative degree of importance of the several components of a worldview as articulated by a purposive sample of fourteen upper division students currently enrolled in advance placement classes in ACSI and WASC accredited Christian high schools in Northern California. The research design uses an…

  3. Poverty and Depression among Men: The Social Class Worldview Model and Counseling Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, William M.

    This paper outlines a theory for understanding social class in men's lives, and argues that poverty and depression are a function of social class and internalized classism. It begins by defining poverty, then explains the Social Class Worldview Model, which is a subjective social class model, and the Modern Classism Theory, which allows clinicians…

  4. Worldview Construction and Identity Formation in Ultra-Orthodox Jewish Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowski, Moshe

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how ultra-Orthodox Jewish elementary schools in America construct and maintain a distinct religious identity through the production of an all-encompassing communal worldview. The author argues that ultra-Orthodox schools model cultural engagement with secular American society by conceptually isolating secular education within…

  5. Measuring Student Learning for Interfaith Cooperation: The Pluralism and Worldview Engagement Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringman Baxter, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Pluralism and engagement with diverse religious, secular, and spiritual worldviews can contribute significantly to college student growth and civic engagement. But these concepts can be difficult to measure in the framework of student learning. This article describes a process and product undertaken by Elon University, Interfaith Youth Core, and…

  6. Nehithawak of Reindeer Lake, Canada: Worldview, Epistemology and Relationships with the Natural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Herman

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory article is to illustrate the worldview, epistemology and relationship with the natural world from a Nehithawak (Woodlands Cree) perspective. The contents of the article represent a personal narrative of an educator of Woodlands Cree cultural heritage from the Reindeer Lake area of northern Canada. A brief history of…

  7. How Living or Traveling to Foreign Locations Influences Adults' Worldviews and Impacts Personal Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelich Biniecki, Susan M.; Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2014-01-01

    People are living and traveling to places all over the world. An exploration of how this movement influences learners' worldviews has implications for adult development, identity, and learning. The purpose of this paper is to present a phenomenological study conducted in the U.S. that examined how individuals' living or traveling…

  8. Evaluation of WorldView Textbooks; Textbooks Taught at a Military University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalili, Masoud; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to evaluate the WorldView series textbooks of English learning, which are being taught at an Iranian military university foreign language center. No textbook evaluation had been conducted by the university administration prior to the introduction of the textbooks to the language program. Theorists in the field of ELT textbook…

  9. Achievement or Arrest? The Influence of the Collegiate Religious and Spiritual Climate on Students' Worldview Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Matthew J.; Bryant, Alyssa N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between the collegiate religious, spiritual, and ideological climate and worldview commitment. As part of this process, 1,071 students responded to the Collegiate Religious and Spiritual Climate Survey, an empirically validated and reliable measure designed to assess dimensions of a…

  10. Campus Religious/Worldview Climate, Institutional Religious Affiliation, and Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Mayhew, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Student affairs practitioners and scholars are paying greater attention to issues of religion and spirituality on college campuses. The present study explores the link between campus religious/worldview climate and overall student engagement within a longitudinal sample of 14,517 undergraduates at 134 colleges. When controlling for various student…

  11. Worldviews, Religions, and Beliefs about Teaching and Learning: Perception of Mathematics Teachers with Different Religious Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Yip-Cheung; Wong, Ngai-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Beliefs about mathematics education and their influences on teaching practices have been widely investigated in recent decades. There have been numerous empirical studies on the influences of religions on teachers' and students' beliefs about subjects such as sciences and language. However, the influences of worldviews in general and…

  12. Thinking Multicultural Education "Otherwise"--From a Secularist Construction towards a Plurality of Epistemologies and Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulter, Saila; Riitaoja, Anna-Leena; Kuusisto, Arniika

    2016-01-01

    This article examines educational, political and philosophical perspectives on the concepts of worldview and religion in the context of multicultural education. Using a postcolonial and post-structural approach combined with theories that analyse the politics of secularism, we attempt to pinpoint key perspectives in the recognition of worldviews…

  13. The Relationship between Alumni Worldview and Motivation for Giving at Biola University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Eun Jung

    2011-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between alumni donors' worldview characteristics and their motivations for supporting and giving to their "alma mater." The sample consisted of the whole alumni donor population (N = 7000) at Biola University, La Mirada, California. The research was conducted using quantitative method, and investigated 3…

  14. The order of importance of component parts of the Biblical worldview in Christian high school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meter, Kenneth G.

    This micro-ethnographic study is an exploration of the relative degree of importance of the several components of a worldview as articulated by a purposive sample of fourteen upper division students currently enrolled in advance placement classes in ACSI and WASC accredited Christian high schools in Northern California. The research design uses an original questionnaire followed up with a semi-structured interview of the student using the responses on the questionnaire as a guide for the interview. The questionnaire uses a Likert scale in asking the students to rate the importance of seven components of a worldview and then to rank those same components in order of importance. Results suggest that the subjects of God, morality and truth are of highest importance, and the human predicament and origins are of least importance. The subjects of the purpose of human existence and the resolution to the human predicament were intermediate in importance. Additional themes of temporal immediacy and the ability to connect worldview components into a comprehensive whole were also identified. The influence of the family unit as of primary importance in worldview development was affirmed. Suggestions for strengthening instructional practices and curriculum for Christian school educators are provided.

  15. Humanism, Non-Religious Worldviews and the Future of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether non-religious worldviews ought to be included in the curriculum content of religious education (RE). While the immediate context is that of the campaigns of the Religious Education Council for England and Wales (REC) and the British Humanist Association (BHA) to extend the content of RE to include non-religious…

  16. Vegetation burn severity mapping using Landsat-8 and WorldView-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Middleton, Barry R.; Hetzler, Robert; Vogel, John M.; Dye, Dennis G.

    2015-01-01

    We used remotely sensed data from the Landsat-8 and WorldView-2 satellites to estimate vegetation burn severity of the Creek Fire on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, where wildfire occurrences affect the Tribe's crucial livestock and logging industries. Accurate pre- and post-fire canopy maps at high (0.5-meter) resolution were created from World- View-2 data to generate canopy loss maps, and multiple indices from pre- and post-fire Landsat-8 images were used to evaluate vegetation burn severity. Normalized difference vegetation index based vegetation burn severity map had the highest correlation coefficients with canopy loss map from WorldView-2. Two distinct approaches - canopy loss mapping from WorldView-2 and spectral index differencing from Landsat-8 - agreed well with the field-based burn severity estimates and are both effective for vegetation burn severity mapping. Canopy loss maps created with WorldView-2 imagery add to a short list of accurate vegetation burn severity mapping techniques that can help guide effective management of forest resources on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, and the broader fire-prone regions of the Southwest.

  17. Spirituality and aboriginal mental health: an examination of the relationship between Aboriginal spirituality and mental health.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R

    2008-01-01

    Previous research on Aboriginal [Native American] spirituality has demonstrated that some of its dimensions have significant, positive effects on health and healing. This review will explore and highlight some important spiritual domains and characteristics of Aboriginal life that are significant factors in both the prevention of and recovery from various mental health issues afflicting the Canadian Aboriginal population today. Findings from current research in this area is explored and presented as grounds for supporting the current objectives. As demonstrated, Aboriginal perspectives on health and healing are broader than those of biomedicine, encompassing emotional and spiritual aspects as well as the mental and physical. Mental health practitioners should, therefore, include spiritual dimensions while working with Aboriginal patients, not only to respect the patients' worldview but also for the demonstrated positive effects on healing. PMID:20664135

  18. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  19. The Salience of Family Worldview in Mourning an Elderly Husband and Father

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Santanello, Holly R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore family reaction to the death of the elderly husband and father in the family. Methods: We qualitatively interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and 2 adult biological children) approximately 6–15 months after the death. In private, one-on-one in-depth interviews, we discussed how the death affected each family member as an individual and how each member perceived that the death altered the family as a unit. Results: An individual's worldview, embedded in the smaller culture of the family and the larger culture of society, offers a template for appropriate grief reactions. Discussion: Our article builds on the constructs of worldview, grief for the husband and father, and narrative at the juncture of self-evaluation, as family members reflected on where they stood in their own journey through life. PMID:22241808

  20. Using GIBS and Worldview to Connect Global Processes to Local Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA Worldview client and undelrying Global Image Browse Service (GIBS) are powerful tools for visualizing dynamic global processes in a clear and understandable manner. Currently viewable data layers, such as sea surface temperature, cloud and aersol parameters, snow cover and sea ice, and fires can be observed over time to gain a better understanding of the interrleationship between land, ocean and atmospheric processes, and how these relationships evolve over time. This presentation demonstrates the use of these tools to visualize (for example) relationships between fire and air quality over North America, the evolution of the recent El Nino, and changes in sea ice extent, using Worldview directly, and GIBS through both open source and commercial applications. The presentation also discusses visualizations that will be possible with anticipated new data layers.

  1. Georeferencing Accuracy Analysis of a Single WORLDVIEW-3 Image Collected Over Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Roncoroni, F.; Brumana, R.; Previtali, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of rational functions has become a standard for very high-resolution satellite imagery (VHRSI). On the other hand, the overall geolocalization accuracy via direct georeferencing from on board navigation components is much worse than image ground sampling distance (predicted < 3.5 m CE90 for WorldView-3, whereas GSD = 0.31 m for panchromatic images at nadir). This paper presents the georeferencing accuracy results obtained from a single WorldView-3 image processed with a bias compensated RPC camera model. Orientation results for an image collected over Milan are illustrated and discussed for both direct and indirect georeferencing strategies as well as different bias correction parameters estimated from a set of ground control points. Results highlight that the use of a correction based on two shift parameters is optimal for the considered dataset.

  2. Nature of worldview presuppositions among science teachers in botswana, indonesia, japan, nigeria, and the philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunniyi, Meshach B.; Jegede, Olugbenro J.; Ogawa, Masakata; Yandila, Cephas D.; Oladele, Femi K.

    The focus of this study was to identify the nature of worldview presuppositions held by a group of science teachers from five non-western cultures. The results show that the subjects, irrespective of their cultural backgrounds, hold identical worldview presuppositions. It is not clear at this exploratory stage to what extent the subjects' alternative viewpoints influenced their scientific outlook or their science teaching. However, an analysis of the subjects' viewpoints suggests either poor conceptualizations of the nature of science or a form of collateral thinking, whereby an individual accepts or uses both mechanistic and anthropomorphic explanations depending on the context in question and without exhibiting any sign of cognitive dissonance. The implications of such a scenario for the teaching-learning process are highlighted.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 September 1994;

  3. Classifying increaser species as an indicator of different levels of rangeland degradation using WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Khalid; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2012-01-01

    The development of new multispectral sensors with unique band settings is critical for mapping the spatial distribution of increaser vegetation species in disturbed rangelands. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of WorldView-2 imagery for spectral classification of four increaser species, namely Hyparrhenia hirta, Eragrostis curvula, Sporobolus africanus, and Aristida diffusa, in the Okhombe communal rangelands of South Africa. The 8-bands were extracted from the WorldView-2 image, and 24 of the most widely used vegetation indices in estimating grassland biophysical parameters were calculated. The random forest algorithm and forward variable method were applied to identify the optimal variables (WorldView-2 spectral bands, vegetation indices, and a combination of bands and indices) for classifying the species. The random forest algorithm could classify species with an overall accuracy of 82.6% (KHAT[an estimate of κ]=0.76) using six of the WorldView-2 spectral bands and an overall accuracy of 90% (KHAT=0.87) using a subset of vegetation indices (n=9). Three bands selected were located at the new WorldView-2 spectral regions of coastal blue, yellow, and the red-edge. There was no significant improvement in increaser species classification by using a combination of bands and indices. Overall, the study demonstrated the potential of the WorldView-2 data for improving increaser separability at species level.

  4. Between rigidity and chaos: worldviews of partners experiencing intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Enosh, Guy; Eisikovits, Zvi; Gross, Chen

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this article was to examine the worldviews of cohabiting or married men and women who experienced domestic violence in their relationships. The study was based on content analysis of in-depth interviews with 48 men and women (24 couples), who were living together after experiencing at least one violent event in their relationships over the previous 12 months. Using constructivist grounded theory, the authors examined the deep structure of the ways by which partners living with intimate partner violence constructed their world. The men and women under study constructed heuristic models in two major life domains-psychological processes and how the world works overall. The analysis has revealed two axes resulting in four worldviews. The two axes were the construction of the world and the construction of the mind. Constructions of the mind ranged from chaotic to deterministic. Constructions of external reality ranged from static to fluid and uncontrollable. The theoretical model developed suggested four different types of basic worldviews. The suggested typology was examined in relation to existing typologies in the field of intimate partner violence and in relation to future research and interventions. PMID:23479434

  5. Coastal bathymetry estimation using regression function by WorldView-2 imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koedkurang, Kanjana; Cao, Xiaoguang

    2015-12-01

    Coastal bathymetry data are great important environmental resources and disaster management. Today, there are many technologies used to explore the bathymetry, depending on the purpose of surveying. But almost technologies can be time consuming, complicated, and quite expensive. Remote sensing by satellite imagery is one of technology used to estimate the coastal bathymetry in term of accuracy, quality and up to datedness, timely availability and cost effectiveness. Especially the Coastal Blue Band of WorldView-2 for bathymetric measurements will improve both in depth and accuracy. From investigated the relation between surface reflectance and coastal bathymetry of the eight bands of WorldView-2 that band 1,2,3 and 4 are good reflection and when the depth are increase, the digital number (DN) will decrease. The objective of this research is to developing the classification of the coastal bathymetry estimation from satellite imagery. By utilized WorldView-2 satellite images along with regressive function and improving the accuracy result by comparing with in-situ truth depth to assess a coastal bathymetry.

  6. The Impact of Motivational ``World-view'' on Engagement in a Cognitive Acceleration Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, Ros

    2006-06-01

    Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE) is an intervention programme conducted during Years 7 and 8 in the United Kingdom (aged 11 13 years), which has reported remarkable success in enhancing cognitive development and in raising academic achievement. Critics, however, have questioned whether a purely cognitive mechanism can explain the differential cognitive gains made by participants. One suggestion is that differences in motivational style might provide an explanation. This paper will present findings from a longitudinal study that addresses this matter. Utilising a goal theory approach to motivation, the motivational orientation, related beliefs, and self-concepts of approximately 1600 secondary students attending nine schools, five of whom were delivering the CASE intervention, were assessed before and at the end of the programme. Analyses of these data suggested that students exhibit six different motivational styles or world-views. These will be characterised. Change in motivation can be gauged by examining changes in world-view over the time-span of the research (the first 2 years of secondary schooling). Differences in the change of motivation of students for students attending CASE and control schools will be inspected. Finally, the relationship between motivation and cognitive gain, which turns out to be complex, will be presented. The implications of these findings, including whether world-view can explain differential cognitive acceleration effects, will be discussed.

  7. Identification and mapping of natural vegetation on a coastal site using a Worldview-2 satellite image.

    PubMed

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers. PMID:24973612

  8. Comparative analysis of Worldview-2 and Landsat 8 for coastal saltmarsh mapping accuracy assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Diti, Israt Jahan; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Coastal saltmarsh and their constituent components and processes are of an interest scientifically due to their ecological function and services. However, heterogeneity and seasonal dynamic of the coastal wetland system makes it challenging to map saltmarshes with remotely sensed data. This study selected four important saltmarsh species Pragmitis australis, Sporobolus virginicus, Ficiona nodosa and Schoeloplectus sp. as well as a Mangrove and Pine tree species, Avecinia and Casuarina sp respectively. High Spatial Resolution Worldview-2 data and Coarse Spatial resolution Landsat 8 imagery were selected in this study. Among the selected vegetation types some patches ware fragmented and close to the spatial resolution of Worldview-2 data while and some patch were larger than the 30 meter resolution of Landsat 8 data. This study aims to test the effectiveness of different classifier for the imagery with various spatial and spectral resolutions. Three different classification algorithm, Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were tested and compared with their mapping accuracy of the results derived from both satellite imagery. For Worldview-2 data SVM was giving the higher overall accuracy (92.12%, kappa =0.90) followed by ANN (90.82%, Kappa 0.89) and MLC (90.55%, kappa = 0.88). For Landsat 8 data, MLC (82.04%) showed the highest classification accuracy comparing to SVM (77.31%) and ANN (75.23%). The producer accuracy of the classification results were also presented in the paper.

  9. A Preliminary Experimental Examination of Worldview Verification, Perceived Racism, and Stress Reactivity in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Todd; Lumley, Mark A.; Flack, John M.; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Goetz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Objective According to worldview verification theory, inconsistencies between lived experiences and worldviews are psychologically threatening. These inconsistencies may be key determinants of stress processes that influence cardiovascular health disparities. This preliminary examination considers how experiencing injustice can affect perceived racism and biological stress reactivity among African Americans. Guided by worldview verification theory, it was hypothesized that responses to receiving an unfair outcome would be moderated by fairness of the accompanying decision process, and that this effect would further depend on the consistency of the decision process with preexisting justice beliefs. Method A sample of 118 healthy African American adults completed baseline measures of justice beliefs, followed by a laboratory-based social-evaluative stressor task. Two randomized fairness manipulations were implemented during the task: participants were given either high or low levels of distributive (outcome) and procedural (decision process) justice. Glucocorticoid (cortisol) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biological responses were measured in oral fluids, and attributions of racism were also measured. Results The hypothesized 3-way interaction was generally obtained. Among African Americans with a strong belief in justice, perceived racism, cortisol and C-reactive protein responses to low distributive justice were higher when procedural justice was low. Among African Americans with a weak belief in justice however, these responses were higher when a low level of distributive justice was coupled with high procedural justice. Conclusions Biological and psychological processes that contribute to cardiovascular health disparities are affected by consistency between individual-level and contextual justice factors. PMID:27018728

  10. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... your thinking, mood, and behavior. There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. Mental disorders are common, but treatments are available.

  11. Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  12. An exploration of worldview and conceptions of nature of science among science teachers at a private Christian high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kits, Kara M.

    Both worldview and conceptions of nature of science (NOS) are important components in teaching and learning science. However, few empirical studies have examined the interplay between both of these components for teachers or students. Therefore, this study examines the possible relationship between worldview and conceptions of nature of science for secondary science teachers who currently teach at a Christian school. Qualitative methodologies developed a rich description of the worldview beliefs and conceptions of NOS for teachers in this study. Eight secondary science teachers employed at a private Christian school participated in the study. A Views of Nature of Science (VNOS) questionnaire and follow-up interviews elicited participants' conceptions of NOS. A semi-structured interview and Test of Preferred Explanations (TOPE) questionnaire elicited participants' worldview beliefs regarding nature and the natural world and causality. Participants communicated understandings of NOS that ranged from uninformed to informed in various aspects. In addition, while their worldview beliefs and conceptions of NOS reflected their faith beliefs, participants did not have a less informed view of NOS than other science teachers in previous studies. In fact, for several aspects of NOS, these participants articulated more informed conceptions of NOS than participants in previous studies. For these participants, faith did not appear to interfere with their ability to think scientifically in regards to their worldview beliefs regarding nature and causality. Rather, faith was incorporated into a scientifically compatible worldview regarding nature and causality that is not much different from other teachers. Other than the fact that these science teachers integrated their faith beliefs into some of their responses regarding worldview and NOS, these teachers did not appear to be much different from other science teachers. That is, there was no predictable pattern between worldview

  13. The Worldviews Network: Digital Planetariums for Engaging Public Audiences in Global Change Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, R. J.; Koontz, K.; Yu, K.; Gardiner, N.; Connolly, R.; Mcconville, D.

    2013-12-01

    Utilizing the capabilities of digital planetariums, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, the California Academy of Sciences, NOVA/WGBH, The Elumenati, and affiliates of the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration formed the Worldviews Network. The network's mission is to place Earth in its cosmic context to encourage participants to explore connections between social & ecological issues in their backyards. Worldviews launched with informal science institution partners: the American Museum of Natural History, the Perot Museum of Nature & Science, the Journey Museum, the Bell Museum of Natural History, the University of Michigan Natural History Museum, and the National Environmental Modeling & Analysis Center. Worldviews uses immersive visualization technology to engage public audiences on issues of global environmental change at a bioregional level. An immersive planetarium show and dialogue deepens public engagement and awareness of complex human-natural system interactions. People have altered the global climate system. Our communities are increasingly vulnerable to extreme weather events. Land use decisions that people make every day put both human lives and biodiversity at risk through direct and indirect effects. The Worldviews programs demonstrate the complex linkages between Earth's physical and biological systems and their relationship to human health, agriculture, infrastructure, water resources, and energy. We have focused on critical thresholds, such as freshwater use, biodiversity loss, land use change, and anthropogenic changes to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. We have been guided by environmental literacy principles to help our audiences understand that humans drive current trends in coupled human-natural systems--and that humans could choose to play an important role in reversing these trends. Museum and planetarium staff members join the Worldviews Network team and external advisers to produce programs that span cosmic, global, and

  14. Dem Extraction from WORLDVIEW-3 Stereo-Images and Accuracy Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, F.; Gao, X. M.; Li, G. Y.; Li, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper validates the potentials of Worldview-3 satellite images in large scale topographic mapping, by choosing Worldview-3 along-track stereo-images of Yi Mountain area in Shandong province China for DEM extraction and accuracy evaluation. Firstly, eighteen accurate and evenly-distributed GPS points are collected in field and used as GCPs/check points, the image points of which are accurately measured, and also tie points are extracted from image matching; then, the RFM-based block adjustment to compensate the systematic error in image orientation is carried out and the geo-positioning accuracy is calculated and analysed; next, for the two stereo-pairs of the block, DSMs are separately constructed and mosaicked as an entirety, and also the corresponding DEM is subsequently generated; finally, compared with the selected check points from high-precision airborne LiDAR point cloud covering the same test area, the accuracy of the generated DEM with 2-meter grid spacing is evaluated by the maximum (max.), minimum (min.), mean and standard deviation (std.) values of elevation biases. It is demonstrated that, for Worldview-3 stereo-images used in our research, the planimetric accuracy without GCPs is about 2.16 m (mean error) and 0.55 (std. error), which is superior to the nominal value, while the vertical accuracy is about -1.61 m (mean error) and 0.49 m (std. error); with a small amount of GCPs located in the center and four corners of the test area, the systematic error can be well compensated. The std. value of elevation biases between the generated DEM and the 7256 LiDAR check points are about 0.62 m. If considering the potential uncertainties in the image point measurement, stereo matching and also elevation editing, the accuracy of generating DEM from Worldview-3 stereo-images should be more desirable. Judging from the results, Worldview-3 has the potential for 1:5000 or even larger scale mapping application.

  15. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  16. Assessing Soil Salinity with the use of WorldView-2 Hyperspectral Images in Timpaki, Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil degradation threats occurring worldwide, with its effects being observed in numerous vital ecological and non-ecological soil functions. Traditionally, soil salinity is assessed by laboratory determination of the soil electrical conductivity (ECe), rendering large scale studies labor and cost intensive. This study evaluates the feasibility of surface soil salinity estimation, monitoring, and mapping based on images acquired by the WorldView-2 and Landsat 8 multispectral sensors after calibration with a limited number of soil samples. A range of satellite image processing techniques are applied, starting with geometric, radiometric and atmospheric preprocessing corrections. More than 10 spectral salinity indices (algebric equations between visible and infrared band) including three newly introduced salinity indices, as well as vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, etc.) are implemented to detect surface salt deposition and vegetation health. Spectral unmixing is used to monitor salinity employing sophisticated classification approaches. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied to a WorldView-2 images in order to determine the initial axes used for the orthogonal transformation, followed by a subsequent 3D rotation of the PCA axes. The linear coefficients of the transformation are retrieved and adjusted to detect salinity in all the range of WorldView-2 image. Furthermore, Landsat 8 images are used to establish and compare the diachronic vegetation regime and plant health in both brackish irrigation and salinity-free olive groves areas. The proposed methods are tested in the RECARE FP7 Project Case Study of Timpaki, a coastal semi-arid region in south-central Crete. Long term agricultural over-exploitation in the area and little irrigation alternatives have led to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinization. EO products are calibrated using soil samples collected from bare soil plots at 0-5 cm depth and representing a

  17. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    PubMed Central

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander worldviews and cultural safety transforming sexual assault service provision for children and young people.

    PubMed

    Funston, Leticia

    2013-09-01

    Child Sexual Assault (CSA) in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP), families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both "victim" and "those who sexually harm others" services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between "victims" and "those who sexually harm" services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services. PMID:23975109

  19. Shared Cataloguing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Barbara M.

    The National Program for Acquisition and Cataloging (NPAC) authorized under Title IIC of the Higher Education Act of 1965 is called the Shared Cataloging Program. Under this Act the Library of Congress is authorized to: (1) acquire for its own collections all materials currently published throughout the world that are of value to scholarship and…

  20. Accuracy Assessment of Digital Surface Models Based on WorldView-2 and ADS80 Stereo Remote Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Hobi, Martina L.; Ginzler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Digital surface models (DSMs) are widely used in forest science to model the forest canopy. Stereo pairs of very high resolution satellite and digital aerial images are relatively new and their absolute accuracy for DSM generation is largely unknown. For an assessment of these input data two DSMs based on a WorldView-2 stereo pair and a ADS80 DSM were generated with photogrammetric instruments. Rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs) are defining the orientation of the WorldView-2 satellite images, which can be enhanced with ground control points (GCPs). Thus two WorldView-2 DSMs were distinguished: a WorldView-2 RPCs-only DSM and a WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs DSM. The accuracy of the three DSMs was estimated with GPS measurements, manual stereo-measurements, and airborne laser scanning data (ALS). With GCP-enhanced RPCs the WorldView-2 image orientation could be optimised to a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.56 m in planimetry and 0.32 m in height. This improvement in orientation allowed for a vertical median error of −0.24 m for the WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs DSM in flat terrain. Overall, the DSM based on ADS80 images showed the highest accuracy of the three models with a median error of 0.08 m over bare ground. As the accuracy of a DSM varies with land cover three classes were distinguished: herb and grass, forests, and artificial areas. The study suggested the ADS80 DSM to best model actual surface height in all three land cover classes, with median errors <1.1 m. The WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs model achieved good accuracy, too, with median errors of −0.43 m for the herb and grass vegetation and −0.26 m for artificial areas. Forested areas emerged as the most difficult land cover type for height modelling; still, with median errors of −1.85 m for the WorldView-2 GCP-enhanced RPCs model and −1.12 m for the ADS80 model, the input data sets evaluated here are quite promising for forest canopy modelling. PMID:22778645

  1. The Role of Conspiracist Ideation and Worldviews in Predicting Rejection of Science

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Background Among American Conservatives, but not Liberals, trust in science has been declining since the 1970's. Climate science has become particularly polarized, with Conservatives being more likely than Liberals to reject the notion that greenhouse gas emissions are warming the globe. Conversely, opposition to genetically-modified (GM) foods and vaccinations is often ascribed to the political Left although reliable data are lacking. There are also growing indications that rejection of science is suffused by conspiracist ideation, that is the general tendency to endorse conspiracy theories including the specific beliefs that inconvenient scientific findings constitute a “hoax.” Methodology/Principal findings We conducted a propensity weighted internet-panel survey of the U.S. population and show that conservatism and free-market worldview strongly predict rejection of climate science, in contrast to their weaker and opposing effects on acceptance of vaccinations. The two worldview variables do not predict opposition to GM. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, predicts rejection of all three scientific propositions, albeit to greatly varying extents. Greater endorsement of a diverse set of conspiracy theories predicts opposition to GM foods, vaccinations, and climate science. Conclusions Free-market worldviews are an important predictor of the rejection of scientific findings that have potential regulatory implications, such as climate science, but not necessarily of other scientific issues. Conspiracist ideation, by contrast, is associated with the rejection of all scientific propositions tested. We highlight the manifold cognitive reasons why conspiracist ideation would stand in opposition to the scientific method. The involvement of conspiracist ideation in the rejection of science has implications for science communicators. PMID:24098391

  2. Automatic Estimation of Volcanic Ash Plume Height using WorldView-2 Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaren, David; Thompson, David R.; Davies, Ashley G.; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Chien, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We explore the use of machine learning, computer vision, and pattern recognition techniques to automatically identify volcanic ash plumes and plume shadows, in WorldView-2 imagery. Using information of the relative position of the sun and spacecraft and terrain information in the form of a digital elevation map, classification, the height of the ash plume can also be inferred. We present the results from applying this approach to six scenes acquired on two separate days in April and May of 2010 of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in Iceland. These results show rough agreement with ash plume height estimates from visual and radar based measurements.

  3. Testing high spatial resolution WorldView-2 imagery for retrieving the leaf area index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantino, Eufemia; Novelli, Antonio; Laterza, Maurizio; Gioia, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    This work analyzes the potentiality of WorldView-2 satellite data for retrieving the Leaf Area Index (LAI) area located in Apulia, the most Eastern region of Italy, overlooking the Adriatic and Ionian seas. Lacking contemporary in-situ measurements, the semi-empiric method of Clevers (1989) (CLAIR model) was chosen as a feasible image-based LAI retrieval method, which is based on an inverse exponential relationship between the LAI and the WDVI (Weighted Difference Vegetation Index) with relation to different land covers. Results were examined in homogeneous land cover classes and compared with values obtained in recent literature.

  4. The Influence of Campus Climate and Interfaith Engagement on Self-Authored Worldview Commitment and Pluralism Orientation across Sexual and Gender Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Riggers-Piehl, Tiffani A.; Garvey, Jason C.; Lo, Marc A.; Mayhew, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which LGBT students were oriented toward pluralism and self-authored worldview commitment, as well as the conditional effects of campus climate and interfaith engagement on pluralism and worldview commitment by sexual orientation and gender identity. Drawing on data from 13,776 student respondents to the Campus…

  5. Data Sharing.

    PubMed

    Longo, Dan L; Drazen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-21

    The aerial view of the concept of data sharing is beautiful. What could be better than having high-quality information carefully reexamined for the possibility that new nuggets of useful data are lying there, previously unseen? The potential for leveraging existing results for even more benefit pays appropriate increased tribute to the patients who put themselves at risk to generate the data. The moral imperative to honor their collective sacrifice is the trump card that takes this trick. However, many of us who have actually conducted clinical research, managed clinical studies and data collection and analysis, and curated data sets have . . . PMID:26789876

  6. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, Dominick P.; And Others

    Evidence today indicates that the causes of mental retardation are biological, psychological, and social in origin and that a combination of these causes frequently occur in a single individual. Mental retardation is identified clinically by the presence of several signs that include, but are not limited to, a significant impairment of…

  7. Integrating Field Spectra and Worldview-2 Data for Grapevine Productivity in Different Irrigation Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitiyiming, M.; Bozzolo, A.; Wulamu, A.; Wilkins, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Precision farming requires high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing data to detect plant physiological changes. The higher spatial resolution is particularly as important as the spectral resolution for crop monitoring. It is important to develop data integration techniques between field or airborne hyperspectral data with spaceborne broad band multispectral images for plant productivity monitoring. To investigate varying rootstock and irrigation interactions, different irrigation treatments are implemented in a vineyard experimental site either i) unirrigated ii) full replacement of evapotranspiration (ET) iii) irrigated at 50 % of the potential ET. In summer 2014, we collected leaf and canopy spectra of the vineyard using field spectroscopy along with other plant physiological and nutritional variables. In this contribution, we integrate the field spectra and the spectral wavelengths of WorldView-2 to develop a predictive model for plant productivity,i.e., fruit quality and yield. First, we upscale field and canopy spectra to WorldView-2 spectral bands using radiative transfer simulations (e.g., MODTRAN). Then we develop remote sensing techniques to quantify plant productivity in different scenarios water stress by identifying the most effective and sensitive wavelengths, and indices that are capable of early detection of plant health and estimation of crop nutrient status. Finally we present predictive models developed from partial least square regression (PLSR) for plant productivity using spectral wavelengths and indices derived from integrated field and satellite remote sensing data.

  8. Plastic and Glass Greenhouses Detection and Delineation from WORLDVIEW-2 Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koc-San, D.; Sonmez, N. K.

    2016-06-01

    Greenhouse detection using remote sensing technologies is an important research area for yield estimation, sustainable development, urban and rural planning and management. An approach was developed in this study for the detection and delineation of greenhouse areas from high resolution satellite imagery. Initially, the candidate greenhouse patches were detected using supervised classification techniques. For this purpose, Maximum Likelihood (ML), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) classification techniques were applied and compared. Then, sieve filter and morphological operations were performed for improving the classification results. Finally, the obtained candidate plastic and glass greenhouse areas were delineated using boundary tracing and Douglas Peucker line simplification algorithms. The proposed approach was implemented in the Kumluca district of Antalya, Turkey utilizing pan-sharpened WorldView-2 satellite imageries. Kumluca is the prominent district of Antalya with greenhouse cultivation and includes both plastic and glass greenhouses intensively. When the greenhouse classification results were analysed, it can be stated that the SVM classification provides most accurate results and RF classification follows this. The SVM classification overall accuracy was obtained as 90.28%. When the greenhouse boundary delineation results were considered, the plastic greenhouses were delineated with 92.11% accuracy, while glass greenhouses were delineated with 80.67% accuracy. The obtained results indicate that, generally plastic and glass greenhouses can be detected and delineated successfully from WorldView-2 satellite imagery.

  9. Overcoming systemic roadblocks to sustainability: The evolutionary redesign of worldviews, institutions, and technologies

    PubMed Central

    Beddoe, Rachael; Costanza, Robert; Farley, Joshua; Garza, Eric; Kent, Jennifer; Kubiszewski, Ida; Martinez, Luz; McCowen, Tracy; Murphy, Kathleen; Myers, Norman; Ogden, Zach; Stapleton, Kevin; Woodward, John

    2009-01-01

    A high and sustainable quality of life is a central goal for humanity. Our current socio-ecological regime and its set of interconnected worldviews, institutions, and technologies all support the goal of unlimited growth of material production and consumption as a proxy for quality of life. However, abundant evidence shows that, beyond a certain threshold, further material growth no longer significantly contributes to improvement in quality of life. Not only does further material growth not meet humanity's central goal, there is mounting evidence that it creates significant roadblocks to sustainability through increasing resource constraints (i.e., peak oil, water limitations) and sink constraints (i.e., climate disruption). Overcoming these roadblocks and creating a sustainable and desirable future will require an integrated, systems level redesign of our socio-ecological regime focused explicitly and directly on the goal of sustainable quality of life rather than the proxy of unlimited material growth. This transition, like all cultural transitions, will occur through an evolutionary process, but one that we, to a certain extent, can control and direct. We suggest an integrated set of worldviews, institutions, and technologies to stimulate and seed this evolutionary redesign of the current socio-ecological regime to achieve global sustainability. PMID:19240221

  10. Can the Absence of Prejudice be More Threatening than its Presence? It Depends on one's Worldview

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Sarah S. M.; Major, Brenda; Sawyer, Pamela J.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2010-01-01

    The current research used validated cardiovascular measures to examine threat reactions among members of stigmatized groups when interacting with members of nonstigmatized groups who were, or were not, prejudiced against their group. We hypothesized that people's beliefs about the fairness of the status system would moderate their experience of threat during intergroup interactions. We predicted that for members of stigmatized groups who believe the status system is fair, interacting with a prejudiced relative to an unprejudiced partner would disconfirm their worldview and result in greater threat. In contrast, we predicted that for members of stigmatized groups who believe the system is unfair, interacting with a prejudiced relative to an unprejudiced partner would confirm their worldview and result in less threat. We examined these predictions among Latinas interacting with a White female confederate (Study 1) and White females interacting with a White male confederate (Study 2). As predicted, people's beliefs about the fairness of the status system moderated their experiences of threat during intergroup interactions, indicated both by cardiovascular responses and nonverbal behavior. The specific pattern of the moderation differed across the two studies. PMID:21114352

  11. DEM Extraction from High-Resolution Stereoscopic Worldview 1 & 2 Imagery of Polar Outlet Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.; Howat, I. M.; Niebuhr, S.; Smith, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    There are few reliable digital elevation models (DEMs) in polar regions and most are of low resolution (on the order of 100's of meters to km) or of poor quality. Polar environments are changing rapidly and accurate DEMs are critical for correcting imagery, measuring glacier thickness changes and modeling ice flow and surface melt water drainage. Using in-track stereoscopic images from Worldview-1 and Worldview-2, we derived high-resolution DEMs for outlet glaciers and other areas of interest in Antarctica and the Arctic. We used ERDAS Imagine's LPS eATE (enhanced automated terrain extraction) algorithm to derive a dense point cloud of matches. The resulting point cloud is comparable in density to that obtained by LiDAR flown at 10,000 feet. Preliminary comparisons of our results to ground control points collected by field teams and airborne and satellite laser altimeters show 0.5 - 10 meter vertical error over glaciers and 2 - 10 meter error over ice-free terrain. The error is primarily due to approximations in the sensor model and is consistent across the DEM. Our results indicate that refinements in the sensor model and point matching algorithm will improve accuracy. Given the increasing interest in glacier change detection around the globe, DEMs extracted from frequent satellite stereo pairs can be used to monitor and quantify changes in both movement and volume.

  12. Terror management and religion: evidence that intrinsic religiousness mitigates worldview defense following mortality salience.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Eva; Fischer, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Terror management theory suggests that people cope with awareness of death by investing in some kind of literal or symbolic immortality. Given the centrality of death transcendence beliefs in most religions, the authors hypothesized that religious beliefs play a protective role in managing terror of death. The authors report three studies suggesting that affirming intrinsic religiousness reduces both death-thought accessibility following mortality salience and the use of terror management defenses with regard to a secular belief system. Study 1 showed that after a naturally occurring reminder of mortality, people who scored high on intrinsic religiousness did not react with worldview defense, whereas people low on intrinsic religiousness did. Study 2 specified that intrinsic religious belief mitigated worldview defense only if participants had the opportunity to affirm their religious beliefs. Study 3 illustrated that affirmation of religious belief decreased death-thought accessibility following mortality salience only for those participants who scored high on the intrinsic religiousness scale. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that only those people who are intrinsically vested in their religion derive terror management benefits from religious beliefs. PMID:16938037

  13. Siberian boreal forest structure estimates from concurrent multi-angle WorldView acquisitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neigh, C. S. R.; Montesano, P. M.; Sun, G.; Ranson, K.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating forest structure from space is important for monitoring the distribution and abundance of forest carbon stocks. Very-High Spatial Resolution (VHSR, 1 m or less) optical data could be used to estimate forest structure in remote and difficult to access forests of the world, but little information exists about the utility of multi-sensor cross-track stereo pairs for this purpose. We estimated Siberian boreal forest structure in Tura Krasnoyarsk, Russia from a tasked dense 2014 summer time-series of WorldView-1 and 2 in multi-angle combinations of Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) runs to generate point clouds from parallax that are used to produce digital surface models (DSMs). We evaluated single pair point cloud DSMs and accumulated point cloud DSMs with different viewing geometries from ASP to estimate root mean square errors (RMSEs). Our results suggest that a dense multi-angle time series from the WorldView constellation is a useful tool for estimating forest canopy height and dense multi-temporal observations can reduce height RMSEs if they have the appropriate viewing geometry.

  14. Capturing multiple values of ecosystem services shaped by environmental worldviews: a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Riper, Carena J; Kyle, Gerard T

    2014-12-01

    Two related approaches to valuing nature have been advanced in past research including the study of ecosystem services and psychological investigations of the factors that shape behavior. Stronger integration of the insights that emerge from these two lines of enquiry can more effectively sustain ecosystems, economies, and human well-being. Drawing on survey data collected from outdoor recreationists on Santa Cruz Island within Channel Islands National Park, U.S., our study blends these two research approaches to examine a range of tangible and intangible values of ecosystem services provided to stakeholders with differing biocentric and anthropocentric worldviews. We used Public Participation Geographic Information System methods to collect survey data and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services mapping application to spatially analyze a range of values assigned to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the park. Our results showed that preferences for the provision of biological diversity, recreation, and scientific-based values of ecosystem services varied across a spatial gradient. We also observed differences that emerged from a comparison between survey subgroups defined by their worldviews. The implications emanating from this investigation aim to support environmental management decision-making in the context of protected areas. PMID:25124790

  15. Beyond synchronicity: the worldview of Carl Gustav Jung and Wolfgang Pauli.

    PubMed

    Donati, Marialuisa

    2004-11-01

    While exploring the phenomena of synchronicity, Carl Gustav Jung became acquainted with the quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli and eventually began a collaboration with him. During that collaboration Jung's study of synchronistic phenomena underwent a considerable change; prior to the collaboration, Jung had stressed mainly the phenomenological and empirical features of synchronistic phenomena, while in association with Pauli, he focused his attention upon their ontological, archetypal character. Pauli, on the other hand, became increasingly sensitive to the philosophical aspects concerning the unconscious. Jung and Pauli's common reflections went far beyond psychology and physics, entering into the realm where the two areas meet in the philosophy of nature. In fact, as a consequence of their collaboration, synchronicity was transformed from an empirical concept into a fundamental explanatory-interpretative principle, which together with causality could possibly lead to a more complete worldview. Exploring the problematic character of the synchronicity concept has a heuristic value because it leads to the reconsideration of the philosophical issues that drove Jung and Pauli to clear up the conceptual background of their thoughts. Within the philosophical worldview arising from Jung and Pauli's discussions about synchronicity, there are many symbolic aspects that go against mainstream science and that represent a sort of criticism to some of the commonly held views of present day science. PMID:15533199

  16. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  17. Aviation Disaster Intervention: A Mental Health Volunteer's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…

  18. Mental Health Issues and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.

  19. The Relationship of Worldviews of Advisors and Students and Satisfaction with Advising: A Case of Homogenous Group Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Jose E.; Zalaquett, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether differences in world-views between academic advisors and their advisees (both traditional and non-traditional students) impact students' use of and satisfaction with the advising process. This study surveyed 115 students and 5 advisors from a four-year liberal arts university in southeastern…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning with WorldView-2 Pan-Sharpened Imagery for Tea Crop Mapping.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yung-Chung Matt; Shiu, Yi-Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Tea is an important but vulnerable economic crop in East Asia, highly impacted by climate change. This study attempts to interpret tea land use/land cover (LULC) using very high resolution WorldView-2 imagery of central Taiwan with both pixel and object-based approaches. A total of 80 variables derived from each WorldView-2 band with pan-sharpening, standardization, principal components and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture indices transformation, were set as the input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), 34 variables were selected, including seven principal components, 21 GLCM texture indices and six original WorldView-2 bands. Results showed that support vector machine (SVM) had the highest tea crop classification accuracy (OA = 84.70% and KIA = 0.690), followed by random forest (RF), maximum likelihood algorithm (ML), and logistic regression analysis (LR). However, the ML classifier achieved the highest classification accuracy (OA = 96.04% and KIA = 0.887) in object-based image analysis (OBIA) using only six variables. The contribution of this study is to create a new framework for accurately identifying tea crops in a subtropical region with real-time high-resolution WorldView-2 imagery without field survey, which could further aid agriculture land management and a sustainable agricultural product supply. PMID:27128915

  1. Exploring the Use of the Revised New Ecological Paradigm Scale (NEP) to Monitor the Development of Students' Ecological Worldviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harraway, John; Broughton-Ansin, Freya; Deaker, Lynley; Jowett, Tim; Shephard, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are interested in the impact that they and concurrent life experiences may have on students' sustainability attitudes, but they lack formal processes to monitor changes. We used the NEP to monitor changes in students' ecological-worldviews. We were interested in what variation there would be in a multidisciplinary…

  2. An examination of an aspect of the worldview of female college science teachers as revealed by their concepts of nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryon, Lisa A.

    American citizens are confronted every day with scientific issues such as global warming, alternative energy technologies, stem cell research, and the use of genetically modified foods. A scientifically literate adult should be able to understand these issues, see how they relate to their own lives, and make choices that reflect their knowledge of the problems at hand. Research has indicated that the majority of U.S. students are not prepared to take a proactive role in current scientific issues and so undergraduate educators are being charged with the task of improving the relevancy of science to the nonscience student. One method for exploring this problem has been the application of worldview theory, which seeks to analyze the thoughts and attitudes of teachers and students with regard to science in their lives. This qualitative case study sought to uncover the worldviews of female science college professors particularly as they related to nature and to examine how these educators felt their worldviews might influence their students. A series of established card sort activities used in previous worldview studies, in combination with an in-depth interview facilitated the data collection from female science professors teaching at universities in New England.

  3. Crossing the Gap between Indigenous Worldview and Western Science: Millet Festival as a Bridge in the Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Chia-Ling; Lee, Huei

    2015-01-01

    The worldview within indigenous people's traditional knowledge and western science can be a world of difference. In order to help indigenous students cross the gap and develop a sense of cultural identification. Taking Bunun, one of the Taiwanese indigenous tribes, as our subject, this study aims to develop a teaching module through Bunun's Millet…

  4. Social Practices of Encountering Death: A Discussion of Spiritual Health in Grief and the Significance of Worldview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagberg, Sturla; Roen, Ingebrigt

    2011-01-01

    This article presents cases from informal situations of grief and a project called "I and death". These cases suggest that different worldviews affect the process of grief, and that children often do not get the support they need in terms of spiritual care. This affects attitudes towards grief in adulthood. Social practices of encountering death…

  5. Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlson, Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Reese, Heather; Bazié, Hugues Roméo; Tankoano, Boalidioa

    2016-08-01

    High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA = 78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA = 68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore concluded that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Machine Learning with WorldView-2 Pan-Sharpened Imagery for Tea Crop Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Yung-Chung Matt; Shiu, Yi-Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Tea is an important but vulnerable economic crop in East Asia, highly impacted by climate change. This study attempts to interpret tea land use/land cover (LULC) using very high resolution WorldView-2 imagery of central Taiwan with both pixel and object-based approaches. A total of 80 variables derived from each WorldView-2 band with pan-sharpening, standardization, principal components and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture indices transformation, were set as the input variables. For pixel-based image analysis (PBIA), 34 variables were selected, including seven principal components, 21 GLCM texture indices and six original WorldView-2 bands. Results showed that support vector machine (SVM) had the highest tea crop classification accuracy (OA = 84.70% and KIA = 0.690), followed by random forest (RF), maximum likelihood algorithm (ML), and logistic regression analysis (LR). However, the ML classifier achieved the highest classification accuracy (OA = 96.04% and KIA = 0.887) in object-based image analysis (OBIA) using only six variables. The contribution of this study is to create a new framework for accurately identifying tea crops in a subtropical region with real-time high-resolution WorldView-2 imagery without field survey, which could further aid agriculture land management and a sustainable agricultural product supply. PMID:27128915

  7. Motivating the Skeptical and Unconcerned: Considering Values, Worldviews, and Norms When Planning Messages Encouraging Energy Conservation and Efficiency Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Opel, Andrew R.; Lu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association of personal values or worldviews with individual motivations for reduced energy use and energy-use-related risk perceptions. We also investigated how perceptions of others' energy use influenced motivation to reduce use among those with high, versus low, risk perceptions. The perception that others…

  8. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  9. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a ...

  10. Updating LIDAR Dsm Using High Resolution Stereo-Based Dsm from WORLDVIEW-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefi, H.; Hashemi, H.; Krauss, Th.; Gharibia, M.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, the acquisition and processing techniques of high resolution Digital Surface Models (DSM) have been rapidly improved. Airborne LiDAR production as a well-known and high quality DSM is still unbeatable in elevation accuracy and highly produced dense point clouds. In this paper, the objective is to update an old but high quality DSM produced by LiDAR data using a DSM generated from high resolution stereo satellite images. A classification-base algorithm is proposed to extract building changes between DSMs in two epochs. For image classification procedure, the DSM and Worldview-2 orthorectified images have been used as input data for a fuzzy-based classification method. Then, extracted buildings are classified into unchanged, destroyed, new, and changed classes. In this study a dataset related to Munich city, has been utilized to test the experimental investigation. The implemented qualitative and quantitative assessments demonstrate high quality as well as high feasibility of the proposed approach.

  11. The Relationship Between Human Destiny and the Cosmic Forces A Study of the IGBO Worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwuezi, Barth

    The Igbo Society in Nigeria has a complex relationship between their destiny and the cosmic forces, which is reflected in their various ontological worldview and cultural configuration. The moon, stars and other heavenly bodies have a lot of import on the socio-cultural activities of the Igbo people. This paper seeks to examine how these heavenly bodies influence and even direct various socio-cultural organizations of the people. These are quite evident in the various life cycles and beyond such as at birth, death and even life after. The paper is situated in the realm of cultural astronomy, which will examine the various cosmological beliefs that affect the Igbo cultural organization. This paper is quite necessary since some of the beliefs are being lost and not articulated due to the impact of Christianity and modernization.

  12. The Relationship Between Human Destiny and the Cosmic Forces – A Study of the IGBO Worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwuezi, Barth

    The Igbo Society in Nigeria has a complex relationship between their destiny and the cosmic forces, which is reflected in their various ontological worldview and cultural configuration. The moon, stars and other heavenly bodies have a lot of import on the socio-cultural activities of the Igbo people. This paper seeks to examine how these heavenly bodies influence and even direct various socio-cultural organizations of the people. These are quite evident in the various life cycles and beyond such as at birth, death and even life after. The paper is situated in the realm of cultural astronomy, which will examine the various cosmological beliefs that affect the Igbo cultural organization. This paper is quite necessary since some of the beliefs are being lost and not articulated due to the impact of Christianity and modernization.

  13. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  14. An Assessment of Worldview-2 Imagery for the Classification Of a Mixed Deciduous Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Nahid

    Remote sensing provides a variety of methods for classifying forest communities and can be a valuable tool for the impact assessment of invasive species. The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) infestation of ash trees (Fraxinus) in the United States has resulted in the mortality of large stands of ash throughout the Northeast. This study assessed the suitability of multi-temporal Worldview-2 multispectral satellite imagery for classifying a mixed deciduous forest in Upstate New York. Training sites were collected using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, with each training site consisting of a single tree of a corresponding class. Six classes were collected; Ash, Maple, Oak, Beech, Evergreen, and Other. Three different classifications were investigated on four data sets. A six class classification (6C), a two class classification consisting of ash and all other classes combined (2C), and a merging of the ash and maple classes for a five class classification (5C). The four data sets included Worldview-2 multispectral data collection from June 2010 (J-WV2) and September 2010 (S-WV2), a layer stacked data set using J-WV2 and S-WV2 (LS-WV2), and a reduced data set (RD-WV2). RD-WV2 was created using a statistical analysis of the processed and unprocessed imagery. Statistical analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data and identify key bands to create a fourth data set (RD-WV2). Overall accuracy varied considerably depending upon the classification type, but results indicated that ash was confused with maple in a majority of the classifications. Ash was most accurately identified using the 2C classification and RD-WV2 data set (81.48%). A combination of the ash and maple classes yielded an accuracy of 89.41%. Future work should focus on separating the ash and maple classifiers by using data sources such as hyperspectral imagery, LiDAR, or extensive forest surveys.

  15. Studies on pansharpening and object-based classification of Worldview-2 multispectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyczałek, I.; Wyczałek, E.

    2013-12-01

    The new information contained in four additional spectral bands of high - resolution images from the satellite sensor WorldView - 2 should provide a visible improvement in the quality of analysis of large - scale phenomena occurring at the ground. Selected part of the image of Poznan was analyzed in order to verify these possibilities in relation to the urban environment. It includes riverside green area and a number of adjacent buildings. Attention has been focused on two components of object - oriented analysis - sharpening the image and its classification. In terms of pansharpening the aim was to obtain a clear picture of terrain objects in details, what should lead to the correct division of the image into homogenous segments and the subsequent fine classification. It was intended to ensure the possibility of separating small field objects within the set of classes. The task was carried out using various computer programs that enable the development and analysis of raster data (IDRISI Andes, ESRI ArcGIS 9.3, eCognition Developer 8) and some own computational modules. The main scientific objective of this study was to determine how much information from new spectral image layers after their pansharpening affects the quality of object - based classification of land cover in green and building areas of the city. As a basis for improving the quality of the classification was above mentioned ability of using additional data from new spectral bands of WorldView - 2 image. To assess the quality of the classification we used test that examines only the uncertain areas of t he picture, that is these which lie on differently classified types of land cover. The outcome of assessment confirmed the thesis of the positive albeit small impact of additional spectral channels on the result of object - based classification. But also pansharpening itself only slightly improves the quality of classified image

  16. The interactions between an orthodox Christian worldview and environmental attitudes and beliefs; for the purpose of developing better instructional practice in support of environmental/ecological attitudes and knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keys, Robert S.

    Students bring with them to the classroom a wide variety of beliefs and attitudes about the environment and its associated issues. One worldview belief structure prominently discussed in ecological discussions is the worldview of orthodox Christianity. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative measures to analyze the degree to which the orthodox Christian worldview of students influences their environmental attitudes and beliefs. Surveys were conducted with 281 undergraduate pre-service elementary teaching students enrolled in a science methods course to determine the degree to which orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews interact with one another. From this pool of students, 16 students representing both positive and neutral-negative orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews were interviewed to determine how orthodox Christian students may differ from non-orthodox Christian students in their attitudes and beliefs about the environment. Analysis revealed that students with orthodox Christian worldview beliefs do not as a general rule use their orthodox Christian worldview beliefs in the discussion of their environmental beliefs and attitudes. Exceptions to this may occur when environmental issues touch on orthodox Christian worldview beliefs which have a bearing on matters of origin, life purpose, or destiny. These interactions between ecological and orthodox Christian worldviews have implications for the teaching of environmental issues to students in that the orthodox Christian worldview of students is not likely to hinder the appropriation of concepts associated with environmental issues. However, moving students with an orthodox Christian worldview to a view where they become actively involved in environmental issue resolution may require educators to situate curriculum in such a way as to invoke the students' orthodox Christian worldview beliefs.

  17. Building School Connectedness through Shared Lunches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Eva; Walton, Mat; Stephens, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: School connectedness is a well-established protective factor for young people's physical, mental, and social health. The purpose of this paper is to explore the promotion of school connectedness through the practice of shared lunches within a secondary school context in New Zealand. Design/methodology/approach: An ethnographic methodology…

  18. Discussion on application of WorldView 2 satellite data in West Kunlun metallogenic belt remote sensing geological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-peng; Yang, Zhi-qiang; Kang, Gao-feng; Wang, Jun-feng; Jin, Mou-shun

    2014-05-01

    Studding on the remote sensing geological survey in Tashkurgan area of west Kunlun Metallogenic belt using the latest Worldview 2 high resolution satellite image, using Optimum index factor (OIF) select the band combination suitable for this area to do strata and Lithology interpretation is B8, B4 and B3, and test different image enhancement method for mineralization alteration information such as band ratio, principal component analysis (PCA). Carried out lithology, geological structure and mineralization belt and ore body interpretation on the basis of remote sensing data after processing. The results show that the ratio band combination can identify multiple sets of diorite, marble, schist and the lithological boundaries between them clearly; the principal component transform method can enhance the boundary between black biotite-quartz schist and white granite, meanwhile it can clearly reflect the schist by a different hue and brightness level due to contained different mineral such as quartz, mica, feldspar and others, iron mineralized belt is also exposed very well. Spectrum measurement has been done for the rock and mineral in test area. Lithology inversion and mineralization anomaly information extraction test have been carried out afterwards. The test result proved that the single mineral composition rock such as marble is suitable for spectral inversion. The principal component transform of bands B1, B4, B8, and B6 is used to extract iron alteration from worldView2 data, the result shows that PC3 is the main component containing iron alteration abnormal information. Compared with the abnormalities extracted from worldview2 and low resolution satellite image such as ETM , Aster, we found that they can only distinguish wide range distributed mineralizing alteration information, their identification accuracy is not as good as Worldview2. WorldView2 data contained more abundant information and has higher resolution, it not only able to identify a wide range of

  19. Pathways to mental healthcare in south-eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikwuka, Ugo; Galbraith, Niall; Manktelow, Ken; Chen-Wilson, Josephine; Oyebode, Femi; Muomah, Rosemary Chizobam; Igboaka, Anulika

    2016-10-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional and faith healers provide competing services alongside biomedical professionals. This may be associated with delays in reaching specialised mental health services, and hence with longer duration of untreated illness. As first line care constitutes a crucial stage in accessing of psychiatric care, investigating pathways to mental healthcare can highlight help-seeking choices. This study explored the pathways to care for mental illness preferred by a non-clinical sample of the population in south-eastern Nigeria. Multistage sampling was used to select participants (N = 706) who completed questionnaires on help-seeking. Results showed a significant preference for biomedical (90.8%) compared to spiritual (57.8%) and traditional (33.2%) pathways. Higher education predicted preference for the biomedical model, while low education was associated with traditional and spiritual pathways. Protestants preferred the spiritual pathway more than did Catholics. The use of biomedical care is potentially undermined by poor mental health infrastructure, a lack of fit between the culture of biomedical care and the deep-seated cultural/religious worldviews of the people, stigma surrounding mental illness, and the likelihood of a social desirability bias in responses. A complementary model of care is proposed. PMID:27460986

  20. Cognitive mapping in mental time travel and mental space navigation.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Baptiste; van Wassenhove, Virginie

    2016-09-01

    The ability to imagine ourselves in the past, in the future or in different spatial locations suggests that the brain can generate cognitive maps that are independent of the experiential self in the here and now. Using three experiments, we asked to which extent Mental Time Travel (MTT; imagining the self in time) and Mental Space Navigation (MSN; imagining the self in space) shared similar cognitive operations. For this, participants judged the ordinality of real historical events in time and in space with respect to different mental perspectives: for instance, participants mentally projected themselves in Paris in nine years, and judged whether an event occurred before or after, or, east or west, of where they mentally stood. In all three experiments, symbolic distance effects in time and space dimensions were quantified using Reaction Times (RT) and Error Rates (ER). When self-projected, participants were slower and were less accurate (absolute distance effects); participants were also faster and more accurate when the spatial and temporal distances were further away from their mental viewpoint (relative distance effects). These effects show that MTT and MSN require egocentric mapping and that self-projection requires map transformations. Additionally, participants' performance was affected when self-projection was made in one dimension but judgements in another, revealing a competition between temporal and spatial mapping (Experiment 2 & 3). Altogether, our findings suggest that MTT and MSN are separately mapped although they require comparable allo- to ego-centric map conversion. PMID:27239750

  1. Mental Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykken, D.T.

    2005-01-01

    Biographies of great achievers, in science as well as other disciplines, suggest that those of genius caliber possess, in addition to their intellectual gift or gifts, an extraordinary abundance of mental energy. They can focus their attention on some task for long periods without tiring or becoming distracted from the problem at hand. It is…

  2. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a ...

  3. Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A., Ed.

    Thirteen papers by different authors consider the application of research findings and theoretical formulations to the practical appraisal and treatment of mental retardation. All suggest methods for shaping appropriate and adaptive behaviors in retarded individuals. The papers include "Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification" by D.W. Brison,…

  4. Fundamentally Distributed Information Processing Integrates the Motor Network into the Mental Workspace during Mental Rotation.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Alexander; Konuthula, Dedeepya; Alexander, Prescott; Blackwood, Ethan; Tse, Peter U

    2016-08-01

    The manipulation of mental representations in the human brain appears to share similarities with the physical manipulation of real-world objects. In particular, some neuroimaging studies have found increased activity in motor regions during mental rotation, suggesting that mental and physical operations may involve overlapping neural populations. Does the motor network contribute information processing to mental rotation? If so, does it play a similar computational role in both mental and manual rotation, and how does it communicate with the wider network of areas involved in the mental workspace? Here we used multivariate methods and fMRI to study 24 participants as they mentally rotated 3-D objects or manually rotated their hands in one of four directions. We find that information processing related to mental rotations is distributed widely among many cortical and subcortical regions, that the motor network becomes tightly integrated into a wider mental workspace network during mental rotation, and that motor network activity during mental rotation only partially resembles that involved in manual rotation. Additionally, these findings provide evidence that the mental workspace is organized as a distributed core network that dynamically recruits specialized subnetworks for specific tasks as needed. PMID:27054403

  5. Using WorldView-2 imagery to track flooding in Thailand in a multi-asset sensorweb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, David; Doubleday, Joshua; Chien, Steve

    2012-06-01

    For the flooding seasons of 2011-2012 multiple space assets were used in a "sensorweb" to track major flooding in Thailand. Worldview-2 multispectral data was used in this effort and provided extremely high spatial resolution (2m / pixel) multispectral (8 bands at 0.45-1.05 μ m spectra) data from which mostly automated workflows derived surface water extent and volumetric water information for use by a range of NGO and national authorities. We first describe how Worldview-2 and its data was integrated into the overall flood tracking sensorweb. We next describe the use of Support Vector Machine learning techniques that were used to derive surface water extent classifiers. Then we describe the fusion of surface water extent and digital elevation map (DEM) data to derive volumetric water calculations. Finally we discuss key future work such as speeding up the workflows and automating the data registration process (the only portion of the workflow requiring human input).

  6. Using WorldView-2 Imagery to Track Flooding in Thailand in a Multi-Asset Sensorweb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaren, David; Doubleday, Joshua; Chien, Steve

    2012-01-01

    For the flooding seasons of 2011-2012 multiple space assets were used in a "sensorweb" to track major flooding in Thailand. Worldview-2 multispectral data was used in this effort and provided extremely high spatial resolution (2m / pixel) multispectral (8 bands at 0.45-1.05 micrometer spectra) data from which mostly automated workflows derived surface water extent and volumetric water information for use by a range of NGO and national authorities. We first describe how Worldview-2 and its data was integrated into the overall flood tracking sensorweb. We next describe the use of Support Vector Machine learning techniques that were used to derive surface water extent classifiers. Then we describe the fusion of surface water extent and digital elevation map (DEM) data to derive volumetric water calculations. Finally we discuss key future work such as speeding up the workflows and automating the data registration process (the only portion of the workflow requiring human input).

  7. Comparison of Very Near Infrared (vnir) Wavelength from EO-1 Hyperion and Worldview 2 Images for Saltmarsh Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasel, Sikdar M. M.; Chang, Hsing-Chung; Jahan Diti, Israt; Ralph, Tim; Saintilan, Neil

    2016-06-01

    Saltmarsh is one of the important communities of wetlands. Due to a range of pressures, it has been declared as an EEC (Ecological Endangered Community) in Australia. In order to correctly identify different saltmarsh species, development of distinct spectral characteristics is essential to monitor this EEC. This research was conducted to classify saltmarsh species based on spectral characteristics in the VNIR wavelength of Hyperion Hyperspectral and Worldview 2 multispectral remote sensing data. Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied in Hyperion data to test data quality and to reduce data dimensionality respectively. FLAASH atmospheric correction was done to get surface reflectance data. Based on spectral and spatial information a supervised classification followed by Mapping Accuracy (%) was used to assess the classification result. SNR of Hyperion data was varied according to season and wavelength and it was higher for all land cover in VNIR wavelength. There was a significant difference between radiance and reflectance spectra. It was found that atmospheric correction improves the spectral information. Based on the PCA of 56 VNIR band of Hyperion, it was possible to segregate 16 bands that contain 99.83 % variability. Based on reference 16 bands were compared with 8 bands of Worldview 2 for classification accuracy. Overall Accuracy (OA) % for Worldview 2 was increased from 72 to 79 while for Hyperion, it was increased from 70.47 to 71.66 when bands were added orderly. Considering the significance test with z values and kappa statistics at 95% confidence level, Worldview 2 classification accuracy was higher than Hyperion data.

  8. Improving the automated detection of refugee/IDP dwellings using the multispectral bands of the WorldView-2 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Thomas; Gueguen, Lionel; Soille, Pierre

    2012-06-01

    The enumeration of the population remains a critical task in the management of refugee/IDP camps. Analysis of very high spatial resolution satellite data proofed to be an efficient and secure approach for the estimation of dwellings and the monitoring of the camp over time. In this paper we propose a new methodology for the automated extraction of features based on differential morphological decomposition segmentation for feature extraction and interactive training sample selection from the max-tree and min-tree structures. This feature extraction methodology is tested on a WorldView-2 scene of an IDP camp in Darfur Sudan. Special emphasis is given to the additional available bands of the WorldView-2 sensor. The results obtained show that the interactive image information tool is performing very well by tuning the feature extraction to the local conditions. The analysis of different spectral subsets shows that it is possible to obtain good results already with an RGB combination, but by increasing the number of spectral bands the detection of dwellings becomes more accurate. Best results were obtained using all eight bands of WorldView-2 satellite.

  9. Cultural Competence in Counseling the Muslim Patient: Implications for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Rassool, G Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Given the rapidly growing population of Muslims in Western societies, it is imperative to develop a better understanding of the mental health needs and concerns of this community. Muslim religious beliefs have an impact on the mental health of individuals, families and communities. The lack of understanding of the interplay between religious influences on health or sickness behaviors can have a significant effect upon the delivery of nursing practice. The Muslim community is experiencing social exclusion (social exclusion correlates with mental health problems) related to their cultural and religious identity. In addition, the emergence of radical extremism and the resulting media coverage have magnified this problem. Misunderstanding the worldview of the patient can lead to ethical dilemmas, practice problems, and problems in communication. Often, Muslim individuals are stigmatized and families are rejected and isolated for their association with mental health problems, addiction and suicide. There are indicators that Muslims experience mental ill health, but that they either are unidentified by mainstream mental health services or present late to the services. The aims of the paper are to examine the religious and cultural influences on mental health beliefs of Muslims, and provide an understanding of mental health problems, and its implications in counseling and spiritual interventions. PMID:26397436

  10. Extracting oil palm crown from WorldView-2 satellite image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korom, A.; Phua, M.-H.; Hirata, Y.; Matsuura, T.

    2014-02-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of Möller et al which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1').

  11. Extracting Oil Palm Crown from WorldView-2 Satellite Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korom, A.; Phua, M.-H.; Hirata, Y.; Matsuura, T.

    2014-02-01

    Oil palm (OP) is the most commercial crop in Malaysia. Estimating the crowns is important for biomass estimation from high resolution satellite (HRS) image. This study examined extraction of individual OP crown from a WorldView-2 image using twofold algorithms, i.e., masking of Non-OP pixels and detection of individual OP crown based on the watershed segmentation of greyscale images. The study site was located in Beluran district, central Sabah, where matured OPs with the age ranging from 15 to 25 years old have been planted. We examined two compound vegetation indices of (NDVI+1)*DVI and NDII for masking non-OP crown areas. Using kappa statistics, an optimal threshold value was set with the highest accuracy at 90.6% for differentiating OP crown areas from Non-OP areas. After the watershed segmentation of OP crown areas with additional post-procedures, about 77% of individual OP crowns were successfully detected in comparison to the manual based delineation. Shape and location of each crown segment was then assessed based on a modified version of the goodness measures of [14] which was 0.3, indicating an acceptable CSGM (combined segmentation goodness measures) agreements between the automated and manually delineated crowns (perfect case is '1').

  12. Identification and Mapping of Tree Species in Urban Areas Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Y. T.; Habeeb, H. N.; Stein, A.; Sulaiman, F. Y.

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring and mapping of urban trees are essential to provide urban forestry authorities with timely and consistent information. Modern techniques increasingly facilitate these tasks, but require the development of semi-automatic tree detection and classification methods. In this article, we propose an approach to delineate and map the crown of 15 tree species in the city of Duhok, Kurdistan Region of Iraq using WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery. A tree crown object is identified first and is subsequently delineated as an image object (IO) using vegetation indices and texture measurements. Next, three classification methods: Maximum Likelihood, Neural Network, and Support Vector Machine were used to classify IOs using selected IO features. The best results are obtained with Support Vector Machine classification that gives the best map of urban tree species in Duhok. The overall accuracy was between 60.93% to 88.92% and κ-coefficient was between 0.57 to 0.75. We conclude that fifteen tree species were identified and mapped at a satisfactory accuracy in urban areas of this study.

  13. Assessment of Multiresolution Segmentation for Extracting Greenhouses from WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, M. A.; Aguilar, F. J.; García Lorca, A.; Guirado, E.; Betlej, M.; Cichon, P.; Nemmaoui, A.; Vallario, A.; Parente, C.

    2016-06-01

    The latest breed of very high resolution (VHR) commercial satellites opens new possibilities for cartographic and remote sensing applications. In this way, object based image analysis (OBIA) approach has been proved as the best option when working with VHR satellite imagery. OBIA considers spectral, geometric, textural and topological attributes associated with meaningful image objects. Thus, the first step of OBIA, referred to as segmentation, is to delineate objects of interest. Determination of an optimal segmentation is crucial for a good performance of the second stage in OBIA, the classification process. The main goal of this work is to assess the multiresolution segmentation algorithm provided by eCognition software for delineating greenhouses from WorldView- 2 multispectral orthoimages. Specifically, the focus is on finding the optimal parameters of the multiresolution segmentation approach (i.e., Scale, Shape and Compactness) for plastic greenhouses. The optimum Scale parameter estimation was based on the idea of local variance of object heterogeneity within a scene (ESP2 tool). Moreover, different segmentation results were attained by using different combinations of Shape and Compactness values. Assessment of segmentation quality based on the discrepancy between reference polygons and corresponding image segments was carried out to identify the optimal setting of multiresolution segmentation parameters. Three discrepancy indices were used: Potential Segmentation Error (PSE), Number-of-Segments Ratio (NSR) and Euclidean Distance 2 (ED2).

  14. Plant Species Monitoring in the Canary Islands Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Casillas, L.; Micand, F.; Somers, B.; Brito, P.; Arbelo, M.

    2012-07-01

    The physical and climatic features of a relatively small volcanic island such as Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) cause increased difficulties to vegetation monitoring by means of moderate resolution satellite data. The use of multispectral very high resolution WorldView-2 (WV2) imagery provides promising perspectives for vegetation mapping in such a heterogeneous landscape. In order to assess its potential to estimate the cover fraction of dominant plant species in endemic Macaronesian laurel forests and heathlands, a hierarchical Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) was performed within a study area where different patches from mature forest, to degraded forest and pine plantations can be found. First, a selection of pure pixels in the WV2 image for fern, Morella faya Ait., Laurus novocanariensis and the introduced species Pinus radiata were used to build a spectral library for each species. Last species Erica arborea L. was characterized in field by means of an ASD FieldSpec spectroradiometer, due to the rarity of pure pixels in this case, and to the simultaneous presence of two spectral subclasses depending on its flowering onset; WV2-adjusted spectral signatures from field reflectances were estimated by empirical calibration. Preliminary results showed a good separation of degraded from mature native forests and from plantations, although pine cover fraction is, in general, underestimated. The second MESMA cycle was useful to tell between most similar species, like in case of M. faya and L. novocanariensis.

  15. Quantifying Libya-4 Surface Reflectance Heterogeneity With WorldView-1, 2 and EO-1 Hyperion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; McCorkel, Joel; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The land surface imaging (LSI) virtual constellation approach promotes the concept of increasing Earth observations from multiple but disparate satellites. We evaluated this through spectral and spatial domains, by comparing surface reflectance from 30-m Hyperion and 2-m resolution WorldView-2 (WV-2) data in the Libya-4 pseudoinvariant calibration site. We convolved and resampled Hyperion to WV-2 bands using both cubic convolution and nearest neighbor (NN) interpolation. Additionally, WV-2 and WV-1 same-date imagery were processed as a cross-track stereo pair to generate a digital terrain model to evaluate the effects from large (>70 m) linear dunes. Agreement was moderate to low on dune peaks between WV-2 and Hyperion (R2 <; 0.4) but higher in areas of lower elevation and slope (R2 > 0.6). Our results provide a satellite sensor intercomparison protocol for an LSI virtual constellation at high spatial resolution, which should start with geolocation of pixels, followed by NN interpolation to avoid tall dunes that enhance surface reflectance differences across this internationally utilized site.

  16. An Assessment of European Spruce Bark Beetle Infestation Using WorldView-2 Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, L.

    2012-05-01

    During the past three decades the spectral responses of declining forest health due to pest infestations as well as various methods for detection of trees' health status have been extensively studied. A set of narrow-band and broad-band Vegetation Indices (VIs) have been developed to assess the changes in the vegetation reflectance. The main objective of the study is to assess the damages caused by European Spruce Bark Beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation in 'Bistrishko Branishte' UNESCO Man And Biosphere (MAB) reserve using WorldView-2 satellite data. The analysis was performed on Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest using the VIs indicative for forest stress: NDVI, SR, EVI, ARVI, CRI, CSc, and ARI. By applying density slice on the VIs, the main regions for stressed vegetation have been delineat ed. The CSc has been found to perform better in detecting the pattern of stressed spruce trees compared to ARI. The area affected by Ips typographus was determined by CSc index to 5.97% (0.373 km2) of the study area.

  17. The interface between cultural understandings: negotiating new spaces for Pacific mental health.

    PubMed

    Mila-Schaaf, Karlo; Hudson, Maui

    2009-02-01

    This theoretical paper introduces the concept of the "negotiated space", a model developed by Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Maui Hudson and colleagues describing the interface between different worldviews and knowledge systems. This is primarily a conceptual space of intersection in-between different ways of knowing and meaning making, such as, the i Pacific indigenous reference and the dominant Western mental health paradigm of the bio-psycho-social. When developing Pacific models of care, the "negotiated space" provides room to explore the relationship between different (and often conflicting) cultural understandings of mental health and illness. The "negotiated space" is a place ofp urposive re-encounter reconstructing and re-balancing of ideas and values in complementary realignments that have resonance for Pacific peoples living in Western oriented societies. This requires making explicit the competing epistemologies of the Pacific indigenous worldviews and references alongside the bio-psycho-social and identifying the assumptions implicit in the operating logic ofe ach. This is a precursor to being empowered to negotiate, resolve and better comprehend the cultural conflict between the different understandings. This article theorises multiple patterns of possibility of resolutions and relationships within the negotiated space relevant to research, evaluation, model, service development and quality assurance within Pacific mental health. PMID:19585741

  18. Beliefs About Essences and the Reality of Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Flanagan, Elizabeth H.; Marsh, Jessecae K.; Sanislow, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Do people believe mental disorders are real and possess underlying essences? The current study found that both novices and practicing clinicians held weaker essentialist beliefs about mental disorders than about medical disorders. They were also unwilling to endorse the idea that mental disorders are real and natural. Furthermore, compared with novices, mental health clinicians were less likely to endorse the view that there is a shared cause underlying a mental disorder and that one needs to remove the cause to get rid of the mental disorder. Clinicians were polarized on their views about whether mental disorders are categorical or dimensional. These findings reflect current controversies about mental disorders in the field at large. PMID:16984292

  19. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  20. [Mental health and work: integrated technical actions between services for preventive hygiene and worksite safety and mental health centers].

    PubMed

    Bosco, M G; Salerno, S; Valcella, F

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed occupational and mental health activities in an occupational health service and in a mental health service using the Method of Organizational Congruences (MOC). No technical actions in either services were dedicated to mental health at work although this is prescribed by the Italian law (833/76) and has a demand among the local shared users identified in this study. We propose integrated technical action for mental health in public health services to address the risk of stress, burnout and mobbing in the workplace. Attention is drawn to the need for further research on health services in the field of organization and mental well-being. PMID:10703191

  1. Improvement Evaluation on Ceramic Roof Extraction Using WORLDVIEW-2 Imagery and Geographic Data Mining Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum-Bastos, V. S.; Ribeiro, B. M. G.; Pinho, C. M. D.; Korting, T. S.; Fonseca, L. M. G.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in geotechnologies and in remote sensing have improved analysis of urban environments. The new sensors are increasingly suited to urban studies, due to the enhancement in spatial, spectral and radiometric resolutions. Urban environments present high heterogeneity, which cannot be tackled using pixel-based approaches on high resolution images. Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) has been consolidated as a methodology for urban land use and cover monitoring; however, classification of high resolution images is still troublesome. This study aims to assess the improvement on ceramic roof classification using WorldView-2 images due to the increase of 4 new bands besides the standard "Blue-Green-Red-Near Infrared" bands. Our methodology combines GEOBIA, C4.5 classification tree algorithm, Monte Carlo simulation and statistical tests for classification accuracy. Two samples groups were considered: 1) eight multispectral and panchromatic bands, and 2) four multispectral and panchromatic bands, representing previous high-resolution sensors. The C4.5 algorithm generates a decision tree that can be used for classification; smaller decision trees are closer to the semantic networks produced by experts on GEOBIA, while bigger trees, are not straightforward to implement manually, but are more accurate. The choice for a big or small tree relies on the user's skills to implement it. This study aims to determine for what kind of user the addition of the 4 new bands might be beneficial: 1) the common user (smaller trees) or 2) a more skilled user with coding and/or data mining abilities (bigger trees). In overall the classification was improved by the addition of the four new bands for both types of users.

  2. Relating WorldView-2 data to pine plantation lidar metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinder, J. C.; Shamsoddini, A.; Turner, R.

    2013-10-01

    Over last decades, different types of remotely sensed data including lidar, radar and optical data were investigated for forest studies. Undoubtedly, lidar data is one of the promising tools for these purposes; however, the accessibility and cost of this data are the main limitations. In order to overcome these limitations, optical data have been considered for modelling lidar metrics and their use for inferring lidar metrics over areas with no lidar coverage. WorldView-2 (WV-2) data as a high resolution optical data offer 8 bands including four traditional bands, blue, green, red, and infrared, and four new bands including coastal blue, yellow, red edge and a new infrared band whose relationships with lidar metrics were investigated in this study. For this purpose, band reflectance, band ratios, and principal components (PCs) of WV-2 multispectral data along with 23 vegetation indices were extracted. Moreover, the grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) indices of bands, band ratios and PCs were also calculated for different window sizes and orientations. Spectral derivatives and textural attributes of WV-2 were provided for a stepwise multiple-linear regression to model 10 lidar metrics including maximum, mean, variance, 10th, 30th, 60th and 90th height percentiles, standard error of mean, kurtosis and skewness for a Pinus radiata plantation, in NSW, Australia. The results indicated that the textural-based models are significantly more efficient than spectral-based models for predicting lidar metrics. Moreover, the integration of spectral derivatives with textural attributes cannot improve the results derived from textural-based models. The study demonstrates that WV-2 data are efficient for predicting lidar metrics.

  3. Mapping bathymetry and rip channels with WorldView2 multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, S. M.; Houser, C.

    2014-12-01

    Rip currents are a worldwide coastal hazard that have claimed 616 lives in Costa Rica since 2001 (~50/yr). Lifeguard staff, warning signs, and flag systems have been shown to reduce deaths at rip-prone beaches but are not a perfect system. At Playa Cocles, a popular beach destination along the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica near Puerto Viejo, lifeguards post flags at the mouth of the 3 to 6 rip currents present each morning. In July 2014, these dangerous currents were measured with floating GPS drogues at speeds up to 3.1 m/s. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the capability of the Digital Globe WorldView2 (WV2) multispectral satellite for identifying rip channels and mapping bathymetry in the surf zone (20m and less), because rips form at topographically low spots in the bathymetry as a result of feedback amongst waves, substrate, and antecedent bathymetry. WV2 was launched in 2009; it has a 1.1 day pass-over rate with 1.84m ground pixel resolution of 8 bands, including 'yellow' (585-625 nm) and 'coastal blue' (400-450 nm). Using one 25km2 image from 23 December 2009, during the "high season" of tourism, a bathymetric map of Playa Cocles is created and measured for accuracy. Results of the study will assist the Comisión Nacional de Emergencias de Costa Rica and the town of Puerto Viejo by creating a rip current hazard evaluation and prediction system for the rip-prone beach of Playa Cocles. This creation methodology may be repeated for any following dates or other locations in Costa Rica (or anywhere on the globe captured by WV2). Future work will build on this research to determine rip current strength, location, and seasonality from a combination of WV2 satellite information and field data.

  4. Research on bathymetry estimation by Worldview-2 based with the semi-analytical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, L.; Bai, J.; Zhou, G.-W.; Zhao, Y.; Li, Y.-C.

    2015-04-01

    South Sea Islands of China are far away from the mainland, the reefs takes more than 95% of south sea, and most reefs scatter over interested dispute sensitive area. Thus, the methods of obtaining the reefs bathymetry accurately are urgent to be developed. Common used method, including sonar, airborne laser and remote sensing estimation, are limited by the long distance, large area and sensitive location. Remote sensing data provides an effective way for bathymetry estimation without touching over large area, by the relationship between spectrum information and bathymetry. Aimed at the water quality of the south sea of China, our paper develops a bathymetry estimation method without measured water depth. Firstly the semi-analytical optimization model of the theoretical interpretation models has been studied based on the genetic algorithm to optimize the model. Meanwhile, OpenMP parallel computing algorithm has been introduced to greatly increase the speed of the semi-analytical optimization model. One island of south sea in China is selected as our study area, the measured water depth are used to evaluate the accuracy of bathymetry estimation from Worldview-2 multispectral images. The results show that: the semi-analytical optimization model based on genetic algorithm has good results in our study area;the accuracy of estimated bathymetry in the 0-20 meters shallow water area is accepted.Semi-analytical optimization model based on genetic algorithm solves the problem of the bathymetry estimation without water depth measurement. Generally, our paper provides a new bathymetry estimation method for the sensitive reefs far away from mainland.

  5. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  6. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population. Research on mental health epidemiology shows that mental disorders are common throughout the United States, affecting tens ... available on the prevalence, treatment, and costs of mental disorders for the population of the United States, in ...

  7. Teen Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  8. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  9. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  10. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.