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Sample records for shear stress measurement

  1. Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation of delicate micro-electromechanical devices impede the use of most direct shear sensors. Similarly, the cavity required for sensing element displacement is sensitive to particulate obstruction. This work was focused on developing a shear stress sensor for use in subsonic wind tunnel test facilities applicable to an array of test configurations. The non-displacement shear sensors described here have minimal packaging requirements resulting in minimal or no disturbance of boundary layer flow. Compared to previous concepts, device installation could be simple with reduced cost and down-time. The novelty lies in the creation of low profile (nanoscale to 100 µm) micropost arrays that stay within the viscous sub-layer of the airflow. Aerodynamic forces, which are related to the surface shear stress, cause post deflection and optical property changes. Ultimately, a reliable, accurate shear stress sensor that does not disrupt the airflow has the potential to provide high value data for flow physics researchers, aerodynamicists, and aircraft manufacturers leading to greater flight efficiency arising from more in-depth knowledge on how aircraft design impacts near surface properties.

  2. Unsteady distributed wall shear stress measurements in fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer P.

    Wall-bounded flows are amongst the most common flows encountered in fluid mechanics. Wall shear stress on the walls of these flow fields is an important engineering quantity as it is responsible for skin friction drag, which is a significant portion of the drag on bodies ranging from airplanes to flow in biological systems. Measuring, understanding and eventually controlling the wall shear stress has implicit financial significance. In general there is limited literature reporting unsteady, distributed wall shear stress measurements, especially in air, due to the lack of sensors to carry out such measurements. This work is a small step in the direction of filling this gap in the literature. A wall shear stress sensor, referred to as the micro-pillar wall shear stress sensor is presented from concept to actual measurements in a wall jet flow field. The micro-pillar shear stress sensor is based on the principle that a micro-pillar on the wall of a wall-bounded flow deflects an amount proportional to the drag force experienced by it. This drag force in turn is proportional to the wall shear stress. Hence, tracking the tip deflection of an array of micro-pillars provides a means to measure the unsteady, distributed wall shear stress. The sensor from design to manufacture along with static and dynamic characterization is presented. It's ability to measure unsteady, distributed wall shear stress is studied using demonstrative experiments. Finally, wall shear stress measurements are carried out on the wall of a three-dimensional turbulent wall jet. The wall jet is subsequently excited and the effect of excitation on the wall shear stress in the near jet exit flow field is studied.

  3. Direct Measurement of Wall-Shear Stress of Plane Shear Layer with Plasma Synthetic Jet Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Takehiro; Ogawara, Kakuji; Mochizuki, Shinsuke

    One of the useful ways to measure the effect of the flow control devise is to use the wall-shear stress sensor to measure the wall-shear stress directly. The sensor used in this paper measures the wall-shear stress, which is reduced by the flow control devise. In this paper, the wall-shear stress of the plane shear layer with the plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is investigated. PSJA is a flow control device composed of electrodes with A.C. signal. The actuator uses electrohydrodynamic (EHD) effect and induces flow around the electrodes. PSJA has great advantage such as miniaturization, maintenance free, and easy to control compared to other actuators. In this paper, the wall-shear stress of plane shear layer in a low-speed turbulent wind tunnel is observed to measure the effect of the PSJA. The results show that the PSJA changes the flow condition of shear layer by accelerating the flow in shear layer. The wall-shear stress reduces and increases according to the displacement of the wall-shear stress sensor and the actuator.

  4. Measurement of surface shear stress vector distribution using shear-sensitive liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji-Song; Scholz, Peter; Gu, Liang-Xian

    2012-10-01

    The global wall shear stress measurement technique using shear-sensitive liquid crystal (SSLC) is extended to wind tunnel measurements. Simple and common everyday equipment is used in the measurement; in particular a tungsten-halogen light bulb provides illumination and a saturation of SSLC coating color change with time is found. Spatial wall shear stress distributions of several typical flows are obtained using this technique, including wall-jet flow, vortex flow generated by a delta wing and junction flow behind a thin cylinder, although the magnitudes are not fully calibrated. The results demonstrate that SSLC technique can be extended to wind tunnel measurements with no complicated facilities used.

  5. Interfacial shear stress measurement using high spatial resolution multiphase PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andr, Matthieu A.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2015-06-01

    In multiphase flows, form drag and viscous shear stress transfer momentum between phases. For numerous environmental and man-made flows, it is of primary importance to predict this transfer at a liquid-gas interface. In its general expression, interfacial shear stress involves local velocity gradients as well as surface velocity, curvature, and surface tension gradients. It is therefore a challenging quantity to measure experimentally or compute numerically. In fact, no experimental work to date has been able to directly resolve all the terms contributing to the shear stress in the case of curved and moving surfaces. In an attempt to fully resolve the interface shear stress when surface tension gradients are negligible, high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) data are acquired simultaneously on both sides of a water-air interface. The flow consists of a well-conditioned uniform and homogeneous water jet discharging in quiescent air, which exhibits two-dimensional surface waves as a result of a shear layer instability below the surface. PIV provides velocity fields in both phases, while planar laser-induced fluorescence is used to track the interface and obtain its curvature. To compute the interfacial shear stress from the data, several processing schemes are proposed and compared, using liquid and/or gas phase data. Vorticity at the surface, which relates to the shear stress through the dynamic boundary condition at the surface, is also computed and provides additional strategies for estimating the shear. The various schemes are in agreement within the experimental uncertainties, validating the methodology for experimentally resolving this demanding quantity.

  6. Wall shear stress measurements using a new transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vakili, A. D.; Wu, J. M.; Lawing, P. L.

    1986-01-01

    A new instrument has been developed for direct measurement of wall shear stress. This instrument is simple and symmetric in design with small moving mass and no internal friction. Features employed in the design of this instrument eliminate most of the difficulties associated with the traditional floating element balances. Vibration problems associated with the floating element skin friction balances have been found to be minimized by the design features and optional damping provided. The unique design of this instrument eliminates or reduces the errors associated with conventional floating-element devices: such as errors due to gaps, pressure gradient, acceleration, heat transfer and temperature change. The instrument is equipped with various sensing systems and the output signal is a linear function of the wall shear stress. Measurement made in three different tunnels show good agreement with theory and data obtained by the floating element devices.

  7. Colors Of Liquid Crystals Used To Measure Surface Shear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, D. C.; Muratore, J. J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Developmental method of mapping shear stresses on aerodynamic surfaces involves observation, at multiple viewing angles, of colors of liquid-crystal surface coats illuminated by white light. Report describing method referenced in "Liquid Crystals Indicate Directions Of Surface Shear Stresses" (ARC-13379). Resulting maps of surface shear stresses contain valuable data on magnitudes and directions of skin friction forces associated with surface flows; data used to refine mathematical models of aerodynamics for research and design purposes.

  8. Method for in-shoe shear stress measurement.

    PubMed

    Lord, M; Hosein, R; Williams, R B

    1992-05-01

    A methodology is described for use of a shear transducer, based on a magneto-resistive principle, to measure stresses under the plantar surface of the foot in-shoe during walking. Particular attention is paid to a projected application for study of diabetic plantar ulceration and its management by footwear. The transducer has a disc construction, approximately 4 mm thick by 16 mm diameter, and measures two orthogonal axes of shear simultaneously; this disc is mounted into an inlay that can be inserted into any stock orthopaedic shoe of the type commonly prescribed for diabetic foot problems. The transducer is located in the metatarsal head region of the inlay; exact placement of the transducer is determined by reference to the direct pressure distribution, the common method of palpation shown to be imprecise. Pilot trials on normal subjects are presented to evaluate the method. PMID:1588775

  9. Shear Stress Measurements of Non-Spherical Particles in High Shear Rate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koos, Erin; Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2007-11-01

    The behavior of liquid-solid flows varies greatly depending on fluid viscosity, particle and liquid inertia, and collisions and near-collisions between particles. An initial investigation by Bagnold found two different flow regimes [1]. In an examination of that work, Hunt et al. found that Bagnold's experiments were marred by secondary flows in the fluid [2]. The current experiment addresses this rheology further. Shear stress measurements used a coaxial rheometer with a height to gap ratio (h/b) of 11.7 and gap to outer radius ratio (b/ro) of 0.166 that was specially designed to minimize effects of secondary flows. Experiments were performed for a range of Reynolds numbers, solid fractions and ratio of particle to fluid densities. With neutrally buoyant particles, the dimensional shear stress exhibits a linear dependence on Reynolds Number: the slope is monotonic but a non-linear function of the solid fraction. Though non-neutrally buoyant particles exhibit a similar linear dependence at higher Reynolds numbers, at lower values the shear stress exhibits a non-linear behavior in which the stress increases with decreasing Reynolds number due to particle settling. [1] R.A. Bagnold, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 225, p.49 (1954). [2] M.L. Hunt etc., J. Fluid Mech., 452, p.1 (2002).

  10. Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Nai-Hsien (Castro Valley, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  11. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOEpatents

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  12. Visualization and Measurement of Surface Shear Stress Vector Distributions Using Liquid Crystal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Wilder, Michael C.

    1998-01-01

    When a shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating is illuminated from the normal direction by white light and observed from an oblique above-plane view angle, its color-change response to shear depends on both shear stress vector magnitude and the direction of the applied shear vector relative to the observer's in-plane line of sight. At any point, the maximum color change is always seen or measured when the local shear vector is aligned with, and directed away from, the observer; the magnitude of the color change at this vector/observer aligned orientation scales directly with shear stress magnitude. Conversely, any point exposed to a shear vector with a component directed toward the observer exhibits a noncolor-change response, always characterized by a rusty red or brown color, independent of both shear magnitude and direction. Based on this knowledge, full-surface shear stress vector visualization and measurement methodologies were formulated and successfully demonstrated. The present paper reviews the observations and measurements that led to the development of these methodologies and applications of both are discussed.

  13. Estimating shear stress from moving boat acoustic Doppler velocity measurements in a large gravel bed river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, Louise C.; Ferguson, Robert I.; Church, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Moving boat acoustic Doppler current profiling (ADCP) is increasingly used to measure discharge in large rivers. We investigate whether useful information about bed shear stress can be recovered from such data. Alternative ways to estimate local bed shear stress using the logarithmic law of the wall and spatial averaging are tested using ADCP transects across lower Fraser River, Canada. Repeatability is assessed by comparing estimates from outward and return boat tracks. The most precise method uses the vertically averaged mean velocity and a zero-velocity height based on bed grain size information. The accuracy of the assumed zero-velocity height can be judged by consistency between estimates using mean velocity and near-bed velocity. Shear stress estimates from unconstrained log-law fits are less repeatable and tend to overpredict, and mean shear stress estimates using the depth-slope product are unreliable in this river because of nonuniform flow.

  14. A new technique for the measurement of surface shear stress vectors using liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Muratore, J. J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Research has recently shown that liquid crystal coating (LCC) color-change response to shear depends on both shear stress magnitude and direction. Additional research was thus conducted to extend the LCC method from a flow-visualization tool to a surface shear stress vector measurement technique. A shear-sensitive LCC was applied to a planar test surface and illuminated by white light from the normal direction. A fiber optic probe was used to capture light scattered by the LCC from a point on the centerline of a turbulent, tangential-jet flow. Both the relative shear stress magnitude and the relative in-plane view angle between the sensor and the centerline shear vector were systematically varied. A spectrophotometer was used to obtain scattered-light spectra which were used to quantify the LCC color (dominant wavelength) as a function of shear stress magnitude and direction. At any fixed shear stress magnitude, the minimum dominant wavelength was measured when the shear vector was aligned with and directed away from the observer; changes in the relative in-plane view angle to either side of this vector/observer aligned position resulted in symmetric Gaussian increases in measured dominant wavelength. Based on these results, a vector measurement methodology, involving multiple oblique-view observations of the test surface, was formulated. Under present test conditions, the measurement resolution of this technique was found to be +/- 1 deg for vector orientations and +/- 5% for vector magnitudes. An approach t o extend the present methodology to full-surface applications is proposed.

  15. Measurement of shear stress-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jafarnejad, M; Cromer, W E; Kaunas, R R; Zhang, S L; Zawieja, D C; Moore, J E

    2015-04-01

    The shear stress applied to lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) by lymph flow changes dramatically under normal conditions as well as in response to disease conditions and immune reactions. In general, LEC are known to regulate the contraction frequency and strength of lymphatic pumping in response to shear stress. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is an important factor that regulates lymphatic contraction characteristics. In this study, we measured changes in the [Ca(2+)]i under different shear stress levels and determined the source of this calcium signal. Briefly, human dermal LEC were cultured in custom-made microchannels for 3 days before loading with 2 µM fura-2 AM, a ratiometric calcium dye to measure [Ca(2+)]i. Step changes in shear stress resulted in a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)]i followed by a gradual return to the basal level and sometimes below the initial baseline (45.2 ± 2.2 nM). The [Ca(2+)]i reached a peak at 126.2 ± 5.6 nM for 10 dyn/cm(2) stimulus, whereas the peak was only 71.8 ± 5.4 nM for 1 dyn/cm(2) stimulus, indicating that the calcium signal depends on the magnitude of shear stress. Removal of the extracellular calcium from the buffer or pharmocological blockade of calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels significantly reduced the peak [Ca(2+)]i, demonstrating a role of extracellular calcium entry. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pumps showed the importance of intracellular calcium stores in the initiation of this signal. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the shear-mediated calcium signal is dependent on the magnitude of the shear and involves ER store calcium release and extracellular calcium entry. PMID:25617358

  16. Accuracy and grid convergence of wall shear stress measured by lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiuying; Dun, Zhiya

    2014-04-01

    Based on a two-dimensional Poiseuille and Wormersley flow, accuracy and grid convergence of velocity, shear stress and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements were investigated using the single-relaxation-time (SRT) and multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann models under various open and wall boundary conditions. The results showed that grid convergence of shear stress and WSS are not consistent with that of velocity when flow channels are not aligned to the grids, and strongly rely on the used wall boundary conditions. And the MRT model is slightly superior to the SRT when simulating the complicated border flow. Moreover the WSS should be approximately calculated on the fluid nodes closest to walls under the curved boundary (CB) condition but not for the bounce-back (BB) boundary scheme. As applications, distributions of WSS in a wavy-walled channel and distensible carotid artery were simulated which would much more depend on local roughness of vessel intima than channel diameters.

  17. Direct Measurement Sensor of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Kerenyi, Kornel; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Trease, Brian P.; Widholm, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The flow fields and boundary erosion that are associated with scour at bridge piers are very complex. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress and boundary pressure fluctuations in experimental scour research has always been a challenge and high spatial resolution and fidelity have been almost impossible. Most researchers have applied an indirect process to determine shear stress using precise measured velocity profiles. Laser Doppler Anemometry and Particle Image Velocimetry are common techniques used to accurately measure velocity profiles. These methods are based on theoretical assumptions to estimate boundary shear stress. In addition, available turbulence models cannot very well account for the effect of bed roughness which is fundamentally important for any CFD simulation. The authors have taken on the challenge to advance the magnitude level to which direct measurements of the shear stress in water flow can be performed. This paper covered the challenges and the efforts to develop a higher accuracy and small spatial resolution sensor. Also, preliminary sensor designs and test results are presented.

  18. A Method of Measuring the Critical Shear Stress of Molten High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and the Relationship between the Critical Shear Stress and Molecular Weight or Molecular Weight Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Takatoshi; Takatori, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi

    The flow curve of molten high-density polyethylene (HDPE) has the discontinuous point characterized by the critical shear stress. In this paper we propose a method for measuring the critical shear stress and discusse the relationship between the critical shear stress and molecular weight or molecular weight distribution of HDPE. During the experiment at a constant shear rate, the pressure increases with maximum peak in the early stage of the extrusion. This peak appeares at initial flow and the critical shear stress is calculated from the peak. The critical shear stress decreases when increasing the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. It is clarified by GPC measurements that molecular weight of strand surface is smaller than that of the whole strand and this tendency becomes remarkable in accordance with decreasing the critical shear stress. Therefore it is concluded that the decrease of the critical shear stress is caused by the low molecular weight ingredient at the surface.

  19. A sliding plate microgap rheometer for the simultaneous measurement of shear stress and first normal stress difference.

    PubMed

    Baik, Seung Jae; Moldenaers, Paula; Clasen, Christian

    2011-03-01

    A new generation of the "flexure-based microgap rheometer" (the N-FMR) has been developed which is also capable of measuring, in addition to the shear stress, the first normal stress difference of micrometer thin fluid films. This microgap rheometer with a translation system based on compound spring flexures measures the rheological properties of microliter samples of complex fluids confined in a plane couette configuration with gap distances of h = 1-400 ?m up to shear rates of ? = 3000 s(-1). Feed back loop controlled precise positioning of the shearing surfaces with response times <1 ms enables to control the parallelism within 1.5 ?rad and to maintain the gap distance within 20 nm. This precise gap control minimizes squeeze flow effects and allows therefore to measure the first normal stress difference N(1) of the thin film down to a micrometer gap distance, with a lower limit of N(1)/? = 9.37510(-11) ?/h(2) that depends on the shear viscosity ? and the squared inverse gap. Structural development of complex fluids in the confinement can be visualized by using a beam splitter on the shearing surface and a long working distance microscope. In summary, this new instrument allows to investigate the confinement dependent rheological and morphological evolution of micrometer thin films. PMID:21456802

  20. A sliding plate microgap rheometer for the simultaneous measurement of shear stress and first normal stress difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Seung Jae; Moldenaers, Paula; Clasen, Christian

    2011-03-01

    A new generation of the "flexure-based microgap rheometer" (the N-FMR) has been developed which is also capable of measuring, in addition to the shear stress, the first normal stress difference of micrometer thin fluid films. This microgap rheometer with a translation system based on compound spring flexures measures the rheological properties of microliter samples of complex fluids confined in a plane couette configuration with gap distances of h = 1-400 ?m up to shear rates of dot ? = 3000 s-1. Feed back loop controlled precise positioning of the shearing surfaces with response times <1 ms enables to control the parallelism within 1.5 ?rad and to maintain the gap distance within 20 nm. This precise gap control minimizes squeeze flow effects and allows therefore to measure the first normal stress difference N1 of the thin film down to a micrometer gap distance, with a lower limit of {{N_1 }/{dot ? }} = 9.375 10^{ - 11} {?/{h^2 }} that depends on the shear viscosity ? and the squared inverse gap. Structural development of complex fluids in the confinement can be visualized by using a beam splitter on the shearing surface and a long working distance microscope. In summary, this new instrument allows to investigate the confinement dependent rheological and morphological evolution of micrometer thin films.

  1. Measurement of the wall pressure and shear stress distribution using molecular tagging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, D. A.; Naguib, A. M.; Koochesfahani, M. M.

    2015-08-01

    A new non-intrusive surface pressure and shear stress diagnostics technique is introduced in the present work. The technique is enabled by the unique ability of one-component molecular tagging velocimetry (1c-MTV) to provide measurements at very high spatial resolution (at every pixel along a tagged line of molecules) in the immediate proximity of surfaces. The utility of the new method to provide accurate measurements of the wall pressure and shear stress is demonstrated in an experiment involving a cylinder in cross flow at a Reynolds number of 6000. These measurements agree very well with experimental and computational data published in literature. The new technique is particularly advantageous in situations where embedding sensor arrays in the wall is impractical or cost/time prohibitive.

  2. Measurements of Snow Avalanche Basal Shear to Normal Stress Ratios (S/N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt, P. A.; Platzer, K.

    2006-12-01

    A long-standing problem in snow science is the value of the basal friction coefficient for dense, flowing avalanches. This parameter is defined by the ratio of shear (S) to normal (N) stress and determines the runout distance of snow avalanches. It is therefore the crucial parameter in hazard mitigation studies. In this paper we present measurements of (S/N). The measurements are made on a large snow chute instrumente with shear/normal force plates, velocity and flow height sensors. We find that a Mohr-Coulomb relation of the form S=c+bN accurately describes the measurements. The Coulomb friction coefficient b ranges between 0.22 and 0.55. Wet snow flows exhibit significant cohesion c ? 500 Pa. These quantitative values allow us to probe the relation between the basal work rate, internal dissipation and gravitational potential. We show that basal shearing is the primary frictional mechanism retarding snow flows. This mechanism shows no velocity dependence, contrary to many postulated constitutive relations for basal shearing in snow avalanches. Furthermore, we investigate how the basal work rate controls the injection of fluctuation energy at the basal surface. Thus, our experimental results and theoretical considerations help clarify the relationship between basal shearing and internal dissipation in snow avalanches.

  3. Sensor for Direct Measurement of the Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Sherrit, Stewart; Chang, Zensheu; Chen, Beck; Widholm, Scott; Ostlund, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear and normal stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear and normal stress and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, this approach is a challenging one especially for high spatial resolution and high fidelity measurements. The authors designed and fabricated a prototype miniature shear stress sensor including an EDM machined floating plate and a high-resolution laser optical encoder. Tests were performed both in air as well as operation in water with controlled flow. The sensor sensitivity, stability and signal-to-noise level were measured and evaluated. The detailed test results and a discussion of future work will be presented in this paper.

  4. Yield shear stress and disaggregating shear stress of human blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jinmu; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Sehyun

    2014-05-01

    This review presents two distinct rheological parameters of blood that have the potential to indicate blood circulation adequacy: yield shear stress (YSS) and disaggregating shear stress (DSS). YSS and DSS reflect the strength of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in suspension under static and dynamic conditions, respectively. YSS, defined as the critical stress to disperse RBC aggregates under static conditions, was found to be dependent upon hematocrit, fibrinogen, and red cell deformability, but not temperature. DSS, defined as the minimum shear stress to disperse RBC aggregates under dynamic conditions, is dependent upon fibrinogen, red cell deformability, and temperature but not hematocrit. Owing to recent advances in measurement technology, these two parameters can be easily measured, and thus, their clinical significance in blood circulation can be verified.

  5. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  6. Recent Developments in the Use of Liquid Crystal Coatings for Full-Surface Shear Stress Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, D. C.; Wilder, M. C.; Zilliac, G.; Hu, K. C.; Whitney, D. J.; Deardorff, D. G.; Moffat, R. J.; Farina, D. J.; Danek, C.; Martinez, R.; Davis, Sanford S. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Under normal white-light illumination and oblique observation, liquid crystal coating (LCC) color-change response to shear depends on both shear stress magnitude as well as the direction of the applied shear relative to the observer's line of sight. These color-change responses were quantified by subjecting a LCC to a wall-jet shear flow and measuring scattered-light spectra using a fiber optic probe and spectrophotometer. At any fixed shear stress magnitude, the maximum color change was measured when the shear vector was aligned with and directed away from the observer; changes in the relative in-plane view angle to either side of this vector/observer aligned position resulted in symmetric Gaussian reductions in measured color change. For this vector/observer aligned orientation, color change was found to scale linearly with increasing shear stress magnitude over an eight-fold range. Based on these results, a surface shear stress vector measurement methodology, involving multiple oblique-view observations of the test surface, was formulated. In the present paper, the experimental approach and data analysis procedure required to extend this vector measurement methodology to full-surface applications will be outlined and progress towards demonstrating this areal capability will be reviewed.

  7. Side-implanted piezoresistive shear stress sensor for turbulent boundary layer measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yawei

    In this dissertation, I discuss the device modeling, design optimization, fabrication, packaging and characterization of a micromachined floating element piezoresistive shear stress sensor for the time-resolved, direct measurement of fluctuating wall shear stress in a turbulent flow. This device impacts a broad range of applications from fundamental scientific research to industrial flow control and biomedical applications. The sensor structure integrates side-implanted, diffused resistors into the silicon tethers for piezoresistive detection. Temperature compensation is enabled by integrating a fixed, dummy Wheatstone bridge adjacent to the active shear-stress sensor. A theoretical nonlinear mechanical model is combined with a piezoresistive sensing model to determine the electromechanical sensitivity. Lumped element modeling (LEM) is used to estimate the resonant frequency. Finite element modeling is employed to verify the quasi-static and dynamic models. Two dominant electrical noise sources in the piezoresistive shear stress sensor, 1/f noise and thermal noise, and amplifier noise were considered to determine the noise floor. These models were then leveraged to obtain optimal sensor designs for several sets of specifications. The cost function, minimum detectable shear stress (MDS) formulated in terms of sensitivity and noise floor, is minimized subject to nonlinear constraints of geometry, linearity, bandwidth, power, resistance, and manufacturing limitations. The optimization results indicate a predicted optimal device performance with a MDS of O(0.1 mPa) and a dynamic range greater than 75 dB. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the device performance is most responsive to variations in tether width. The sensors are fabricated using an 8-mask, bulk micromachining process on a silicon wafer. An n-well layer is formed to control the space-charge layer thickness of reverse-biased p/n junction-isolated piezoresistors. The sensor geometry is realized using reactive ion etch (RIE) and deep reactive ion etch (DRIE). Hydrogen annealing is employed to smooth the sidewall scalloping caused by DRIE. The piezoresistors are achieved by side-wall boron implantation. The structure is finally released from the backside using the combination of DRIE and RIE. Electrical characterization indicates linear junction-isolated resistors, and a negligible leakage current (<0.12 muA) for the junction-isolated diffused piezoresistors up to a reverse bias voltage of -10 V. Using a known acoustically-excited wall shear stress for calibration, the sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 4.24 muV/Pa, a noise floor of 11.4 mPa/ Hz at 1 kHz, a linear response up to the maximum testing range of 2 Pa, and a flat dynamic response up to the testing limit of 6.7 kHz. These results, coupled with a wind-tunnel suitable package, result in a suitable transducer for turbulence measurements in low-speed flows, a first for piezoresistive MEMS-based direct shear stress sensors.

  8. Aeolian Shear Stress Ratio Measurements within Mesquite-Dominated Landscapes of the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James; Nickling, W. G.; Gilliles, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    A field study was conducted to ascertain the amount of protection that mesquite-dominated communities provide to the surface from wind erosion. The dynamics of the locally accelerated evolution of a mesquite/coppice dune landscape and the undetermined spatial dependence of potential erosion by wind from a shear stress partition model were investigated. Sediment transport and dust emission processes are governed by the amount of protection that can be provided by roughness elements. Although shear stress partition models exist that can describe this, their accuracy has only been tested against a limited dataset because instrumentation has previously been unable to provide the necessary measurements. This study combines the use of meteorological towers and surface shear stress measurements with Irwin sensors to measure the partition of shear stress in situ. The surface shear stress within preferentially aligned vegetation (within coppice dune development) exhibited highly skewed distributions, while a more homogenous surface stress was recorded at a site with less developed coppice dunes. Above the vegetation, the logarithmic velocity profile deduced roughness length (based on 10-min averages) exhibited a distinct correlation with compass direction for the site with vegetation preferentially aligned, while the site with more homogenously distributed vegetation showed very little variation in the roughness length. This distribution in roughness length within an area, defines a distribution of a resolved shear stress partitioning model based on these measurements, ultimately providing potential closure to a previously uncorrelated model parameter.

  9. Watershed Scale Shear Stress From Tethersonde Wind Profile Measurements Under Near Neutral and Unstable Atmospheric Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Katul, G. G.

    1995-04-01

    Mean wind speed profiles were measured in the atmospheric surface layer, using a tethersonde system, above the Ojai Valley Watershed in southern California. The valley is mainly planted with mature avocado and orange trees. The surface shear stress and latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured above the trees which are up to 9 m in height. Near-neutral wind speed profile measurements allowed the determination of the watershed surface roughness (z0 = 1.4 m) and the momentum displacement height (d0 = 7.0 m). The wind speed measurements obtained under unstable atmospheric stability were analyzed using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. New stability correction functions proposed based on theory and experiments of Kader-Yaglom as well as the now classic Businger-Dyer type functions were tested. The watershed shear stress values calculated using the surface layer wind speed profiles with the new Monin-Obukhov stability functions were found to be improved in comparison with the values obtained with the Businger-Dyer functions under strongly unstable stability conditions. The Monin-Obukhov model with the Businger-Dyer stability correction function underpredicted the momentum flux by 25% under strongly unstable stability conditions, while the new Kader-Yaglom formulation compared well on average (R2 = 0.77) with the surface eddy correlation measurements for all atmospheric stability conditions. The unstable 100-m drag coefficient was found to be u*2/V1002 = 0.0182.

  10. Method for measuring surface shear stress magnitude and direction using liquid crystal coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for determining surface shear magnitude and direction at every point on a surface. The surface is covered with a shear stress sensitive liquid crystal coating and illuminated by white light from a normal direction. A video camera is positioned at an oblique angle above the surface to observe the color of the liquid crystal at that angle. The shear magnitude and direction are derived from the color information. A method of calibrating the device is also provided.

  11. PIV Measurement of Wall Shear Stress and Flow Structures within an Intracranial Aneurysm Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Ricky; Sparrow, Eph; Campbell, Gary; Divani, Afshin; Sheng, Jian

    2012-11-01

    The formation and rupture of an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a debilitating and often lethal event. Geometric features of the aneurysm bulb and upstream artery, such as bulb size, bulb shape, and curvature of the artery, are two groups of factors that define the flow and stresses within an IA. Abnormal flow stresses are related to rupture. This presentation discusses the development of a quasi-3D PIV technique and its application in various glass models at Re = 275 and 550 to experimentally assess at a preliminary level the impact of geometry and flow rate. Some conclusions are to be drawn linking geometry of the flow domain to rupture risk. The extracted results also serve as the baseline case and as a precursor to a companion presentation by the authors discussing the impact of flow diverters, a new class of medical devices. The PIV experiments were performed in a fully index-matched flow facility, allowing for unobstructed observations over complex geometry. A reconstruction and analysis method was devised to obtain 3D mean wall stress distributions and flow fields. The quasi 3D measurements were reconstructed from orthogonal planes encompassing the entire glass model, spaced 0.4mm apart. Wall shear stresses were evaluated from the near-wall flow viscous stresses.

  12. Wall shear stress as measured in vivo: consequences for the design of the arterial system.

    PubMed

    Reneman, Robert S; Hoeks, Arnold P G

    2008-05-01

    Based upon theory, wall shear stress (WSS), an important determinant of endothelial function and gene expression, has been assumed to be constant along the arterial tree and the same in a particular artery across species. In vivo measurements of WSS, however, have shown that these assumptions are far from valid. In this survey we will discuss the assessment of WSS in the arterial system in vivo and present the results obtained in large arteries and arterioles. In vivo WSS can be estimated from wall shear rate, as derived from non-invasively recorded velocity profiles, and whole blood viscosity in large arteries and plasma viscosity in arterioles, avoiding theoretical assumptions. In large arteries velocity profiles can be recorded by means of a specially designed ultrasound system and in arterioles via optical techniques using fluorescent flow velocity tracers. It is shown that in humans mean WSS is substantially higher in the carotid artery (1.1-1.3 Pa) than in the brachial (0.4-0.5 Pa) and femoral (0.3-0.5 Pa) arteries. Also in animals mean WSS varies substantially along the arterial tree. Mean WSS in arterioles varies between about 1.0 and 5.0 Pa in the various studies and is dependent on the site of measurement in these vessels. Across species mean WSS in a particular artery decreases linearly with body mass, e.g., in the infra-renal aorta from 8.8 Pa in mice to 0.5 Pa in humans. The observation that mean WSS is far from constant along the arterial tree implies that Murray's cube law on flow-diameter relations cannot be applied to the whole arterial system. Because blood flow velocity is not constant along the arterial tree either, a square law also does not hold. The exponent in the power law likely varies along the arterial system, probably from 2 in large arteries near the heart to 3 in arterioles. The in vivo findings also imply that in in vitro studies no average shear stress value can be taken to study effects on endothelial cells derived from different vascular areas or from the same artery in different species. The cells have to be studied under the shear stress conditions they are exposed to in real life. PMID:18324431

  13. Wall shear stress as measured in vivo: consequences for the design of the arterial system

    PubMed Central

    Hoeks, Arnold P. G.

    2008-01-01

    Based upon theory, wall shear stress (WSS), an important determinant of endothelial function and gene expression, has been assumed to be constant along the arterial tree and the same in a particular artery across species. In vivo measurements of WSS, however, have shown that these assumptions are far from valid. In this survey we will discuss the assessment of WSS in the arterial system in vivo and present the results obtained in large arteries and arterioles. In vivo WSS can be estimated from wall shear rate, as derived from non-invasively recorded velocity profiles, and whole blood viscosity in large arteries and plasma viscosity in arterioles, avoiding theoretical assumptions. In large arteries velocity profiles can be recorded by means of a specially designed ultrasound system and in arterioles via optical techniques using fluorescent flow velocity tracers. It is shown that in humans mean WSS is substantially higher in the carotid artery (1.11.3Pa) than in the brachial (0.40.5Pa) and femoral (0.30.5Pa) arteries. Also in animals mean WSS varies substantially along the arterial tree. Mean WSS in arterioles varies between about 1.0 and 5.0Pa in the various studies and is dependent on the site of measurement in these vessels. Across species mean WSS in a particular artery decreases linearly with body mass, e.g., in the infra-renal aorta from 8.8Pa in mice to 0.5Pa in humans. The observation that mean WSS is far from constant along the arterial tree implies that Murrays cube law on flow-diameter relations cannot be applied to the whole arterial system. Because blood flow velocity is not constant along the arterial tree either, a square law also does not hold. The exponent in the power law likely varies along the arterial system, probably from 2 in large arteries near the heart to 3 in arterioles. The in vivo findings also imply that in in vitro studies no average shear stress value can be taken to study effects on endothelial cells derived from different vascular areas or from the same artery in different species. The cells have to be studied under the shear stress conditions they are exposed to in real life. PMID:18324431

  14. Direct measurements of wall shear stress by buried wire gages in a shock-wave boundary-layer interaction region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Detailed measurements of wall shear stress (skin friction) were made with specially developed buried wire gages in the interaction regions of a Mach 2.9 turbulent boundary layer with externally generated shocks. Separation and reattachment points inferred by these measurements support the findings of earlier experiments which used a surface oil flow technique and pitot profile measurements. The measurements further indicate that the boundary layer tends to attain significantly higher skin-friction values downstream of the interaction region as compared to upstream. Comparisons between measured wall shear stress and published results of some theoretical calculation schemes show that the general, but not detailed, behavior is predicted well by such schemes.

  15. Friction ridges in cockroach climbing pads: anisotropy of shear stress measured on transparent, microstructured substrates.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Christofer J; Dirks, Jan-Henning; Barbero, David R; Steiner, Ullrich; Federle, Walter

    2009-09-01

    The contact of adhesive structures to rough surfaces has been difficult to investigate as rough surfaces are usually irregular and opaque. Here we use transparent, microstructured surfaces to investigate the performance of tarsal euplantulae in cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). These pads are mainly used for generating pushing forces away from the body. Despite this biological function, shear stress (force per unit area) measurements in immobilized pads showed no significant difference between pushing and pulling on smooth surfaces and on 1-microm high microstructured substrates, where pads made full contact. In contrast, on 4-mum high microstructured substrates, where pads made contact only to the top of the microstructures, shear stress was maximal during a push. This specific direction dependence is explained by the interlocking of the microstructures with nanometre-sized "friction ridges" on the euplantulae. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed that these ridges are anisotropic, with steep slopes facing distally and shallow slopes proximally. The absence of a significant direction dependence on smooth and 1-microm high microstructured surfaces suggests the effect of interlocking is masked by the stronger influence of adhesion on friction, which acts equally in both directions. Our findings show that cockroach euplantulae generate friction using both interlocking and adhesion. PMID:19568755

  16. Evaluation of critical shear stresses for consolidated cohesive sediment depositions by using PIV compared with field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb, Gabriele; Haun, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Reservoir sedimentation is a common problem today. Due to the reduced flow velocities, turbulences and bed shear stresses the transported sediment load start to settle. These depositions reduce the worldwide average storage capacity in the range of about 1% per year. However, depending on the climate conditions and the geology in the catchment area this value may vary strongly. Therefore sediment management tasks, especially the removal of already accumulated sediments, have to be developed for each reservoir separately. The critical bed shear stress is a key parameter used to evaluate the different management tasks and depend strongly on the grain size distribution of the inflowing sediments. However, depositions which contain fine particles like clay and silt increase the critical bed shear stress due to occurring cohesive forces and the use of the Shield curve for evaluating the critical shear stress is no longer valid. Additional data is required for estimating the valid critical shear stress at the reservoir bed. In this study the critical shear stress was evaluated for cohesive sediment samples, taken from two different reservoirs, in a flume in the laboratory. The sediment samples were placed in an installed double bottom in the research flume and the discharge was increased stepwise until mass erosion took place (determined by visual inspection). A 2D PIV device was used to measure the flow conditions (velocities and turbulences) over the sediment sample. The obtained values were used to calculate the bed shear stress for the specific discharge rate by the gravity method and the Reynolds stress method. The results of both methods showed good agreement in the comparison of the values, what indicates that nearly uniform flow conditions occurred in the flume. The results from this study showed that the behaviour of natural cohesive sediments depend strongly on the natural conditions as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. In this case especially the effect of the layer structure in the sediment samples was controlling the erosion mechanism. The results of the experiments showed also that the obtained average shear stress was above most of the values found in previous conducted studies, which may be explained by consolidation effects in the reservoirs. Additional conducted vane strength measurements have been carried out in situ. The in the field obtained vane strength values were set in relation to the critical shear stresses derived by the experimental tests from the laboratory and to data from a previous conducted study to develop a new relation function. This function may be used in future studies for a rough estimation of the critical shear stress, based on in situ measured vane strength values.

  17. Measurement of wall shear stress in chick embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhenhe; Dou, Shidan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Suo, Yanyan; Wang, Fengwen

    2015-03-01

    The cardiac development is a complicated process affected by genetic and environmental factors. Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the components which have been proved to influence the morphogenesis during early stages of cardiac development. To study the mechanism, WSS measurement is a step with significant importance. WSS is caused by blood flow imposed on the inner surface of the heart wall and it can be determined by calculating velocity gradients of blood flow in a direction perpendicular to the wall. However, the WSS of the early stage embryonic heart is difficult to measure since the embryonic heart is tiny and beating fast. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging modality with high spatial and temporal resolution, which is uniquely suitable for the study of early stage embryonic heart development. In this paper, we introduce a method to measure the WSS of early stage chick embryonic heart based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 4D (x,y,z,t) scan was performed on the outflow tract (OFT) of HH18 (~3 days of incubation) chick embryonic heart. After phase synchronization, OFT boundary segmentation, and OFT center line calculation, Doppler angle of the blood flow in the OFT can be achieved (This method has been described in previous publications). Combining with the Doppler OCT results, we calculate absolute blood flow velocity distribution in the OFT. The boundary of the OFT was segmented at each cross-sectional structural image, then geometrical center of the OFT can be calculated. Thus, the gradients of blood flow in radial direction can be calculated. This velocity gradient near the wall is termed wall shear rate and the WSS value is proportional to the wall shear rate. Based on this method, the WSS at different heart beating phase are compare. The result demonstrates that OCT is capable of early stage chicken embryonic heart WSS study.

  18. Development of buried wire gages for measurement of wall shear stress in Blastane experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Buried Wire Gages operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System are among the special types of instrumentation to be used in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). These Gages are of a new type and need to be adapted for specific applications. Methods were developed to fabricate Gage inserts and mount those in the BLASTANE Instrumentation Plugs. A large number of Gages were prepared and operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System to derive some of the calibration constants for application to fluid-flow wall shear-stress measurements. The final stage of the calibration was defined, but could not be accomplished because of non-availability of a suitable flow simulating apparatus. This report provides a description of the Buried Wire Gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper Gages and the calibration constants, namely Temperature Coefficient of Resistance and Conduction Loss Factor.

  19. Local shear stress measurements on an axisymmetric body in a microbubble modified flow field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, S.; Pal, S.

    1990-12-01

    An array of flush-mounted hot film probes has been used to measure the local shear stress reduction as a result of microbubble injection over an axisymmetric body at the four discrete, free-stream speeds of 4.6, 10.7, 13.2, and 16.8 m/sec. Visualization of the bubble flow pattern supplement these results at intermediate free-stream speeds. At speeds of 10.7 m/sec and above, a circumferential gradient in skin friction, with skin friction reduction larger at the top than at the bottom of the model occurs at some distance downstream of injection. For these speeds, the gradient is stronger at the lower speeds and higher gas injection conditions. Higher speeds tend to drive the axial location of the gradient farther from the injection location. At speeds below 10.7 m/sec, the flow is dominated by a double vortex structure that entrains the bubbles at the bottom and sides of the model and transports them to the top. At sufficiently high gas flow rates a cavity, large enough to be observed visually, is formed just upstream of the vortices, centered near the body midline. The axial position of the cavity is roughly independent of flow speed and gas flow conditions. The transport of bubbles by the vortices, to the top of the body, is the cause of the poor skin friction reduction performance of microbubble injection at low speeds on an axisymmetric shape. Integration of the current local skin friction results gives good agreement with earlier drag balance measurements. The persistence of the drag reduction phenomenon with axial distance as well as the statistics of the shear stress fluctuations are quite similar to what was observed earlier on flat plates.

  20. High-Resolution Measurements of Velocity and Shear Stress in Leakage Jets From Bileaflet Mechanical Heart Valve Hinge Models.

    PubMed

    Klusak, Ewa; Bellofiore, Alessandro; Loughnane, Sarah; Quinlan, Nathan J

    2015-11-01

    In flow through cardiovascular implants, hemolysis, and thrombosis may be initiated by nonphysiological shear stress on blood elements. To enhance understanding of the small-scale flow structures that stimulate cellular responses, and ultimately to design devices for reduced blood damage, it is necessary to study the flow-field at high spatial and temporal resolution. In this work, we investigate flow in the reverse leakage jet from the hinge of a bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV). Scaled-up model hinges are employed, enabling measurement of the flow-field at effective spatial resolution of 167??m and temporal resolution of 594??s using two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV). High-velocity jets were observed at the hinge outflow, with time-average velocity up to 5.7?m/s, higher than reported in previous literature. Mean viscous shear stress is up to 60?Pa. For the first time, strongly unsteady flow has been observed in the leakage jet. Peak instantaneous shear stress is up to 120?Pa, twice as high as the average value. These high-resolution measurements identify the hinge leakage jet as a region of very high fluctuating shear stress which is likely to be thrombogenic and should be an important target for future design improvement. PMID:26291041

  1. Time-Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements with Wall Shear Stress and Uncertainty Quantification for the FDA Nozzle Model.

    PubMed

    Raben, Jaime S; Hariharan, Prasanna; Robinson, Ronald; Malinauskas, Richard; Vlachos, Pavlos P

    2016-03-01

    We present advanced particle image velocimetry (PIV) processing, post-processing, and uncertainty estimation techniques to support the validation of computational fluid dynamics analyses of medical devices. This work is an extension of a previous FDA-sponsored multi-laboratory study, which used a medical device mimicking geometry referred to as the FDA benchmark nozzle model. Experimental measurements were performed using time-resolved PIV at five overlapping regions of the model for Reynolds numbers in the nozzle throat of 500, 2000, 5000, and 8000. Images included a twofold increase in spatial resolution in comparison to the previous study. Data was processed using ensemble correlation, dynamic range enhancement, and phase correlations to increase signal-to-noise ratios and measurement accuracy, and to resolve flow regions with large velocity ranges and gradients, which is typical of many blood-contacting medical devices. Parameters relevant to device safety, including shear stress at the wall and in bulk flow, were computed using radial basis functions. In addition, in-field spatially resolved pressure distributions, Reynolds stresses, and energy dissipation rates were computed from PIV measurements. Velocity measurement uncertainty was estimated directly from the PIV correlation plane, and uncertainty analysis for wall shear stress at each measurement location was performed using a Monte Carlo model. Local velocity uncertainty varied greatly and depended largely on local conditions such as particle seeding, velocity gradients, and particle displacements. Uncertainty in low velocity regions in the sudden expansion section of the nozzle was greatly reduced by over an order of magnitude when dynamic range enhancement was applied. Wall shear stress uncertainty was dominated by uncertainty contributions from velocity estimations, which were shown to account for 90-99% of the total uncertainty. This study provides advancements in the PIV processing methodologies over the previous work through increased PIV image resolution, use of robust image processing algorithms for near-wall velocity measurements and wall shear stress calculations, and uncertainty analyses for both velocity and wall shear stress measurements. The velocity and shear stress analysis, with spatially distributed uncertainty estimates, highlights the challenges of flow quantification in medical devices and provides potential methods to overcome such challenges. PMID:26628081

  2. The Effect of Test Machine Compliance on the Measured Shear Punch Yield Stress as Predicted Using Finite Element Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Toloczko, Mychailo; Abe, Katsunori; Hamilton, Margaret L.; Garner, Francis A.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2001-10-01

    In previous research involving the use of the shear punch test, it was assumed that the displacement of the punch tip was only slightly different than the crosshead displacement. The present work explores this assumption and its ramifications by simulating the shear punch test with finite element analysis (FEA). The simulations suggest that punch tip displacement is much less than previously assumed, and that for the test frames which have been used, crosshead displacement is over an order of magnitude greater than punch tip displacement. This difference in displacements is thought to be due to test machine and punch compliance, and a simple elasticity calculation of the compliance of the punch, the test machine, and a specimen gives a result which is in agreement with the FEA simulations. The effect of using punch tip displacement on the observed effective shear yield stress was evaluated using FEA simulated shear punch tests on several different metals. Yield was measured at several different offset shear strains with a 1.0% offset shear yield strength measurement providing the best correlation with 0.2% offset uniaxial yield strength. When using the 1.0% offset shear yield values, the previously observed material-to-material variability in the tensile-shear correlation all but disappeared. Based on this work, it appears that the material-to-material variations in prior correlations between uniaxial yield strength and shear yield strength is due to a combination of large test machine compliance and material-to-material differences in the work hardening exponent.

  3. Low wavenumber turbulent boundary layer wall pressure and shear stress measurements from vibration data on a cylinder in pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonness, William K.

    The response of a structure to turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excitation has been an area of research for roughly fifty years. However, uncertainties persist surrounding the low wavenumber levels of TBL surface pressure and shear stress spectra. In this experimental investigation, a cylindrical shell with a smooth internal surface is subjected to TBL excitation from water in fully developed pipe flow at 6.1 m/s. The cylinder's vibration response is used to inversely determine low wavenumber TBL surface pressure and shear stress levels. A three-dimensional experimental modal analysis is also conducted on the water-filled cylindrical shell to determine structural parameters used to extract these levels. The cylinder's radial vibration response for certain lightly damped modes is used to determine TBL surface pressure at lower streamwise wavenumbers than previously reported (k1/k c < 0.01). The nearly constant low wavenumber pressure level determined from these measurements is roughly 40 dB below the convective peak level. This level falls midway between the Smol'yakov (2006) and Chase (1987) TBL models and is roughly 25 dB lower than the Corcos (1964) model. The current data is a few decibels below the lower bound of related measurements in air by Farabee and Geib (1975) and Martin and Leehey (1977). Simple wavenumber white forms for the TBL surface pressure spectrum at low wavenumber are discussed. Low wavenumber fluctuating shear stress levels in both the cross-flow and streamwise directions are determined using directionally uncoupled low-order cylinder modes in the circumferential and axial directions. This data addresses a critical gap in available literature regarding experimental low wavenumber shear stress data. The low wavenumber shear stress levels in both the cross-flow and streamwise directions are determined to be roughly 10 dB higher than those of normal pressure. As is the case for various models of TBL pressure, these measurements suggest that a nearly constant value for normalized shear stress at low wavenumber is valid over a broad range of frequencies. The same wavenumber white model forms suggested for low wavenumber TBL surface pressure are also appropriate for shear stress.

  4. Non-Newtonian Flow of Blood in Arterioles: Consequences for Wall Shear Stress Measurements

    PubMed Central

    SRIRAM, Krishna; INTAGLIETTA, Marcos; TARTAKOVSKY, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    We model blood in a microvessel as an inhomogeneous non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity varies with hematocrit and shear rate in accordance with the Quemada rheological relation. The flow is assumed to consist of two distinct, immiscible and homogeneous fluid layers: an inner region densely packed with red blood cells, and an outer cell-free layer whose thickness depends on discharge hematocrit. We demonstrate that the proposed model provides a realistic description of velocity profiles, tube hematocrit, core hematocrit and apparent viscosities over a wide range of vessel radii and discharge hematocrits. Our analysis reveals the importance of incorporating this complex blood rheology into estimates of wall shear stress in micro-vessels. The latter is accomplished by specifying a correction factor, which accounts for the deviation of blood flow from the Poiseuille law. PMID:24703006

  5. A miniaturized optical package for wall shear stress measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tai-An; Mills, David; Chandrasekharan, Vijay; Sheplak, Mark

    2014-06-01

    We report the development of a time-resolved direct wall shear stress senor using an optical moiré transduction technique for harsh environments. The floating-element sensor is a lateral-position sensor that is micromachined to enable sufficient bandwidth and to minimize spatial aliasing. The optical transduction approach offers several advantages over electrical-based floating element techniques including immunity from electromagnetic interference and the ability to operate in a conductive fluid medium. Packaging for optical sensors presents significant challenges. The bulky nature and size of conventional free-space optics often limit their use to an optical test bench, making them unsuitable for harsh environments. The optical package developed in this research utilizes an array of optical fibers mapped over the moiré fringe. The fiber bundle approach results in a robust package that reduces the overall size of the optics, mitigates vibration between the sensor and optoelectronics and enables in situ measurement. The optical package for sampling the amplified moiré fringe is evaluated using bench top test setups. An optical test bench is constructed to simulate the movement of the moiré fringe on the floating element. High-resolution images of the optical fringe and optical fibers are combined in simulation to model the lateral displacement of the fringe. The performance of several fringe estimation algorithms are studied and evaluated. Based on the optical study, the optical package and post-processing algorithms are implemented on an actual device. Initial device characterization using this approach results in a device sensitivity of 12.4 nm/Pa.

  6. Development of a wall-shear-stress sensor and measurements in mini-channels with partial blockages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afara, Samer; Medvescek, James; Mydlarski, Laurent; Baliga, Bantwal R.; MacDonald, Mark

    2014-05-01

    The design, construction, operation and validation of a wall-shear-stress sensor, and measurements obtained using this sensor in air flows downstream of partial blockages in a mini-channel are presented. The sensor consisted of a hot wire mounted over a small rectangular slot and operated using a constant-temperature anemometer. It was used to investigate flows similar to those within the mini-channels inside notebook computers. The overall goal of the present work was to develop a sensor suitable for measurements of the wall-shear stress in such flows, which can be used to validate corresponding numerical simulations, as the latter are known to be often surprisingly inaccurate. To this end, measurements of the wall-shear stress, and the corresponding statistical moments and power spectral densities, were obtained at different distances downstream of the partial blockage, with blockage ratios of 39.7, 59.2, and 76.3 %. The Reynolds number (based on average velocity and hydraulic diameter) ranged from 100 to 900. The results confirmed the presence of unsteadiness, separation, reattachment, and laminar-turbulent transition in the ostensibly laminar flow of air in mini-channels with partial blockages. The present results demonstrate why accurate numerical predictions of cooling air flows in laptop and notebook computers remain a challenging task.

  7. In situ measurements of erosion shear stress and geotechnical shear strength of the intertidal sediments of the experimental managed realignment scheme at Tollesbury, Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, C. W.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Black, K. S.; Whitmore, A. P.

    2003-11-01

    Managed realignment is one of several 'soft' engineering options which may reduce the costs of coastal defence, provide a more 'natural' response to the problem of rising sea levels and at the same time deliver environmental, specifically nature conservation, benefits. The success of this technique depends on the ability of the soils and sediments within the site to resist the erosive action of waves and tidal currents and allow sediment accretion to occur, at least at a rate equal to mean sea-level rise. Once a critical shear stress, ?0 crt exerted by the moving fluids over the bed, is exceeded erosion will occur. A cohesive strength meter (CSM) and the fall-cone method were used to gather data, in situ on the strength and stability of sediments from an experimental managed realignment site and an adjacent, established saltmarsh in south-east England. Following six years of regular tidal cover, the underlying agricultural soil appeared both very strong (mean surface shear strength, ? f=228 kPa) and highly resistant to erosion ( ? 0 crt=6.23 N m -2). During this period much of the site had been covered by sediment, and saltmarsh plants ( Salicornia europaea) had become established above the mean high water neap tide (MHWN) level. Above MHWN level (tidal cover time <15%) sediments had greater bulk densities and lower water contents which resulted in a moderate shear strength (? f=11.6 kPa) and resistance to erosion (? 0 crt=2.45 N m -2) . Below MHWN, where sediment accretion rates were greatest, poor consolidation resulted in very high water contents and low bulk densities. These areas were at the highest potential risk of erosion (? 0 crt=1.5 N m -2) and had very low shear strengths (? f=0.33 kPa) . Where sediment exceeded 25 cm depth, gullies formed allowing their banks and adjacent margins to drain faster than the surrounding sediment. This led to a significant increase in bed strength (? f=10.8 kPa) and stability (? 0 crt=4.3 N m -2) . These gullies were probably the early stages of the complex creek patterns characteristic of the adjacent, established saltmarsh. The established saltmarsh was rich in plants and had a well-developed (aggregated) soil structure. These soils had a moderate to high resistance to erosion (? 0 crt=2.45 N m -2) and shear strength (? f=25.6 kPa) . Undrained sediment shear strength, ?f, obtained with the fall-cone apparatus can also provide a useful indication of critical erosion shear stress, ?0 crt . Values of ?0 crt , measured across this site were all relatively large compared with computed bed stresses arising from locally generated waves. Thus this experimental managed realignment site was found to be primarily depositional and was thus successfully achieving the twin aims of protecting the coast from erosion and extending a rich ecosystem.

  8. Shear stress in magnetorheological finishing for glasses.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunlin; Shafrir, Shai N; Lambropoulos, John C; Mici, Joni; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    We report in situ, simultaneous measurements of both drag and normal forces in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) for what is believed to be the first time, using a spot taking machine (STM) as a test bed to take MRF spots on stationary parts. The measurements are carried out over the entire area where material is being removed, i.e., the projected area of the MRF removal function/spot on the part surface, using a dual force sensor. This approach experimentally addresses the mechanisms governing material removal in MRF for optical glasses in terms of the hydrodynamic pressure and shear stress, applied by the hydrodynamic flow of magnetorheological fluid at the gap between the part surface and the STM wheel. This work demonstrates that the volumetric removal rate shows a positive linear dependence on shear stress. Shear stress exhibits a positive linear dependence on a material figure of merit that depends upon Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness. A modified Preston's equation is proposed that better estimates MRF material removal rate for optical glasses by incorporating mechanical properties, shear stress, and velocity. PMID:19412219

  9. Development of Hybrid Sensor Arrays for Sensor Arrays for Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure and Shear Stress Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This document reports on the progress in developing hybrid sensors for the simultaneous measurement of pressure and shear stress. The key feature for the success of the proposed hybrid sensor array is the ability to deposit Cu-Ni alloy with proper composition (55 - 45) on a silicon wafer to form a strain gage. This alloy strain gage replaces the normally used Si strain gages in MEMS, which are highly nonlinear and temperature dependent. The copper nickel, with proper composition (55 - 45), was successfully deposited on a silicon wafer with a few trials during this period of the project. Pictures of the Cu-Ni alloy strain gage and the x-ray spectra indicating the composition are shown. The planned tests are also reviewed.

  10. Two-Phase Shear Band Structures at Uniform Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Melanie M.; Callaghan, Paul T.

    1997-06-01

    Using NMR microscopy we measure the velocity distribution for a wormlike surfactant solution in the gap of a small angle cone-and-plate rheometer. This system, cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate 100 mM/60 mM, exhibits biphasic shear band structure when the applied shear rate exceeds the critical rate of strain beyond which a plateau is observed in the shear stress. The structure is characterized by two low/high shear interfaces and the region of high shear evolves by increasing width as the average gap shear is increased.

  11. Shear Stress Sensing using Elastomer Micropillar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Allen M.; Cissoto, Alexxandra; Sheplak, Mark; Connell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of shear stress developed as a fluid moves around a solid body is difficult to measure. Stresses at the fluid-solid interface are very small and the nature of the fluid flow is easily disturbed by introducing sensor components to the interface. To address these challenges, an array of direct and indirect techniques have been investigated with various advantages and challenges. Hot wire sensors and other indirect sensors all protrude significantly into the fluid flow. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, although facilitating very accurate measurements, are not durable, are prone to contamination, and are difficult to implement into existing model geometries. One promising approach is the use of engineered surfaces that interact with fluid flow in a detectable manner. To this end, standard lithographic techniques have been utilized to generate elastomeric micropillar arrays of various lengths and diameters. Micropillars of controlled length and width were generated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer using a soft-lithography technique. The 3D mold for micropillar replication was fabricated using laser ablative micromachining and contact lithography. Micropillar dimensions and mechanical properties were characterized and compared to shear sensing requirements. The results of this characterization as well as shear stress detection techniques will be discussed.

  12. Relative contributions of interface pressure, shear stress, and temperature on ischemic-induced, skin-reactive hyperemia in healthy volunteers: a repeated measures laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lachenbruch, Charlie; Tzen, Yi-Ting; Brienza, David; Karg, Patricia E; Lachenbruch, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    Although the primary risk factors for pressure ulcer development - pressure, shear, skin temperature, moisture, and friction - have been identified for decades, the relative contribution of each to this risk remains unclear. To confirm the results of and expand upon earlier research into the relative contributions of interface pressures, shear stress, and skin temperature among 4 healthy volunteers, a study involving 6 additional healthy 40- to 75-year-old volunteers was conducted and results of the 2 studies were pooled. All 3 variables (interface pressures, shear stress, and skin temperature) were systematically and randomly varied. In the prone position, volunteers each underwent 18 test conditions representing different combinations of temperature (28? C, 32? C, 36? C), pressure (8.0 and 13.3 kPa), and shear (0, 6.7, and 14.0 kPa) using a computer-controlled indenter applied to the sacrum for 20 minutes exerting weights of 100 g and 200 g to induce 0.98 N and 1.96 N of shear force, respectively. Each condition was tested twice, resulting in a total of 360 trials. Magnitude of postload reactive hyperemia as an index of ischemia was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. Fixed effects regression models were used to predict 3 different indices of reactive hyperemic magnitude. Friedman tests were performed to compare the reactive hyperemia among 3 different skin temperatures or shear stresses under the same amount of localized pressure. In all regression models, pressure and temperature were highly significant predictors of the extent of reactive hyperemia (P <0.0001 and P <0.0001, respectively); the contributions of shear stress were not statistically significant (P = 0.149). With higher temperature, reactive hyperemia increased significantly, especially at greater localized pressure and shear stress, and the difference was more profound between 32? C and 36? C than between 28? C and 32? C. These results confirm that, in laboratory settings, temperature is an important factor in tissue ischemia. Additional studies examining the relative importance of pressure, shear, and temperature and potential effects of lowering temperature on tissue ischemia in healthy volunteers and patients at risk for pressure ulcer development are warranted. Because deformation at weight-bearing areas often results in blood flow occlusion, actively lowering the temperature may reduce the severity of ischemia and lower pressure ulcer risk. In this study, shear did not appear to contribute to ischemia in the dermal tissues when assessed using laser Doppler; further work is needed to examine its effect on deeper layers, particularly with regard to nonischemic mechanisms. PMID:25654778

  13. A model of Barchan dunes including lateral shear stress.

    PubMed

    Schwmmle, V; Herrmann, H J

    2005-01-01

    Barchan dunes are found where sand availability is low and wind direction quite constant. The two dimensional shear stress of the wind field and the sand movement by saltation and avalanches over a barchan dune are simulated. The model with one dimensional shear stress is extended including surface diffusion and lateral shear stress. The resulting final shape is compared to the results of the model with a one dimensional shear stress and confirmed by comparison to measurements. We found agreement and improvements with respect to the model with one dimensional shear stress. Additionally, a characteristic edge at the center of the windward side is discovered which is also observed for big barchans. Diffusion effects reduce this effect for small dunes. PMID:15688141

  14. Development and calibration of buried wire gages for wall shear stress measurements in fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Sreedhara V.; Steinle, Frank W.

    1988-01-01

    Special methods were developed to arrange 'Buried Wire Gage' inserts flush to the contoured flow surfaces of instrument plugs of a boundary-layer flow apparatus. The fabrication process was aimed at producing proper bonding of the sensor wire to the substrate surface, without causing excessive surface waviness. A large number of gages were built and first calibrated for the resistance-temperature characteristics. The gages were then installed in a flow calibration apparatus and operated from a constant temperature anemometer system for a series of flow settings to derive the calibration constants of each of the gages. The flow settings included a range of subsonic freestream Mach numbers in order to help establish the gage calibration characteristics for compressible flow fields. This paper provides a description of the buried wire gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper gages, the procedure for calibrating the gages and the results of measurements performed for determining the calibration constants.

  15. MEMS floating element sensor array for wall shear stress measurement under a turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Zhaowang

    A novel electrochromic thin film transistor (EC-TFT) was fabricated and characterized in this work. This concept relies on ion transport to control gating. The channel material is tungsten oxide (WOx), produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. In its oxidized state WO3 is a transparent, wide band gap insulator (> 3 eV). However upon intercalation of light ions (H+, Li+) the material becomes both electrically conducting and opaque to visible light. This allows the EC-TFT to generate a complementary optical response. We optimized the fabrication of individual layers of the EC-TFT, and found that controlling the stoichiometry of WOx is a key step. Using RF magnetron sputtering, it was found that there is a narrow window to obtain material capable of reversible switching. Fully oxidized films proved it is difficult to intercalate ions efficiently. In contrast, insufficient oxygen produced films that were always in a metallic like state. Best results were obtained with the sputter power set at 200 W using O2 fractions of 42%-46% in argon. In the preliminary studies, the device was tested in a two-step fashion. First, devices were placed in solution and cyclic voltammetry was used to set the level of ion intercalation. Samples were then removed from the electrolyte, dried, and the source/drain current was measured on a probe station. This demonstrated the concept of the EC-TFT, showing that the transistor could be turned on and off reversely with a current ratio of Ion/Ioff ~ 1000, and showed significant color change during the intercalation. However, the conductivity in off state was too high to be a promising transistor, the two step approach made the data rather noisy, it was difficult to make good contacts and this was not an in situ measurement. In order to get the in situ measurement, macrodevices with large electrodes were fabricated and characterized, which made it easier to make electrical contacts. However, after the initial cycle the macrodevices were always in on state and could not be turned off because of the dielectric. In addition, it showed no significant color change. The top source/drain structure showed similar behavior as the bottom configuration. It was found that in these configurations the supply of electrons was insufficient to allow intercalation, and permanent defects in the Al2O3 dielectric developed to compensate. To address these issues, 3-terminal devices were fabricated and characterized simultaneously. These devices showed similar behaviors with the preliminary 2-step device. The IDS increased with decreasing gate biasing with a low threshold voltage -0.8 V. In addition, we observed the color changing. However, the conduction through the electrolyte resulted very low on/off ratio (<5). In conclusion, it is the conduction through the electrolyte contributes to the low on/off ratio.

  16. Shear rates measurements in natural shear zones using quartz piezometers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutonnet, Emmanuelle; Herv Leloup, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Whether deformation within the deep continental crust is fundamentally concentrated in narrow shear zones or distributed in wide zones stays a major controversy of the earth sciences. This is in part because direct measurements of ductile strain or strain rate are difficult, especially when deformation is intense as it is the case in ductile shear zones. Paleo-shear stress can be evaluated by using paleo-piezometers that link shear stress to the size of recrystallized minerals. Such piezometers are calibrated by microphysical models or experimental studies. Indirect measurements of strain rate in natural rocks can be achieved using shear stress, an estimation of the temperature of deformation, and assuming a flow law. However, such estimates have rarely been validated by independent constraints. By comparing shear rates calculated from paleopiezometry, and measured in situ in the same outcrop we determined the more appropriate paleopiezometer and power flow law in order to generalize the method to other outcrops. Within the Ailao - Red River shear zone (ASSR, SE Asia) paleo strain rates during the Miocene left-lateral shear are estimated between 1*10-13 s-1 and 2*10-13 s-1 from tectonic considerations. At site C1, by combining dating of syntectonic dykes and measurements of their deformation, the strain rate is calculated between 3 and 4*10-14 s-1 between 29 to 22 Ma, (Sassier et al., JGR, 2009). Quartz ribbons of sample YY33 from the same outcrop show continuous dynamic recrystallisation (DRX) mechanisms, characterized by subgrain rotation nucleation, and growth by grain boundary migration (Shimitzu et al. JSG, 2008). This dislocation creep regime is compatible with the microphysical models of Twiss (Pure Ammp. Geoph., 1977) and Shimitzu (JSG, 2008) and the experimental piezometer of Stipp and Tullis (GRL, 2003). The measured quartz grain size range between 10 and 960 ?m, while the mean recrystallized grain size is 112.2 1.5?m. The associated paleostress is 29.14 4.71 MPa with Shimitzu et al. (JSG, 2008) piezometer, which is the most appropriate given the grain size. Quartz lattice preferred orientation (LPO) suggests deformation temperatures around 400 C. The calculated strain rate is 2.3*10-14 s-1 with Hirth (J. Earth Sciences, 2001) flow law or 3.9*10-16 s-1 with that of Gleason and Tullis (Tectonophysics, 1995). Strain rates in natural quartz ribbons under conditions of regime of continuous DRX appear better approximated by the paleopiezometer method if using Hirth (J. Earth Sciences, 2001) power flow law. We have applied that method to several samples of the ASRR and Karakorum shear zone. Using the Shimitzu piezometer and the Hirth flow law, we measured paleo-stress ranging between 19.7 and 41.3 MPa for the ASRR and between 15.1 and 35.1 MPa for the Karakorum fault zone. Corresponding deformation temperatures are respectively at 400 - 600C and 450 - 500C. The associated strain rates range from 5.7*10-15 s-1 to 2.2*10-12 s-1 in the ASRR and from 1.7*10-15 s-1 to 2.5*10-13 s-1 for the Karakorum. The dispersion of the values can be interpreted in terms of localization of the deformation within the ductile shear zones and local geothermal gradient.

  17. Stimulated bioluminescence by fluid shear stress associated with pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Cao; Jiang-an, Wang; Ronghua, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dinoflagellate can be stimulated bioluminescence by hydrodynamic agitation. Two typical dinoflagellate (Lingulodinium polyedrum and Pyrocystis noctiluca) was choosed to research stimulated bioluminescence. The bioluminescence intensity and shear stress intensity were measured using fully developed pipe flow. There is shear stress threshold to agitate organism bioluminescence. From these experiment, the response thresholds of the stimulated bioluminscence always occurred in laminar flows at a shear stress level of 0.6-3 dyn/cm2. At the same time, the spectral characteristc of dinoflagellate was recorded, the wavelength of them is about 470nm, and the full width at half maximum is approximate 30nm.

  18. Determining Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2010-01-01

    A "simplified shear solution" method approximates the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on an extension of laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather, it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply-level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply-by-ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. The method has been incorporated within the HyperSizer commercial structural sizing software to improve its predictive capability for designing composite structures. The HyperSizer structural sizing software is used extensively by NASA to design composite structures. In the case of through-thickness shear loading on panels, HyperSizer previously included a basic, industry-standard, method for approximating the resulting shear stress distribution in sandwich panels. However, no such method was employed for solid laminate panels. The purpose of the innovation is to provide an approximation of the through-thickness shear stresses in a solid laminate given the through-thickness shear loads (Qx and Qy) on the panel. The method was needed for implementation within the HyperSizer structural sizing software so that the approximated ply-level shear stresses could be utilized in a failure theory to assess the adequacy of a panel design. The simplified shear solution method was developed based on extending and generalizing bi-material beam theory to plate-like structures. It is assumed that the through-thickness shear stresses arise due to local bending of the laminate induced by the through-thickness shear load, and by imposing equilibrium both vertically and horizontally, the through-thickness shear stress distribution can be calculated. The resulting shear stresses integrate to the applied shear load, are continuous at the ply interfaces, and are zero at the laminate-free surfaces. If both Qx and Qy shear loads are present, it is assumed that they act independently and that their effects can be superposed. The calculated shear stresses can be rotated within each ply to the principal material coordinates for use in a ply-level failure criterion. The novelty of the simplified shear solution method is its simplicity and the fact that it does not require solution of a particular boundary value problem. The advantages of the innovation are that an approximation of the though-thickness shear stress distribution can be quickly determined for any solid laminate or solid laminate region within a stiffened panel.

  19. Continuum stress characteristics inside shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Peters, John F.; Shi, Jingyu

    2013-06-01

    A defining aspect of the large strain, fully developed plastic flow regime, or "critical state", for granular materials undergoing localized failure is the continual growth of new force chains amidst collapse by buckling of old force chains in the persistent shear band. This paper explores the constitutive response inside shear bands, in particular, the birth-death evolution of force chains for a Cosserat medium, whereby closure relationships for stresses and couple stresses satisfy the isostatic condition, albeit in a spatiotemporal average sense only. The continuum stress-equilibrium relations comprise a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations giving rise to characteristic lines referred to in the literature as stress chains.

  20. Quantification of Shear-Induced Platelet Activation: High Shear Stresses for Short Exposure Time.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Chen, Zengsheng; Niu, Shuqiong; Zhang, Jiafeng; Mondal, Nandan K; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-07-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolism are the life-threatening clinical complications for patients supported or treated with prosthetic cardiovascular devices. The high mechanical shear stress within these devices is believed to be the major contributing factor to cause platelet activation (PA) and function alteration, leading to thrombotic events. There have been limited quantitative data on how the high mechanical shear stress causes platelet activation. In this study, shear-induced PA in the ranges of well-defined shear stress and exposure time relevant to cardiovascular devices was quantitatively characterized for human blood using two novel flow-through Couette-type blood shearing devices. Four markers of platelet activation-surface P-selectin (CD62p), platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs), platelet-monocyte aggregation (PMA), and soluble P-selectin-were measured by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The results indicated that PA induced by high shear stresses with short exposure time could be reliably detected with surface P-selectin, and, to a lesser extent, PMPs rather than soluble P-selectin. It was also verified that PMA can be a highly sensitive indirect marker of platelet activation. The quantitative relationship between percentage of activated platelets indicated by surface P-selectin expression and shear stress/exposure time follows well the power law functional form. The coefficients of the power law models of PA based on surface P-selectin expression were derived. PMID:25808300

  1. Wall shear stress measured by phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance in children and adolescents with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease with significant morbidity and mortality. At the macroscopic level, disease progression is observed as a complex interplay between mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular stiffness, arterial size, and flow. Wall shear stress (WSS) is known to mediate or be dependent on a number of these factors. Given that WSS is known to promote architectural vessel remodeling, it is imperative that the changes of this factor be quantified in the presence of PAH. Methods In this study, we analyzed phase contrast imaging of the right pulmonary artery derived from cardiovascular magnetic resonance to quantify the local, temporal and circumferentially averaged WSS of a PAH population and a pediatric control population. In addition, information about flow and relative area change were derived. Results Although the normotensive and PAH shear waveform exhibited a WSS profile which is uniform in magnitude and direction along the vessel circumference at systole, time-averaged WSS (2.2??1.6 vs. 6.6??3.4 dynes/cm2, P?=?0.018) and systolic WSS (8.2??5.0 v. 20.0??9.1 dynes/cm2, P?=?0.018) was significantly depressed in the PAH population as compared to the controls. BSA-indexed PA diameter was significantly larger in the PAH population (1.5??0.4 vs. 0.7??0.1cm/m2, P?=?0.003). Conclusions In the presence of preserved flow rates through a large PAH pulmonary artery, WSS is significantly decreased. This may have implications for proximal pulmonary artery remodeling and cellular function in the progression of PAH. PMID:24034144

  2. Adjustable shear stress erosion and transport flume

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Jesse D. (Carlsbad, NM); Jepsen, Richard A. (Carlsbad, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the total erosion rate and downstream transport of suspended and bedload sediments using an adjustable shear stress erosion and transport (ASSET) flume with a variable-depth sediment core sample. Water is forced past a variable-depth sediment core sample in a closed channel, eroding sediments, and introducing suspended and bedload sediments into the flow stream. The core sample is continuously pushed into the flow stream, while keeping the surface level with the bottom of the channel. Eroded bedload sediments are transported downstream and then gravitationally separated from the flow stream into one or more quiescent traps. The captured bedload sediments (particles and aggregates) are weighed and compared to the total mass of sediment eroded, and also to the concentration of sediments suspended in the flow stream.

  3. Red Blood Cell Damage by Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Leverett, L. B.; Hellums, J. D.; Alfrey, C. P.; Lynch, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    A series of careful studies has been made on blood damage in a rotational viscometer. Specific attention has been focused on the effects of solid surface interaction, centrifugal force, air interface interaction, mixing of sheared and unsheared layers, cell-cell interaction, and viscous heating. The results show that there is a threshold shear stress, 1500 dynes/cm2, above which extensive cell damage is directly due to shear stress, and the various secondary effects listed above are negligible. By analysis of these results and those of prior workers it is shown that the exposure time-shear stress plane is divided into two distinct regimes. In the regime of relatively low stresses and exposure times there is relatively little damage, and the damage is dominated by solid surface interaction effects. In the other regime, at high stresses and exposure times, stress effects alone dominate and very high rates of hemolysis occur. The experimental findings of all prior workers are shown to be consistent when interpreted in this way. PMID:5016112

  4. BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS ALONG VEGETATED STREAMBANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research is intended to improve our understanding of the role of riparian vegetation in stream morphology by evaluating the effects of vegetation on boundary shear stress, providing insight to the type and density of vegetation required for streambank stability. The resu...

  5. Integrated Shear Stress/Temperature Micromachined Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark; Cattafesta, Louis N., III; Nishida, Toshikazu

    2002-01-01

    During this project we were able to design and initiate the fabrication of an integrated Micro ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based shear stress/temperature sensor for flow control applications. A brief summary of the completed activities during this project is presented.

  6. In Vitro Shear Stress Measurements Using Particle Image Velocimetry in a Family of Carotid Artery Models: Effect of Stenosis Severity, Plaque Eccentricity, and Ulceration

    PubMed Central

    Kefayati, Sarah; Milner, Jaques S.; Holdsworth, David W.; Poepping, Tamie L.

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease, and the subsequent complications of thrombosis and plaque rupture, has been associated with local shear stress. In the diseased carotid artery, local variations in shear stress are induced by various geometrical features of the stenotic plaque. Greater stenosis severity, plaque eccentricity (symmetry) and plaque ulceration have been associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular events based on clinical trial studies. Using particle image velocimetry, the levels and patterns of shear stress (derived from both laminar and turbulent phases) were studied for a family of eight matched-geometry models incorporating independently varied plaque features – i.e. stenosis severity up to 70%, one of two forms of plaque eccentricity, and the presence of plaque ulceration). The level of laminar (ensemble-averaged) shear stress increased with increasing stenosis severity resulting in 2–16 Pa for free shear stress (FSS) and approximately double (4–36 Pa) for wall shear stress (WSS). Independent of stenosis severity, marked differences were found in the distribution and extent of shear stress between the concentric and eccentric plaque formations. The maximum WSS, found at the apex of the stenosis, decayed significantly steeper along the outer wall of an eccentric model compared to the concentric counterpart, with a 70% eccentric stenosis having 249% steeper decay coinciding with the large outer-wall recirculation zone. The presence of ulceration (in a 50% eccentric plaque) resulted in both elevated FSS and WSS levels that were sustained longer (∼20 ms) through the systolic phase compared to the non-ulcerated counterpart model, among other notable differences. Reynolds (turbulent) shear stress, elevated around the point of distal jet detachment, became prominent during the systolic deceleration phase and was widely distributed over the large recirculation zone in the eccentric stenoses. PMID:25007248

  7. Determination of surface shear stress with the naphthalene sublimation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Aeolian entrainment and transport are functions of surface shear stress and particle characteristics. Measuring surface shear stress is difficult, however, where logarithmic wind profiles are not found, such as regions around large roughness elements. An outline of a method whereby shear stress can be mapped on the surface around an object is presented. The technique involves the sublimation of naphthalene (C10H8) which is a function of surface shear stress and surface temperature. This technique is based on the assumption that the transfer of momentum, heat and mass are analogous (Reynolds analogy). If the Reynolds analogy can be shown to be correct for a given situation, then knowledge of the diffusion of one property allows the determination of the others. The analytical framework and data acquisition for the method are described. The technique was tested in the Planetary Geology Wind Tunnel. Results show that the naphthalene sublimation technique is a reasonably accurate method for determining shear stress, particularly around objects where numerous point values are needed.

  8. ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON FLAT SHEET MEMBRANE USING FLUIDIZED MEDIA IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Mishima, Iori

    This study was aimed at estimating effective shear stress working on flat sheet membrane by the addition of fluidized media in MBRs. In both of laboratory-scale aeration tanks with and without fluidized media, shear stress variations on membrane surface and water phase velocity variations were measured and MBR operation was conducted. For the evaluation of the effective shear stress working on membrane surface to mitigate membrane surface, simulation of trans-membrane pressure increase was conducted. It was shown that the time-averaged absolute value of shear stress was smaller in the reactor with fluidized media than without fluidized media. However, due to strong turbulence in the reactor with fluidized media caused by interaction between water-phase and media and also due to the direct interaction between membrane surface and fluidized media, standard deviation of shear stress on membrane surface was larger in the reactor with fluidized media than without media. Histograms of shear stress variation data were fitted well to normal distribution curves and mean plus three times of standard deviation was defined to be a maximum shear stress value. By applying the defined maximum shear stress to a membrane fouling model, trans-membrane pressure curve in the MBR experiment was simulated well by the fouling model indicting that the maximum shear stress, not time-averaged shear stress, can be regarded as an effective shear stress to prevent membrane fouling in submerged flat-sheet MBRs.

  9. A Rotary Flow Channel for Shear Stress Sensor Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Scott, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed shear sensor calibrator consists of a rotating wheel with the sensor mounted tangential to the rim and positioned in close proximity to the rim. The shear stress generated by the flow at the sensor position is simply tau(sub omega) = (mu)r(omega)/h, where mu is the viscosity of the ambient gas, r the wheel radius, omega the angular velocity of the wheel, and h the width of the gap between the wheel rim and the sensor. With numerical values of mu = 31 (mu)Pa s (neon at room temperature), r = 0.5 m, omega = 754 /s (7200 rpm), and h = 50.8 m, a shear stress of tau(sub omega) = 231 Pa can be generated. An analysis based on one-dimensional flow, with the flow velocity having only an angular component as a function of the axial and radial coordinates, yields corrections to the above simple formula for the curvature of the wheel, flatness of the sensor, and finite width of the wheel. It is assumed that the sensor mount contains a trough (sidewalls) to render a velocity release boundary condition at the edges of the rim. The Taylor number under maximum flow conditions is found to be 62.3, sufficiently low to obviate flow instability. The fact that the parameters entering into the evaluation of the shear stress can be measured to high accuracy with well-defined uncertainties makes the proposed calibrator suitable for a physical standard for shear stress calibration.

  10. Applying Shear Stress to Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Russell P; Guidry, Julia B; Messina, Stephanie L; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Thorough understanding of the effects of shear stress on stem cells is critical for the rationale design of large-scale production of cell-based therapies. This is of growing importance as emerging tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications drive the need for clinically relevant numbers of both pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and cells derived from PSCs. Here, we describe the use of a custom parallel plate bioreactor system to impose fluid shear stress on a layer of PSCs adhered to protein-coated glass slides. This system can be useful both for basic science studies in mechanotransduction and as a surrogate model for bioreactors used in large-scale production. PMID:25762292

  11. Optimization of intravascular shear stress assessment in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lisong; Yu, Hongyu; Takabe, Wakako; Paraboschi, Anna; Yu, Fei; Kim, E S; Li, Rongsong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2009-07-22

    The advent of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors has enabled real-time wall shear stress (WSS) measurements with high spatial and temporal resolution in a 3-D bifurcation model. To optimize intravascular shear stress assessment, we evaluated the feasibility of catheter/coaxial wire-based MEMS sensors in the abdominal aorta of the New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. Theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed. Fluoroscope and angiogram provided the geometry of aorta, and the Doppler ultrasound system provided the pulsatile flow velocity for the boundary conditions. The physical parameters governing the shear stress assessment in NZW rabbits included (1) the position and distance from which the MEMS sensors were mounted to the terminal end of coaxial wire or the entrance length, (L(e)), (2) diameter ratios of aorta to the coaxial wire (D(aorta) /D(coaxial wire)=1.5-9.5), and (3) the range of Reynolds numbers (116-1550). At an aortic diameter of 2.4mm and a maximum Reynolds number of 212 (a mean Reynolds number of 64.2), the time-averaged shear stress (tau(ave)) was computed to be 10.06 dyn cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 33.18 dyn cm(-2). In the presence of a coaxial wire (D(aorta)/D(coaxial wire)=6 and L(e)=1.18 cm), the tau(ave) value increased to 15.54 dyn cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 51.25 dyn cm(-2). Real-time intravascular shear stress assessment by the MEMS sensor revealed an tau(ave) value of 11.92 dyn cm(-2) with a systolic peak at 47.04 dyn cm(-2). The difference between CFD and experimental tau(ave) was 18.5%. These findings provided important insights into packaging the MEMS sensors to optimize in vivo shear stress assessment. PMID:19457490

  12. Shear stress, arterial identity and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Stephanie; Jones, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-29

    In the developing embryo, the vasculature first takes the form of a web-like network called the vascular plexus. Arterial and venous differentiation is subsequently guided by the specific expression of genes in the endothelial cells that provide spatial and temporal cues for development. Notch1/4, Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4), and Notch downstream effectors are typically expressed in arterial cells along with EphrinB2, whereas chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) and EphB4 characterise vein endothelial cells. Haemodynamic forces (blood pressure and blood flow) also contribute importantly to vascular remodelling. Early arteriovenous differentiation and local blood flow may hold the key to future inflammatory diseases. Indeed, despite the fact that atherosclerosis risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes all induce endothelial cell dysfunction throughout the vasculature, plaques develop only in arteries, and they localise essentially in vessel branch points, curvatures and bifurcations, where blood flow (and consequently shear stress) is low or oscillatory. Arterial segments exposed to high blood flow (and high laminar shear stress) tend to remain plaque-free. These observations have led many to investigate what particular properties of arterial or venous endothelial cells confer susceptibility or protection from plaque formation, and how that might interact with a particular shear stress environment. PMID:26676959

  13. Effects of dynamic shear and transmural pressure on wall shear stress sensitivity in collecting lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Kornuta, Jeffrey A; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Gasheva, Olga Y; Mukherjee, Anish; Zawieja, David C; Dixon, J Brandon

    2015-11-01

    Given the known mechanosensitivity of the lymphatic vasculature, we sought to investigate the effects of dynamic wall shear stress (WSS) on collecting lymphatic vessels while controlling for transmural pressure. Using a previously developed ex vivo lymphatic perfusion system (ELPS) capable of independently controlling both transaxial pressure gradient and average transmural pressure on an isolated lymphatic vessel, we imposed a multitude of flow conditions on rat thoracic ducts, while controlling for transmural pressure and measuring diameter changes. By gradually increasing the imposed flow through a vessel, we determined the WSS at which the vessel first shows sign of contraction inhibition, defining this point as the shear stress sensitivity of the vessel. The shear stress threshold that triggered a contractile response was significantly greater at a transmural pressure of 5 cmH2O (0.97 dyne/cm(2)) than at 3 cmH2O (0.64 dyne/cm(2)). While contraction frequency was reduced when a steady WSS was applied, this inhibition was reversed when the applied WSS oscillated, even though the mean wall shear stresses between the conditions were not significantly different. When the applied oscillatory WSS was large enough, flow itself synchronized the lymphatic contractions to the exact frequency of the applied waveform. Both transmural pressure and the rate of change of WSS have significant impacts on the contractile response of lymphatic vessels to flow. Specifically, time-varying shear stress can alter the inhibition of phasic contraction frequency and even coordinate contractions, providing evidence that dynamic shear could play an important role in the contractile function of collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:26333787

  14. Strain stiffening and stress heterogeneities in sheared collagen networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Jeffrey

    2014-03-01

    Disordered networks of stiff or semi-flexible filaments display unusual mechanical properties, including dramatic stiffening when sheared, but little is known about the spatial distribution of stresses. This talk will introduce the technique of Boundary Stress Microscopy, which adapts the approach of traction force microscopy to rheological measurements in order to quantify the non-uniform surface stresses in sheared soft materials. Our results on networks of the biopolymer collagen, a major component of the extracellular matrix, show stress variations over length scales much larger than the network mesh size. We find that the heterogeneity increases with strain stiffening, with stresses at high strains exceeding average stresses by an order of magnitude. The strain stiffening behavior over a wide range of mesh sizes can be parameterized by a single characteristic strain and associated stress, which describes both the strain stiffening regime and network yielding. The characteristic stress is approximately proportional to network density, but the peak stress at both the characteristic strain and at yielding are remarkably insensitive to concentration. These results show the power of Boundary Stress Microscopy to reveal the nature of stress propagation in disordered soft materials, which is critical for understanding many important mechanical properties, including the ultimate strength of a material and the nature of appropriate microscopic constitutive equations. Supported by the AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0473) and the NSF (DMR-0804782).

  15. Estimation of bed shear stresses in the pearl river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Wu, Jia-xue

    2015-03-01

    Mean and fluctuating velocities were measured by use of a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PC-ADP) and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter in the tidal bottom boundary layer of the Pearl River Estuary. The bed shear stresses were estimated by four different methods: log profile (LP), eddy correlation (EC), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and inertial dissipation (ID). The results show that (a) all four methods for estimating bed stresses have advantages and disadvantages, and they should be applied simultaneously to obtain reliable frictional velocity and to identify potential sources of errors; (b) the LP method was found to be the most suitable to estimate the bed stresses in non-stratified, quasi-steady, and homogeneous flows; and (c) in the estuary where the semi-diurnal tidal current is dominant, bed shear stresses exhibit a strong quarter-diurnal variation.

  16. A Two-Axis Direct Fluid Shear Stress Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adcock, Edward E.; Scott, Michael A.; Bajikar, Sateesh S.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is a miniature or micro sized semiconductor sensor design that provides two axis direct non-intrusive measurement of skin friction or wall shear stress in fluid flow. The sensor is fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology, enabling small size and low cost reproductions. The sensors have been fabricated by utilizing MEMS fabrication processes to bond a sensing element wafer to a fluid coupling wafer. This layering technique provides for an out of plane dimension that is on the same order of length as the inplane dimensions. The sensor design has the following characteristics: a shear force collecting plate with dimensions that can be tailored to various application specific requirements such as spatial resolution, temporal resolution and shear force range and resolution. This plate is located coplanar to both the sensor body and flow boundary, and is connected to a dual axis gimbal structure by a connecting column or lever arm. The dual axis gimbal structure has torsional hinges with embedded piezoresistive torsional strain gauges which provide a voltage output that is correlated to the applied shear stress (and excitation current) on force collection plate that is located on the flow boundary surface (hence the transduction method). This combination of design elements create a force concentration and resolution structure that enables the generation of a large stress on the strain gauge from the small shear stress on the flow boundary wall. This design as well as the use of back side electrical contacts establishes a non-intrusive method to quantitatively measure the shear force vector on aerodynamic bodies.

  17. Sensor for Boundary Shear Stress in Fluid Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Chang, Zensheu; Trease, Brian P.; Kerenyi, Kornel; Widholm, Scott E.; Ostlund, Patrick N.

    2012-01-01

    The formation of scour patterns at bridge piers is driven by the forces at the boundary of the water flow. In most experimental scour studies, indirect processes have been applied to estimate the shear stress using measured velocity profiles. The estimations are based on theoretical models and associated assumptions. However, the turbulence flow fields and boundary layer in the pier-scour region are very complex and lead to low-fidelity results. In addition, available turbulence models cannot account accurately for the bed roughness effect. Direct measurement of the boundary shear stress, normal stress, and their fluctuations are attractive alternatives. However, most direct-measurement shear sensors are bulky in size or not compatible to fluid flow. A sensor has been developed that consists of a floating plate with folded beam support and an optical grid on the back, combined with a high-resolution optical position probe. The folded beam support makes the floating plate more flexible in the sensing direction within a small footprint, while maintaining high stiffness in the other directions. The floating plate converts the shear force to displacement, and the optical probe detects the plate s position with nanometer resolution by sensing the pattern of the diffraction field of the grid through a glass window. This configuration makes the sensor compatible with liquid flow applications.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOTTOM SHEAR STRESS AND TURBIDITY IN ESTUARIES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Matsumoto, Haruhiko; Hadano, Kesayoshi; Amano, Takuzo; Mitsunobu, Kiyonobu

    The formation of oxygen-poor water and the occurrence of hydrogen sulfide in estuary are caused by the sludge which contains a lot of organic substance. In order to examine measures against the water environment problems caused by the sludge, it is necessary to estimate bottom shear stress which is considered to be that exert influence on the behavior of bottom material. Based on our study, the bottom shear stress was estimated by the method of using the change of water level obtained by one-dimensional unsteady flow analysis and the density distribution obtained by field observation. The estimated bottom shear stress was validated by comparison with coefficient of eddy viscosity. In addition, the relationship between the bottom shear stress and the turbidity is discussed. The summary of the results is shown as follows; Increase in turbidity during flood tide is caused that the tip of saline wedge passes through a cross section; Due to increase in the velocity of toward downstream, the turbidity also increase during ebb tide.

  19. Shear-stress relaxation and ensemble transformation of shear-stress autocorrelation functions.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, J P; Xu, H; Baschnagel, J

    2015-02-01

    We revisit the relation between the shear-stress relaxation modulus G(t), computed at finite shear strain 0shear-stress autocorrelation functions C(t)|(?) and C(t)|(?) computed, respectively, at imposed strain ? and mean stress ?. Focusing on permanent isotropic spring networks it is shown theoretically and computationally that in general G(t)=C(t)|(?)=C(t)|(?)+G(eq) for t>0 with G(eq) being the static equilibrium shear modulus. G(t) and C(t)|(?) thus must become different for solids and it is impossible to obtain G(eq) alone from C(t)|(?) as often assumed. We comment briefly on self-assembled transient networks where G(eq)(f) must vanish for a finite scission-recombination frequency f. We argue that G(t)=C(t)|(?)=C(t)|(?) should reveal an intermediate plateau set by the shear modulus G(eq)(f=0) of the quenched network. PMID:25768458

  20. Amorphization of silicon crystals under shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moras, Gianpietro; Klemenz, Andreas; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Moseler, Michael; Pastewka, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Phase transformations, and in particular amorphization, of crystalline silicon occur under contact loading, e.g. during indentation and scratching experiments. Little is known about shear-induced amorphization of Si, but molecular dynamics (MD) simulations recently unveiled that amorphization of diamond/diamond sliding interfaces is a mechanically driven process that is crucial to the anisotropic wear of diamond. Here, we report the results of MD simulations of Si crystals upon sliding load and compare them to analogous results obtained for diamond. Although crystalline Si is a brittle material with a diamond cubic structure, the properties of Si and C amorphous phases are strikingly different. Our simulations show that shear-induced phase transitions are also remarkably different in the two materials. In diamond, an amorphous region forms at the sliding interface and its thickness grows in time, with a rate that depends on normal load, surface orientation and sliding direction. Also in Si, a thin material region located at the sliding interface undergoes sudden amorphization when the shear stress exceeds the stability limit of the crystal. However, the thickness of such region does not grow in time due to competing amorphization and recrystallization processes. Further growth of the amorphous phase, at temperatures lower than the melting point, can only be achieved with normal loads that exceed the stability limit of the crystalline phase.

  1. Effects of shear stress on the microalgae Chaetoceros muelleri

    PubMed Central

    van der Goot, Atze J.; Norsker, Niels-Henrik; Wijffels, Ren H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of shear stress on the viability of Chaetoceros muelleri was studied using a combination of a rheometer and dedicated shearing devices. Different levels of shear stress were applied by varying the shear rates and the medium viscosities. It was possible to quantify the effect of shear stress over a wide range, whilst preserving laminar flow conditions through the use of a thickening agent. The threshold value at which the viability of algae was negatively influenced was between 1 and 1.3Pa. Beyond the threshold value the viability decreased suddenly to values between 52 and 66%. The effect of shear stress was almost time independent compared to normal microalgae cultivation times. The main shear stress effect was obtained within 1min, with a secondary effect of up to 8min. PMID:20191365

  2. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-03-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future.

  3. Imaging shear stress distribution and evaluating the stress concentration factor of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Joseph Antony, S.

    2015-01-01

    Healthy eyes are vital for a better quality of human life. Historically, for man-made materials, scientists and engineers use stress concentration factors to characterise the effects of structural non-homogeneities on their mechanical strength. However, such information is scarce for the human eye. Here we present the shear stress distribution profiles of a healthy human cornea surface in vivo using photo-stress analysis tomography, which is a non-intrusive and non-X-ray based method. The corneal birefringent retardation measured here is comparable to that of previous studies. Using this, we derive eye stress concentration factors and the directional alignment of major principal stress on the surface of the cornea. Similar to thermometers being used for monitoring the general health in humans, this report provides a foundation to characterise the shear stress carrying capacity of the cornea, and a potential bench mark for validating theoretical modelling of stresses in the human eye in future. PMID:25754336

  4. Shear stress induced stimulation of mammalian cell metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Eskin, S. G.

    1988-01-01

    A flow apparatus was developed for the study of the metabolic response of anchorage dependent cells to a wide range of steady and pulsatile shear stresses under well controlled conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers were subjected to steady shear stresses of up to 24 dynes/sq cm, and the production of prostacyclin was determined. The onset of flow led to a burst in prostacyclin production which decayed to a long term steady state rate (SSR). The SSR of cells exposed to flow was greater than the basal release level, and increased linearly with increasing shear stress. It is demonstrated that shear stresses in certain ranges may not be detrimental to mammalian cell metabolism. In fact, throughout the range of shear stresses studied, metabolite production is maximized by maximizing shear stress.

  5. Wall shear stress estimates in coronary artery constrictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Crawford, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Wall shear stress estimates from laminar boundary layer theory were found to agree fairly well with the magnitude of shear stress levels along coronary artery constrictions obtained from solutions of the Navier Stokes equations for both steady and pulsatile flow. The relatively simple method can be used for in vivo estimates of wall shear stress in constrictions by using a vessel shape function determined from a coronary angiogram, along with a knowledge of the flow rate.

  6. Characterization of fractures subjected to normal and shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Min-Kwang

    Results from a series of laboratory experiments to determine fracture specific stiffness, for a fracture subjected to shear and normal stress, are presented and analyzed. The experimental work focuses on the determination of relations between normal and shear fracture specific stiffness and between spatial distribution of fracture specific stiffness and fluid flow through the fracture The ratio of shear to normal fracture specific stiffness is experimentally investigated on a fracture subjected to shear as well as normal stress. Synthetic fractures made of gypsum and lucite were prepared with different fracture surface conditions: either well-mated or non-mated. For well-mated fracture surfaces, asperities were created by casting gypsum against sandpaper. A block of gypsum was cast against the sandpaper and then a second block was cast against the first block such that the two contact surfaces were well-mated. The surface roughness was controlled by using the sandpapers with different average grit size. Non-mated fracture surfaces were fabricated with two lucite blocks that were polished (lucite PL) or sand-blasted (lucite SB) along their contact surface. In the experiments, each specimen was subjected to normal and shear loading while the fracture was probed with transmitted and reflected compressional and shear waves. Shear and normal fracture specific stiffnesses were calculated using the displacement discontinuity theory. For non-mated fractures, the stiffness ratio was not sensitive to the application of shear stress and, as normal stress increased, approached a theoretical ratio which was determined assuming that the transmission of compressional and shear waves was equal. The stiffness ratio obtained from well-mated fractures ranged from 0.5 to 1.4, which deviated from the conventional assumption that shear and normal fracture specific stiffness are equal. The stiffness ratio increased with increasing surface roughness and with increasing shear stress. For well-mated surfaces under normal compression and no shear, the theoretical ratio gave a good approximation to experiment measurements. During shear, at constant load, and for well-mated fractures with large surface roughness, the stiffness ratio strongly depended on the shear fracture specific stiffness and increased with shear up to a maximum prior to failure. The spatial variability of fracture specific stiffness along a fracture was investigated seismically on granite specimens with a single fracture. Seismic measurements on intact and fractured granite specimens were obtained as a function of stress. The granite matrix exhibited stress-sensitivity due to the existence of micro-cracks and was weakly anisotropic, with a ratio of about 0.9 for shear wave velocities in two orthogonal directions. For fractured granite specimens, transmission of P- and S- waves across a fracture significantly increased as the fracture compressed. The increase of transmission was interpreted as the increase of fracture specific stiffness. Spectral analysis on the transmitted waves showed that the transmission of high frequency components of the signals increased and the dinant frequency approached the value of the intact specimen. The heterogeneity of the granite material resulted in a +/-8˜12% variation in stiffness, which depended on the selection of an intact standard. Fracture specific stiffness was estimated at the dominant frequency of 0.3 MHz for normal specific stiffness and 0.5 MHz for shear. Fracture specific stiffness was non-uniformly distributed along the fracture plane and changed locally as a function of stress. The spatial variability of stiffness exceeded the variation of stiffness caused by the heterogeneity of granite matrix. It was found that local fracture geometry, e.g. local surface roughness distribution or local micro slope angles, influenced the magnitude of local shear fracture specific stiffness. The more uniform the asperity heights, the stiffer the fracture. Also, high micro-slope angles increased the shear fracture specific stiffness. The seismic response of the rock matrix (granite) and fracture with and without flow was utilized to correlate fluid flow with fracture specific stiffness. Experiments of fluid invasion into a rock matrix and along a fracture showed an increase in wave velocity and a decrease in wave amplitude when the rock became wet. Invasion velocity was determined seismically by tracking the fluid front in the rock matrix. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  7. Instrumented Bolts Would Measure Shear Forces In Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Mcwithey, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    Bolts instrumented with strain gauges used to measure shear forces. Bolts installed in multiple-bolt lap joints to obtain data on distribution of stresses and deformations in and around joints. Strain gauges indicate share of applied load borne by each individual bolt. In original application, bolted panels made of advanced refractory composite materials designed to withstand use at temperatures up to 4,000 degrees F. Also applicable to other joint materials and measurement of shear loads in other connections such as, shear loads on shafts in pulleys or gears.

  8. Bottom Shear Stresses in Runnels Flanking a Mudflat Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagherazzi, S.; Mariotti, G.

    2010-12-01

    Mudflats are dissected by flow-parallel runnels separated by ridges. These bedforms are usually equispaced with a depth of tens of centimeters. The most accepted hypothesis for runnels formation is the presence of stream-wise helical flows above the mudflat surface. Here we explore an alternative mechanism for the formation and maintenance of runnels that arises near tidal channels draining a mudflat. To this end we present a novel numerical model that determines the distribution of shear stresses inside a runnel. The model is validated with data of tidal velocity and sediment concentration measured in mudflat runnels in Willapa Bay, Washington State, USA. Results show that very shallow flows draining the mudflat platform during ebb are concentrated in the runnels. The corresponding shear stresses are strong enough to erode bottom sediments and keep the runnel flushed. Similar shallow flows during flood might lead to sediment resuspension and further runnel incision. Mudflat runnels in Willapa Bay, WA, USA

  9. Inverse method for estimating shear stress in machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Mates, S. P.; Rhorer, R. L.; Whitenton, E. P.; Basak, D.

    2016-01-01

    An inverse method is presented for estimating shear stress in the work material in the region of chip-tool contact along the rake face of the tool during orthogonal machining. The method is motivated by a model of heat generation in the chip, which is based on a two-zone contact model for friction along the rake face, and an estimate of the steady-state flow of heat into the cutting tool. Given an experimentally determined discrete set of steady-state temperature measurements along the rake face of the tool, it is shown how to estimate the corresponding shear stress distribution on the rake face, even when no friction model is specified.

  10. Temporal oscillations of the shear stress and scattered light in a shear-banding--shear-thickening micellar solution.

    PubMed

    Azzouzi, H; Decruppe, J P; Lerouge, S; Greffier, O

    2005-08-01

    The results of optical and rheological experiments performed on a viscoelastic solution (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide + sodium salicylate in water) are reported. The flow curve has a horizontal plateau extending between two critical shear rates characteristic of heterogeneous flows formed by two layers of fluid with different viscosities. These two bands which also have different optical anisotropy are clearly seen by direct observation in polarized light. At the end of the plateau, apparent shear thickening is observed in a narrow range of shear rates; in phase oscillations of the shear stress and of the first normal stress difference are recorded in a shearing device operating under controlled strain. The direct observation of the annular gap of a Couette cell in a direction perpendicular to a plane containing the vorticity shows that the turbidity of the whole sample also undergoes time dependent variations with the same period as the shear stress. However no banding is observed during the oscillations and the flow remains homogeneous. PMID:16132153

  11. 4D shear stress maps of the developing heart using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lindsy M.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Gu, Shi; Barwick, Lee; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate imaging and measurement of hemodynamic forces is vital for investigating how physical forces acting on the embryonic heart are transduced and influence developmental pathways. Of particular importance is blood flow-induced shear stress, which influences gene expression by endothelial cells and potentially leads to congenital heart defects through abnormal heart looping, septation, and valvulogenesis. However no imaging tool has been available to measure shear stress on the endocardium volumetrically and dynamically. Using 4D structural and Doppler OCT imaging, we are able to accurately measure the blood flow in the heart tube in vivo and to map endocardial shear stress throughout the heart cycle under physiological conditions for the first time. These measurements of the shear stress patterns will enable precise titration of experimental perturbations and accurate correlation of shear with the expression of molecules critical to heart development. PMID:23162737

  12. In vitro measurements of velocity and wall shear stress in a novel sequential anastomotic graft design model under pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Kabinejadian, Foad; Ghista, Dhanjoo N; Su, Boyang; Nezhadian, Mercedeh Kaabi; Chua, Leok Poh; Yeo, Joon Hock; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2014-10-01

    This study documents the superior hemodynamics of a novel coupled sequential anastomoses (SQA) graft design in comparison with the routine conventional end-to-side (ETS) anastomoses in coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG). The flow fields inside three polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) models of coronary artery bypass grafts, including the coupled SQA graft design, a conventional ETS anastomosis, and a parallel side-to-side (STS) anastomosis, are investigated under pulsatile flow conditions using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity field and distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in the models are studied and compared with each other. The measurement results and WSS distributions, computed from the near wall velocity gradients reveal that the novel coupled SQA design provides: (i) a uniform and smooth flow at its ETS anastomosis, without any stagnation point on the artery bed and vortex formation in the heel region of the ETS anastomosis within the coronary artery; (ii) more favorable WSS distribution; and (iii) a spare route for the blood flow to the coronary artery, to avoid re-operation in case of re-stenosis in either of the anastomoses. This in vitro investigation complements the previous computational studies of blood flow in this coupled SQA design, and is another necessary step taken toward the clinical application of this novel design. At this point and prior to the clinical adoption of this novel design, in vivo animal trials are warranted, in order to investigate the biological effects and overall performance of this anastomotic configuration in vivo. PMID:25103345

  13. Two-axis direct fluid shear stress sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajikar, Sateesh (Inventor); Scott, Michael A. (Inventor); Adcock, Edward E. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A micro sized multi-axis semiconductor skin friction/wall shear stress induced by fluid flow. The sensor design includes a shear/strain transduction gimble connected to a force collecting plate located at the flow boundary surface. The shear force collecting plate is interconnected by an arm to offset the tortional hinges from the fluid flow. The arm is connected to the shear force collecting plate through dual axis torsional hinges with piezoresistive torsional strain gauges. These gauges are disposed on the tortional hinges and provide a voltage output indicative of applied shear stress acting on the force collection plate proximate the flow boundary surface. Offsetting the torsional hinges creates a force concentration and resolution structure that enables the generation of a large stress on the strain gauge from small shear stress, or small displacement of the collecting plate. The design also isolates the torsional sensors from exposure to the fluid flow.

  14. Basal shear stress of debris flow in the runout phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, V.; Bettella, F.; Cesca, M.

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory device is proposed to assess the basal shear stresses generated by debris-flow mixtures during their runout phase. The device consists of an inclinable box with a gate facing a deposition plane. The box is filled with a selected debris-flow mixture, and after sudden opening of the gate, the features of the dam-break deposit can be measured. Based on some simplified assumptions of the energy balance, a methodology is proposed to assess basal shear stresses. The device has been tested using sediment samples from debris-flow deposits generated by two catchments of the Dolomites (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Belluno, Italy) by carrying out runout tests for different sediment concentrations by volume. The results show how the static Coulomb friction law is valid in the runout phase, with friction angles on the order of the angle of repose of the same material in dry conditions. The data elaboration also yields an innovative constitutive equation for shear stresses. This relation merges the Coulomb mixture approach with the concept of a one-phase flow with a certain rheology. This integration offers a useful insight into the weaknesses of the rheological approach if it is not properly scaled up to the ambient pressure of interest.

  15. Shear-Sensitive Liquid Crystal Coating Method: Surface-Inclination Effects on Shear Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.; Wilder, Michael C.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating (SSLCC) method is an image-based technique for both visualizing dynamic surface-flow phenomena, such as transition and separation, and for measuring the continuous shear-stress vector distribution acting on an aerodynamic surface. Under proper lighting and viewing conditions (discussed below), the coating changes color in response to an applied aerodynamic shear. This color-change response is continuous and reversible, with a response time of milliseconds, and is a function of both the shear magnitude and the shear vector orientation relative to the observer. The liquid crystal phase of matter is a weakly-ordered, viscous, non-Newtonian fluid state that exists between the nonuniform liquid phase and the ordered solid phase of certain organic compounds. Cholesteric liquid crystal compounds possess a helical molecular arrangement that selectively scatters white light, incident along the helical axis, as a three-dimensional spectrum. This property is linked to the helical pitch length, which is within the range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The pitch length, and hence the wavelength of the scattered light, is influenced by shear stress normal to the helical axis. This unique optical property produces a measurable color change in response to an applied shearing force. The full-surface shear stress vector measurement method, developed at NASA-Ames, is schematically illustrated. As with the visualization method, the coated test surface is illuminated from the normal direction with white light and the camera is positioned at an above-plane view angle of approximately 30 deg. Experiments have been initiated at NASA Ames to begin the process of quantifying surface-inclination (surface-curvature) effects on shear vector measurement accuracy. In preliminary experiments, surface-inclination angles theta(sub x), theta(sub y) of 0, +/-5, +/-10, and +/-15 deg were employed. In this arrangement, white-light illumination was positioned normal to the untilted test surface, and the camera above-plane view angle was set at 30 deg relative to the untilted test surface. As can be seen, vector-aligned lambda(sub d) values showed no dependence on theta(sub x) or theta(sub y) for absolute values of these tilt angles is less than or equal to 15 deg. Acquisition and analyses of full-surface color images are presently underway to definitively document the insensitivity limits of the shear vector measurement methodology to surface-slope variations.

  16. The shear-stress intensity factor for a centrally cracked stiff-flanged shear web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    By use of the principle of superposition the stiff-flanged shear web is modeled mathematically by an infinite elastic strip with fixed longitudinal edges. The shear-stress intensity factor for a central longitudinal crack is calculated for various values of the ratio of strip width to crack length, h/a, in the range 0.1-10. The interaction of the crack with the boundaries is illustrated by boundary shear-stress distributions for three values of h/a. Some implications of the results for the design of damage-tolerant shear webs are discussed briefly.

  17. Direct measurement of piezoelectric shear coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials exhibit electromechanical coupling which has led to their widespread application for sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. These materials possess anisotropic behavior with the shear coefficient, and have the largest electromechanical coupling coefficient. However, the shear mode is difficult to measure with existing techniques and thus has not been fully capitalized upon in recent devices. Better understanding of the full shear response with respect to the driving electric field would significantly help the design of optimized piezoelectric shear devices. Here, a simple and low cost direct measurement method based on digital image correlation is developed to characterize the shear response of piezoelectric materials and its nonlinear behavior as a function of external field. The piezoelectric shear coefficient (d15) of a commercial shear plate actuator is investigated in both bipolar and unipolar electric fields. Two different nonlinearities and hysteresis behaviors of the actuators were observed, and the relation between the driving field amplitude and the corresponding d15 coefficient is determined. Moreover, the measured transverse displacement of the plate actuator in simple shear condition is validated through a laser interferometry technique.

  18. Hemodynamic shear stress and the endothelium in cardiovascular pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Endothelium lining the cardiovascular system is highly sensitive to hemodynamic shear stresses that act at the vessel luminal surface in the direction of blood flow. Physiological variations of shear stress regulate acute changes in vascular diameter and when sustained induce slow, adaptive, structural-wall remodeling. Both processes are endothelium-dependent and are systemically and regionally compromised by hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and inflammatory disorders. Shear stress spans a range of spatiotemporal scales and contributes to regional and focal heterogeneity of endothelial gene expression, which is important in vascular pathology. Regions of flow disturbances near arterial branches, bifurcations and curvatures result in complex spatiotemporal shear stresses and their characteristics can predict atherosclerosis susceptibility. Changes in local artery geometry during atherogenesis further modify shear stress characteristics at the endothelium. Intravascular devices can also influence flow-mediated endothelial responses. Endothelial flow-induced responses include a cell-signaling repertoire, collectively known as mechanotransduction, that ranges from instantaneous ion fluxes and biochemical pathways to gene and protein expression. A spatially decentralized mechanism of endothelial mechanotransduction is dominant, in which deformation at the cell surface induced by shear stress is transmitted as cytoskeletal tension changes to sites that are mechanically coupled to the cytoskeleton. A single shear stress mechanotransducer is unlikely to exist; rather, mechanotransduction occurs at multiple subcellular locations. PMID:19029993

  19. Application and improvement of Raupach's shear stress partitioning model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B. A.; Lehning, M.; Gromke, C.

    2012-12-01

    Aeolian processes such as the entrainment, transport and redeposition of sand, soil or snow are able to significantly reshape the earth's surface. In times of increasing desertification and land degradation, often driven by wind erosion, investigations of aeolian processes become more and more important in environmental sciences. The reliable prediction of the sheltering effect of vegetation canopies against sediment erosion, for instance, is a clear practical application of such investigations to identify suitable and sustainable counteractive measures against wind erosion. This study presents an application and improvement of a theoretical model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1992, Vol.60, 375-395 and Journal of Geophysical Research, 1993, Vol.98, 3023-3029) which allows for quantifying the sheltering effect of vegetation against sediment erosion. The model predicts the shear stress ratios τS'/τ and τS''/τ. Here, τS is the part of the total shear stress τ that acts on the ground beneath the plants. The spatial peak τS'' of the surface shear stress is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment whereas the spatial mean τS' can be used to quantify particle mass fluxes. The precise and accurate prediction of these quantities is essential when modeling wind erosion. Measurements of the surface shear stress distributions τS(x,y) on the ground beneath live vegetation canopies (plant species: lolium perenne) were performed in a controlled wind tunnel environment to determine the model parameters and to evaluate the model performance. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison, since previous wind tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear stress partitioning. The model constant c, which is needed to determine the total stress τ for a canopy of interest and which remained rather unspecified to date, was found to be c ≈ 0.27. It was also found that the model parameter m, which relates τS'' with τS' and which is needed to determine the peak surface shear stress τS'', is rather impractically defined in the original model formulation, because m is identified to be a function of the wind velocity, the roughness element shape and the roughness density. We propose an alternative, more universal definition of an a-parameter as a substitute for the m-parameter simply linearly relating τS'' with τS'. This strong linear relation is supported by the measurements and can be made plausible with simple fluid dynamical arguments. The advantage of a over m is that a is solely a function of the roughness element shape. Finally, a method is presented to determine the new a-parameter for different kinds of roughness elements with relatively simple experimental methods.

  20. A High shear stress segment along the San Andreas Fault: Inferences based on near-field stress direction and stress magnitude observations in the Carrizo Plain Area

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, D. A.,; Younker, L.W.

    1997-01-30

    Nearly 200 new in-situ determinations of stress directions and stress magnitudes near the Carrizo plain segment of the San Andreas fault indicate a marked change in stress state occurring within 20 km of this principal transform plate boundary. A natural consequence of this stress transition is that if the observed near-field ``fault-oblique`` stress directions are representative of the fault stress state, the Mohr-Coulomb shear stresses resolved on San Andreas sub-parallel planes are substantially greater than previously inferred based on fault-normal compression. Although the directional stress data and near-hydrostatic pore pressures, which exist within 15 km of the fault, support a high shear stress environment near the fault, appealing to elevated pore pressures in the fault zone (Byerlee-Rice Model) merely enhances the likelihood of shear failure. These near-field stress observations raise important questions regarding what previous stress observations have actually been measuring. The ``fault-normal`` stress direction measured out to 70 km from the fault can be interpreted as representing a comparable depth average shear strength of the principal plate boundary. Stress measurements closer to the fault reflect a shallower depth-average representation of the fault zone shear strength. If this is true, only stress observations at fault distances comparable to the seismogenic depth will be representative of the fault zone shear strength. This is consistent with results from dislocation monitoring where there is pronounced shear stress accumulation out to 20 km of the fault as a result of aseismic slip within the lower crust loading the upper locked section. Beyond about 20 km, the shear stress resolved on San Andreas fault-parallel planes becomes negligible. 65 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien; Luo, Wentao E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

  2. Red blood cell damage by shear stress for different blood types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arwatz, Gilad; Bedkowski, Katherine; Smits, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    In surgical practice, blood damage caused by medical devices is often a limiting factor in the duration of an acute procedure or in chronic exposures such as hemodialysis. In order to establish guidelines for designing medical devices, a study was conducted to determine the relationship between shear stress and damage to red blood cells using a concentric Couette device. By measuring the hemolysis level for various shear stresses and exposure times, a non-dimensional relationship between shear stress and blood damage for different blood types was established. Funding provided by Princeton University's Project X.

  3. ESTIMATION OF SHEAR STRESS WORKING ON SUBMERGED HOLLOW FIBRE MEMBRANE BY CFD METHOD IN MBRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaw, Hlwan Moe; Li, Tairi; Nagaoka, Hiroshi

    This study was conducted to evaluate shear stress working on submerged hollow fibre membrane by CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) method in MBRs. Shear stress on hollow fibre membrane caused by aeration was measured directly using a two-direction load sensor. The measurement of water-phase flow velocity was done also by using laser doppler velocimeter. It was confirmed that the shear stress was possible to be evaluated from the water-phase flow velocityby the result of comparison of time average shear stress actually measured with one hollow fibre membrane and the one calculated by the water-phase flow velocity. In the estimation of the water-phase flow velocity using the CFD method, time average water-phase flow velocity estimated by consideration of the fluid resistance of the membrane module nearly coincided with the measured values, and it was shown that it was possible to be estimated also within the membrane module. Moreover, the measured shear stress and drag force well coincided with the values calculated from the estimated water-phase flow velocity outside of membrane module and in the center of membrane module, and it was suggested that the shear stress on the hollow fibre membrane could be estimated by the CFD method in MBRs.

  4. Shear-stress sensitive lenticular vesicles for targeted drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holme, Margaret N.; Fedotenko, Illya A.; Abegg, Daniel; Althaus, Jasmin; Babel, Lucille; Favarger, France; Reiter, Renate; Tanasescu, Radu; Zaffalon, Pierre-Léonard; Ziegler, André; Müller, Bert; Saxer, Till; Zumbuehl, Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Atherosclerosis results in the narrowing of arterial blood vessels and this causes significant changes in the endogenous shear stress between healthy and constricted arteries. Nanocontainers that can release drugs locally with such rheological changes can be very useful. Here, we show that vesicles made from an artificial 1,3-diaminophospholipid are stable under static conditions but release their contents at elevated shear stress. These vesicles have a lenticular morphology, which potentially leads to instabilities along their equator. Using a model cardiovascular system based on polymer tubes and an external pump to represent shear stress in healthy and constricted vessels of the heart, we show that drugs preferentially release from the vesicles in constricted vessels that have high shear stress.

  5. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-a-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  6. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-a-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  7. Production of functional proteins: balance of shear stress and gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Kaysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for the production of functional proteins including hormones by renal cells in a three dimensional culturing process responsive to shear stress uses a rotating wall vessel. Natural mixture of renal cells expresses the enzyme 1-.alpha.-hydroxylase which can be used to generate the active form of vitamin D: 1,25-diOH vitamin D.sub.3. The fibroblast cultures and co-culture of renal cortical cells express the gene for erythropoietin and secrete erythropoietin into the culture supernatant. Other shear stress response genes are also modulated by shear stress, such as toxin receptors megalin and cubulin (gp280). Also provided is a method of treating an in-need individual with the functional proteins produced in a three dimensional co-culture process responsive to shear stress using a rotating wall vessel.

  8. Simplified Shear Solution for Determination of the Shear Stress Distribution in a Composite Panel from the Applied Shear Resultant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.; Collier, Craig S.

    2008-01-01

    The simplified shear solution method is presented for approximating the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate or panel based on laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants (as determined, for instance, by finite element analysis) at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply by ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. Comparisons to existing theories are made for a variety of laminates, and design examples are provided illustrating the use of the method for determining through-thickness shear stress margins in several types of composite panels and in the context of a finite element structural analysis.

  9. Determination of the Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate from the Applied Shear Resultant--A Simplified Shear Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    The simplified shear solution method is presented for approximating the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem, rather it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants (as determined, for instance, by finite element analysis) at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply by ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. Comparisons to existing theories are made for a variety of laminates, and design examples are provided illustrating the use of the method for determining through-thickness shear stress margins in several types of composite panels and in the context of a finite element structural analysis.

  10. Interfacial shear stress between a single-walled carbon nanotube and a gold surface after different physical treatments.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huiyan; Wu, Yu-Chiao; Adams, George G; McGruer, Nicol E

    2015-06-01

    The interfacial shear stress between gold and dielectrophoretically assembled single-walled carbon nanotubes can be increased by annealing in N2, by e-beam irradiation, or by e-beam deposition of carbon. For the first time this increase has been measured, using a technique developed by this group that is based on NEMS cantilever measurements combined with modeling. Annealing increases the shear stress by more than a factor of 3 over its value of 87MPa for untreated gold surfaces, while e-beam irradiation increases the shear stress by more than a factor of 2 and carbon deposition increases the shear stress by a smaller amount. PMID:25700215

  11. Pulsed laser Doppler measurements of wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C.; Harris, C.; Bilbro, J. W.; Weaver, E. A.; Burnham, D. C.; Hallock, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    There is a need for a sensor at the airport that can remotely detect, identify, and track wind shears near the airport in order to assure aircraft safety. To determine the viability of a laser wind-shear system, the NASA pulsed coherent Doppler CO2 lidar (Jelalian et al., 1972) was installed in a semitrailer van with a rooftop-mounted hemispherical scanner and was used to monitor thunderstorm gust fronts. Wind shears associated with the gust fronts at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) between 5 July and 4 August 1978 were measured and tracked. The most significant data collected at KSC are discussed. The wind shears were clearly visible in both real-time velocity vs. azimuth plots and in postprocessing displays of velocities vs. position. The results indicate that a lidar system cannot be used effectively when moderate precipitation exists between the sensor and the region of interest.

  12. Permeability of fault gouge under confining pressure and shear stress.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Shi, L.Q.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The permeability of both clay-rich and non-clay gouges, as well as several pure clays, was studied as a function of confining pressures from 5 to 200 MPa and shear strain to 10. Permeability ranged over 4 orders of magnitude, from around 10-22 to 10-18 m2 (1 darcy = 0.987 X 10-12 m2). Grain size was an important factor in determining permeability, particularly for the clay-rich samples. The permeabilities of the non-clay samples were not significantly different than those of the clays. Strength of the saturated samples under drained (low pore pressure) conditions did not correlate with high or low permeability. However, the low permeabilities of these gouges could be a factor in the measured low shear stresses along fault regions if excess pore pressures were created as a result of shearing or compaction, and this pressure was unable to dissipate through a thick section of the material.-from Authors

  13. Torsional bridge setup for the characterization of integrated circuits and microsensors under mechanical shear stress.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, M; Gieschke, P; Ruther, P; Paul, O

    2011-12-01

    We present a torsional bridge setup for the electro-mechanical characterization of devices integrated in the surface of silicon beams under mechanical in-plane shear stress. It is based on the application of a torsional moment to the longitudinal axis of the silicon beams, which results in a homogeneous in-plane shear stress in the beam surface. The safely applicable shear stresses span the range of ±50 MPa. Thanks to a specially designed clamping mechanism, the unintended normal stress typically stays below 2.5% of the applied shear stress. An analytical model is presented to compute the induced shear stress. Numerical computations verify the analytical results and show that the homogeneity of the shear stress is very high on the beam surface in the region of interest. Measurements with piezoresistive microsensors fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process show an excellent agreement with both the computational results and comparative measurements performed on a four-point bending bridge. The electrical connection to the silicon beam is performed with standard bond wires. This ensures that minimal forces are applied to the beam by the electrical interconnection to the external instrumentation and that devices with arbitrary bond pad layout can be inserted into the setup. PMID:22225242

  14. Torsional bridge setup for the characterization of integrated circuits and microsensors under mechanical shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, M.; Gieschke, P.; Ruther, P.; Paul, O.

    2011-12-01

    We present a torsional bridge setup for the electro-mechanical characterization of devices integrated in the surface of silicon beams under mechanical in-plane shear stress. It is based on the application of a torsional moment to the longitudinal axis of the silicon beams, which results in a homogeneous in-plane shear stress in the beam surface. The safely applicable shear stresses span the range of 50 MPa. Thanks to a specially designed clamping mechanism, the unintended normal stress typically stays below 2.5% of the applied shear stress. An analytical model is presented to compute the induced shear stress. Numerical computations verify the analytical results and show that the homogeneity of the shear stress is very high on the beam surface in the region of interest. Measurements with piezoresistive microsensors fabricated using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process show an excellent agreement with both the computational results and comparative measurements performed on a four-point bending bridge. The electrical connection to the silicon beam is performed with standard bond wires. This ensures that minimal forces are applied to the beam by the electrical interconnection to the external instrumentation and that devices with arbitrary bond pad layout can be inserted into the setup.

  15. Dimensionless critical shear stress in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, François; Houbrechts, Geoffrey; Peeters, Alexandre; Hallot, Eric; Van Campenhout, Jean; Denis, Anne-Cécile

    2015-12-01

    This paper first compiles critical shear stress values from 26 studies of gravel-bed rivers (GBRs) worldwide. The most frequently proposed value of the Shields criterion (θc) is 0.045, but three major groups with θc values ranging from < 0.030 to > 0.100 were identified. Second, dimensionless critical shear stresses (the Shields criterion) were evaluated for 14 GBRs (18 sites) with watershed areas ranging from 12 to 3000 km2. Different approaches were used to identify the initial movement of the bed material: painted and PIT-tag pebbles, sediment traps, and bedload samplers. The Shields criterion (θc) was estimated using the total shear stress (τ) and the grain shear stress (τ‧). Several shear stresses were also estimated using shear velocities. For bedload transport, we obtained an average Shields criterion (θc) of 0.040. The values were higher in small rivers (> 0.050) than larger rivers (< 0.030) because of more significant bedform shear stresses. The Shields criterion (θ‧c) was lower when the grain shear stress (τ‧) was used and only reached 0.019. Different values are also proposed in relation to the type of mobilization: the θc value for partial transport was ~ 0.025 and exceeded 0.040 for full transport (usually reached in association with discharges with a 10-year return period). The values based on the results of sediment traps and a bedload sampler were greater than those obtained using tracers, but these differences are smaller than those usually reported in the literature.

  16. Shear Stress Drives Local Variation in Invertebrate Drift in a Large River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlbauer, J. D.; Kennedy, T.; Yackulic, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in physical stream flow measurements using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) have yielded important insights in hydrology and geomorphology related to discharge and processes such as bed sediment incipient motion. These measurements also have underappreciated potential for use in ecological studies. For example, invertebrate drift, or the downstream transport of benthic-derived invertebrates, is a fundamental process in streams and rivers: it is both critical to the maintenance of benthic invertebrate populations and provides a key mechanism of resource delivery to drift-feeding fishes. However, there is substantial uncertainty regarding the factors that drive spatial variation in invertebrate drift, particularly in large rivers. While laboratory studies in flumes have demonstrated the importance of shear stress in initiating invertebrate drift (similar to studies of bed sediment critical shear stress in fluvial geomorphology), field-based evaluations of the relationship between shear stress and drift would be beneficial. Such field studies, however, are rare. Here, we evaluate the relationship between localized shear stress (N/m2) and invertebrate drift concentrations (#/m3) for the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam (steady discharge of 228 m3/s during study). Invertebrate drift was quantified at 25 stations throughout the 25 km long Glen Canyon tailwater segment. We link these drift measurements to empirical measurements of water column shear stress derived from ADCP data, taken at the location of each drift sample and 250 m upstream of each drift sampling location (50 total profiles). Invertebrate drift concentrations varied strongly throughout the 25 km reach, and much of this variation can be explained by localized differences in shear stress. Species composition in the drift also varied with shear stress, suggesting that shear stress exerts a differential control on drift initiation for individual taxa. These results indicate that shear stress is an important physical control on benthic macroinvertebrate drift, even at shear stress values lower than those required for bed sediment mobilization. This empirical relationship between shear stress and drift can aid in the prediction of drift concentrations at different discharges and may inform habitat-specific prey density estimates used in bioenergetics models for drift-feeding trout.

  17. Quantification of Interfibrillar Shear Stress in Aligned Soft Collagenous Tissues via Notch Tension Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczesny, Spencer E.; Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Pedersen, Pal; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2015-10-01

    The mechanical function of soft collagenous tissues is largely determined by their hierarchical organization of collagen molecules. While collagen fibrils are believed to be discontinuous and transfer load through shearing of the interfibrillar matrix, interfibrillar shear stresses have never been quantified. Scaling traditional shear testing procedures down to the fibrillar length scale is impractical and would introduce substantial artifacts. Here, through the use of a novel microscopic variation of notch tension testing, we explicitly demonstrate the existence of interfibrillar shear stresses within tendon fascicles and provide the first measurement of their magnitude. Axial stress gradients along the sample length generated by notch tension testing were measured and used to calculate a value of 32 kPa for the interfibrillar shear stress. This estimate is comparable to the interfibrillar shear stress predicted by previous multiscale modeling of tendon fascicles, which supports the hypothesis that fibrils are discontinuous and transmit load through interfibrillar shear. This information regarding the structure-function relationships of tendon and other soft collagenous tissues is necessary to identify potential causes for tissue impairment with degeneration and provide the foundation for developing regenerative repair strategies or engineering biomaterials for tissue replacement.

  18. Quantification of Interfibrillar Shear Stress in Aligned Soft Collagenous Tissues via Notch Tension Testing

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Spencer E.; Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Pedersen, Pal; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical function of soft collagenous tissues is largely determined by their hierarchical organization of collagen molecules. While collagen fibrils are believed to be discontinuous and transfer load through shearing of the interfibrillar matrix, interfibrillar shear stresses have never been quantified. Scaling traditional shear testing procedures down to the fibrillar length scale is impractical and would introduce substantial artifacts. Here, through the use of a novel microscopic variation of notch tension testing, we explicitly demonstrate the existence of interfibrillar shear stresses within tendon fascicles and provide the first measurement of their magnitude. Axial stress gradients along the sample length generated by notch tension testing were measured and used to calculate a value of 32?kPa for the interfibrillar shear stress. This estimate is comparable to the interfibrillar shear stress predicted by previous multiscale modeling of tendon fascicles, which supports the hypothesis that fibrils are discontinuous and transmit load through interfibrillar shear. This information regarding the structure-function relationships of tendon and other soft collagenous tissues is necessary to identify potential causes for tissue impairment with degeneration and provide the foundation for developing regenerative repair strategies or engineering biomaterials for tissue replacement. PMID:26469396

  19. Quantification of Interfibrillar Shear Stress in Aligned Soft Collagenous Tissues via Notch Tension Testing.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Pedersen, Pal; Elliott, Dawn M

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical function of soft collagenous tissues is largely determined by their hierarchical organization of collagen molecules. While collagen fibrils are believed to be discontinuous and transfer load through shearing of the interfibrillar matrix, interfibrillar shear stresses have never been quantified. Scaling traditional shear testing procedures down to the fibrillar length scale is impractical and would introduce substantial artifacts. Here, through the use of a novel microscopic variation of notch tension testing, we explicitly demonstrate the existence of interfibrillar shear stresses within tendon fascicles and provide the first measurement of their magnitude. Axial stress gradients along the sample length generated by notch tension testing were measured and used to calculate a value of 32 kPa for the interfibrillar shear stress. This estimate is comparable to the interfibrillar shear stress predicted by previous multiscale modeling of tendon fascicles, which supports the hypothesis that fibrils are discontinuous and transmit load through interfibrillar shear. This information regarding the structure-function relationships of tendon and other soft collagenous tissues is necessary to identify potential causes for tissue impairment with degeneration and provide the foundation for developing regenerative repair strategies or engineering biomaterials for tissue replacement. PMID:26469396

  20. Measuring shear modulus of individual fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlow, Herbert; Saini, Deepika; Oliviera, Luciana; Skove, Malcolm; Rao, Apparao

    2014-03-01

    Fiber technology has advanced to new heights enabling tailored mechanical properties. For reliable fiber applications their mechanical properties must be well characterized at the individual fiber level. Unlike the tensile modulus, which can be well studied in a single fiber, the present indirect and dynamic methods of measuring the shear properties of fibers suffer from various disadvantages such as the interaction between fibers and the influence of damping. In this talk, we introduce a quasi-static method to directly measure the shear modulus of a single micron-sized fiber. Our simple and inexpensive setup yields a shear modulus of 16 and 2 GPa for a single IM7 carbon fiber and a Kevlar fiber, respectively. Furthermore, our setup is also capable of measuring the creep, hysteresis and the torsion coefficient, and examples of these will be presented.

  1. Simple average expression for shear-stress relaxation modulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmer, J. P.; Xu, H.; Baschnagel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on isotropic elastic networks we propose a simple-average expression G (t ) =μA-h (t ) for the computational determination of the shear-stress relaxation modulus G (t ) of a classical elastic solid or fluid. Here, μA=G (0 ) characterizes the shear transformation of the system at t =0 and h (t ) the (rescaled) mean-square displacement of the instantaneous shear stress τ ̂(t ) as a function of time t . We discuss sampling time and ensemble effects and emphasize possible pitfalls of alternative expressions using the shear-stress autocorrelation function. We argue finally that our key relation may be readily adapted for more general linear response functions.

  2. Shear strengths of sandstone fractures under true triaxial stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapang, Piyanat; Walsri, Chaowarin; Sriapai, Tanapol; Fuenkajorn, Kittitep

    2013-03-01

    True triaxial shear tests have been performed to determine the peak shear strengths of tension-induced fractures in three Thai sandstones. A polyaxial load frame is used to apply mutually perpendicular lateral stresses (?p and ?o) to the 76 76 126 mm rectangular block specimens. The normal to the fracture plane makes an angle of 59.1 with the axial (major principal) stress. Results indicate that the lateral stress that is parallel to the fracture plane (?p) can significantly reduce the peak shear strength of the fractures. Under the same normal stress (?n) the fractures under high ?p dilate more than those under low ?p. According to the Coulomb criterion, the friction angle decreases exponentially with increasing ?p/?o ratio and the cohesion decreases with increasing ?p. The lateral stress ?p has insignificant effect on the basic friction angle of the smooth saw-cut surfaces. The fracture shear strengths under ?p = 0 correlate well with those obtained from the direct shear tests. It is postulated that when the fractures are confined laterally by ?p, their asperities are strained into the aperture, and are sheared off more easily compared to those under unconfined condition.

  3. The Micro-Pillar Shear-Stress Sensor MPS3 for Turbulent Flow

    PubMed Central

    Groe, Sebastian; Schrder, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Wall-shear stress results from the relative motion of a fluid over a body surface as a consequence of the no-slip condition of the fluid in the vicinity of the wall. To determine the two-dimensional wall-shear stress distribution is of utter importance in theoretical and applied turbulence research. In this article, characteristics of the Micro-Pillar Shear-Stress Sensor MPS3, which has been shown to offer the potential to measure the two-directional dynamic wall-shear stress distribution in turbulent flows, will be summarized. After a brief general description of the sensor concept, material characteristics, possible sensor-structure related error sources, various sensitivity and distinct sensor performance aspects will be addressed. Especially, pressure-sensitivity related aspects will be discussed. This discussion will serve as design rules for possible new fields of applications of the sensor technology. PMID:22574010

  4. Elevated Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistulae: Is There Mechanical Homeostasis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide access for dialysis in patients with renal failure. The current hypothesis is that the rapid remodeling occurring after the fistula creation is in part a process to restore the mechanical stresses to some preferred level (i.e. mechanical homeostasis). Given that nearly 50% of fistulae require an intervention after one year, understanding the altered hemodynamic stress is important in improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of four patient-specific models of functioning fistulae reconstructed from 3D Doppler ultrasound scans. Our results show that the vessels are subjected to `normal' shear stresses away from the anastomosis; about 1 Pa in the veins and about 2.5 Pa in the arteries. However, simulations show that part of the anastomoses are consistently subjected to very high shear stress (>10Pa) over the cardiac cycle. These elevated values shear stresses are caused by the transitional flows at the anastomoses including flow separation and quasiperiodic vortex shedding. This suggests that the remodeling process lowers shear stress in the fistula but that it is limited as evidenced by the elevated shear at the anastomoses. This constant insult on the arterialized venous wall may explain the process of late fistula failure in which the dialysis access become occluded after years of use. Supported by an R21 Grant from NIDDK (DK081823).

  5. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  6. Role of cytoplasmic and releasable ADP in platelet aggregation induced by laminar shear stress

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, M.W.; Reimers, R.C.; Baker, R.K.; Sutera, S.P.; Joist, J.H.

    1983-04-01

    We examined the extent of lytic and sublytic platelet injury after exposure of platelets to shear stress and the role in shear-induced PAG of ADP liberated from platelets as a result of shear-induced platelet dense body release and/or platelet damage. Platelets in C-PRP or TAS were subjected to well-defined, laminar shear stress in a rotational viscometer, and PAG (loss of single, nonaggregated platelets), /sup 14/C-serotonin release, and loss from platelets of LDH and /sup 51/Cr were determined. Increased PAG with increasing shear stresses was associated with progressive loss of LDH and /sup 51/Cr. Loss of /sup 51/Cr was consistently in excess of that of LDH, indicating sublytic platelet injury, which was confirmed by electron microscopy. At the lowest shear stress used (50 dynes/cm2), PAG in C-PRP was observed in the absence of detectable loss of /sup 51/Cr or LDH. When platelets in TAS were sheared in the presence of CP/CPK, an enzyme system capable of removing extracellular ADP, PAG was only partially (approximately 40%) inhibited. However, when platelets were preincubated with CP/CPK and ATP (to saturate platelet ADP receptors), shear-induced PAG was almost completely suppressed. Similar results were obtained with PAG induced by collagen in the aggregometer. The findings indicate that (1) shear-induced PAG in this system may occur without measurable lytic or sublytic platelet damage and (2) ADP liberated from platelets as a result of shear-induced release or damage may represent the major if not sole mediator of shear-induced PAG.

  7. Shear Load Transfer in High and Low Stress Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Kondratko-Mittnacht, Jaclyn; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Background Tendon is an integral part of joint movement and stability, as it functions to transmit load from muscle to bone. It has an anisotropic, fibrous hierarchical structure that is generally loaded in the direction of its fibers/fascicles. Internal load distributions are altered when joint motion rotates an insertion site or when local damage disrupts fibers/fascicles, potentially causing inter-fiber (or inter-fascicular) shear. Tendons with different microstructure (helical versus linear) may redistribute loads differently. Method of Approach This study explored how shear redistributes axial loads in rat tail tendon (low stress tendons with linear microstructure) and porcine flexor tendon (high stress with helical microstructure) by creating lacerations on opposite sides of the tendon, ranging from about 20-60% of the tendon width, to create various magnitudes of shear. Differences in fascicular orientation were quantified using polarized light microscopy. Results and Conclusions Unexpectedly, both tendon types maintained about 20% of pre-laceration stress values after overlapping cuts of 60% of tendon width (no intact fibers end to end) suggesting that shear stress transfer can contribute more to overall tendon strength and stiffness than previously reported. All structural parameters for both tendon types decreased linearly with increasing laceration depth. The tail tendon had a more rapid decline in post-laceration elastic stress and modulus parameters as well as a more linear and less tightly packed fascicular structure, suggesting that positional tendons may be less well suited to redistribute loads via a shear mechanism. PMID:25700261

  8. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Residual Stress from Diamagnetic Velocity Shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2010-11-01

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the parallel velocity (and parallel velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [1] we demonstrated with gyrokinetic (GYRO) simulations that TAM pinching from the diamagnetic level shear in the ExB velocity could provide the residual stress needed for spontaneous toroidal rotation. Here we show that the shear in the diamagnetic velocities themselves provide comparable residual stress (and level of stabilization). The sign of the residual stress, quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion power flow (M/P), depends on the signs of the various velocity shears as well as ion (ITG) versus electron (TEM) mode directed turbulence. The residual stress from these temperature and density gradient diamagnetic velocity shears is demonstrated in global gyrokinetic simulation of ``null'' rotation DIIID discharges by matching M/P profiles within experimental error. 8pt [1] R.E. Waltz, G.M. Staebler, J. Candy, and F.L. Hinton, Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009).

  9. Shear Stress-Triggered Nitric Oxide Release From Schlemm's Canal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashpole, Nicole E.; Overby, Darryl R.; Ethier, C. Ross; Stamer, W. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase is regulated by shear stress. At elevated intraocular pressures when the Schlemm's canal (SC) begins to collapse, shear stress is comparable with that in large arteries. We investigated the relationship between NO production and shear stress in cultured human SC cells. Methods. Schlemm's canal endothelial cells isolated from three normal and two glaucomatous human donors were seeded into Ibidi flow chambers at confluence, cultured for 7 days, and subjected to steady shear stress (0.1 or 10 dynes/cm2) for 6, 24, or 168 hours. Cell alignment with flow direction was monitored, and NO production was measured using 4-amino-5-methylamino-2?,7?-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM) and Griess reagents. Human trabecular meshwork (TM) and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used as controls. Results. Normal SC strains aligned with the direction of flow by 7 days. Comparing 0.1 vs. 10 dynes/cm2, NO levels increased by 82% at 24 hours and 8-fold after 7 days by DAF-FM, and similar results were obtained with Griess reagent. Shear responses by SC cells at 24 hours were comparable with HUVECs, and greater than TM cells, which appeared shear-insensitive. Nitric oxide production by SC cells was detectable as early as 6 hours and was inhibited by 100 ?M nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Two glaucomatous SC cell strains were either unresponsive or lifted from the plate in the face of shear. Conclusions. Shear stress triggers NO production in human SC cells, similar to other vascular endothelia. Increased shear stress and NO production during SC collapse at elevated intraocular pressures may in part mediate IOP homeostasis. PMID:25395486

  10. Shear Stress Partitioning in Large Patches of Roughness in the Atmospheric Inertial Sublayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, John A.; Nickling, William G.; King, James

    2007-01-01

    Drag partition measurements were made in the atmospheric inertial sublayer for six roughness configurations made up of solid elements in staggered arrays of different roughness densities. The roughness was in the form of a patch within a large open area and in the shape of an equilateral triangle with 60 m long sides. Measurements were obtained of the total shear stress (tau) acting on the surfaces, the surface shear stress on the ground between the elements (tau(sub S)) and the drag force on the elements for each roughness array. The measurements indicated that tau(sub S) quickly reduced near the leading edge of the roughness compared with tau, and a tau(sub S) minimum occurs at a normalized distance (x/h, where h is element height) of approx. -42 (downwind of the roughness leading edge is negative), then recovers to a relatively stable value. The location of the minimum appears to scale with element height and not roughness density. The force on the elements decreases exponentially with normalized downwind distance and this rate of change scales with the roughness density, with the rate of change increasing as roughness density increases. Average tau(sub S): tau values for the six roughness surfaces scale predictably as a function of roughness density and in accordance with a shear stress partitioning model. The shear stress partitioning model performed very well in predicting the amount of surface shear stress, given knowledge of the stated input parameters for these patches of roughness. As the shear stress partitioning relationship within the roughness appears to come into equilibrium faster for smaller roughness element sizes it would also appear the shear stress partitioning model can be applied with confidence for smaller patches of smaller roughness elements than those used in this experiment.

  11. Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers

    SciTech Connect

    Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M.; Oliveira, L.; Serkiz, S. M.

    2014-09-15

    As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar{sup ®} 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 ± 2.1 and 2.42 ± 0.32 GPa, respectively.

  12. Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers.

    PubMed

    Behlow, H; Saini, D; Oliveira, L; Durham, L; Simpson, J; Serkiz, S M; Skove, M J; Rao, A M

    2014-09-01

    As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar() 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 2.1 and 2.42 0.32 GPa, respectively. PMID:25273783

  13. Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Oliveira, L.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Serkiz, S. M.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M.

    2014-09-01

    As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 2.1 and 2.42 0.32 GPa, respectively.

  14. Effect of shear stress on water and LDL transport through cultured endothelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongyan; Cancel, Limary M.; Tarbell, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous animal experiments have shown that the transport of LDL into arterial walls is shear stress dependent. However, little work has probed shear effects on LDL transport in vitro where conditions are well defined and mechanisms are more easily explored. Therefore, we measured shear induced water and LDL fluxes across cultured bovine aortic endothelial (BAEC) monolayers in vitro and developed a three-pore model to describe the transport dynamics. Cell apoptosis was quantified by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. We also examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) in shear induced water and LDL fluxes by incubating BAEC monolayers with a NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Our results show that direct exposure of endothelial monolayers to 12 dyn/cm2 shear stress for 3 hours elicited a 2.37-fold increase in water flux (Jv), a 3.00-fold increase in LDL permeability (Pe), a 1.32-fold increase in LDL uptake, and a 1.68-fold increase in apoptotic rate. L-NMMA treatment of BAEC monolayers blocked shear induced Jv response, but had no significant effect on shear responses of Pe and cell apoptosis. A long time shear exposure (12 h) of endothelial monolayers reduced Pe and apoptotic rate close to the baseline. These results suggest that an acute change in shear stress from a static baseline state induces increases in water flux that are mediated by a NO dependent mechanism. On the other hand, the permeability of endothelial monolayers to LDL is enhanced by a short term-shear application and reduced nearly to the baseline level by a longer time shear exposure, positively correlated to the leaky junctions forming around apoptotic cells. PMID:24583416

  15. A PZT-based smart aggregate for seismic shear stress monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2013-06-01

    A lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based smart aggregate (SA) is proposed for seismic shear stress monitoring in concrete structures. This SA uses a d15-mode PZT as the sensing element. A calibration test is designed in which a cyclic shear stress with a dominant frequency of the earthquake response spectrum is applied on the two opposite sides of the proposed SA using a specially designed loading mold. The test is repeated on six copies of the proposed SA. The maximum applied shear stress is larger than the shear strength of ordinary concrete to allow measurements during failure. The output voltage of the SA is experimentally verified as varying linearly with the applied stress in the loading range. The sensitivity of the proposed SA to the applied stress under the given boundary conditions is examined. The calibrated sensitivity value is then compared with the calculated value, which is obtained by computing the stress distribution in the SA using finite element analysis (FEA). The calculated values and the calibrated values are approximately the same, indicating that the established finite element (FE) model is reliable. Monotonic loading is also applied on the proposed SA to induce cracks between the SA and the loading mold, and the SAs response to cracking processes is examined. It is found that the proposed SA underestimates the cracking process. This study demonstrates that the proposed SA can be used in monitoring the overall shear stress development process in concrete during a seismic event.

  16. Radial artery remodeling in response to shear stress increase within arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Mosconi, Lidia; Antiga, Luca; Bruno, Simona; Anghileri, Abramo; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Remuzzi, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    It is known that changes in blood flow induce vascular remodeling and that shear stress, the tractive force acting on the vessel wall due to blood flowing, influences endothelial cell function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between changes in pulsatile shear forces and arterial remodeling in response to chronic elevation in blood flow within the radial artery. The authors studied vessel diameter, flow rate, and shear stress in the radial artery of uremic patients before and after surgical creation of a native arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access. For this purpose, the authors used echo-color-Doppler ultrasound to perform diameter and blood velocity measurements. Time-function blood flow rate and wall shear stress were calculated based on arterial diameter, center-line velocity wave-form, and blood viscosity, using a numerical method developed according to Womersley's theory for unsteady flow in tubes. The results confirmed that the radial artery diameter increases in response to a chronic increase in blood flow in uremic patients. Moreover, it seems that the radial artery dilates in such a way as to maintain the peak wall shear stress constant, suggesting that endothelial cells sense the maximum rather than the time-averaged wall shear stress. This finding may lead to further understanding of the mechanisms responsible for endothelial response to physical stimulation by flowing blood. PMID:12791517

  17. Shear-Induced Stress Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Wet Foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauridsen, John; Twardos, Michael; Dennin, Michael

    2002-08-01

    We report on experimental measurements of the flow behavior of a wet, two-dimensional foam under conditions of slow, steady shear. The initial response of the foam is elastic. Above the yield strain, the foam begins to flow. The flow consists of irregular intervals of elastic stretch followed by sudden reductions of the stress, i.e., stress drops. We report on the distribution of the stress drops as a function of the applied shear rate. We also comment on our results in the context of various two-dimensional models of foams.

  18. Magnetic field effects on shear and normal stresses in magnetorheological finishing.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, John C; Miao, Chunlin; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2010-09-13

    We use a recent experimental technique to measure in situ shear and normal stresses during magnetorheological finishing (MRF) of a borosilicate glass over a range of magnetic fields. At low fields shear stresses increase with magnetic field, but become field-independent at higher magnetic fields. Micromechanical models of formation of magnetic particle chains suggest a complex behavior of magnetorheological (MR) fluids that combines fluid- and solid-like responses. We discuss the hypothesis that, at higher fields, slip occurs between magnetic particle chains and the immersed glass part, while the normal stress is governed by the MRF ribbon elasticity. PMID:20940866

  19. High Fluid Shear Stress and Spatial Shear Stress Gradients Affect Endothelial Proliferation, Survival, and Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Jennifer M.; Meng, Hui; Singh, Sukhjinder; Paluch, Rocco; Kolega, John

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms develop near bifurcation apices, where complex hemodynamics occur: Flow impinges on the apex, accelerates into branches, then slows again distally, creating high wall shear stress (WSS) and positive and negative spatial gradients in WSS (WSSG). Endothelial responses to these kinds of high WSS hemodynamic environments are not well characterized. We examined endothelial cells (ECs) under elevated WSS and positive and negative WSSG using a flow chamber with constant-height channels to create regions of uniform WSS and converging and diverging channels to create positive and negative WSSG, respectively. Cultured bovine aortic ECs were subjected to 3.5 and 28.4 Pa with and without WSSG for 24 and 36 h. High WSS inhibited EC alignment to flow, increased EC proliferation assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and increased apoptosis determined by terminal deoxynu-cleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling. These responses to high WSS were either accentuated or ameliorated by WSSG: Positive WSSG (+980 Pa/m) inhibited alignment and stimulated proliferation and apoptosis, whereas negative WSSG (−1120 Pa/m) promoted alignment and suppressed proliferation and apoptosis. These results demonstrate that ECs discriminate between positive and negative WSSG under high WSS conditions. EC responses to positive WSSG may contribute to pathogenic remodeling that occurs at bifurcations preceding aneurysm formation. PMID:21312062

  20. An evaluation of the Iosipescu specimen for composite materials shear property measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, J.; Ho, H.; Tsai, M. Y.; Farley, G. L.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the suitability of the Iosipescu specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture is presented. A linear finite element model of the specimen is used to assess the uniformity of the shear stress field in the vicinity of the notch, and demonstrate the effect of the nonuniform stress field upon strain gage measurements used for the determination of composite shear moduli. Based upon test results from graphite-epoxy laminates, the proximity of the load introduction point to the test section and the material orthotropy greatly influence the individual gage readings, however, shear modulus determination is not significantly affected by the lack of pure shear. Correction factors are needed to allow for the nonuniformity of the strain field and the use of the average shear stress in the shear modulus evaluation. The correction factors are determined for the region occupied by the strain gage rosette. A comparison of the strain gage readings from one surface of a specimen with corresponding data from moire interferometry on the opposite face documented an extreme sensitivity of some fiber orientations to eccentric loading which induced twisting and spurious shear stress-strain curves. The discovery of specimen twisting explains the apparently inconsistent shear property data found in the literature. Recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of the shear modulus values are made, and the implications for shear strength measurement discussed.

  1. Measuring morphological response of endothelial cells in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Chiamin; Nackman, Gary; Wei, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The normal physiological endothelial cell response to hemodynamic loadings can be categorized into morphological and biological responses. Cell morphological response includes changes in shape, size, height, and orientation. Cells sense mechanical stimuli and transduce them into chemical signals involving gene and protein expression, mechanotransduction. Abnormal endothelial response has been implicated in the localization of arterial disease like atherosclerosis. Though mechanotransduction involves a coupled (i.e. morphological and biological) process, to date many investigations into endothelial cells are still done in the decoupled way. The ultimate goal of our study is simultaneous flow and biological measurements to better understand arterial disease at the cellular and sub-cellular level. In vitro ? PIV measurements have been made in steady flow over live human aortic endothelial cells flush-mounted in a small rectangular channel. Cells are subjected to a step change in shear stress from zero to 15 dynes/cm^2. Cell surface maps, surface pressure, and wall shear stress are extracted from measurements taken 0, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after applying shear. This work has laid a framework for future simultaneous measurements.

  2. Reynolds stress and vortical structure in a uniformly sheared turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Shigeo; Tanaka, Mitsuru

    1992-12-01

    The spatial structure of the Reynolds shear stress in a uniform shear turbulence is investigated by the direct numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations and by the rapid distortion analysis. It is observed that many thin vortex tubes of various shapes develop from a random initial velocity field. The Reynolds shear stress also has tubelike structure and takes especially large values between pairs of counter rotating vortices aligned in the spanwise direction as was revealed before by conditional averaging (Adrian & Moin 1988). The turbulent kinetic energy increases exponentially in time as has been observed in laboratory experiments. The rapid distortion analysis demonstrates that the tube-like structure can be created only through the linear interaction of the turbulent velocity with the mean strain, leaving the velocity field be Gaussian. The organized structure does not necessarily imply non-Gaussianity of the velocity field.

  3. Exploring the Role of Shear Stress and Severe Turbulence in Downstream Fish Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.; Carlson, T.; Ferguson, J.; Richmond, M.; Sale, M.

    1999-07-06

    Fish may be exposed to damaging levels of fluid shear stress and turbulence while passing through hydroelectric power plants. The generally assumed locations for such potential damage are the turbine and draft tube passages, although it is possible that fish are also injured during passage over the spillway or through sluiceways and fish bypass outfalls. Unless mitigated, fluid-induced injuries and mortality could frustrate efforts to develop advanced, fish-friendly turbines or to provide safe alternate downstream passages. The effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish are poorly understood, in part because of the difficulties in conceptualizing these phenomena, determining their magnitudes and distribution within hydroelectric systems, and then recreating them in a controlled laboratory environment. We define the fluid phenomena that are relevant to the assessment of effects on fish. The magnitudes of fluid stresses associated with man-altered aquatic environments are often considerably higher than those found in natural environments (e.g., normal river flows). However, levels of shear stresses that occur during flash floods appear to be comparable to those expected within a turbine. Past studies of the effects of shear stress on fish are of limited value, mainly because of their narrow scope and lack of instrumentation to measure velocities on appropriately small scales. A laboratory experiment to study the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish is described.

  4. Liquid Crystals Indicate Directions Of Surface Shear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reda, Daniel C.

    1996-01-01

    Report consisting of main text of U.S. Patent 5,394,752 presents detailed information on one aspect of method of using changes in colors of liquid-crystal coatings to indicate instantaneous directions of flow-induced shear stresses (skin friction) on aerodynamic surfaces.

  5. Production of Functional Proteins: Balance of Shear Stress and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas John (Inventor); Hammond, Timothy Grant (Inventor); Haysen, James Howard (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention provides for a method of culturing cells and inducing the expression of at least one gene in the cell culture. The method provides for contacting the cell with a transcription factor decoy oligonucleotide sequence directed against a nucleotide sequence encoding a shear stress response element.

  6. Signatures of deterministic chaos in dyslipidemic erythrocytes under shear stress.

    PubMed

    Korol, A M; Rasia, R

    2003-03-01

    The erythrocytes deformation under shear stress, the viscoelastic properties and the effects observed on healthy donors and on dyslipidemic patients are investigated from the point of view of nonlinear dynamics. Finally it is suggested that the different results obtained could be useful with regard to pathophysiological disturbances and their treatment. PMID:12675413

  7. Calculation of Near-Bank Velocity and Boundary Shear Stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed knowledge of the flow and boundary shear stress fields near the banks of natural channels is essential for making accurate calculations of rates of near-bank sediment transport and geomorphic adjustment. This paper presents a test of a relatively simple, fully predictive, numerical method f...

  8. A fluidized bed technique for estimating soil critical shear stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion models, depending on how they are formulated, always have erodibilitiy parameters in the erosion equations. For a process-based model like the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, the erodibility parameters include rill and interrill erodibility and critical shear stress. Thes...

  9. WAVE ACTION AND BOTTOM SHEAR STRESSES IN LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Lake Erie, the amplitudes and periods of wind-driven, surface gravity waves were calculated by means of the SMB hindcasting method. Bottom orbital velocities and bottom shear stresses were then calculated using linear wave theory and Kajiura's (1968) turbulent oscillating bou...

  10. Influence of inherent structure shear stress of supercooled liquids on their shear moduli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuereder, Ingo; Ilg, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Configurations of supercooled liquids residing in their local potential minimum (i.e., in their inherent structure, IS) were found to support a non-zero shear stress. This IS stress was attributed to the constraint to the energy minimization imposed by boundary conditions, which keep size and shape of the simulation cell fixed. In this paper, we further investigate the influence of these boundary conditions on the IS stress. We investigate its importance for the computation of the low frequency shear modulus of a glass obtaining a consistent picture for the low- and high frequency shear moduli over the full temperature range. Hence, we find that the IS stress corresponds to a non-thermal contribution to the fluctuation term in the Born-Green expression. This leads to an unphysical divergence of the moduli in the low temperature limit if no proper correction for this term is applied. Furthermore, we clarify the IS stress dependence on the system size and put its origin on a more formal basis.

  11. The Role of Shear Stress in Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation and Failure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Leonard D.; Bashar, Khalid; Griffin, Philip; Kavanagh, Eamon G.; Walsh, Stewart R.; Walsh, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Non-maturation and post-maturation venous stenosis are the primary causes of failure within arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). Although the exact mechanisms triggering failure remain unclear, abnormal hemodynamic profiles are thought to mediate vascular remodelling and can adversely impact on fistula patency. Aim The review aims to clarify the role of shear stress on outward remodelling during maturation and evaluate the evidence supporting theories related to the localisation and development of intimal hyperplasia within AVFs. Methods A systematic review of studies comparing remodelling data with hemodynamic data obtained from computational fluid dynamics of AVFs during and after maturation was conducted. Results Outward remodelling occurred to reduce or normalise the level of shear stress over time in fistulae with a large radius of curvature (curved) whereas shear stress was found to augment over time in fistulae with a small radius of curvature (straight) coinciding with minimal to no increases in lumen area. Although this review highlighted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting low and oscillating shear stress may stimulate the initiation and development of intimal medial thickening within AVFs. Further lines of evidence are needed to support the disturbed flow theory and outward remodelling findings before surgical configurations and treatment strategies are optimised to conform to them. This review highlighted that variation between the time of analysis, classification of IH, resolution of simulations, data processing techniques and omission of various shear stress metrics prevented forming pooling of data amongst studies. Conclusion Standardised measurements and data processing techniques are needed to comprehensively evaluate the relationship between shear stress and intimal medial thickening. Advances in image acquisition and flow quantifications coupled with the increasing prevalence of longitudinal studies commencing from fistula creation offer viable techniques and strategies to robustly evaluate the relationship between shear stress and remodelling during maturation and thereafter. PMID:26716840

  12. The Need for a Shear Stress Calibration Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    By surveying current research of various micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) shear stress sensor development efforts we illustrate the wide variety of methods used to test and characterize these sensors. The different methods of testing these sensors make comparison of results difficult in some cases, and also this comparison is further complicated by the different formats used in reporting the results of these tests. The fact that making these comparisons can be so difficult at times clearly illustrates a need for standardized testing and reporting methodologies. This need indicates that the development of a national or international standard for the calibration of MEMS shear stress sensors should be undertaken. As a first step towards the development of this standard, two types of devices are compared and contrasted. The first type device is a laminar flow channel with two different versions considered: the first built with standard manufacturing techniques and the second with advanced precision manufacturing techniques. The second type of device is a new concept for creating a known shear stress consisting of a rotating wheel with the sensor mounted tangentially to the rim and positioned in close proximity to the rim. The shear stress generated by the flow at the sensor position is simply tau = (mu)r(omega)/h, where mu is the viscosity of the ambient gas, r the wheel radius, omega the angular velocity of the wheel, and h the width of the gap between the wheel rim and the sensor. Additionally, issues related to the development of a standard for shear stress calibration are identified and discussed.

  13. Effect of thermal expansion mismatch and fiber coating on the fiber/matrix interfacial shear stress in ceramic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, M.K.; Singh, R.N. )

    1988-09-01

    A modified indentation technique has been used to measure the interfacial shear stress in a number of ceramic matrices containing silicon carbide fibers. It was shown that the frictional component of interfacial stress was essentially zero when matrix thermal expansion was lower than that of the fiber and increased linearly with thermal expansion mismatch when matrix thermal expansion was higher. The interfacial shear stress was lowered when the fibers were coated with BN. Lower matrix shear stresses resulted in a more extensive fiber pullout during the composite fracture.

  14. The Role of Shear Failure on Stress Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, A. W.; Hauser, M.; Couzens-Schultz, B. A.; Gray, G.

    2014-09-01

    Leak-off pressure and lost circulation data are generally thought to be reflective of minimum stress. We propose an alternative interpretation should be considered where the data may reflect a shear failure along zones of pre-existing weakness rather than opening of tensile fractures against the minimum stress. This mechanism has been discussed in a small number of borehole stability and hydraulic fracture papers, but has not been widely applied to leak-off test or lost circulation interpretation. In this paper, we will revisit and expand the concept introduced recently by Couzens-Schultz and Chan (J Struct Geol, doi: 10.1016/j.jsg.2010.06.013, 2010) based on abnormally low leak-off tests in an active thrust belt to the analysis of lost circulation observations in modern-day deltaic environments. In the Gulf of Mexico, lost circulations historically are interpreted as a representation of the minimum horizontal stress due to initiating or reopening of a fracture in tensile mode. However, shear failure or fault reactivation can occur at pressures well below the minimum far-field stress that is typically considered a safe upper bound for mud pressure if pre-existing planes of weakness such as faults or fracture networks exist. We demonstrated a mud loss event is shown to be inconsistent with the tensile failure mode in a normal stress environment, but in good agreement with expectations for shear failure along pre-existing faults.

  15. Validity of Measurement of Shear Modulus by Ultrasound Shear Wave Elastography in Human Pennate Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probes principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20 obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction. PMID:25853777

  16. Validity of measurement of shear modulus by ultrasound shear wave elastography in human pennate muscle.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Yoshitake, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound shear wave elastography is becoming a valuable tool for measuring mechanical properties of individual muscles. Since ultrasound shear wave elastography measures shear modulus along the principal axis of the probe (i.e., along the transverse axis of the imaging plane), the measured shear modulus most accurately represents the mechanical property of the muscle along the fascicle direction when the probe's principal axis is parallel to the fascicle direction in the plane of the ultrasound image. However, it is unclear how the measured shear modulus is affected by the probe angle relative to the fascicle direction in the same plane. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine whether the angle between the principal axis of the probe and the fascicle direction in the same plane affects the measured shear modulus. Shear modulus in seven specially-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms, and in eleven human in-vivo biceps brachii and medial gastrocnemius were determined by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. The probe was positioned parallel or 20° obliquely to the fascicle across the B-mode images. The reproducibility of shear modulus measurements was high for both parallel and oblique conditions. Although there was a significant effect of the probe angle relative to the fascicle on the shear modulus in human experiment, the magnitude was negligibly small. These findings indicate that the ultrasound shear wave elastography is a valid tool for evaluating the mechanical property of pennate muscles along the fascicle direction. PMID:25853777

  17. Development of a new contact-type piezoresistive micro-shear-stress sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, M. C.; Fang, Yean-Kuen; Ju, M. S.; Ho, Jyh-Jier; Ting, S. F.

    2002-04-01

    A prototype contact type micro piezoresistive shear-stress sensor that can be utilized to measure the shear stress between skin of stump and socket of Above-Knee (AK) prosthesis was designed, fabricated and tested. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology has been chosen for the design because of the low cost, small size and adaptability to this application. In this paper, the Finite Element Method (FEM) package ANSYS has been employed for the stress analysis of the micro shear-stress sensors. The sensors contain two X-ducers that will transform the stresses into an output voltage. In the developed sensor, a 3000X3000X3000 micrometers (superscript 3/ square membrane is formed by bulk micromachining of an n-type <100> monolithic silicon. The piezoresistive strain gauges were implanted with boron ions with a dose of 10(superscript 15/ atoms/cm(superscript 2/. Static characteristics of the shear sensor were determined through a series of calibration tests. The fabricated sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 0.13mV/mA-Mpa for a 1.4N full scales shear force range and the overall mean hysteresis error is than 3.5%. In addition, the results simulated by FEM are validated by comparison with experimental investigations.

  18. A Shearing-Stretching Device That Can Apply Physiological Fluid Shear Stress and Cyclic Stretch Concurrently to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Meza, Daphne; Abejar, Louie; Rubenstein, David A; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) morphology and functions can be highly impacted by the mechanical stresses that the cells experience in vivo. In most areas in the vasculature, ECs are continuously exposed to unsteady blood flow-induced shear stress and vasodilation-contraction-induced tensile stress/strain simultaneously. Investigations on how ECs respond to combined shear stress and tensile strain will help us to better understand how an altered mechanical environment affects EC mechanotransduction, dysfunction, and associated cardiovascular disease development. In the present study, a programmable shearing and stretching device that can apply dynamic fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain simultaneously to cultured ECs was developed. Flow and stress/strain conditions in the device were simulated using a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model. To characterize the performance of this device and the effect of combined shear stress-tensile strain on EC morphology, human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) were exposed to concurrent shear stress and cyclic tensile strain in the device. Changes in EC morphology were evaluated through cell elongation, cell alignment, and cell junctional actin accumulation. Results obtained from the numerical simulation indicated that in the "in-plane" area of the device, both fluid shear stress and biaxial tensile strain were uniform. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that shear stress, alone or combined with cyclic tensile strain, induced significant cell elongation. While biaxial tensile strain alone did not induce any appreciable change in EC elongation. Fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain had different effects on EC actin filament alignment and accumulation. By combining various fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain conditions, this device can provide a physiologically relevant mechanical environment to study EC responses to physiological and pathological mechanical stimulation. PMID:26810848

  19. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V2/Pa1/3 with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  20. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V(2)/Pa(1/3) with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors. PMID:26931882

  1. Development of a MEMS shear stress sensor for use in wind tunnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Casey; Meloy, Jessica; Sheplak, Mark; Interdisciplinary Microsystems Group Team

    2013-11-01

    The measurement of mean and fluctuating wall shear-stress in laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers and channel flows has applications both in industry and the scientific community. Currently there is no method for time resolved, direct measurement of wall shear stress at the spatial and temporal scales of turbulent flow structures inside model testing facilities. To address this need, a silicon micromachined differential capacitance shear stress sensor system has been developed. Mean measurements are enabled by custom synchronous modulation/demodulation circuitry, which allows for measurement of both magnitude and phase of incident wall shear stress. Sizes of the largest device features are on the order of relevant viscous length scales, to minimize flow disturbance and provide a hydraulically smooth sensing surface. Static calibration is performed in a flow cell setup, and an acoustic plane wave tube is used for dynamic response data. Normalized sensitivity of 1.34 mV/V/Pa has been observed over a bandwidth of 4.8 kHz, with a minimum detectable signal of 6.5 mPa. Initial results show qualitative agreement with contemporary measurement techniques. The design, fabrication, support electronics, characterization, and preliminary experimental performance of this sensor will be presented. The support of NASA SFW-NRA NNX11AI30A, AFOSR grant #FA 9550-12-1-0469, and Sandia Campus Executive Fellowship are gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries. PMID:26114021

  3. Dual shear wave induced laser speckle contrast signal and the improvement in shear wave speed measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Sinan; Cheng, Yi; Eckersley, Robert J; Elson, Daniel S; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2015-06-01

    Shear wave speed is quantitatively related to tissue viscoelasticity. Previously we reported shear wave tracking at centimetre depths in a turbid optical medium using laser speckle contrast detection. Shear wave progression modulates displacement of optical scatterers and therefore modulates photon phase and changes the laser speckle patterns. Time-resolved charge-coupled device (CCD)-based speckle contrast analysis was used to track shear waves and measure the time-of-flight of shear waves for speed measurement. In this manuscript, we report a new observation of the laser speckle contrast difference signal for dual shear waves. A modulation of CCD speckle contrast difference was observed and simulation reproduces the modulation pattern, suggesting its origin. Both experimental and simulation results show that the dual shear wave approach generates an improved definition of temporal features in the time-of-flight optical signal and an improved signal to noise ratio with a standard deviation less than 50% that of individual shear waves. Results also show that dual shear waves can correct the bias of shear wave speed measurement caused by shear wave reflections from elastic boundaries. PMID:26114021

  4. An instrumentation-grade differential capacitive MEMS shear stress sensor system for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloy, Jessica Caitlin

    This dissertation describes the development of a differential capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) shear stress sensor, the associated packaging, and the interface electronics required for operation as an instrumentation-grade sensing system. The sensor is a floating element possessing a differential comb drive designed to meet the spatial and temporal requirements for use as a measurement tool for turbulent boundary layers. The capacitive sensing interface circuitry is an analog synchronous modulation/demodulation system that enables the system to make time-resolved measurements of both mean and dynamic wall shear stress events. The packaging of the sensor creates a hydraulically smooth surface for moderate Reynolds numbers with a small footprint to enable array design and non-intrusive installation. The calibration of the sensor is extended to include a new method in estimating the frequency response function of shear stress sensors and a new test bed to quantify the impact of varying humidity and temperature in the ambient environment. The sensor system is demonstrated in three wind tunnel facilities against a variety of comparative measurement techniques and in many flow conditions. The final system exhibits a sensitivity of 6.5 mV/Pa, a bandwidth of 4.7 kHz, and is the first MEMS-based shear stress system to successfully demonstrate both mean and dynamic measurements in multiple wind tunnel facilities.

  5. Effect of low shear stress on permeability and occludin expression in porcine artery endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    INTRODUCTION: Although both fluid shear stress and mass transport of atherogenic substances into the vascular wall are known to be important factors in atherogenesis, there has been little research on the effect of shear stress on vascular permeability. Therefore, the effects of shear stress on the ...

  6. Liquid crystals for unsteady surface shear stress visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    Oscillating airfoil experiments were conducted to test the frequency response of thermochromic liquid crystal coatings to unsteady surface shear stresses under isothermal-flow conditions. The model was an NACA-0015 airfoil, exposed to an incompressible flow at a freestream Reynolds number (based on chord) of 1.14 x 10/sup 6/. Angle-of-attack forcing functions were sine waves of amplitude +- 10/degree/ about each of three mean angles of attack: 0/degree/, 10/degree/, and 20/degree/. Frequencies of oscillation were 0.2, 0.6 and 1.2 hertz, corresponding to reduced frequencies of 0.0055, 0.0164 and 0.0328. Data acquisition was accomplished by video recording. Observations showed the liquid crystal technique capable of visualizing high surface shear stress zones over the stated dynamic range in a continuous and reversible manner. 11 refs.

  7. Structure-Enhanced Yield Shear Stress in Electrorheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Lan, Y. C.; Xu, X.

    A new technology, compression-assisted aggregation, is developed to enhance the strength of electrorheological (ER) fluids. The yield shear stress of ER fluids depends on the fluid microstructure. The unassisted electric-field induced ER structure mainly consists of single chains, whose weak points are at their ends. This new technology produces a structure consisting of robust thick columns with strong ends. As the weak points of the original ER structure are greatly enforced, the new structure makes ER fluids super-strong: At a moderate electric field and moderate pressure the yield shear stress of ER fluids at 35% volume fraction exceeds 100 kPa, well above any requirement for major industrial applications.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Intravascular Blood Coagulation under Wall Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rukhlenko, Oleksii S.; Dudchenko, Olga A.; Zlobina, Ksenia E.; Guria, Georgy Th.

    2015-01-01

    Increased shear stress such as observed at local stenosis may cause drastic changes in the permeability of the vessel wall to procoagulants and thus initiate intravascular blood coagulation. In this paper we suggest a mathematical model to investigate how shear stress-induced permeability influences the thrombogenic potential of atherosclerotic plaques. Numerical analysis of the model reveals the existence of two hydrodynamic thresholds for activation of blood coagulation in the system and unveils typical scenarios of thrombus formation. The dependence of blood coagulation development on the intensity of blood flow, as well as on geometrical parameters of atherosclerotic plaque is described. Relevant parametric diagrams are drawn. The results suggest a previously unrecognized role of relatively small plaques (resulting in less than 50% of the lumen area reduction) in atherothrombosis and have important implications for the existing stenting guidelines. PMID:26222505

  9. Non-volcanic tremor driven by large transient shear stresses.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Justin L; Vidale, John E; Gomberg, Joan; Bodin, Paul; Creager, Kenneth C; Malone, Stephen D

    2007-08-01

    Non-impulsive seismic radiation or 'tremor' has long been observed at volcanoes and more recently around subduction zones. Although the number of observations of non-volcanic tremor is steadily increasing, the causative mechanism remains unclear. Some have attributed non-volcanic tremor to the movement of fluids, while its coincidence with geodetically observed slow-slip events at regular intervals has led others to consider slip on the plate interface as its cause. Low-frequency earthquakes in Japan, which are believed to make up at least part of non-volcanic tremor, have focal mechanisms and locations that are consistent with tremor being generated by shear slip on the subduction interface. In Cascadia, however, tremor locations appear to be more distributed in depth than in Japan, making them harder to reconcile with a plate interface shear-slip model. Here we identify bursts of tremor that radiated from the Cascadia subduction zone near Vancouver Island, Canada, during the strongest shaking from the moment magnitude M(w) = 7.8, 2002 Denali, Alaska, earthquake. Tremor occurs when the Love wave displacements are to the southwest (the direction of plate convergence of the overriding plate), implying that the Love waves trigger the tremor. We show that these displacements correspond to shear stresses of approximately 40 kPa on the plate interface, which suggests that the effective stress on the plate interface is very low. These observations indicate that tremor and possibly slow slip can be instantaneously induced by shear stress increases on the subduction interface-effectively a frictional failure response to the driving stress. PMID:17671500

  10. ENaC regulation by proteases and shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shujie; Carattino, Marcelo D.; Hughey, Rebecca P.; Kleyman, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) are comprised of subunits that have large extracellular regions linked to membrane spanning domains where the channel pore and gate reside. A variety of external factors modify channel activity by interacting at sites within extracellular regions that lead to conformational changes that are transmitted to the channel gate and alter channel open probability. Our review addresses two external factors that have important roles in regulating channel activity, proteases and laminar shear stress. PMID:23547932

  11. Non-volcanic tremor driven by large transient shear stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubinstein, J.L.; Vidale, J.E.; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Creager, K.C.; Malone, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Non-impulsive seismic radiation or 'tremor' has long been observed at volcanoes and more recently around subduction zones. Although the number of observations of non-volcanic tremor is steadily increasing, the causative mechanism remains unclear. Some have attributed non-volcanic tremor to the movement of fluids, while its coincidence with geodetically observed slow-slip events at regular intervals has led others to consider slip on the plate interface as its cause. Low-frequency earthquakes in Japan, which are believed to make up at least part of non-volcanic tremor, have focal mechanisms and locations that are consistent with tremor being generated by shear slip on the subduction interface. In Cascadia, however, tremor locations appear to be more distributed in depth than in Japan, making them harder to reconcile with a plate interface shear-slip model. Here we identify bursts of tremor that radiated from the Cascadia subduction zone near Vancouver Island, Canada, during the strongest shaking from the moment magnitude Mw = 7.8, 2002 Denali, Alaska, earthquake. Tremor occurs when the Love wave displacements are to the southwest (the direction of plate convergence of the overriding plate), implying that the Love waves trigger the tremor. We show that these displacements correspond to shear stresses of approximately 40 kPa on the plate interface, which suggests that the effective stress on the plate interface is very low. These observations indicate that tremor and possibly slow slip can be instantaneously induced by shear stress increases on the subduction interface - effectively a frictional failure response to the driving stress. ??2007 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Miniature Laser Doppler Velocimeter for Measuring Wall Shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gharib, Morteza; Modarress, Darius; Forouhar, Siamak; Fourguette, Dominique; Taugwalder, Federic; Wilson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    A miniature optoelectronic instrument has been invented as a nonintrusive means of measuring a velocity gradient proportional to a shear stress in a flow near a wall. The instrument, which can be mounted flush with the wall, is a variant of a basic laser Doppler velocimeter. The laser Doppler probe volume can be located close enough to the wall (as little as 100 micron from the surface) to lie within the viscosity-dominated sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The instrument includes a diode laser, the output of which is shaped by a diffractive optical element (DOE) into two beams that have elliptical cross sections with very high aspect ratios.

  13. Mode selective generation of guided waves by systematic optimization of the interfacial shear stress profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah Moghadam, Peyman; Quaegebeur, Nicolas; Masson, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are commonly used in structural health monitoring systems to generate and measure ultrasonic guided waves (GWs) by applying interfacial shear and normal stresses to the host structure. In most cases, in order to perform damage detection, advanced signal processing techniques are required, since a minimum of two dispersive modes are propagating in the host structure. In this paper, a systematic approach for mode selection is proposed by optimizing the interfacial shear stress profile applied to the host structure, representing the first step of a global optimization of selective mode actuator design. This approach has the potential of reducing the complexity of signal processing tools as the number of propagating modes could be reduced. Using the superposition principle, an analytical method is first developed for GWs excitation by a finite number of uniform segments, each contributing with a given elementary shear stress profile. Based on this, cost functions are defined in order to minimize the undesired modes and amplify the selected mode and the optimization problem is solved with a parallel genetic algorithm optimization framework. Advantages of this method over more conventional transducers tuning approaches are that (1) the shear stress can be explicitly optimized to both excite one mode and suppress other undesired modes, (2) the size of the excitation area is not constrained and mode-selective excitation is still possible even if excitation width is smaller than all excited wavelengths, and (3) the selectivity is increased and the bandwidth extended. The complexity of the optimal shear stress profile obtained is shown considering two cost functions with various optimal excitation widths and number of segments. Results illustrate that the desired mode (A0 or S0) can be excited dominantly over other modes up to a wave power ratio of 1010 using an optimal shear stress profile.

  14. Critical shear stress for erosion of cohesive soils subjected to temperatures typical of wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Dungan, Smith J.; Ragan, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Increased erosion is a well-known response after wildfire. To predict and to model erosion on a landscape scale requires knowledge of the critical shear stress for the initiation of motion of soil particles. As this soil property is temperature-dependent, a quantitative relation between critical shear stress and the temperatures to which the soils have been subjected during a wildfire is required. In this study the critical shear stress was measured in a recirculating flume using samples of forest soil exposed to different temperatures (40??-550??C) for 1 hour. Results were obtained for four replicates of soils derived from three different types of parent material (granitic bedrock, sandstone, and volcanic tuffs). In general, the relation between critical shear stress and temperature can be separated into three different temperature ranges (275??C), which are similar to those for water repellency and temperature. The critical shear stress was most variable (1.0-2.0 N m-2) for temperatures 2.0 N m-2) between 175?? and 275??C, and was essentially constant (0.5-0.8 N m-2) for temperatures >275??C. The changes in critical shear stress with temperature were found to be essentially independent of soil type and suggest that erosion processes in burned watersheds can be modeled more simply than erosion processes in unburned watersheds. Wildfire reduces the spatial variability of soil erodibility associated with unburned watersheds by eliminating the complex effects of vegetation in protecting soils and by reducing the range of cohesion associated with different types of unburned soils. Our results indicate that modeling the erosional response after a wildfire depends primarily on determining the spatial distribution of the maximum soil temperatures that were reached during the wildfire. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Characterizations and Correlations of Wall Shear Stress in Aneurysmal Flow.

    PubMed

    Arzani, Amirhossein; Shadden, Shawn C

    2016-01-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) is one of the most studied hemodynamic parameters, used in correlating blood flow to various diseases. The pulsatile nature of blood flow, along with the complex geometries of diseased arteries, produces complicated temporal and spatial WSS patterns. Moreover, WSS is a vector, which further complicates its quantification and interpretation. The goal of this study is to investigate WSS magnitude, angle, and vector changes in space and time in complex blood flow. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) was chosen as a setting to explore WSS quantification. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in six AAAs. New WSS parameters are introduced, and the pointwise correlation among these, and more traditional WSS parameters, was explored. WSS magnitude had positive correlation with spatial/temporal gradients of WSS magnitude. This motivated the definition of relative WSS gradients. WSS vectorial gradients were highly correlated with magnitude gradients. A mix WSS spatial gradient and a mix WSS temporal gradient are proposed to equally account for variations in the WSS angle and magnitude in single measures. The important role that WSS plays in regulating near wall transport, and the high correlation among some of the WSS parameters motivates further attention in revisiting the traditional approaches used in WSS characterizations. PMID:26592536

  16. FOXC2 and fluid shear stress stabilize postnatal lymphatic vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Sabine, Amélie; Bovay, Esther; Demir, Cansaran Saygili; Kimura, Wataru; Jaquet, Muriel; Agalarov, Yan; Zangger, Nadine; Scallan, Joshua P.; Graber, Werner; Gulpinar, Elgin; Kwak, Brenda R.; Mäkinen, Taija; Martinez-Corral, Inés; Ortega, Sagrario; Delorenzi, Mauro; Kiefer, Friedemann; Davis, Michael J.; Djonov, Valentin; Miura, Naoyuki; Petrova, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress, govern multiple aspects of endothelial cell biology. In blood vessels, disturbed flow is associated with vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and promotes endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we identified an important role for disturbed flow in lymphatic vessels, in which it cooperates with the transcription factor FOXC2 to ensure lifelong stability of the lymphatic vasculature. In cultured lymphatic endothelial cells, FOXC2 inactivation conferred abnormal shear stress sensing, promoting junction disassembly and entry into the cell cycle. Loss of FOXC2-dependent quiescence was mediated by the Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivator TAZ and, ultimately, led to cell death. In murine models, inducible deletion of Foxc2 within the lymphatic vasculature led to cell-cell junction defects, regression of valves, and focal vascular lumen collapse, which triggered generalized lymphatic vascular dysfunction and lethality. Together, our work describes a fundamental mechanism by which FOXC2 and oscillatory shear stress maintain lymphatic endothelial cell quiescence through intercellular junction and cytoskeleton stabilization and provides an essential link between biomechanical forces and endothelial cell identity that is necessary for postnatal vessel homeostasis. As FOXC2 is mutated in lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, our data also underscore the role of impaired mechanotransduction in the pathology of this hereditary human disease. PMID:26389677

  17. FOXC2 and fluid shear stress stabilize postnatal lymphatic vasculature.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Amlie; Bovay, Esther; Demir, Cansaran Saygili; Kimura, Wataru; Jaquet, Muriel; Agalarov, Yan; Zangger, Nadine; Scallan, Joshua P; Graber, Werner; Gulpinar, Elgin; Kwak, Brenda R; Mkinen, Taija; Martinez-Corral, Ins; Ortega, Sagrario; Delorenzi, Mauro; Kiefer, Friedemann; Davis, Michael J; Djonov, Valentin; Miura, Naoyuki; Petrova, Tatiana V

    2015-10-01

    Biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress, govern multiple aspects of endothelial cell biology. In blood vessels, disturbed flow is associated with vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and promotes endothelial cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we identified an important role for disturbed flow in lymphatic vessels, in which it cooperates with the transcription factor FOXC2 to ensure lifelong stability of the lymphatic vasculature. In cultured lymphatic endothelial cells, FOXC2 inactivation conferred abnormal shear stress sensing, promoting junction disassembly and entry into the cell cycle. Loss of FOXC2-dependent quiescence was mediated by the Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivator TAZ and, ultimately, led to cell death. In murine models, inducible deletion of Foxc2 within the lymphatic vasculature led to cell-cell junction defects, regression of valves, and focal vascular lumen collapse, which triggered generalized lymphatic vascular dysfunction and lethality. Together, our work describes a fundamental mechanism by which FOXC2 and oscillatory shear stress maintain lymphatic endothelial cell quiescence through intercellular junction and cytoskeleton stabilization and provides an essential link between biomechanical forces and endothelial cell identity that is necessary for postnatal vessel homeostasis. As FOXC2 is mutated in lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome, our data also underscore the role of impaired mechanotransduction in the pathology of this hereditary human disease. PMID:26389677

  18. Surface Shear Stress Around a Single Flexible Live Plant and a Rigid Cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B. A.; Gromke, C.; Leonard, K. C.; Clifton, A.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    The sheltering effect of vegetation against soil erosion and snow transport has direct implications on land degradation and local water storage as snow in many arid and semi arid regions. Plants influence the erosion, transport and redeposition of soil and snow by the wind through momentum absorption, local stress concentration, trapping particles in motion and reducing the area of sediment exposed to the wind. The shear stress distributions on the ground beneath plant canopies determine the onset and magnitude of differential soil and snow erosion on rough or vegetated surfaces, but this has been studied exclusively with artificial and rigid vegetation elements thus far. Real plants have highly irregular structures that can be extremely flexible and porous. They align with the flow at higher wind speeds, resulting in considerable changes to the drag and flow regimes relative to rigid imitations of comparable size. We present measurements in the SLF atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel of the surface shear stress distribution around a live grass plant (Lolium Perenne) and a solid cylinder of comparable size. Irwin sensors are used to measure pressure differences close to the surface which can be calibrated with surface shear stress velocities. The basal to frontal area index of the plant and the cylinder as well as the Reynolds number of the two experimental setups have been checked for similarity and show good agreement. Distinctive differences between the shear stress pattern around the plant and the cylinder can be attributed to the influence of the plants porosity and flexibility. The sheltered zone behind the plant is narrower in cross-stream and longer in streamwise direction than that of the cylinder. For the plant, the lowest shear stresses in the sheltered zone are 50% lower than the mean surface shear stress (? = 0.15 N/m2) in the undisturbed flow. The sheltering was higher behind the cylinder with values reduced by 70% relative to background. Speed-up zones on both sides of the roughness elements experienced peak shear stress values 60% above background for the plant and almost 130% higher for the cylinder. While the integral sheltering effect of the plant is smaller in size and magnitude than that of the cylinder, the peak shear stresses in the lateral speed up zones are significantly lower. Since the onset of soil erosion occurs when a critical threshold shear stress is experienced, the lower peak shear stress means that plants provide better protection against soil erosion than rigid elements. This result suggests that parameterizations of flow over vegetated surfaces based on measurements of rigid elements may be incorrect. Further work will investigate sheltering and shear stress concentrations as a function of cylinder / plant density using real canopies instead of single objects.

  19. An Evaluation of the Iosipescu Specimen for Composite Materials Shear Property Measurement. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Henjen

    1991-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the suitability of the Iosipescu specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture is presented. An experimental investigation using conventional strain gage instrumentation and moire interferometry is performed. A finite element analysis of the Iosipescu shear test for unidirectional and cross-ply composites is used to assess the uniformity of the shear stress field in the vicinity of the notch, and demonstrate the effect of the nonuniform stress field upon the strain gage measurements used for the determination of composite shear moduli. From the test results for graphite-epoxy laminates, it is shown that the proximity of the load introduction point to the test section greatly influences the individual gage readings for certain fiber orientations but the effect upon shear modulus measurement is relatively unimportant. A numerical study of the load contact effect shows the sensitivity of some fiber configurations to the specimen/fixture contact mechanism and may account for the variations in the measured shear moduli. A comparison of the strain gage readings from one surface of a specimen with corresponding data from moire interferometry on the opposite face documented an extreme sensitivity of some fiber orientations to eccentric loading which induced twisting and yielded spurious shear stress-strain curves. In the numerical analysis, it is shown that the Iosipescu specimens for different fiber orientations have to be modeled differently in order to closely approximate the true loading conditions. Correction factors are needed to allow for the nonuniformity of the strain field and the use of the average shear stress in the shear modulus evaluation. The correction factors, which are determined for the region occupied by the strain gage rosette, are found to be dependent upon the material orthotropic ratio and the finite element models. Based upon the experimental and numerical results, recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of the shear modulus values are made, and the implications for shear strength measurement discussed. Further application of the Iosipescu shear test to woven fabric composites is presented. The limitations of the traditional strain gage instrumentation on the satin weave and high tow plain weave fabrics is discussed. Test results of a epoxy based aluminum particulate composite is also presented. A modification of the Iosipescu specimen is proposed and investigated experimentally and numerically. It is shown that the proposed new specimen design provides a more uniform shear stress field in the test section and greatly reduces the normal and shear stress concentrations in the vicinity of the notches. While the fabrication and the material cost of the proposed specimen is tremendously reduced, it is shown the accuracy of the shear modulus measurement is not sacrificed.

  20. Rheological investigations of ferrofluids with a shear stress controlled rheometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnazian, Hamid; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    The appearance of field- and shear-dependent changes of viscositythe magnetoviscous effectis correlated to the formation of chains and structures of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, the formation of these structures leads to the appearance of viscoelastic effects or other non-Newtonian features in ferrofluids in the presence of a magnetic field. In order to describe these phenomena, different theoretical approaches have been developed which explain the mechanism of these effects with different assumptions. One point in which these models differ, and which has to be clarified, is the appearance of yield stress and its dependence on magnetic field strength. With this aim, a stress controlled rheometer has been designed to prove the existence of this very small field-dependent yield stress for ferrofluids. The results presented here show a dependence of the yield stress on the magnetic field strength as well as on the interparticle interaction and particle size distribution. Finally, yield stress experiments have been performed for different geometries of the shear cell in order to get more information about the microstructure formed by the magnetic particles.

  1. Rheological investigations of ferrofluids with a shear stress controlled rheometer.

    PubMed

    Shahnazian, Hamid; Odenbach, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    The appearance of field-and shear-dependent changes of viscosity-the magnetoviscous effect-is correlated to the formation of chains and structures of magnetic nanoparticles. Moreover, the formation of these structures leads to the appearance of viscoelastic effects or other non-Newtonian features in ferrofluids in the presence of a magnetic field. In order to describe these phenomena, different theoretical approaches have been developed which explain the mechanism of these effects with different assumptions. One point in which these models differ, and which has to be clarified, is the appearance of yield stress and its dependence on magnetic field strength. With this aim, a stress controlled rheometer has been designed to prove the existence of this very small field-dependent yield stress for ferrofluids. The results presented here show a dependence of the yield stress on the magnetic field strength as well as on the interparticle interaction and particle size distribution. Finally, yield stress experiments have been performed for different geometries of the shear cell in order to get more information about the microstructure formed by the magnetic particles. PMID:21694266

  2. The effects of fluid shear stress on proliferation and osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lisha; Chen, Luoping; Chen, Yuchao; Gui, Jinpeng; Li, Qing; Huang, Yan; Liu, Meili; Jia, Xiaolin; Song, Wei; Ji, Jing; Gong, Xianghui; Shi, Ruoshi; Fan, Yubo

    2016-02-29

    Shear stress is one of the main stress type produced by speech, mastication or tooth movement. The mechano-response of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells by shear stress and the mechanism are largely unknown. In our study, we investigated the effects of fluid shear stress on proliferation, migration and osteogenic potential of human PDL cells. 6dyn/cm(2) of fluid shear stress was produced in a parallel plate flow chamber. Our results demonstrated that fluid shear stress rearranged the orientation of human PDL cells. In addition, fluid shear stress inhibited human PDL cell proliferation and migration, but increased the osteogenic potential and expression of several growth factors and cytokines. Our study suggested that shear stress is involved in homeostasis regulation in human PDL cells. Inhibiting proliferation and migration potentially induce PDL cells to respond to mechanical stimuli in order to undergo osteogenic differentiation. PMID:26892895

  3. The Behavior Under Shearing Stress of Duralumin Strip with Round, Flanged Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schussler, Karl

    1934-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the behavior of dural strip with flanged holes in the center when subjected to shear stresses. They buckle under a certain load just as a flat sheet. There is one optimum hole spacing and a corresponding buckling load in shear for each sheet width, sheet thickness, and flange form. Comparison with non-flanged sheets revealed a marked increase of buckling load in shear due to the flanging and a slightly greater displacement. Strips were clamped between two stationary end rails and one sliding center rail at which the shear is applied. The force was measured with a tension stirrup up to 20 tons and a compression dynamometer up to 10 tons. The displacement was recorded with the Zeiss dial gauge. The following were investigated: 1) effect of strip width; 2) strip thickness; 3) diameter of flanging; 4) depth of flanging; 5) and hole distance.

  4. Shear-Stress Partitioning in Live Plant Canopies and Modifications to Raupach's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Gromke, Christof; Lehning, Michael

    2012-08-01

    The spatial peak surface shear stress {tau _S^'' on the ground beneath vegetation canopies is responsible for the onset of particle entrainment and its precise and accurate prediction is essential when modelling soil, snow or sand erosion. This study investigates shear-stress partitioning, i.e. the fraction of the total fluid stress on the entire canopy that acts directly on the surface, for live vegetation canopies (plant species: Lolium perenne) using measurements in a controlled wind-tunnel environment. Rigid, non-porous wooden blocks instead of the plants were additionally tested for the purpose of comparison since previous wind-tunnel studies used exclusively artificial plant imitations for their experiments on shear-stress partitioning. The drag partitioning model presented by Raupach (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 60:375-395, 1992) and Raupach et al. (J Geophys Res 98:3023-3029, 1993), which allows the prediction of the total shear stress τ on the entire canopy as well as the peak {(tau _S ^''/tau )^{1/2}} and the average {(tau _S^'/tau )^{1/2}} shear-stress ratios, is tested against measurements to determine the model parameters and the model's ability to account for shape differences of various roughness elements. It was found that the constant c, needed to determine the total stress τ and which was unspecified to date, can be assumed a value of about c = 0.27. Values for the model parameter m, which accounts for the difference between the spatial surface average {tau _S^' and the peak {tau _S ^'' shear stress, are difficult to determine because m is a function of the roughness density, the wind velocity and the roughness element shape. A new definition for a parameter a is suggested as a substitute for m. This a parameter is found to be more closely universal and solely a function of the roughness element shape. It is able to predict the peak surface shear stress accurately. Finally, a method is presented to determine the new a parameter for different kinds of roughness elements.

  5. Development of a MEMS dual-axis differential capacitance floating element shear stress sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, Casey; Griffin, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A single-axis MEMS wall shear stress sensor with differential capacitive transduction method is produced. Using a synchronous modulation and demodulation interface circuit, the system is capable of making real time measurements of both mean and fluctuating wall shear stress. A sensitivity of 3.44 mV/Pa is achieved, with linearity in response demonstrated up to testing limit of 2 Pa. Minimum detectable signals of 340 μPa at 100 Hz and 120 μPa at 1 kHz are indicated, with a resonance of 3.5 kHz. Multiple full scale wind tunnel tests are performed, producing spectral measurements of turbulent boundary layers in wind speeds ranging up to 0.5 Ma (18 Pa of mean wall shear stress). The compact packaging allows for minimally invasive installation, and has proven relatively robust over multiple testing events. Temperature sensitivity, likely due to poor CTE matching of packaged materials, is an ongoing concern being addressed. These successes are being directly leveraged into a development plan for a dual-axis wall shear stress sensor, capable of producing true vector estimates at the wall.

  6. Wind waves on a mudflat: The influence of fetch and depth on bed shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Wind waves were measured in the Willapa Bay mudflats, Washington State, USA, for two months. Wave height, period, and bed shear stresses were modulated by water depth (0-3.5m), wind speed (0-20m/s), and fetch (1-5km). Good agreement was found between the measured waves and predictions of the wave spectral model SWAN using either simplified 1D flat bottom or 2D geometries. The relationship between bed shear stress and water depth shows a dependence on fetch: the decay of bed shear stress with increasing water depth is gradual for long fetch and rapid for short fetch. This difference is explained by the coupled effects of water depth, wave height and wave period. Due to the fetch-dependent bed shear stress, different morphological consequences for tidal flats of different size are predicted. In small (2km) and sheltered tidal flats, waves cause the largest sediment resuspension when water levels are near mean sea level. In extensive tidal flats (20km) or in flats exposed to waves propagating from deep water, waves also are effective in causing substrate erosion during high tides or large storm surges.

  7. Wind waves on a mudflat: The influence of fetch and depth on bed shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-06-01

    Wind waves were measured in the Willapa Bay mudflats, Washington State, USA, for two months. Wave height, period, and bed shear stresses were modulated by water depth (0-3.5 m), wind speed (0-20 m/s), and fetch (1-5 km). Good agreement was found between the measured waves and predictions of the wave spectral model SWAN using either simplified 1D flat bottom or 2D geometries. The relationship between bed shear stress and water depth shows a dependence on fetch: the decay of bed shear stress with increasing water depth is gradual for long fetch and rapid for short fetch. This difference is explained by the coupled effects of water depth, wave height and wave period. Due to the fetch-dependent bed shear stress, different morphological consequences for tidal flats of different size are predicted. In small (2 km) and sheltered tidal flats, waves cause the largest sediment resuspension when water levels are near mean sea level. In extensive tidal flats (20 km) or in flats exposed to waves propagating from deep water, waves also are effective in causing substrate erosion during high tides or large storm surges.

  8. Application of multiple levels of fluid shear stress to endothelial cells plated on polyacrylamide gels

    PubMed Central

    Galie, P. A.; van Oosten, A.; Chen, C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of endothelial cell response to fluid shear stress have previously been performed on unphysiologically rigid substrates. We describe the design and implementation of a microfluidic device that applies discrete levels of shear stress to cells plated on hydrogel-based substrates of physiologicallyrelevant stiffness. The setup allows for measurements of cell morphology and inflammatory response to the combined stimuli, and identifies mechanisms by which vascular stiffening leads to pathological responses to blood flow. We found that the magnitude of shear stress required to affect endothelial cell morphology and inflammatory response depended on substrate stiffness. Endothelial cells on 100 Pa substrates demonstrate a greater increase in cell area and cortical stiffness and decrease in NF-?B nuclear translocation in response to TNF-? treatment compared to controls than cells plated on 10 kPa substrates. The response of endothelial cells on soft substrates to shear stress depends on the presence of hyaluronan (HA). These results emphasize the importance of substrate stiffness on endothelial function, and elucidate a means by which vascular stiffening in aging and disease can impact the endothelium. PMID:25573790

  9. Mechanical properties of jammed packings of frictionless spheres under an applied shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Tong, Hua; Xu, Ning

    2014-11-01

    By minimizing a thermodynamic-like potential, we unbiasedly sample the potential energy landscape of soft and frictionless spheres under a constant shear stress. We obtain zero-temperature jammed states under desired shear stresses and investigate their mechanical properties as a function of the shear stress. As a comparison, we also obtain the jammed states from the quasistatic-shear sampling in which the shear stress is not well-controlled. Although the yield stresses determined by both samplings show the same power-law scaling with the compression from the jamming transition point J at zero temperature and shear stress, for finite size systems the quasistatic-shear sampling leads to a lower yield stress and a higher critical volume fraction at point J. The shear modulus of the jammed solids decreases with increasing shear stress. However, the shear modulus does not decay to zero at yielding. This discontinuous change of the shear modulus implies the discontinuous nature of the unjamming transition under nonzero shear stress, which is further verified by the observation of a discontinuous jump in the pressure from the jammed solids to the shear flows. The pressure jump decreases upon decompression and approaches zero at the critical-like point J, in analogy with the well-known phase transitions under an external field. The analysis of the force networks in the jammed solids reveals that the force distribution is more sensitive to the increase of the shear stress near point J. The force network anisotropy increases with increasing shear stress. The weak particle contacts near the average force and under large shear stresses it exhibit an asymmetric angle distribution.

  10. Stress-structure relation in dense colloidal melts under forward and instantaneous reversal of the shear.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Amit Kumar

    2015-07-28

    A dense supercooled colloidal melt in forward shear from a quiescent state shows overshoot in the shear stress at 10% strain with an unchanged fluid structure at equal stress before and after overshoot. In addition, we find an overshoot in the normal stress with a monotonic increase in the osmotic pressure at an identical strain. The first and second normal stresses become comparable in magnitude and opposite in sign. A functional dependence of the steady state stress and osmotic pressure with the Péclet number demonstrates the signature of crossover between Newtonian and nearly-Newtonian regimes. Moreover, instantaneous shear reversal from a steady state exhibiting the Bauschinger effect, where a strong history dependence is observed depending on the time of the flow reversal. The distribution of the particulate stress and osmotic pressure at the point of the flow reversal is shown to be a signature of the subsequent response. We link the history dependence of the stress-strain curves to changes in the fluid structure measured through the angular components of the radial distribution function. A uniform compression in the transition from forward to reversed flowing states is found. PMID:26082951

  11. Microstructured optical fiber Bragg grating-based shear stress sensing in adhesive bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Geernaert, Thomas; Luyckx, Geert; Van Hemelrijck, Danny; Mergo, Pawel; Skorupski, Krzysztof; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Chah, Karima; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2014-05-01

    We present shear stress sensing with a Bragg grating sensor fabricated in a highly birefringent microstructured optical fiber. This sensor has a shear strain sensing resolution of 0.04 pm/?? when embedded in a shear loaded adhesive bond. We achieve discrete shear stress mapping in an adhesive bond by embedding a multitude of these sensors at different locations in the bond line. Experiments and numerical modeling show the limited influence of angular misalignment of the sensor on its shear stress response. Finally, we discuss the cross-sensitivity of this sensor to shear strain and temperature.

  12. Gas-wall shear stress distribution in horizontal stratified two-phase flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wongwises, S.; Pornsee, A.; Siroratsakul, E.

    1999-08-01

    Gas-liquid stratified flow is encountered in several industrial applications including the flow of oil and natural gas in petroleum industries, the flow of refrigerants in air conditioning and refrigeration systems and the flow of steam and water in emergency core cooling (ECC) systems in nuclear /reactors during the postulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Gas-wall shear stresses in the stratified gas-liquid flow in pipes are obtained using Preston`s method for measuring skin friction in the turbulent boundary layer. The non-dimensional relationship between the Preston tube reading and wall shear stress over a wide range of single-phase gas flow rates is reported. The wall shear stresses up to positions close to the gas-liquid interface, for various interface conditions, are obtained for the two-phase flow experiment. The distribution of the gas-wall shear stress and the effect of diameter on those distributions are investigated. The friction factors obtained from the experiments are also compared with those reported in the literature.

  13. Multiscale Interactions Between Surface Shear Stress and Velocity in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, V.; Carper, M.; Porte-Agel, F.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.

    2002-12-01

    Understanding the multiscale nonlinear interactions between surface shear stress and velocity is essential to improving boundary condition parameterizations used in numerical models of turbulent boundary layers. In this study, high-frequency measurements obtained in a wind tunnel are used to identify dominant scales of interaction between wind velocity and shear stress via wavelet cross-correlation analysis. Three ranges of scales of interaction are identified: (i) in the inertial sub-range, the correlation is negligible; (ii) in the energy production range, the correlation follows a log-law which is invariant with kz (z = distance to the surface; k = wavenumber); and (iii) for scales larger than the boundary-layer height, δ, the correlation reaches a plateau (a function of z/δ). Our results allow us to estimate the linear correlation between shear stress and wind velocity at multiple scales and assess the reliability of typical boundary condition formulations in numerical models (for instance, LES) that compute shear stress (or its fluctuations) as a linear function of wind velocity at the first vertical grid point.

  14. Field observations of bed shear stress and sediment resuspension on continental shelves, Alaska and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Bed shear stress was estimated using wave and current measurements obtained with the GEOPROBE bottom-tripod system during resuspension events in Norton Sound, Alaska, and on the northern California shelf. The boundary-layer model of Grant and Madsen (1979, Journal of Geophysical Research, 84, 1797-1808) was used to compute the bed shear stress under combined wave-generated and quasi-steady currents. Resuspension events were identified by sudden, large increases in light scattering at 1.9 m above the sea floor. The shear-stress values were used to compute the Shields parameter (??). The results for Norton Sound are in excellent agreement with the Shields threshold criterion; the data for the California shelf plot somewhat above the Shields threshold curve, though generally within the scatter envelope. Although the surface sediments in each area contain substantial fine-grained fractions (mean diameters were 0.007 cm in Norton Sound and 0.002 cm on the California shelf), the results do not indicate significant cohesion, because the sediment was entrained at bed shear-stress values close to those predicted by the modified Shields curve for cohesionless fine-grained particles. We suspect that frequent wave stirring and observed plowing of the surface sediment by benthonic animals maintain a high water content and contribute to the ease with which these materials are resuspended. ?? 1986.

  15. Wall Shear Stress in Oscillating Channel Flow Using Particle Image Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Blake; Roberts, Jesse; Smith, Barton; Kearney, Sean

    2013-11-01

    Offshore wind and water power are renewable sources with the potential for significant power generation. But each generation mechanism has risks from ocean floor structures that can disrupt natural sediment transport by increasing local shear stress. The Sediment Erosion Actuated by Wave Oscillations and Linear Flow (SEAWOLF) flume was designed and built to replicate wave motion with both oscillatory and unidirectional components to study sediment transport. The rectangular test section provides optical access for Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Additionally series of pressure taps allow for differential pressure measurements. Sine-wave oscillations and unidirectional flow in more than a dozen combinations are measured and presented. Phase locked measurements of volume flow rates, velocity fields, and pressure are acquired over several hundred cycles and phase averaged. High spatial resolution PIV is used near the wall for direct shear stress measurements. Since the flow is unsteady, the pressure drop in the test section has both inertial and friction contributions. To isolate the friction term, the pressure resulting from the fluid acceleration is subtracted. The synced PIV and pressure measurements on smooth walls where the viscous sublayer is formed confirm the accuracy of this method. The pressure sensor then measures shear stress on rough walls where the viscous sublayer is disrupted or non-existent and where optical access is difficult.

  16. A Fiber Optic Sensor Sensitive To Normal Pressure And Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Frank W.; Kidwell, Robert S.; Hu, Andong

    1986-11-01

    A fiber optic lever sensing technique that can be used to measure normal pressure as well as shear stresses is discussed. This method uses three unequal fibers combining small size and good sensitivity. Static measurements appear to confirm the theoretical models predicted by geometrical optics and dynamic tests performed at frequencies up to 10 kHz indicate a flat response within this frequency range. These sensors are intended for use in a low speed wind tunnel environment.

  17. Forced free-shear layer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional three-component phase averaged measurements of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity formation and evolution in acoustically forced plane free-shear flows have been obtained. For the first time, phase-averaged measurements of all three velocity components have been obtained in both a mixing layer and a wake on three-dimensional grids, yielding the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions without invoking Taylor's hypothesis. Initially, two-frequency forcing was used to phase-lock the roll-up and first pairing of the spanwise vortical structures in a plane mixing layer. The objective of this study was to measure the near-field vortical structure morphology in a mixing layer with 'natural' laminar initial boundary layers. For the second experiment the second and third subharmonics of the fundamental roll-up frequency were added to the previous two-frequency forcing in order to phase-lock the roll-up and first three pairings of the spanwise rollers in the mixing layer. The objective of this study was to determine the details of spanwise scale changes observed in previous time-averaged measurements and flow visualization of unforced mixing layers. For the final experiment, single-frequency forcing was used to phase-lock the Karman vortex street in a plane wake developing from nominally two-dimensional laminar initial boundary layers. The objective of this study was to compare measurements of the three-dimensional structure in a wake developing from 'natural' initial boundary layers to existing models of wake vortical structure.

  18. Deformation measurements of composite multi-span beam shear specimens by Moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Joh, D.; Wood, J.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental analyses were performed for determination of in plane deformations and shear strains in unidirectional and quasi-isotropic graphite-epoxy beams. Forty-eight ply beams were subjected to 5 point and 3 point flexure. Whole field measurements were recorded at load levels from about 20% to more than 90% of failure loads. Contour maps of U and W displacement fields were obtained by moire interferometry, using reference gratings of 2400 lines/mm. Clearly defined fringes with fringe orders exceeding 1000 were obtained. Whole field contour maps of shear strains were obtained by a method developed for these tests. Various anomalous effects were detected in the displacement fields. Their analysis indicated excess shear strains in resin rich zones in regions of shear tractions; free edge shear strains in quasi-isotropic specimens in regions of normal stresses; and shear stresses associated with cyclic shear compliances of quasi-isotropic plies in regions of shear tractions. Their contributions could occur independently or in superposition. Qualitative analyses addressed questions of relaxation; influence of contact stress distribution; specimen failure; effect of specimen overhang; nonlinearity; and qualities of 5 and 3 point flexure tests.

  19. Shear stress activation of nuclear receptor PXR in endothelial detoxification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Fang, Xi; Zhou, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Zhao, Beilei; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Ao; Li, Yi-Shuan J; Shyy, John Y-J; Guan, Youfei; Chien, Shu; Wang, Nanping

    2013-08-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are constantly exposed to xenobiotics and endobiotics or their metabolites, which perturb EC function, as well as to shear stress, which plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor and a key regulator of the detoxification of xeno- and endobiotics. Here we show that laminar shear stress (LSS), the atheroprotective flow, activates PXR in ECs, whereas oscillatory shear stress, the atheroprone flow, suppresses PXR. LSS activation of PXR in cultured ECs led to the increased expression of a PXR target gene, multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1). An in vivo study using rats showed that the expression of MDR1 was significantly higher in the endothelium from the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is mostly laminar, than from the inner curvature of aortic arch, where flow is disturbed. Functionally, LSS-activated PXR protects ECs from apoptosis triggered by doxorubicin via the induction of MDR1 and other detoxification genes. PXR also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion in response to TNF-? and lipopolysaccharide. Overexpression of a constitutively active PXR in rat carotid arteries potently attenuated proinflammatory responses. In addition, cDNA microarray revealed a large number of the PXR-activated endothelial genes whose products are responsible for major steps of detoxification, including phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and transporters. These detoxification genes in ECs are induced by LSS in ECs in a PXR-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that PXR represents a flow-activated detoxification system to protect ECs against damage by xeno- and endobiotics. PMID:23878263

  20. A New Model to Calculate Friction Coefficients and Shear Stresses in Thermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian

    2008-01-01

    A new analytical model for thermal drilling (also known as friction drilling) has been developed. The model distinguishes itself from recent work of other investigators by improving on two aspects: (1) the new model defines material plastic flow in terms of the yield in shear rather than the yield in compression, and (2) it uses a single, variable friction coefficient instead of assuming two unrelated friction coefficients in fixed values. The time dependence of the shear stress and friction coefficient at the hole walls, which cannot be measured directly in thermal drilling, can be calculated using this model from experimentally-measured values of the instantaneous thrust force and torque. Good matches between the calculated shear strengths and the handbook values for thermally drilling low carbon steel confirm the model's validity.

  1. Dynamic and shear stress rheological properties of guar galactomannans and its hydrolyzed derivatives.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Bakalis, Serafim; Gouseti, Ourania; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Guar galactomannan from seed of Cyamopsis tetragonolobus was hydrolyzed using acid (HCl), base [Ba(OH)2] and enzyme (mannanase) method to obtain depolymerized substances with possible functional applications as soluble dietary fiber. Rheological behavior of crude, purified, and depolymerized guar gum solutions was studied at 25 C, using shear stress and dynamic oscillatory measurements, performed with controlled stress rheometer Bohlin CVO (Malvern Instruments) fitted with cone-and-plate geometry. The various guar gums solutions with different viscosities exhibited shear-thinning behavior at high shear rate and Newtonian behavior at low shear rate. At low shear rate, sigma crude guar gum (SCGG), crude guar gum (CGG), acid hydrolyzed guar gum (AHGG) and enzyme hydrolyzed guar gum (EHGG) exhibited viscosities of 18.59, 1.346, 0.149 and 0.022 Pas, respectively. Oscillatory experiments (G", G') of gums solutions showed typical behavior of weak viscoelastic gel. All investigated guar gums were further used for glucose bio-accessibility using a novel in vitro small intestinal model (SIM). All gums solutions resulted in 20% reduction in simulated glucose absorption, indicating a non-significant functionality difference between various guar gums. So, it can be concluded that hydrolyzed guar gums without disturbing their rheological and physiological behavior would be useful for incorporation in various food products as soluble dietary fiber. PMID:25256551

  2. A review of Reynolds stress models for turbulent shear flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speziale, Charles G.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed review of recent developments in Reynolds stress modeling for incompressible turbulent shear flows is provided. The mathematical foundations of both two-equation models and full second-order closures are explored in depth. It is shown how these models can be systematically derived for two-dimensional mean turbulent flows that are close to equilibrium. A variety of examples are provided to demonstrate how well properly calibrated versions of these models perform for such flows. However, substantial problems remain for the description of more complex turbulent flows where there are large departures from equilibrium. Recent efforts to extend Reynolds stress models to nonequilibrium turbulent flows are discussed briefly along with the major modeling issues relevant to practical naval hydrodynamics applications.

  3. Cell-Activation by Shear Stresses in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Sparks, Steven; Chomaz, Jean-Marc; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2003-11-01

    Increasing experimental evidence indicates that low and oscillatory shear stresses promote proliferative, thrombotic, adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions throughout the wall of the aorta. These degenerative conditions have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of AAAs, a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. The purpose of this study is to measure both the magnitude and the duration of the shear stresses acting on both the arterial walls and on the blood cells inside AAAs, and to characterize their changes as the AAA enlarges. We conducted a parametric in-vitro study of the pulsatile blood flow in elastic models of AAAs while systematically varying the blood flow parameters, and the geometry of the aneurysm's bulging. The instantaneous flow characteristic inside the AAA was measured using DPIV at a sampling rate of 15 Hertz. A "cell-activation parameter" defined as the integral of the product of the magnitude of the shear stress and the time during which the stress acts was computed along each of the blood cell pathlines. The Lagrangian tracking of the blood cells shows that a large majority of them are subjected first to very high level of shear-induced "cell-activation" while later on they are entrained in regions of stasis where their residence time can increase up to several cardiac cycles. This cell-activation followed by the entrainment in low shear regions creates the optimal cell-adhesive and inflammatory-mediated degenerative conditions that are postulated to play an important role in the etiology and progressive enlargement of AAAs.

  4. Reynolds stress flow shear and turbulent energy transfer in reversed field pinch configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, Nicola; Spolaore, Monica; Serianni, Gianluigi; Regnoli, Giorgio; Spada, Emanuele; Antoni, Vanni; Bergsker, Henric; Drake, James R.

    2003-10-01

    The role of Reynolds Stress tensor on flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas is still an open question and the comprehension of its behavior may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenario. It is generally believed that shear flow generation may occur by an interaction of the turbulent Reynolds stress with the shear flow. It is also generally believed that this mechanism may influence the generation of zonal flow shears. The evaluation of the complete Reynolds Stress tensor requires contemporary measurements of its electrostatic and magnetic part: this requirement is more restrictive for Reversed Field Pinch configuration where magnetic fluctuations are larger than in tokamak . A new diagnostic system which combines electrostatic and magnetic probes has been installed in the edge region of Extrap-T2R reversed field pinch. With this new probe the Reynolds stress tensor has been deduced and its radial profile has been reconstructed on a shot to shot basis exploring differen plasma conditions. These profiles have been compared with the naturally occurring velocity flow profile, in particular during Pulsed Poloidal Current Drive experiment, where a strong variation of ExB flow radial profile has been registered. The study of the temporal evolution of Reynolds stress reveals the appearance of strong localized bursts: these are considered in relation with global MHD relaxation phenomena, which naturally occur in the core of an RFP plasma sustaining its configuration.

  5. Viscosity, Shear Waves, and Atomic-Level Stress-Stress Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Valentin A; Morris, James R; Egami, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    The Green-Kubo equation relates the macroscopic stress-stress correlation function to a liquid's viscosity. The concept of the atomic-level stresses allows the macroscopic stress-stress correlation function in the equation to be expressed in terms of the space-time correlations among the atomic-level stresses. Molecular dynamics studies show surprisingly long spatial extension of stress-stress correlations and also longitudinal and transverse waves propagating in liquids over ranges which could exceed the system size. The results reveal that the range of propagation of shear waves corresponds to the range of distances relevant for viscosity. Thus our results show that viscosity is a fundamentally nonlocal quantity. We also show that the periodic boundary conditions play a nontrivial role in molecular dynamics simulations, effectively masking the long-range nature of viscosity.

  6. Proposal of a novel evaluation index for the effects of shear stress and exposure time on hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Toshitaka; Obara, Hiromichi; Hsu, Huai-Che; Mizunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Naoto; Enosawa, Shin

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a novel evaluation index for the effects of shear stress level and exposure time on hepatocyte damage. Suspensions of rat hepatocytes (0.5mL) were subjected to shear stress from 1.2 to 3.1Pa for 10min (n=3) using a rheoscope. We counted living and dead cells in photographs taken at 1-min intervals using a digital camera attached to the microscope. Living and dead cells were distinguished using a Trypan blue exclusion test. Under each level of shear stress, at each 1-min time interval, we measured the viability [living-cell number (t)/countable cell number (t)] and the ratio of living cells [RLC: living-cell number (t)/countable cell number in the initial condition]. The effects of shear stress and exposure time on viability and RLC were assessed by multiple regression analysis. As expected, we observed an increase in the number of dead cells and little change in the number of living cells when shear stress was increased. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) to predict the effectiveness of viability and RLC indicated a low to moderate correlation. Viability correlated with shear stress and exposure time (p<0.001); however, RLC only correlated with exposure time of shear stress (p<0.001). In this test condition, viability was strongly related not to living-cell damage but to dead-cell damage. Therefore, we propose RLC as a novel and effective index for investigating the effect of shear stress on living hepatocytes. PMID:25833037

  7. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  8. Sitting and endothelial dysfunction: The role of shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Thosar, Saurabh S.; Johnson, Blair D.; Johnston, Jeanne D.; Wallace, Janet P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Sedentary activity is a modifiable life-style behavior and a key component in the etiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). US adults and children spend more than half their waking time in sedentary pursuits. Sedentary activity has been shown to result in impaired insulin sensitivity, impaired metabolic function and attenuated endothelial function, which are classic markers of ACVD. Sedentary activity is defined as ‘sitting without otherwise being active.’ This behavior promotes reduced muscular activity of the lower extremities which decreases leg blood flow, increases blood pooling in the calf, augments mean arterial pressure, and deforms arterial segments resulting in low mean shear stress (SS). SS activates distinct physiological mechanisms which have been proposed to be protective against ACVD; specifically through a SS-induced endothelium-derived nitric oxide mechanism. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide creates a pro-oxidant milieu resulting in increased oxidative stress. There is sufficient evidence which demonstrates that endothelial function is attenuated in the presence of oxidative stress. Sedentary activity results in low SS in the lower extremities which may result in increased oxidative stress and impaired endothelial function. This review furthers the use of sitting as model to study the effects of inactivity, discusses possible physiological mechanisms and suggests future directions. PMID:23197245

  9. Two-Axis Direct Fluid Shear Stress Sensor for Aerodynamic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajikar, Sateesh S.; Scott, Michael A.; Adcock, Edward E.

    2011-01-01

    This miniature or micro-sized semiconductor sensor design provides direct, nonintrusive measurement of skin friction or wall shear stress in fluid flow situations in a two-axis configuration. The sensor is fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology, enabling small size and multiple, low-cost reproductions. The sensors may be fabricated by bonding a sensing element wafer to a fluid-coupling element wafer. Using this layered machine structure provides a truly three-dimensional device.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Surface Shear-Stress Variability in Live Plant Canopies and Cube Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Benjamin; Gromke, Christof; Leonard, Katherine C.; Manes, Costantino; Lehning, Michael

    2012-05-01

    This study presents spatiotemporally-resolved measurements of surface shear-stress τ s in live plant canopies and rigid wooden cube arrays to identify the sheltering capability against sediment erosion of these different roughness elements. Live plants have highly irregular structures that can be extremely flexible and porous resulting in considerable changes to the drag and flow regimes relative to rigid imitations mainly used in other wind-tunnel studies. Mean velocity and kinematic Reynolds stress profiles show that well-developed natural boundary layers were generated above the 8 m long wind-tunnel test section covered with the roughness elements at four different roughness densities ( λ = 0, 0.017, 0.08, 0.18). Speed-up around the cubes caused higher peak surface shear stress than in experiments with plants at all roughness densities, demonstrating the more effective sheltering ability of the plants. The sheltered areas in the lee of the plants are significantly narrower with higher surface shear stress than those found in the lee of the cubes, and are dependent on the wind speed due to the plants ability to streamline with the flow. This streamlining behaviour results in a decreasing sheltering effect at increasing wind speeds and in lower net turbulence production than in experiments with cubes. Turbulence intensity distributions suggest a suppression of horseshoe vortices in the plant case. Comparison of the surface shear-stress measurements with sediment erosion patterns shows that the fraction of time a threshold skin friction velocity is exceeded can be used to assess erosion of, and deposition on, that surface.

  11. Shear strength and stress distribution in wet granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richefeu, Vincent; Radja, Farhang; El Youssoufi, Moulay Sad

    2009-06-01

    We investigate the shear strength and stress distribution properties of wet granular media in the pendular state where the liquid is mainly in the form of capillary bonds between particles. This work is based on a 3D discrete-element approach (molecular dynamics) with spherical particles enriched by a capillary force law. We show that the capillary force can be expressed as an explicit function of the gap and volume of the liquid bridge. The length scales involved in this expression are analyzed by comparing with direct integration of the Laplace-Young equation. In the simulations, we consider a maximum number density of liquid bonds in the bulk in agreement with equilibrium of each liquid bridge. This liquid bond number is a decisive parameter for the overall cohesion of wet granular materials. It is shown that the shear strength can be expressed as a function of liquid bond characteristics. The expression proposed initially by Rumpf is thus generalized to account for size polydispersity We show that this expression is in good agreement with our experimental data that will be briefly described. At low confining stress, the tensile action of capillary bonds induces a self-stressed particle network organized in a bi-percolating structure of positive and negative particle pressures. Various statistical descriptors of the microstructure and bond force network are used to characterize this partition. Two basic properties emerge: (i) The highest particle pressure is located in the bulk of each phase (positive and negative particle pressures); (ii) The lowest pressure level occurs at the interface between the two phases, involving also the largest connectivity of the particles via tensile and compressive bonds.

  12. Evaluation of Shear-Induced Platelet Activation Models Under Constant and Dynamic Shear Stress Loading Conditions Relevant to Devices

    PubMed Central

    Sheriff, Jawaad; Soares, João Silva; Xenos, Michalis; Jesty, Jolyon; Bluestein, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The advent of implantable blood-recirculating devices such as left ventricular assist devices and prosthetic heart valves provides a viable therapy for patients with end-stage heart failure and valvular disease. However, device-generated pathological flow patterns result in thromboembolic complications that require complex and lifelong anticoagulant therapy, which entails hemorrhagic risks and is not appropriate for certain patients. Optimizing the thrombogenic performance of such devices utilizing numerical simulations requires the development of predictive platelet activation models that account for variations in shear-loading rates characterizing blood flow through such devices. Platelets were exposed in vitro to both dynamic and constant shear stress conditions emulating those found in blood-recirculating devices in order to determine their shear-induced activation and sensitization response. Both these behaviors were found to be dependent on the shear loading rates, in addition to shear stress magnitude and exposure time. We then critically examined several current models and evaluated their predictive capabilities using these results. Shear loading rate terms were then included to account for dynamic aspects that are either ignored or partially considered by these models, and model parameters were optimized. Independent optimization for each of the two types of shear stress exposure conditions tested resulted in different sets of best-fit constants, indicating that universal optimization may not be possible. Inherent limitations of the current models require a paradigm shift from these integral-based discretized power law models to better address the dynamic conditions encountered in blood-recirculating devices. PMID:23400312

  13. Analysis of bonded joints. [shear stress and stress-strain diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivas, S.

    1975-01-01

    A refined elastic analysis of bonded joints which accounts for transverse shear deformation and transverse normal stress was developed to obtain the stresses and displacements in the adherends and in the bond. The displacements were expanded in terms of polynomials in the thicknesswise coordinate; the coefficients of these polynomials were functions of the axial coordinate. The stress distribution was obtained in terms of these coefficients by using strain-displacement and stress-strain relations. The governing differential equations were obtained by integrating the equations of equilibrium, and were solved. The boundary conditions (interface or support) were satisfied to complete the analysis. Single-lap, flush, and double-lap joints were analyzed, along with the effects of adhesive properties, plate thicknesses, material properties, and plate taper on maximum peel and shear stresses in the bond. The results obtained by using the thin-beam analysis available in the literature were compared with the results obtained by using the refined analysis. In general, thin-beam analysis yielded reasonably accurate results, but in certain cases the errors were high. Numerical investigations showed that the maximum peel and shear stresses in the bond can be reduced by (1) using a combination of flexible and stiff bonds, (2) using stiffer lap plates, and (3) tapering the plates.

  14. Stress Heterogeneities in Sheared Type-I Collagen Networks Revealed by Boundary Stress Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, Richard C.; Kumar, Pramukta; Urbach, Jeffrey S.; Blair, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Disordered fiber networks provide structural support to a wide range of important materials, and the combination of spatial and dynamic complexity may produce large inhomogeneities in mechanical properties, an effect that is largely unexplored experimentally. In this work, we introduce Boundary Stress Microscopy to quantify the non-uniform surface stresses in sheared collagen gels. We find local stresses exceeding average stresses by an order of magnitude, with variations over length scales much larger than the network mesh size. The strain stiffening behavior observed over a wide range of network mesh sizes can be parameterized by a single characteristic strain and associated stress, which describes both the strain stiffening regime and network yielding. The characteristic stress is approximately proportional to network density, but the peak boundary stress at both the characteristic strain and at yielding are remarkably insensitive to concentration. PMID:25734484

  15. An optical wall shear stress sensor based on whispering gallery modes of dielectric microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Ulas Kemal

    In recent years, whispering gallery modes (WGM) of dielectric resonators have received significant attention. Based on this phenomenon, many applications have been proposed ranging from spectroscopy [1], micro-cavity laser technology [2] and optical communications (switching [3], filtering [4] and wavelength division and multiplexing [5]). WGM phenomenon have also been exploited in several sensor concepts such as protein adsorption [6,7], trace gas detection [8], impurity detection in liquids [9], structural health monitoring of composite materials [10], detection of electric fields [11], magnetic fields [12, 13] and temperature [14, 15] as well as mechanical sensing, such as pressure [16] and force [17,18]. A remarkable feature of the WGMs of dielectric microspheres is that they can exhibit extremely high quality factors (Q -factors). In literature, Q-factors as high as ˜10 10 have been reported [19]. In sensor applications, Q-factors determine the resolution of the sensor. Since WGMs of dielectric microspheres exhibit such high Q values, proposed WGM based sensors have extremely good sensing resolutions. In this dissertation, a WGM based wall shear stress sensor that is capable of measuring the shear stress directly is presented. The proposed sensor's feasibility is studied both analytically and experimentally. The experimental study included sensor development, fabrication, calibration, frequency response, dynamic range and proof of concept. The sensor showed that it has potential to measure the shear stress in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the sensor is tested in a real flow environment to provide the first direct shear stress measurement in a real flow.

  16. Modeling flow and shear stress fields over unsteady three dimensional dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Richard; Parsons, Dan; Ashworth, Phil; Reesink, Arjan; Best, Jim

    2014-05-01

    The flow field over dunes has been extensively measured in laboratory conditions and there is general understanding on the nature of the flow over dunes formed under equilibrium flow conditions. This has allowed an understanding of bed shear stress to be derived and the development of morpho-dynamic models. However, fluvial systems typically experience unsteady flow and therefore the sediment-water interface is constantly responding and reorganizing to these unsteady flows and stresses, over a range of both spatial and temporal scales. This is primarily through the adjustment of bed forms (including ripples, dunes and bar forms) which then subsequently alter the flow field. This paper investigates, through the application of a numerical model, the influence of these roughness elements on the overall flow and bed shear stress. A series of physical experiments were undertaken in a flume, 16m long and 2m wide, where a fine sand (D50 of 239m) was water worked under a range of unsteady hydraulic conditions to generate a series of quasi-equilibrium three dimensional bed forms. During the experiments flow was measured with acoustic Doppler velocimeters, (aDv's). On four occasions the flume was drained and the bed topography measured with terrestrial LiDAR to create digital elevation models. This data provide the necessary boundary conditions and validation data for a numerical three dimensional flow model. The prediction of flow over the four static beds demonstrates the spatial distribution of shear stress and the potential sediment transport paths between the dune crests. These appear to be associated with coherent flow structures formed by localized shear flow. These flow predictions are currently being used to develop a fully three dimensional morphodynamic model to further understand dune dynamics under unsteady flow conditions.

  17. Conductivity measurements in a shear-banding wormlike micellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photinos, Panos J.; Lpez-Gonzlez, M. R.; Hoven, Corey V.; Callaghan, Paul T.

    2010-07-01

    Shear banding in the cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate micellar system is investigated using electrical conductivity measurements parallel to the velocity and parallel to the vorticity in a cylindrical Couette cell. The measurements show that the conductivity parallel to the velocity (vorticity) increases (decreases) monotonically with applied shear rate. The shear-induced anisotropy is over one order of magnitude lower than the anisotropy of the Nc nematic phase. The steady-state conductivity measurements indicate that the anisotropy of the shear induced low-viscosity (high shear rate) phase is not significantly larger than the anisotropy of the high viscosity (low shear rate) phase. We estimate that the micelles in the shear induced low viscosity band are relatively short, with a characteristic length to diameter ratio of 5-15. The relaxation behavior following the onset of shear is markedly different above and below the first critical value ??1 , in agreement with results obtained by other methods. The transient measurements show that the overall anisotropy of the sample decreases as the steady state is approached, i.e., the micellar length/the degree of order decrease.

  18. Bed Forms Modulating Temporal Peaks on Near-Bank Shear Stresses, the Wabash River Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad, J. D.; Frias, C. E.; Langendoen, E. J.; Best, J.; Rhoads, B. L.; Konsoer, K. M.; Garcia, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great body of experimental work showing how bed forms modulate bed roughness, flow field structure, and sediment transport rates in straight flumes. Recently, it was observed that migrating bed forms produce temporal and spatial peaks of shear stresses along the outer bank of an experimental meandering channel. These stresses are about 50% larger than the shear stresses exerted by the mean near-bank flow. As fluvial erosion bank erosion rates are typically linearly related to applied shear stress, the migration rate of the bend may be significantly increased. However, this hypothesis has never been tested in the field, where bed forms could be more complex than those found in experimental cases. Herein, only fluvial erosion is considered, while geotechnical processes occurring at the outer bank are not accounted for. Detailed measurements of hydrodynamics (using acoustic Doppler profiler), bed morphology (using multibeam and RTK GPS) and bank morphology (using laser scanner) were conducted at two bends on the Wabash River along the Illinois and Indiana Stateline. The bed morphology exhibited different scales of bed forms, ranging from dunes to ripples. Using Wavelet analysis to discriminate the bed morphology it was possible to separate the ripples and dunes structures resulting in a bed without bed forms, which shows the typical erosion (outer bank)/deposition (inner bank) arrangement in meandering channels. Using a fully three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) numerical model, two cases are simulated: [1] bend with bed forms, and [2] bend without bed forms to test the above hypothesis. The results show that the three-dimensional flow field is compares well to that observed for both scenarios. Further, peaks in shear stresses along the outer bank are indeed observed, which are correlated to the location of the bed forms with respect to the bend. Further conclusion and its importance for long-term morphodynamics of meandering channels are described.

  19. Experimental Quantification of Resolved Shear Stresses for Dislocation Motion in TiN.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Misra, A; Shao, S; Wang, J

    2015-07-01

    Experimental quantification of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) at the level of unit dislocation glide is still a challenge. By using in situ nanoindentation in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and strain analysis of the acquired structural images, the CRSS for the motion of individual dislocations on {110}?011? slip system and glide dislocation re-emission from a tilt grain boundary in TiN are quantified. This work offers an approach to measure the local stresses associated with dislocation motion in high-strength materials. PMID:26065576

  20. XIAP is essential for shear stress-enhanced Tyr-576 phosphorylation of FAK

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Sunyoung; Park, Heonyong

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} Laminar shear stress phosphorylates Tyr-576 in FAK. {yields} XIAP is essential for shear stress-induced phosphorylation of Tyr-576. {yields} XIAP knockdown induces shear stress-triggered translocation of FAK into nucleus. {yields} XIAP regulates ERK activation by maintaining the Src-accessible location of FAK. -- Abstract: In endothelial cells, X-chromosome linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) regulates cell survival, migration and adhesion. We have recently found that XIAP recruits focal adhesion kinase (FAK) into integrin-associated focal adhesions, controlling cell migration. However, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms by which FAK modulation is controlled by XIAP. In this study, we show that XIAP modulates FAK activity through the control of FAK phosphorylation. In bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC), phosphorylation of Tyr-576 in FAK is elevated by laminar shear stress. This elevated phosphorylation appears to be responsible for shear stress-stimulated ERK activation. We found that XIAP knockdown reduces shear stress-enhanced phosphorylation of Tyr-576 and induces shear stress-triggered translocation of FAK into nucleus. Nuclear translocation of FAK reduces contact between FAK and Src, a kinase which phosphorylates Tyr-576. This spatial segregation of FAK from Src decreases Tyr-576 phosphorylation and thus shear-stimulated ERK activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that XIAP plays a key role in shear stress-stimulated ERK activation by maintaining the Src-accessible location of FAK.

  1. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  2. Interlaminar shear stress effects on the postbuckling response of graphite-epoxy panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelstad, S. P.; Knight, N. F., Jr.; Reddy, J. N.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of shear flexibility on overall postbuckling response was assessed, and transverse shear stress distributions in relation to panel failure were examined. Nonlinear postbuckling results are obtained for finite element models based on classical laminated plate theory and first-order shear deformation theory. Good correlation between test and analysis is obtained. The results presented analytically substantiate the experimentally observed failure mode.

  3. Magnetically applied pressure-shear : a new technique for direct strength measurement at high pressure (final report for LDRD project 117856).

    SciTech Connect

    Lamppa, Derek C.; Haill, Thomas A.; Alexander, C. Scott; Asay, James Russell

    2010-09-01

    A new experimental technique to measure material shear strength at high pressures has been developed for use on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) drive pulsed power platforms. By applying an external static magnetic field to the sample region, the MHD drive directly induces a shear stress wave in addition to the usual longitudinal stress wave. Strength is probed by passing this shear wave through a sample material where the transmissible shear stress is limited to the sample strength. The magnitude of the transmitted shear wave is measured via a transverse VISAR system from which the sample strength is determined.

  4. Surface temperatures and glassy state investigations in tribology, part 3. [limiting shear stress rheological model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, S.; Winer, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    Research related to the development of the limiting shear stress rheological model is reported. Techniques were developed for subjecting lubricants to isothermal compression in order to obtain relevant determinations of the limiting shear stress and elastic shear modulus. The isothermal compression limiting shear stress was found to predict very well the maximum traction for a given lubricant. Small amounts of side slip and twist incorporated in the model were shown to have great influence on the rising portion of the traction curve at low slide-roll ratio. The shear rheological model was also applied to a Grubin-like elastohydrodynamic inlet analysis for predicting film thicknesses when employing the limiting shear stress model material behavior.

  5. Disbond monitoring in adhesive joints using shear stress optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulejmani, Sanne; Sonnenfeld, Camille; Geernaert, Thomas; Luyckx, Geert; Mergo, Pawel; Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Chah, Karima; Thienpont, Hugo; Berghmans, Francis

    2014-07-01

    We present dedicated shear stress optical fiber sensors for in situ disbond monitoring of adhesive bonds. The shear stress sensitivity of these sensors is about 60 pm MPa-1, which corresponds to a shear strain sensing resolution of 50 ??. By integrating a combination of three such sensors in the adhesive bond line of a single lap joint, we can assess the internal shear stress distribution when the joint is tensile loaded. Disbonding of this joint was initiated by cyclic tensile loading, and the sensor responses were monitored during this process. Our results show that this sensing system can detect disbonds as small as 100 ?m.

  6. Modeling aeolian sediment transport thresholds on physically rough Martian surfaces: A shear stress partitioning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, John A.; Nickling, William G.; King, James; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2010-09-01

    This paper explores the effect that large roughness elements (0.30 m 0.26 m 0.36 m) may have on entrainment of sediment by Martian winds using a shear stress partitioning approach based on a model developed by Raupach et al. (Raupach, M.R., Gillette, D.A., Leys, J.F., 1993. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion threshold. Journal of Geophysical Research 98(D2), 3023-3029). This model predicts the shear stress partitioning ratio defined as the percent reduction in shear stress on the intervening surface between the roughness elements as compared to the surface in the absence of those elements. This ratio is based on knowledge of the geometric properties of the roughness elements, the characteristic drag coefficients of the elements and the surface, and the assumed effect these elements have on the spatial distribution of the mean and maximum shear stresses. On Mars, unlike on Earth, the shear stress partitioning caused by roughness can be non-linear in that the drag coefficients for the surface as well as for the roughness itself show Reynolds number dependencies for the reported range of Martian wind speeds. The shear stress partitioning model of Raupach et al. is used to evaluate how conditions of the Martian atmosphere will affect the threshold shear stress ratio for Martian surfaces over a range of values of roughness density. Using, as an example, a 125 m diameter particle with an estimated threshold shear stress on Mars of ? 0.06 N m - 2 (shear velocity, u* ? 2 m s - 1 on a smooth surface), we evaluate the effect of roughness density on the threshold shear stress ratio for this diameter particle. In general, on Mars higher regional shear stresses are required to initiate particle entrainment for surfaces that have the same physical roughness as defined by the roughness density term ( ?) compared with terrestrial surfaces mainly because of the low Martian atmospheric density.

  7. Shear strength measurements in a shock loaded commercial silastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millett, J. C. F.; Whiteman, G.; Stirk, S. M.; Bourne, N. K.

    2011-05-01

    The shock-induced shear strength of a commercial silastomer, trade name Sylgard 184, has been determined using laterally mounted manganin stress gauges. Shear strength has been observed to increase with increasing shock amplitude, in common with many other materials. Shear strength has also been observed to increase slightly behind the shock front as well. It is believed that a combination of polymer chain entanglement and cross linking between chains is responsible. Finally, a ramp on the leading edge of the lower amplitude stress traces has been observed. It has been suggested that this is due to shock-induced collapse of free space between the polymer chains. Similar explanations have been used to explain the apparent non-linearity of the shock velocity with particle velocity at low shock amplitudes.

  8. Endothelial dysfunction following prolonged sitting is mediated by a reduction in shear stress.

    PubMed

    Restaino, Robert M; Walsh, Lauren K; Morishima, Takuma; Vranish, Jennifer R; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Fadel, Paul J; Padilla, Jaume

    2016-03-01

    We and others have recently reported that prolonged sitting impairs endothelial function in the leg vasculature; however, the mechanism(s) remain unknown. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that a sustained reduction in flow-induced shear stress is the underlying mechanism by which sitting induces leg endothelial dysfunction. Specifically, we examined whether preventing the reduction in shear stress during sitting would abolish the detrimental effects of sitting on popliteal artery endothelial function. In 10 young healthy men, bilateral measurements of popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation were performed before and after a 3-h sitting period during which one foot was submerged in 42°C water (i.e., heated) to increase blood flow and thus shear stress, whereas the contralateral leg remained dry and served as internal control (i.e., nonheated). During sitting, popliteal artery mean shear rate was reduced in the nonheated leg (pre-sit, 42.9 ± 4.5 s(-1); and 3-h sit, 23.6 ± 3.3 s(-1); P < 0.05) but not in the heated leg (pre-sit, 38.9 ± 3.4 s(-1); and 3-h sit, 63.9 ± 16.9 s(-1); P > 0.05). Popliteal artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired after 3 h of sitting in the nonheated leg (pre-sit, 7.1 ± 1.4% vs. post-sit, 2.8 ± 0.9%; P < 0.05) but not in the heated leg (pre-sit: 7.3 ± 1.5% vs. post-sit, 10.9 ± 1.8%; P > 0.05). Collectively, these data suggest that preventing the reduction of flow-induced shear stress during prolonged sitting with local heating abolishes the impairment in popliteal artery endothelial function. Thus these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that sitting-induced leg endothelial dysfunction is mediated by a reduction in shear stress. PMID:26747508

  9. Polyethylene terephthalate membrane grafted with peptidomimetics: endothelial cell compatibility and retention under shear stress.

    PubMed

    Rmy, Murielle; Bareille, Reine; Rerat, Vincent; Bourget, Chantal; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to treat a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surface to make the biomaterial more 'attractive' in terms of attachment and shear stress response to endothelial cells with a view to possible applications in vascular grafting. A surface wet-chemistry protocol was applied to graft track-etched PET membranes with RGD peptidomimetics based on the tyrosine template and active at the nano-level vs. isolated human ?v?3 receptor, which was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and atomic force microscopy for characterization. A primary culture of human saphenous vein endothelial cells was used before and after sterilization of the membranes (heat treatment or ?-ray irradiation) to test the benefit of grafting. The optimal surface concentrations of grafted molecules were around 50?pmol/cm. Compared to GRGDS, the peptidomimetics promoted cell attachment with similar or slightly better performances. Endothelialized grafted supports were further exposed to 2?h of shear stress mimicking arterial conditions. Cells were lost on non-grafted PET whereas cells on grafted polymers sterilized by ?-ray irradiation withstood forces with no significant difference in focal contacts. At the mRNA level, cells on functionalized PET were able to respond to shear stress with NFkB upregulation. Thus, grafting of peptidomimetics as ligands of the ?v?3 integrin could be a relevant strategy to improve the adhesion of human endothelial cells and to obtain an efficient endothelialized PET for the surgery of small-diameter vascular prostheses. PMID:23565647

  10. Periodontal Treatment Elevates Carotid Wall Shear Stress in the Medium Term

    PubMed Central

    Carallo, Claudio; Franceschi, Maria Serena De; Tripolino, Cesare; Iovane, Claudio; Catalano, Serena; Giudice, Amerigo; Crispino, Antonio; Figliuzzi, Michele; Irace, Concetta; Fortunato, Leonzio; Gnasso, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal disease is associated with endothelial dysfunction of the brachial artery and hemodynamic alterations of the common carotid artery. Periodontal therapy improves endothelial function. It is not known if it is able also to improve the hemodynamics of the carotid artery. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 different periodontal treatments on carotid hemodynamics: scaling and root planing (SRP) alone or together with low-level laser therapy (LLLT). Forty patients were recruited and randomly treated with SRP (n?=?20) or SRP?+?LLLT (n?=?20). Periodontal indices (plaque, gingival, and probing depth indices) were measured before and 5 months after treatment. Blood viscosity, common carotid wall shear stress, circumferential wall tension, and Peterson elastic modulus were evaluated before, soon after and 5 months after treatment. It was found that the periodontal indices improved in both groups, but significantly more so for SRP?+?LLLT than for SRP (decrease in gingival index 69.3% versus 45.4%, respectively, P?=?0.04). In the SRP?+?LLLT group, after a transient reduction by 5% immediately after therapy, shear stress increased by 11% after 5 months. In SRP only group, however, shear stress variations were less marked. No significant changes were found for the other hemodynamic parameters in either of the groups. Periodontal disease treatment by SRP?+?LLLT can therefore be said to improve common carotid wall shear stress. This suggests a possible mechanism by which the treatment of periodontal disease has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. PMID:26496285

  11. A new multiphysics model for the physiological responses of vascular endothelial cells to fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Goo; Shim, Eun Bo; Chang, Keun-Shik

    2007-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cell (VEC) responds to wall shear stress that has not only spatial variation, but also temporal gradient. To simplify the problem, we first studied how the calcium dynamics of VEC responded to the steady wall shear stress of varying magnitude in a stenosed artery. We then studied how the VEC responded to the periodic shear stress that had temporal variation, as in the pulsatile blood flow. To investigate the multiphysics model of VEC in vitro, we used a mathematical model for intracellular calcium dynamics and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for arterial wall shear stress, either steady or periodic. The CFD results showed that for the steady stenotic flow, the wall shear stress in the recirculating flow was lower than the threshold value, 4 dyne/cm(2), at two particular points: flow separation and flow reattachment. For these subthreshold shear stresses, the peak value of the transient calcium response did not hit the normal saturated level, but reached a reduced magnitude. We investigated the effect of severity of stenosis (SOS) of the stenosed artery. For the pulsatile flow, the so-called shear stress slew rate or the temporal gradient of the first upsurge of the periodic flow was an important factor for the VEC calcium dynamics. The calcium response had a finite range of parameter for SOS and shear stress slew rate in which the calcium response was more sensitive than elsewhere, showing a sigmoid pattern. PMID:17963593

  12. Shear stress partitioning of overland flow on disturbed and undisturbed rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physically-based hillslope erosion models commonly estimate soil detachment and transport capacity based on overland flow shear stress applied to soil aggregates. However, vegetation and rock cover counteract the shear stress of overland flow where they occur. Accordingly, partitioning of total sh...

  13. Shear stress partitioning of overland flow on disturbed and undisturbed rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In physically-based hillslope erosion models, only overland flow shear stress exerted on soil aggregates (grains) is used to estimate concentrated flow soil detachment rates and sediment transport capacity. However, on vegetated hillslopes, only overland flow total shear stress can be obtained usin...

  14. Fluid shear stress sensitizes cancer cells to receptor-mediated apoptosis via trimeric death receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Michael J.; King, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis, the process of cancer cell migration from a primary to distal location, typically leads to a poor patient prognosis. Hematogenous metastasis is initiated by intravasation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) into the bloodstream, which are then believed to adhere to the luminal surface of the endothelium and extravasate into distal locations. Apoptotic agents such as tumor necrosis factor apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), whether in soluble ligand form or expressed on the surface of natural killer cells, have shown promise in treating CTCs to reduce the probability of metastasis. The role of hemodynamic shear forces in altering the cancer cell response to apoptotic agents has not been previously investigated. Here, we report that human colon cancer COLO 205 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells exposed to a uniform fluid shear stress in a cone-and-plate viscometer become sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Shear-induced sensitization directly correlates with the application of fluid shear stress, and TRAIL-induced apoptosis increases in a fluid shear stress force- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, TRAIL-induced necrosis is not affected by the application fluid shear stress. Interestingly, fluid shear stress does not sensitize cancer cells to apoptosis when treated with doxorubicin, which also induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Caspase inhibition experiments reveal that shear stress-induced sensitization to TRAIL occurs via caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results suggest that physiological fluid shear forces can modulate receptor-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells in the presence of apoptotic agents.

  15. Response of hot element wall shear stress gages in laminar oscillating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.; Murphy, J. D.; Giddings, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the time-dependent response of hot element wall shear stress gages in unsteady periodic air flows is reported. The study has focused on wall shear stress in laminar oscillating flows produced on a flat plate by a free stream velocity composed of a mean component and a superposed sinusoidal variation. Two types of hot element gages, platinum film and flush wire, were tested for values of reduced frequency ranging from 0.14 to 2.36. Values of the phase angle of the wall shear stress variation relative to the free stream velocity, as indicated by the hot element gages, are compared with numerical prediction. The comparisons show that the gages indicate a wall shear stress variation that lags the true variation, and that the gages will also not indicate the correct wall shear stress variation in periodic turbulent flows.

  16. Brachial artery adaptation to lower limb exercise training: role of shear stress.

    PubMed

    Birk, Gurpreet K; Dawson, Ellen A; Atkinson, Ceri; Haynes, Andrew; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2012-05-01

    Lower limb exercise increases upper limb conduit artery blood flow and shear stress, and leg exercise training can enhance upper limb vascular function. We therefore examined the contribution of shear stress to changes in vascular function in the nonexercising upper limbs in response to lower limb cycling exercise training. Initially, five male subjects underwent bilateral brachial artery duplex ultrasound to measure blood flow and shear responses to 30-min cycling exercise at 80% of maximal heart rate. Responses in one forearm were significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated via cuff inflation throughout the exercise bout. An additional 11 subjects participated in an 8-wk cycle training study undertaken at a similar intensity, with unilateral cuff inflation around the forearm during each exercise bout. Bilateral brachial artery flow-mediated dilation responses to a 5-min ischemic stimulus (FMD%), an ischemic handgrip exercise stimulus (iEX), and endothelium-independent NO donor administration [glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)] were measured at 2, 4, and 8 wk. Cycle training increased FMD% in the noncuffed limb at week 2, after which time responses returned toward baseline levels (5.8 ± 4.1, 8.6 ± 3.8, 7.4 ± 3.5, 6.0 ± 2.3 at 0, 2, 4 and 8 wk, respectively; ANOVA: P = 0.04). No changes in FMD% were observed in the cuffed arm. No changes were evident in response to iEX or GTN in either the cuffed or noncuffed arms (P > 0.05) across the 8-wk intervention period. Our data suggest that lower limb cycle training induces a transient increase in upper limb vascular function in healthy young humans, which is, at least partly, mediated via shear stress. PMID:22403347

  17. Development of In-Fiber Reflective Bragg Gratings as Shear Stress Monitors in Aerodynamic Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmar, Devendra S.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Singh, Jag J.

    1998-01-01

    Bragg gratings centered at nominal wavelengths of 1290 nm and 1300 run were inscribed in a 9/125 microns germano-silicate optical fiber, using continuous wave frequency doubled Ar+ laser radiation at 244 nm. Such gratings have been used extensively as temperature and strain monitors in smart structures. They have, however, never been used for measuring aerodynamic shear stresses. As a test of their sensitivity as shear stress monitors, a Bragg fiber attached to a metal plate was subjected to laminar flows in a glass pipe. An easily measurable large flow-induced wavelength shift (Delta Lambda(sub B)) was observed in the Bragg reflected wavelength. Thereafter, the grating was calibrated by making one time, simultaneous measurements of Delta Lambda(sub B) and the coefficient of skin friction (C(sub f)) with a skin friction balance, as a function of flow rates in a subsonic wind tunnel. Onset of fan-induced transition in the tunnel flow provided a unique flow rate for correlating Delta Lambda(sub B) and (C(sub f) values needed for computing effective modulus of rigidity (N(sub eff)) of the fiber attached to the metal plate. This value Of N(sub eff) is expected to remain constant throughout the elastic stress range expected during the Bragg grating aerodynamic tests. It has been used for calculating the value of Cf at various tunnel speeds, on the basis of measured values of Bragg wavelength shifts at those speeds.

  18. The Brachial Artery Remodels to Maintain Local Shear Stress Despite the Presence of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chung, William B.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Holbrook, Monika; Shenouda, Sherene M.; Dohadwala, Mustali M.; Terry, Dellara F.; Gokce, Noyan; Vita, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Under physiological conditions, arteries remodel in response to changes in blood flow to maintain local shear stress. Risk factors and developing atherosclerosis may be associated with maladaptive remodeling that produces relatively large arteries with low levels of shear stress. Recent studies have shown that the brachial artery and other peripheral arteries are enlarged in patients with risk factors and cardiovascular disease, and we tested the hypothesis that this finding represents maladaptive remodeling. Methods and Results We measured brachial artery diameter and flow by ultrasound and calculated shear stress in a diverse cohort of 1,583 subjects (age 5317 years, 62% male, and 51% with coronary artery disease and/or peripheral arterial disease). In a stepwise linear regression model, age (P<0.001), gender (P<0.001), body mass index (P<0.001), hypertension (P=0.005), and hypercholesterolemia (P=0.02) were associated with larger brachial diameter. Older age was associated with lower shear stress (P<0.01), consistent with maladaptive remodeling. However, body mass index, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and prevalent atherosclerosis were associated with proportionate changes in blood flow and no difference in shear stress compared to reference groups, suggesting adaptive remodeling. Conclusions These findings suggest that enlargement of the brachial artery in the setting of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and atherosclerosis reflects adaptive remodeling. The results provide further support for the concept that arterial remodeling is an important homeostatic response that is maintained despite the presence of risk factors and developing atherosclerosis. PMID:19164807

  19. The SDSS Coadd: Cosmic Shear Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Huan; Dodelson, Scott; Seo, Hee-Jong; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James; Hao, Jiangang; Johnston, David; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Reis, Ribamar R.R.; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP

    2011-11-01

    Stripe 82 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was observed multiple times, allowing deeper images to be constructed by coadding the data. Here we analyze the ellipticities of background galaxies in this 275 square degree region, searching for evidence of distortions due to cosmic shear. The E-mode is detected in both real and Fourier space with > 5-{sigma} significance on degree scales, while the B-mode is consistent with zero as expected. The amplitude of the signal constrains the combination of the matter density {Omega}{sub m} and fluctuation amplitude {sigma}{sub 8} to be {Omega}{sub m}{sup 0.7} {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.276{sub -0.050}{sup +0.036}.

  20. Effect of cytoskeleton stress-free state on red blood cell responses in low shear rate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Peng, Zhangli; Mashayekh, Adel

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the recent experiment on erythrocytes (red blood cells, or RBCs) in weak shear flows (Dupire et al. 2012), we conduct a numerical investigation to study the dynamics of RBCs in low shear rate flows by applying a multiscale fluid-structure interaction model. By employing a spheroidal stress-free state in the cytoskeleton we are able to numerically predict an important feature that the cell maintains its biconcave shape during tank treading motions. This has not been achieved by any existing models. Furthermore, we numerically confirm the hypothesis that as the stress-free state approaches a sphere, the threshold shear rates corresponding to the establishment of tank treading decrease. By comparing with the experimental measurements, our study suggests that the stress-free state of RBCs is a spheroid which is close to a sphere, rather than a biconcave shape applied in existing models (the implication is that the RBC skeleton is prestressed in its natural biconcave state). It also suggests that the response of RBCs in low shear rate flows may provide a measure to quantitatively determine the distribution of shear stress in RBC cytoskeleton at the natural state.

  1. Experimental assessment of Owen's second hypothesis on surface shear stress induced by a fluid during sediment saltation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, B.; Horender, S.; Voegeli, C.; Lehning, M.

    2014-09-01

    A widely used, yet thus far unproven, fluid dynamical hypothesis originally presented by P. R. Owen 50 years ago, states that the surface shear stress induced by a fluid on the ground during equilibrium sediment saltation is constant and independent of the magnitude of the fluid velocity and consequently the particle mass flux. This hypothesis is one of the key elements in almost all current model descriptions of sediment erosion. We measured the surface shear stress in a drifting-sand wind tunnel and found Owen's hypothesis being merely an approximation of the real situation. A significant decrease of the fluid stress with increasing wind velocities was measured for low to intermediate particle mass fluxes. For high particle mass fluxes, Owen's hypothesis essentially holds, although a slight increase of the fluid stress was measured.

  2. Wind stress and near-surface shear in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenegrat, Jacob O.; McPhaden, Michael J.; Lien, Ren-Chieh

    2014-02-01

    The upper ocean response to wind stress is examined using 8 months of unique near-surface moored velocity, temperature, and salinity data at 0N, 23W in the equatorial Atlantic. The effects of wind stress and shear on the time-varying eddy viscosity are inferred using the surface shear-stress boundary condition. Parameterizations of eddy viscosity as a function of wind stress and shear versus wind stress alone are then examined. In principle, eddy viscosity should be proportional to the inverse shear, but how it is represented implicitly or explicitly can affect estimates of the near-surface flow field. This result may explain some discrepancies that have arisen from using parameterizations based only on wind stress to characterize the effects of turbulent momentum mixing.

  3. Studies on stress distribution in pavements subjected to surface shear forces

    PubMed Central

    KIMURA, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    It has been pointed out by some researchers1,2) that road pavements are subjected to vertical stress due to vehicles on them as well as shear stress at the time of braking or acceleration of vehicles. In this paper, the results of elastic analysis to obtain the rigorous solution for an elastic two-layer system subjected to surface shear stress are described and it is shown that the effect of shear stresses applied at the surface gives rise to fairly large stresses in the system. On the basis of these findings, the author attempts to explain why pavement failure takes place frequently at places such as crossings and curved parts where pavements are subjected to high magnitude of surface shear stresses. PMID:24522154

  4. Experimental and CFD simulation studies of wall shear stress for different impeller configurations and MBR activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ratkovich, N; Chan, C C V; Bentzen, T R; Rasmussen, M R

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have been used successfully in biological wastewater treatment for effective solids-liquid separation. However, a common problem encountered with MBR systems is fouling of the membrane resulting in frequent membrane cleaning and replacement which makes the system less appealing for full-scale applications. It has been widely demonstrated that the filtration performances in MBRs can be improved by understanding the shear stress over the membrane surface. Modern tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to diagnose and understand the shear stress in an MBR. Nevertheless, proper experimental validation is required to validate CFD simulation. In this work experimental measurements of shear stress induced by impellers at a membrane surface were made with an electrochemical approach and the results were used to validate CFD simulations. As good results were obtained with the CFD model (<9% error), it was extrapolated to include the non-Newtonian behaviour of activated sludge. PMID:22592479

  5. Sediment transport and shear stress partitioning in a vegetated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bouteiller, Caroline; Venditti, J. G.

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation is a common feature in natural coastal and riverine water ways, interacting with both the water flow and sediment transport. However, the physical processes governing these interactions are still poorly understood, which makes it difficult to predict sediment transport and morphodynamics in a vegetated environment. We performed a simple experiment to study how sediment transport responds to the presence of flexible, single-blade vegetation, and how this response is influenced by the vegetation density. We found that the skin friction and sediment transport are reduced in a plant patch, and that this effect is larger for denser vegetation. We then evaluated several methods to calculate the skin friction in a vegetated flow, which is the key to sediment transport prediction. Among these, the inversion of bed load transport formulas and the Einstein and Banks (1950) methods appeared to produce the most reasonable values of the skin friction. Finally, we suggest using the parameter ?, which is the ratio of the skin friction computed by these methods to the total bed shear stress, to make more realistic sediment transport predictions in morphodynamic models.

  6. Effect of Normal Pressure on the Critical Compressive and Shear Stress of Curved Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafel, Norman; Sandlin, Charles W , Jr

    1945-01-01

    Results are presented of tests of two sets of 20 curved-sheet specimens to determine the effect of normal pressure on the critical compressive and shear stress of curved sheets. It was found that normal pressure raised the critical compressive and shear stress of curved sheets except when outward bulging occurred in compression, in which case the critical stress was lowered by normal pressure. (author)

  7. Sand Shear Band Thickness Measurements by Digital Imaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Sture, Stein

    1998-01-01

    Digital imaging analysis was used to study localized deformations in granular materials tested under plane strain condition. Two independent techniques were applied and compared. In the first, the digitized optical images of a grid printed on the latex membrane were used to measure the shear band orientation angle and thickness, and were found to be 54.5' and 3.01 mm respectively. The second technique involved introducing an ultra-low viscosity resin into the specimen in preparation for thin- sectioning and microscopic study of the internal fabric. A total of 24 microscopic images obtained from four thin sections were analyzed and void ratio variation was measured. The shear band thickness measurements from images located along the shear band axis (at two locations) were equal to 3.19 mm and 3.29 mm which are very close to the average value obtained from surface analysis. The study was then extended to investigate the effects of sand grain-size and properties, specimen density, and confining pressure on shear band thickness. It was found that the normalized shear band thickness decreases as grain-size and confining pressure increase and as density decreases. Finally, shear band thickness is highly influenced by the specimen dilatancy.

  8. Interfacial shear stress distribution in model composites. I - A Kevlar 49 fibre in an epoxy matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Jahankhani, H.; Galiotis, C. )

    1991-05-01

    The technique of Laser Raman Spectroscopy has been applied in the study of aramid fibers, such as Kevlar 49, and aramid/epoxy interfaces. A linear relationship has been found between Raman frequencies and strain upon loading a single Kevlar 49 filament in air. Model composites of single Kevlar 49 fibers embedded in epoxy resins have been fabricated and subjected to various degrees of mechanical deformation. The transfer lengths for reinforcement have been measured at various levels of applied tensile load and the dependence of transfer length upon applied matrix strain has been established. Finally, by balancing the tensile and the shear forces acting along the interface, the interfacial shear stress (ISS) distribution along the embedded fiber was obtained. 52 refs.

  9. Composite material shear property measurement using the Iosipescu specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Henjen; Budiman, Haryanto T.; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Morton, John; Farley, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the suitability of the Iosipescu specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture is presented. Finite element analysis and moire interferometry are used to assess the uniformity of the shear stress field in the test section of unidirectional and cross-ply graphite-epoxy composites. The nonuniformity of the strain field and the sensitivity of some fiber orientations to the specimen/fixture contact mechanics are discussed. The shear responses obtained for unidirectional and cross-ply graphite-epoxy composites are discussed and problems associated with anomalous behavior are addressed. An experimental determination of the shear response of a range of material systems using strain gage instrumentation and moire interferometry is performed.

  10. Evolution of the wall shear stresses during the progressive enlargement of symmetric abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, A.-V.; Sparks, S. R.; Chomaz, J.-M.; Lasheras, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    The changes in the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution of the wall shear stresses (WSS) and gradients of wall shear stresses (GWSS) at different stages of the enlargement of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are important in understanding the aetiology and progression of this vascular disease since they affect the wall structural integrity, primarily via the changes induced on the shape, functions and metabolism of the endothelial cells. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in in vitro aneurysm models, while changing their geometric parameters systematically. It has been shown that, even at the very early stages of the disease, i.e. increase in the diameter ≤ 50%, the flow separates from the wall and a large vortex ring, usually followed by internal shear layers, is created. These lead to the generation of WSS that drastically differ in mean and fluctuating components from the healthy vessel. Inside the AAA, the mean WSS becomes negative along most of the aneurysmal wall and the magnitude of the WSS can be as low as 26% of the value in a healthy abdominal aorta.

  11. Fluid shear stress modulates endothelial cell invasion into three-dimensional collagen matrices

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hojin; Bayless, Kayla J.; Kaunas, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cells are subjected to biochemical and mechanical stimuli, which regulate their angiogenic potential. We determined the synergistic effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and fluid wall shear stress (WSS) on a previously established model of human umbilical vein endothelial cell invasion into three-dimensional collagen matrices. Collagen matrices were incorporated into a parallel-plate flow chamber to apply controlled WSS to the surface of endothelial monolayers over a period of 24 h. Cell invasion required the presence of S1P, with the effects of S1P being enhanced by shear stress to an extent comparable with S1P combined with angiogenic growth factor stimulation. The number of invading cells depended on the magnitude of shear stress, with a maximal induction at a shear stress of ∼5 dyn/cm2, whereas the invasion distance was proportional to the magnitude of shear stress. The enhancement of invasion by 5.3 dyn/cm2 shear stress coincided with elevated phosphorylation of Akt and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activation. Furthermore, invasion induced by the combined application of WSS and S1P was attenuated by inhibitors of MMPs (GM6001) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway (wortmannin). These results provide evidence that shear stress is a positive modulator of S1P-induced endothelial cell invasion into collagen matrices through enhanced Akt and MMP-2 activation. PMID:18805898

  12. Response of mesenchymal stem cells to shear stress in tissue-engineered vascular grafts

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jian-de; Gu, Yong-quan; Li, Chun-min; Wang, Chun-ren; Feng, Zeng-guo; Qiu, Rong-xin; Chen, Bing; Li, Jian-xin; Zhang, Shu-wen; Wang, Zhong-gao; Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells. The effect of shear stress on MSC differentiation is incompletely understood, and most studies have been based on two-dimensional systems. We used a model of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) to investigate the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation. Methods: MSCs were isolated from canine bone marrow. The TEVG was constructed by seeding MSCs onto poly-ɛ-caprolactone and lactic acid (PCLA) scaffolds and subjecting them to shear stress provided by a pulsatile bioreactor for four days (two days at 1 dyne/cm2 to 15 dyne/cm2 and two days at 15 dyne/cm2). Results: Shear stress significantly increased the expression of endothelial cell markers, such as platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), VE-cadherin, and CD34, at both the mRNA and protein levels as compared with static control cells. Protein levels of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and calponin were substantially reduced in shear stress-cultured cells. There was no significant change in the expression of α-SMA, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) or calponin at the mRNA level. Conclusion: Shear stress upregulated the expression of endothelial cell-related markers and downregulated smooth muscle-related markers in canine MSCs. This study may serve as a basis for further investigation of the effects of shear stress on MSC differentiation in TEVGs. PMID:19417732

  13. Critical shear stress for mass erosion of organic-rich fine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Ashish J.; Hwang, Kyu-Nam; Khare, Yogesh P.

    2015-11-01

    In shallow lakes of Florida laden with low-strength organic-rich sediments, wind-induced water movement is believed to actuate bed surface erosion as well as mass erosion. Experiments in hydraulic flumes to measure the critical shear stress for mass erosion tend to be lengthy and require large quantities of sediment. For bottom sediment from Lake Okeechobee at naturally occurring values of the floc volume fraction, a comparison of the viscoplastic yield stress, readily obtained from rheometry, with the mass erosion critical stress from flume tests indicates that it may be permissible to consider the yield stress as a surrogate for the critical stress. This inference appears to be supported by ancillary observations from Lake Apopka and Newnans Lake. Interestingly enough, the variation of yield stress with the floc volume fraction of the organic-rich bed is found to conform to fractal characterization commonly invoked for mineral sediment flocs, consistent with a representative constant value of 2.55 of the fractal dimension. Pending fuller investigations with a wide range of organic-rich sediments, recourse to rheometry in lieu of flume experiments holds promise as a means to simplify testing requirements for estimating the mass erosion critical stress.

  14. Acute shear stress direction dictates adherent cell remodeling and verifies shear profile of spinning disk assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Alexander; Engler, Adam J.

    2015-02-01

    Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disk chamber or spinning disk in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologies. Recent observations suggest that cells may remodel their morphology and align during acute shear exposure, but contrary to intuition, shear is not orthogonal to the radial direction. Here we theoretically derive the magnitude and direction of applied shear and demonstrate that cells, under certain physiological conditions, align in this direction within minutes. Shear force magnitude is also experimentally verified which validates that for spread cells shear forces and not torque or drag dominate in this assay, and demonstrates that the applied force per cell area is largely independent of initial morphology. These findings suggest that direct quantified comparison of the effects of shear on a wide array of cell types and conditions can be made with confidence using this assay without the need for computational or numerical modeling.

  15. Impact of peptide micropatterning on endothelial cell actin remodeling for cell alignment under shear stress.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Cline; Bareille, Reine; Rmy, Murielle; Guignandon, Alain; Bordenave, Laurence; Laroche, Gaetan; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2012-12-01

    HSVEC behavior under physiological shear stress in vitro is investigated on PET surfaces micropatterned with both RGDS and WQPPRARI peptides. This technique allows (i) creating geometries on surface to guide cell orientation under shear stress and (ii) controlling surface chemical composition in order to modulate cell behavior. Under shear stress, endothelial cells adhere on patterned PET surfaces and present a more rapid orientation in flow direction in comparison to cells cultured on homogeneous surfaces. Micropatterned surfaces presenting a large surface area ratio of RGDS/WQPPRARI peptides induce fibrillar adhesion, while surfaces presenting an equal RGDS/WQPPRARI peptides surface area ratio preferentially induce focal adhesion. PMID:23169680

  16. Radial artery wall shear stress evaluation in patients with arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Remuzzi, Andrea; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Mosconi, Lidia; Bruno, Simona; Anghileri, Abramo; Antiga, Luca; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    It has been extensively documented that changes in blood flow induce vascular remodeling and this phenomenon seems to be correlated to the shear forces imposed on the vessel wall by motion of blood. Wall shear stress, the tractive force that acts on the endothelium, has been shown to influence endothelial cell function. To study changes in wall shear stress that develop on the vessel wall upon changes of blood flow, we set up a technique that allows estimation of shear stress in the radial artery of patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy. The technique is based on color-flow Doppler examination of the radial artery before and after surgical creation of radiocephalic fistula for hemodialysis. Calculation of time function wall shear stress and blood flow rate in the radial artery is performed on the basis of arterial diameter, center-line velocity waveform and blood viscosity, using a numerical method developed according to Womersley's theory for pulsatile flow in tubes. The results presented confirm that the model developed is suitable for calculation of the wall shear stress that develops in the radial artery of patients before and after surgical creation of an arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis. This methodology was developed for characterization of wall shear stress in the radial artery but may be well applied to other vessels that can be examined by echo-Doppler technique. PMID:12454436

  17. Plantar shear stress distributions in diabetic patients with and without neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Metin

    2014-01-01

    Background The exact pathology of diabetic foot ulcers remains to be resolved. Evidence suggests that plantar shear forces play a major role in diabetic ulceration. Unfortunately, only a few manuscripts exist on the clinical implications of plantar shear. The purpose of this study was to compare global and regional peak plantar stress values in three groups; diabetic patients with neuropathy, diabetic patients without neuropathy and healthy control subjects. Methods Fourteen diabetic neuropathic patients, 14 non-neuropathic diabetic control and 11 non-diabetic control subjects were recruited. Subjects walked on a custom-built stress plate that quantified plantar pressures and shear. Four stress variables were analyzed; peak pressure, peak shear, peak pressure-time and shear-time integral. Findings Global peak values of peak shear (p=0.039), shear-time integral (p=0.002) and pressure-time integral (p=0.003) were significantly higher in the diabetic neuropathic group. Local peak shear stress and shear-time integral were also significantly higher in diabetic neuropathic patients compared to both control groups, in particular, at the hallux and central forefoot. Local peak pressure and pressure-time integral were significantly different between the three groups at the medial and lateral forefoot. Interpretation Plantar shear and shear-time integral magnitudes were elevated in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy, which indicates the potential clinical significance of these factors in ulceration. It is thought that further investigation of plantar shear would lead to a better understanding of ulceration pathomechanics, which in turn will assist researchers in developing more effective preventive devices and strategies. PMID:24332719

  18. Interlaminar shear stress effects on the postbuckling response of graphite-epoxy panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelstad, S. P.; Reddy, J. N.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to assess the influence of shear flexibility on overall postbuckling response, and to examine transverse shear stress distributions in relation to panel failure. Nonlinear postbuckling results are obtained for finite element models based on classical laminated plate theory and first-order shear deformation theory. Good correlation between test and analysis is obtained. The results presented in this paper analytically substantiate the experimentally observed failure mode.

  19. Energy consumption in terms of shear stress for two types of membrane bioreactors used for municipal wastewater treatment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas; Bentzen, Thomas R.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-10-01

    Two types of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBR): hollow fiber (HF) and hollow sheet (HS), have been studied and compared in terms of energy consumption and average shear stress over the membrane wall. The analysis of energy consumption was made using the correlation to determine the blower power and the blower power demand per unit of permeate volume. Results showed that for the system geometries considered, in terms the of the blower power, the HF MBR requires less power compared to HS MBR. However, in terms of blower power per unit of permeate volume, the HS MBR requires less energy. The analysis of shear stress over the membrane surface was made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. Experimental measurements for the HF MBR were compared with the CFD model and an error less that 8% was obtained. For the HS MBR, experimental measurements of velocity profiles were made and an error of 11% was found. This work uses an empirical relationship to determine the shear stress based on the ratio of aeration blower power to tank volume. This relationship is used in bubble column reactors and it is extrapolate to determine shear stress on MBR systems. This relationship proved to be overestimated by 28% compared to experimental measurements and CFD results. Therefore, a corrective factor is included in the relationship in order to account for the membrane placed inside the bioreactor.

  20. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Ling, C.-H.; Gartner, J.W.; Wang, P.-F.

    1999-01-01

    A field investigation of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of participate matter in a bottom boundary layer was carried out in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, during March-April 1995. Using broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers, detailed measurements of turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m above bed have been obtained. A global method of data analysis was used for estimating bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress (or friction velocities u*). Field data have been examined by dividing the time series of velocity profiles into 24-hour periods and independently analyzing the velocity profile time series by flooding and ebbing periods. The global method of solution gives consistent properties of bottom roughness length zo and bottom shear stress values (or friction velocities u*) in South Bay. Estimated mean values of zo and u* for flooding and ebbing cycles are different. The differences in mean zo and u* are shown to be caused by tidal current flood-ebb inequality, rather than the flooding or ebbing of tidal currents. The bed shear stress correlates well with a reference velocity; the slope of the correlation defines a drag coefficient. Forty-three days of field data in South Bay show two regimes of zo (and drag coefficient) as a function of a reference velocity. When the mean velocity is >25-30 cm s-1, the ln zo (and thus the drag coefficient) is inversely proportional to the reference velocity. The cause for the reduction of roughness length is hypothesized as sediment erosion due to intensifying tidal currents thereby reducing bed roughness. When the mean velocity is <25-30 cm s-1, the correlation between zo and the reference velocity is less clear. A plausible explanation of scattered values of zo under this condition may be sediment deposition. Measured sediment data were inadequate to support this hypothesis, but the proposed hypothesis warrants further field investigation.

  1. Hemodynamic Shear Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Hemodialysis Access

    PubMed Central

    Fitts, Michelle K.; Pike, Daniel B.; Anderson, Kasey; Shiu, Yan-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Surgically-created blood conduits used for chronic hemodialysis, including native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and synthetic AV grafts (AVGs), are the lifeline for kidney failure patients. Unfortunately, each has its own limitations: AVFs often fail to mature to become useful for dialysis and AVGs often fail due to stenosis as a result of neointimal hyperplasia, which preferentially forms at the graft-venous anastomosis. No clinical therapies are currently available to significantly promote AVF maturation or prevent neointimal hyperplasia in AVGs. Central to devising strategies to solve these problems is a complete mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiological processes. The pathology of arteriovenous access problems is likely multi-factorial. This review focuses on the roles of fluid-wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial cells (ECs). In arteriovenous access, shunting of arterial blood flow directly into the vein drastically alters the hemodynamics in the vein. These hemodynamic changes are likely major contributors to non-maturation of an AVF vein and/or formation of neointimal hyperplasia at the venous anastomosis of an AVG. ECs separate blood from other vascular wall cells and also influence the phenotype of these other cells. In arteriovenous access, the responses of ECs to aberrant WSS may subsequently lead to AVF non-maturation and/or AVG stenosis. This review provides an overview of the methods for characterizing blood flow and calculating WSS in arteriovenous access and discusses EC responses to arteriovenous hemodynamics. This review also discusses the role of WSS in the pathology of arteriovenous access, as well as confounding factors that modulate the impact of WSS. PMID:25309636

  2. Frictional Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Polymer Films Subject to Constant Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of the frictional response of nanoscale viscous films are typically obtained using the surface force apparatus in which a fluid layer is confined between smooth solid substrates approaching at constant speed or force. The squeezing pressure causes lateral flow from which the shear viscosity can be deduced. Under these conditions however, molecularly thin films tend to solidify wholly or partially and estimates of the shear viscosity can exceed those in macroscale films by many orders of magnitude. This problem can be avoided altogether by examining the response of an initially flat, supported, free surface film subject to comparable values of surface shear stress by application of an external inert gas stream. This method was first conceived by Derjaguin in 1944; more recent studies by Mate et al. at IBM Almaden on complex polymeric systems have uncovered fluid layering and other interesting behaviors. The only drawback is that this alternative technique requires an accurate model for interface distortion. We report on ellipsometric measurements of ultrathin polymeric films in efforts to determine whether the usual interface equations for free surface films based purely on continuum models can be properly extended to nanoscale films. Supported by a Fred and Jean Felberg Fellowship and G. W. Housner Student Discovery Fund.

  3. Frequency-dependent response of the vascular endothelium to pulsatile shear stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most cells of the circulatory system are exposed to shear forces that occur at the frequency of the heartbeat. However, as a result of the complicated blood flow patterns that occur at arterial branches, small regions of the arterial wall experience fluctuations in shear stress that are dominated by...

  4. Sensor for Viscosity and Shear Strength Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, J.; Moore, J.E. Jr.; Ebadian, M.A.; Jones, W.K.

    1998-10-20

    Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. The work for this project will be performed in three phases. The first phase, carried out in FY96, involved (1) an evaluation of acoustic and other methods for viscosity measurement; (2) measurement of the parameters of slurries over the range of percent solids found in tanks and transport systems; (3) a comparison of physical properties (e.g., viscosity and density) to percent solids found composition; and (4) the design of a prototype sensor. The second phase (FY97) will involve the fabrication of a prototype hybrid sensor to measure the viscosity and mechanical properties of slurries in remote, high-radiation environments. Two different viscometer designs are being investigated in this study: a magnetostrictive pulse wave guide viscometer; an oscillating cylinder viscometer. In FY97, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), which has printed circuit, thick film, thin film, and co-fired ceramic fabrication capability, will fabricate five probes for demonstration after technology selection and evaluation.

  5. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-15

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium ExB velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or ''profile shear'' in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) ExB and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a ''null'' toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the ExB shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger ''diffusive'' parallel velocity shear driven component and the much smaller profile shear residual stress component.

  6. Gyrokinetic simulation of momentum transport with residual stress from diamagnetic level velocity shears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Staebler, G. M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2011-04-01

    Residual stress refers to the remaining toroidal angular momentum (TAM) flux (divided by major radius) when the shear in the equilibrium fluid toroidal velocity (and the velocity itself) vanishes. Previously [Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)], we demonstrated with GYRO [Candy and Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] gyrokinetic simulations that TAM pinching from (ion pressure gradient supported or diamagnetic level) equilibrium E B velocity shear could provide some of the residual stress needed to support spontaneous toroidal rotation against normal diffusive loss. Here we show that diamagnetic level shear in the intrinsic drift wave velocities (or "profile shear" in the ion and electron density and temperature gradients) provides a comparable residual stress. The individual signed contributions of these small (rho-star level) E B and profile velocity shear rates to the turbulence level and (rho-star squared) ion energy transport stabilization are additive if the rates are of the same sign. However because of the additive stabilization effect, the contributions to the small (rho-star cubed) residual stress is not always simply additive. If the rates differ in sign, the residual stress from one can buck out that from the other (and in some cases reduce the stabilization.) The residual stress from these diamagnetic velocity shear rates is quantified by the ratio of TAM flow to ion energy (power) flow (M/P) in a global GYRO core simulation of a "null" toroidal rotation DIII-D [Mahdavi and Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 2 (2005)] discharge by matching M/P profiles within experimental uncertainty. Comparison of global GYRO (ion and electron energy as well as particle) transport flow balance simulations of TAM transport flow in a high-rotation DIII-D L-mode quantifies and isolates the E B shear and parallel velocity (Coriolis force) pinching components from the larger "diffusive" parallel velocity shear driven component and the much smaller profile shear residual stress component.

  7. Stress measurement in thick plates using nonlinear ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, Zeynab E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu; Ozevin, Didem E-mail: dozevin@uic.edu

    2015-03-31

    In this paper the interaction between nonlinear ultrasonic characteristics and stress state of complex loaded thick steel plates using fundamental theory of nonlinear ultrasonics is investigated in order to measure the stress state at a given cross section. The measurement concept is based on phased array placement of ultrasonic transmitter-receiver to scan three angles of a given cross section using Rayleigh waves. The change in the ultrasonic data in thick steel plates is influenced by normal and shear stresses; therefore, three measurements are needed to solve the equations simultaneously. Different thickness plates are studied in order to understand the interaction of Rayleigh wave penetration depth and shear stress. The purpose is that as the thickness becomes smaller, the shear stress becomes negligible at the angled measurement. For thicker cross section, shear stress becomes influential if the depth of penetration of Rayleigh wave is greater than the half of the thickness. The influences of plate thickness and ultrasonic frequency on the identification of stress tensor are numerically studied in 3D structural geometry and Murnaghan material model. The experimental component of this study includes uniaxial loading of the plate while measuring ultrasonic wave at three directions (perpendicular, parallel and angled to the loading direction). Instead of rotating transmitter-receiver pair for each test, a device capable of measuring the three angles is designed.

  8. Composite Interlaminar Shear Fracture Toughness, G(sub 2c): Shear Measurement of Sheer Myth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, T. Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The concept of G2c as a measure of the interlaminar shear fracture toughness of a composite material is critically examined. In particular, it is argued that the apparent G2c as typically measured is inconsistent with the original definition of shear fracture. It is shown that interlaminar shear failure actually consists of tension failures in the resin rich layers between plies followed by the coalescence of ligaments created by these failures and not the sliding of two planes relative to one another that is assumed in fracture mechanics theory. Several strain energy release rate solutions are reviewed for delamination in composite laminates and structural components where failures have been experimentally documented. Failures typically occur at a location where the mode 1 component accounts for at least one half of the total G at failure. Hence, it is the mode I and mixed-mode interlaminar fracture toughness data that will be most useful in predicting delamination failure in composite components in service. Although apparent G2c measurements may prove useful for completeness of generating mixed-mode criteria, the accuracy of these measurements may have very little influence on the prediction of mixed-mode failures in most structural components.

  9. Theory to Predict Shear Stress on Cells in Turbulent Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Khandakar Niaz; Bark Jr., David; Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Shear stress on blood cells and platelets transported in a turbulent flow dictates the fate and biological activity of these cells. We present a theoretical link between energy dissipation in turbulent flows to the shear stress that cells experience and show that for the case of physiological turbulent blood flow: (a) the Newtonian assumption is valid, (b) turbulent eddies are universal for the most complex of blood flow problems, and (c) shear stress distribution on turbulent blood flows is possibly universal. Further we resolve a long standing inconsistency in hemolysis between laminar and turbulent flow using the theoretical framework. This work demonstrates that energy dissipation as opposed to bulk shear stress in laminar or turbulent blood flow dictates local mechanical environment of blood cells and platelets universally. PMID:25171175

  10. Critical wall shear stresses in CO{sub 2} corrosion of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, G.; Mueller, M.

    1999-11-01

    Critical flow intensities expressed in terms of critical wall shear stresses for initiation of flow induced localized corrosion (FILC) at carbon steel under CO{sub 2} corrosion conditions (1 M NaCl, 5 bar CO{sub 2}, 80 C) were evaluated using the submerged jet impingement method. Flow independent pitting facilitates FILC initiation in uninhibited systems already at wall shear stresses below 0.2 Pa. If pitting is prevented by corrosion inhibitors critical wall shear stresses can be clearly identified. They depend on the type and concentration of the inhibitor. In the presence of an aromatic critical wall shear stresses were found at 250 Pa. The effect of flow intensity on the carbonate scale properties (crystal size, scale thickness, cracking tendency) was studied in detail. The experimental results support the authors` hypothesis on flow induced fatigue cracking of carbonate scales as important FILC initiation step.

  11. Investigation of the logarithmic model applied to bed shear stresses in the swash zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allis, M.; Blenkinsopp, C. E.; Turner, I. L.; Baldock, T. E.; Puleo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate understanding of beach face sediment transport in the swash zone is essential to improve existing models for predicting beach morphological changes. In the swash zone, bed shear stresses are the dominant driving mechanism of both bed-load and suspended-load sediment transport. A detailed comparison is presented of swash zone bed shear stresses obtained from direct measurements and velocimetry derived estimates, as measured in the large-scale GWK wave flume facility in Hannover, Germany. Bed shear stresses were measured directly by flush mounted shear plates and estimated using the logarithmic model for velocity profiles obtained from Acoustic Doppler Velocity Profilers (ADVP). The swashes measured were generated by large-scale (H > 0.9m, T > 8s) monochromatic and solitary waves on a planar fixed-bed beach with a rough surface (d50 = 4.6mm). The logarithmic model and its application to swash flows are investigated in detail for the ensemble and individual swash events. The results confirm the concerns of others about log-law suitability in the swash zone and extend the prior works to fully prototype scale. The logarithmic model proves reasonably valid in uprush but increasing invalid through backwash where there is clear evidence of a systematic departure from log-law theory. The cause of the disparity is investigated and considered to be the result of unsteady hydrodynamics, free-surface pressure gradients and complex boundary layer evolution. In the latter stages of backwash the boundary layer becomes emergent further disrupting the flow, re-aerating and tending towards more complex turbulent sheet-flow behaviour. Adjustment to the depth-averaged void fraction cannot account for the magnitude of the discrepancy, indicating that the formulation of the logarithmic model itself is decreasingly valid as the flow thins and decelerates throughout backwash. Though it is conceptually appealing and relatively simple to apply, the results further confirm the limited application of the logarithmic model to sediment transport through the full uprush - backwash cycle.

  12. Influence of polymer charge on the shear yield stress of silica aggregated with adsorbed cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Yu, Hai; Wanless, Erica J; Jameson, Graeme J; Franks, George V

    2009-08-15

    Flocs were produced by adding three cationic polymers (10% charge density, 3.0x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; 40% charge density, 1.1x10(5) g/mol molecular weight; and 100% charge density, 1.2x10(5) g/mol molecular weight) to 90 nm diameter silica particles. The shear yield stresses of the consolidated sediment beds from settled and centrifuged flocs were determined via the vane technique. The polymer charge density plays an important role in influencing the shear yield stresses of sediment beds. The shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 10% charged polymer were observed to increase with an increase in polymer dose, initial solid concentration and background electrolyte concentration at all volume fractions. In comparison, polymer dose has a marginal effect on the shear yield stresses of sediment beds from flocs induced by the 40% and 100% charged polymers. The shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 40% charged polymer are independent of salt concentration whereas the addition of salt decreases the shear yield stresses of sediments from flocs induced by the 100% charged polymer. When flocculated at the optimum dose for each polymer (12 mg/g silica for the 10% charged polymer at 0.03 M NaCl, 12 mg/g for 40% and 2 mg/g for 100%), shear yield stress increases as polymer charge increases. The effects observed are related to the flocculation mechanism (bridging, patch attraction or charge neutralisation) and the magnitude of the adhesive force. Comparison of shear and compressive yield stresses show that the network is only slightly weaker in shear than in compression. This is different than many other systems (mainly salt and pH coagulation) which have shear yield stress much less than compressive yield stress. The existing models relating the power law exponent of the volume fraction dependence of the shear yield stress to the network fractal structure are not satisfactory to predict all the experimental behaviour. PMID:19414185

  13. Bonded joint and method. [for reducing peak shear stress in adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sainsbury-Carter, J. B. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An improved joint is described for reducing the peak shear stress in adhesive bonds when adhesives are used to bond two materials which are in a lapped relationship and which differ in value of modulus of elasticity. An insert placed between the adhesive and one of the two materials acts to cushion the discontinuity of material stiffness thereby reducing the peak shear stress in the adhesive bond.

  14. Shear stress experienced by echinoderm eggs in the oviduct during spawning: potential role in the evolution of egg properties

    PubMed

    Thomas; Bolton

    1999-11-01

    Shear stresses experienced by eggs in the oviduct of the echinoid Arbacia punctulata during spawning were calculated using engineering equations that describe laminar flow through pipes. Shear stresses in the oviduct ranged from 0 to 58.7 Pa. Two properties of eggs were identified that have the potential either to minimize the shear stress in the oviduct or to reduce the damage experienced by eggs exposed to high shear stress. These properties are the viscosity of the eggs and the presence of extracellular layers on eggs of A. punctulata. The viscosity of eggs decreases with increasing shear rates, which reduces the magnitude of shear stress experienced in the oviduct, while the extracellular layers mitigate the effect of shear stress on the eggs. Eggs with intact extracellular layers were damaged less frequently than were those with the extracellular layers removed. The results of this research indicate that physical stresses may be important selective factors in the evolution of gamete properties. PMID:10539959

  15. Estimation of Liquid Wall and Interfacial Shear Stress in Horizontal Stratified Gas-liquid Pipe Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiping; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Jing

    2007-06-01

    A modified two-phase shear stress calculation method for pipe flow problems is explored. A force balance has been set up on the control volume of liquid phase to determine the interfacial friction factor by employing both the measured pressure gradient and liquid height. The gradient of height of liquid layer has been taken into account, which is suitable for the case where the interface may be smooth, rippled or wavy. The correlation of model indicates that the careful estimation for liquid-wall shear stress is necessary, and the assumption of a stationary liquid element is not applicable for the case of higher gas flow rates. The interfacial friction factor evaluated indirectly from experimental liquid height and pressure loss measurements, which are obtained in 50mm ID pipeline for air and water in cocurrent stratified flow, is used to achieve its correlation with the combination of characteristic parameters. The evaluation of new correlation has been conducted by the comparison of the predicted pressure drop with the experimental data. The performance of correlation depends on the form of the gas-liquid interface.

  16. Activation and shedding of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa under non-physiological shear stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zengsheng; Mondal, Nandan K; Ding, Jun; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of non-physiological high shear stress on activation and shedding of platelet GP IIb/IIIa receptors. The healthy donor blood was exposed to three levels of high shear stresses (25, 75, 125Pa) from the physiological to non-physiological status with three short exposure time (0.05, 0.5, 1.5s), created by a specific blood shearing system. The activation and shedding of the platelet GPIIb/IIIa were analyzed using flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, platelet P-selectin expression of sheared blood, which is a marker for activated platelets, was also analyzed. The results from the present study showed that the number of activated platelets, as indicated by the surface GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression, increased with increasing the shear stress level and exposure time. However, the mean fluorescence of GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface, decreased with increasing the shear stress level and exposure time. The reduction of GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface was further proved by the reduction of further activated platelet GPIIb/IIIa surface expression induced by ADP and the increase in GPIIb/IIIa concentration in microparticle-free plasma with increasing the applied shear stress and exposure time. It is clear that non-physiological shear stress induce a paradoxical phenomenon, in which both activation and shedding of the GPIIb/IIIa on the platelet surface occur simultaneously. This study may offer a new perspective to explain the reason of both increased thrombosis and bleeding events in patients implanted with high shear blood-contacting medical devices. PMID:26160282

  17. Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of out-of-plane residual shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakesh, R.; Kohli, D.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

    2014-02-01

    Bond strength and microstructural developments were investigated during fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. The study involved roll bonding of aluminum-aluminum (case A) and aluminum-aluminum + yttria (Y2O3) dispersion (case B). Case B approximated aluminum-uranium silicide (U3Si2) 'fuel-meat' in an actual plate fuel. Samples after different stages of fabrication, hot and cold rolling, were investigated through peel and pull tests, micro-hardness, residual stresses, electron and micro-focus X-ray diffraction. Measurements revealed a clear drop in bond strength during cold rolling: an observation unique to case B. This was related to significant increase in 'out-of-plane' residual shear stresses near the clad/dispersion interface, and not from visible signatures of microstructural heterogeneities.

  18. Effect of Varying Fluid Shear Stress on Cancer Stem Cell Viability & Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domier, Ria; Kim, Yonghyun; Dozier, David; Triantafillu, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    Cancer stem cells cultured in vitro in stirred bioreactors are exposed to shear stress. By observing the effect of shear stress on cancer stem cell viability, laboratory cell growth could be optimized. In addition, metastasized cancer stem cells in vivo are naturally exposed to shear stress, a factor influencing stem cell differentiation, while circulating in the bloodstream. Changes in protein expression after exposure to shear stress could allow for identification and targeting of circulating cancer cells. In this study, blood flow through capillaries was simulated by using a syringe pump to inject suspensions of Kasumi-1 leukemia stem cells into model blood vessels composed of PEEK tubing 125 microns in diameter. The Hagen-Poisseuille equation was used to solve for operating flow rates based on specified amounts of shear stress. After exposure, cell counts and viabilities were observed using an optical microscope and proteins were analyzed using Western blotting. It was observed that at a one minute exposure to stress, cell viability increased as the amount of shear was increased from 10 to 60 dynes per square centimeter. Results from this research are applicable to optimization of large-scale stem cell growth in bioreactors as well as to the design of targeted cancer therapies. Funding from NSF REU grant #1062611 is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25725258

  20. Orbital fluid shear stress promotes osteoblast metabolism, proliferation and alkaline phosphates activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aisha, M D; Nor-Ashikin, M N K; Sharaniza, A B R; Nawawi, H; Froemming, G R A

    2015-09-10

    Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. PMID:26163894

  1. Flow visualization and wall shear stress of a flapping model hummingbird wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanton, Erik W. M.; Vanier, Blake A.; Mohseni, Kamran

    2010-09-01

    The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics of flapping flight was investigated experimentally through flow visualization by suspended particle imagery and wall shear stress measurement from micro-array hot-film anemometry. In conjunction, a mechanism was developed to create a flapping motion with three degrees of freedom and adjustable flapping frequency. The flapping kinematics and wing shape were selected for dynamic similarity to a hummingbird during hovering flight. Flow visualization was used to validate the anemometry observations of leading edge vortex (LEV) characteristics and to investigate the necessity of spanwise flow in LEV stability. The shear sensors determined LEV characteristics throughout the translation section of the stroke period for various wing speeds. It was observed that a minimum frequency between 2 and 3.5 Hz is required for the formation and stabilization of a LEV. The vortex strength peaked around 30% of the flapping cycle (corresponding to just past the translation midpoint), which agrees with results from previous studies conducted by others. The shear sensors also indicated a mild growth in LEV size during translation sections of the wings motion. This growth magnitude was nearly constant through a range of operating frequencies.

  2. Sensor for viscosity and shear strength measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Dillion, J.; Moore, J.; Jones, K.

    1998-01-01

    Measurement of the physical properties (viscosity and density) of waste slurries is critical in evaluating transport parameters to ensure turbulent flow through transport pipes. The environment for measurement and sensor exposure is extremely harsh; therefore, reliability and ruggedness are critical in the sensor design. Two different viscometer techniques are being investigated in this study, based on: magnetostrictive pulse generated acoustic waves; and an oscillating cylinder. Prototype sensors have been built and tested which are based on both techniques. A base capability instrumentation system has been designed, constructed, and tested which incorporates both of these sensors. It requires manual data acquisition and off-line calculation. A broad range of viscous media has been tested using this system. Extensive test results appear in this report. The concept for each technique has been validated by these test results. This base capability system will need to be refined further before it is appropriate for field tests. The mass of the oscillating system structure will need to be reduced. A robust acoustic probe assembly will need to be developed. In addition, in March 1997 it was made known for the first time that the requirement was for a deliverable automated viscosity instrumentation system. Since then such a system has been designed, and the hardware has been constructed so that the automated concept can be proved. The rest of the hardware, which interfaced to a computer, has also been constructed and tested as far as possible. However, for both techniques the computer software for automated data acquisition, calculation, and logging had not been completed before funding and time ran out.

  3. Measurement of Oblique Impact-generated Shear Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, J. M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental strain measurements reveal that oblique impacts can generate shear waves with displacements as large as those in the P-wave. Large oblique impacts may thus be more efficient sources of surface disruption than vertical impacts. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-06-10

    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (?) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  5. Shear stress modulates endothelial KLF2 through activation of P2X4.

    PubMed

    Sathanoori, R; Rosi, F; Gu, B J; Wiley, J S; Mller, C E; Olde, B; Erlinge, D

    2015-03-01

    Vascular endothelial cells that are in direct contact with blood flow are exposed to fluid shear stress and regulate vascular homeostasis. Studies report endothelial cells to release ATP in response to shear stress that in turn modulates cellular functions via P2 receptors with P2X4 mediating shear stress-induced calcium signaling and vasodilation. A recent study shows that a loss-of-function polymorphism in the human P2X4 resulting in a Tyr315>Cys variant is associated with increased pulse pressure and impaired endothelial vasodilation. Although the importance of shear stress-induced Krppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) expression in atheroprotection is well studied, whether ATP regulates KLF2 remains unanswered and is the objective of this study. Using an in vitro model, we show that in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), apyrase decreased shear stress-induced KLF2, KLF4, and NOS3 expression but not that of NFE2L2. Exposure of HUVECs either to shear stress or ATP?S under static conditions increased KLF2 in a P2X4-dependent manner as was evident with both the receptor antagonist and siRNA knockdown. Furthermore, transient transfection of static cultures of human endothelial cells with the Tyr315>Cys mutant P2X4 construct blocked ATP-induced KLF2 expression. Also, P2X4 mediated the shear stress-induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase-5, a known regulator of KLF2. This study demonstrates a major physiological finding that the shear-induced effects on endothelial KLF2 axis are in part dependent on ATP release and P2X4, a previously unidentified mechanism. PMID:25563726

  6. A flexible micromachined optical sensor for simultaneous measurement of pressure and shear force distribution on foot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Panergo, Reynold R.; Galvanin, Christopher M.; Ledoux, William; Sangeorzan, Bruce; Reinhall, Per G.

    2003-07-01

    Lower limb complications associated with diabetes include the development of plantar ulcers that can lead to infection and subsequent amputation. While it is known from force plate analyses that there are medial/lateral and anterior/posterior shear components of the ground reaction force, there is little known about the actual distribution of this force during daily activities, nor about the role that shear plays in causing plantar ulceration. Furthermore, one critical reason why these data have not been obtained previously is the lack of a validated, widely used, commercially available shear sensor, in part because of the various technical issues associated with shear measurement. Here we have developed novel means of tranducing plantar shear and pressure stress via a new microfabricated optical system. The pressure/shear sensor consists of an array of optical waveguides lying in perpendicular rows and columns separated by elastomeric pads. A map of pressure and shear stress is constructed based on observed macro bending through the intensity attenuation from the physical deformation of two adjacent perpendicular optical waveguides. The uniqueness of the sensor is in its batch fabrication process, which involves injection molding and embossing techniques with Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the optical medium. Here we present the preliminary results of the prototype. The sensor has been shown to have low noise and responds linearly to applied loads. The smallest detectable force on each sensor element based on the current setup is ~0.1 N. The smallest area we have resolved in our mesh sensor is currently 950x950μm2

  7. Measuring fluctuations in shear stretched DNAs using site specific labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Allen; Graham, Thomas; Loparo, Joseph; Eaves, Joel

    2012-02-01

    We report a new technique for measuring the internal dynamics of surface tethered DNAs in shear flow. Previous studies have used end labeling or intercolating dyes which label the entire length of the DNA. Neither prior method can resolve the internal longitudinal fluctuations of the DNA. Our technique accomplishes this by site specific labeling of five sites in lambda phage DNA using EcoRI labeled with fluorescent quantum dots. We used our technique to determine the two point cross correlation functions of the longitudinal and transverse fluctuations of the DNA under shear flow. Our technique allows us to test current models of the non-equilibrium fluctuations of DNA in shear flow in a way previously inaccessible.

  8. Experimental research of mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue under rotational shear stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Jianhua; Wang, Kan; Wang, Mingyu; Gao, Changqing; Ma, Chao

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue with a series of rotational shear stress control experiments. To this end, several experiments including stress sweep tests, frequency sweep tests and quasi-static creep tests were designed and conducted with a standard rheometer (HAAKE RheoStress6000). The effects of the loading stress rates to mechanical properties of brain tissue were also studied in stress sweep tests. The results of stress sweep tests performed on the same brain showed that brain tissue had an obvious regional inhomogeneity and the mechanical damage occurred at the rotational shear stress of 10-15Pa. The experimental data from three different loading stress rates demonstrated that the mechanical behavior of porcine brain tissue was loading stress rate dependent. With the decrease of loading stress rate, a stiffer mechanical characteristic of brain tissue was observed and the occurrence of mechanical damage can be delayed to a higher stress. From the results of frequency sweep tests we found that brain tissue had almost completely elastic properties at high frequency area. The nonlinear creep response under the rotational shear stress of 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9Pa was shown in results of creep tests. A new nonlinear viscoelastic solid model was proposed for creep tests and matched well with the test data. Considering the regional differences, loading stress rates and test conditions effects, loss tangent tan δ in porcine brain tissue showed a high uniformity of 0.25-0.45. PMID:26735181

  9. Critical shear stress for mechanical twinning of jadeitean experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzol, Jens; Trepmann, Claudia A.; Stckhert, Bernhard; Shi, Guanghai

    2003-09-01

    Coarse-grained natural jadeitite samples from Myanmar were experimentally deformed in a Griggs-type solid-medium apparatus at strain rates of 210 -5 and 510 -6 s -1 and temperatures of 900 and 1000 C. The microfabrics of the deformed samples are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. The critical shear stress for twinning in the (100) [001] system is derived from the orientation distribution of jadeite crystals with and without mechanical twins. The results indicate a homogeneous stress field within the sample and a critical shear stress of 15025 MPa, which compares well to that determined by Koll and Blacic [J. Geophys. Res. 87 (1982) 4019] for mechanical twinning of other clinopyroxenes. With the critical shear stress known, mechanical twinning of jadeite can be used as a paleopiezometer for high stress tectonic environments.

  10. Wall friction measurement in the absence of mean shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanus, Stefanus; Castiglione, James; Cerbus, Rory; Goldburg, Walter

    2012-02-01

    The dimensionless frictional force f between a pipe wall and a flowing turbulent fluid is f=?s /U^2, where U is mean flow speed in the x-direction, ? is kinematic viscosity, and s=u y , where the y axis is perpendicular to the flow direction. The derivative is evaluated at the wall, y = 0. Described here a scheme for measuring f in a turbulent fluid where s is close to zero. Hence the source of frictional dissipation is from fluctuations in the shear about its mean, namely s^2. This type of shear is encountered in turbulence in a closed container such as a food mixer. The scheme, which involves photon correlation spectroscopy, averages the shear rate over a laser spot size w 100 ?m or smaller. The scheme yields the probability density function (PDF) of components of the shear rate tensor and the moments of of the PDF. The theory will be described briefly and measurements will be presented where s 0. In that limit f is redefined to be f =u' sij/?, where sij is the dominant component being measured, and u' is the rms fluctuations of the velocity.

  11. Working Principle Simulations of a Dynamic Resonant Wall Shear Stress Sensor Concept

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel dynamic resonant wall shear stress sensor concept based on an oscillating sensor operating near resonance. The interaction between the oscillating sensor surface and the fluid above it is modelled using the unsteady laminar boundary layer equations. The numerical experiment shows that the effect of the oscillating shear stress is well correlated by the Hummer number, the ratio of the steady shear force caused by the outside flow to the oscillating viscous force created by the sensor motion. The oscillating shear stress predicted by the fluid model is used in a mechanical model of the sensor to predict the sensor's dynamic motion. Static calibration curves for amplitude and frequency influences are predicted. These results agree with experimental results on some extent, and shows some expectation for further development of the dynamic resonant sensor concept.

  12. Evaluations of wall shear stress in the standpipe of a circulating fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Monazam, E.R.; Shadle, L.J.

    2008-05-13

    Shear stress was obtained in the standpipe of a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) for a light cork particles under a variety of flow conditions. The shear stress data were estimated using incremental gas phase pressure drop readings, and an estimate of the bed height to predict the hydrostatic pressure drop [(dp/dy) = ?s (1-?) g+4?sw/D]. In addition, we have also obtained data on aeration rate in the standpipe, particle circulation rate and riser gas flow rate. Analysis of the results using a one-dimensional momentum equation reveal that the observed forced per unit area may be attributed to wall friction. The resulting shear stress demonstrates that as the aeration air in the standpipe was increased the shear at the wall was decreased. An attempt was made to model solids friction factor as a function of particle velocity and it was compared to the other literature correlations.

  13. Flow-induced shear stresses increase the number of cell-cell contacts within extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingjun; Vazquez, Maribel

    2009-06-15

    The formation of cell-cell contacts within extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential to maintain tissue homeostasis and metabolism, as well as critical toward the cell-ECM mechanotransduction that can affect intracellular organization and intercellular communication to enable cell response to external stimuli. This work illustrates the effects of shear stresses on cell-cell contacts within pre-stressed collagen ECM that were loaded in two separate conditions of constant flow (CF) and constant elution time (CET). The numbers of cell-cell contacts and cytoplasmic processes in both media and 3D ECM gels were analyzed in order to examine the shear effects of different magnitudes and time periods on 3D cell-ECM formation. The sheared collagen ECM microstructures were imaged and studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illustrate greater distances between constituent cells when larger shear stresses were applied. And the gap junction Connexin 43 expressed between networked cells that were sheared in short time period using CF loading exhibited more than those using CET loading. Notably, the number of cell-cell contacts increased when larger shear stresses were applied, suggesting these stresses may be used to increase intercellular communication within 3D matrixes. PMID:18470918

  14. Shear stress regulates endothelial cell autophagy via redox regulation and Sirt1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Bi, X; Chen, T; Zhang, Q; Wang, S-X; Chiu, J-J; Liu, G-S; Zhang, Y; Bu, P; Jiang, F

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed cell autophagy is found in various cardiovascular disease conditions. Biomechanical stimuli induced by laminar blood flow have important protective actions against the development of various vascular diseases. However, the impacts and underlying mechanisms of shear stress on the autophagic process in vascular endothelial cells (ECs) are not entirely understood. Here we investigated the impacts of shear stress on autophagy in human vascular ECs. We found that shear stress induced by laminar flow, but not that by oscillatory or low-magnitude flow, promoted autophagy. Time-course analysis and flow cessation experiments confirmed that this effect was not a transient adaptive stress response but appeared to be a sustained physiological action. Flow had no effect on the mammalian target of rapamycin-ULK pathway, whereas it significantly upregulated Sirt1 expression. Inhibition of Sirt1 blunted shear stress-induced autophagy. Overexpression of wild-type Sirt1, but not the deacetylase-dead mutant, was sufficient to induce autophagy in ECs. Using both of gain- and loss-of-function experiments, we showed that Sirt1-dependent activation of FoxO1 was critical in mediating shear stress-induced autophagy. Shear stress also induced deacetylation of Atg5 and Atg7. Moreover, shear stress-induced Sirt1 expression and autophagy were redox dependent, whereas Sirt1 might act as a redox-sensitive transducer mediating reactive oxygen species-elicited autophagy. Functionally, we demonstrated that flow-conditioned cells are more resistant to oxidant-induced cell injury, and this cytoprotective effect was abolished after inhibition of autophagy. In summary, these results suggest that Sirt1-mediated autophagy in ECs may be a novel mechanism by which laminar flow produces its vascular-protective actions. PMID:26181207

  15. Measurements in the annular shear layer of high subsonic and under-expanded round jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tong; McGuirk, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study has been undertaken to document compressibility effects in the annular shear layers of axisymmetric jets. Comparison is made of the measured flow development with the well-documented influence of compressibility in planar mixing layers. High Reynolds number (~106) and high Mach number jets issuing from a convergent nozzle at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) from 1.28 to 3.0 were measured using laser Doppler anemometry instrumentation. Detailed radial profile data are reported, particularly within the potential core region, for mean velocity, turbulence rms, and turbulence shear stress. For supercritical NPRs the presence of the pressure waves in the inviscid shock cell region as the jet expanded back to ambient pressure was found to exert a noticeable effect on shear layer location, causing this to shift radially outwards at high supercritical NPR conditions. After a boundary layer to free shear layer transition zone, the turbulence development displayed a short region of similarity before adjustment to near-field merged jet behaviour. Peak turbulence rms reduction due to compressibility was similar to that observed in planar layers with radial rms suppression much stronger than axial. Comparison of the compressibility-modified annular shear layer growth rate with planar shear layer data on the basis of the convective Mach number ( M C) showed notable differences; in the annular shear layer, compressibility effects began at lower M C and displayed a stronger reduction in growth. For high Mach number aerospace propulsion applications involving round jets, the current measurements represent a new data set for the calibration/validation of compressibility-affected turbulence models.

  16. Measurement of mechanical properties of homogeneous tissue with ultrasonically induced shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao

    2007-03-01

    Fundamental mechanical properties of tissue are altered by many diseases. Regional and systemic diseases can cause changes in tissue properties. Liver stiffness is caused by cirrhosis and fibrosis. Vascular wall stiffness and tone are altered by smoking, diabetes and other diseases. Measurement of tissue mechanical properties has historically been done with palpation. However palpation is subjective, relative, and not quantitative or reproducible. Elastography in which strain is measured due to stress application gives a qualitative estimate of Young's modulus at low frequency. We have developed a method that takes advantage of the fact that the wave equation is local and shear wave propagation depends only on storage and loss moduli in addition to density, which does not vary much in soft tissues. Our method is called shearwave dispersion ultrasonic velocity measurement (SDUV). The method uses ultrasonic radiation force to produce repeated motion in tissue that induces shear waves to propagate. The shear wave propagation speed is measured with pulse echo ultrasound as a function of frequency of the shear wave. The resulting velocity dispersion curve is fit with a Voight model to determine the elastic and viscous moduli of the tissue. Results indicate accurate and precise measurements are possible using this "noninvasive biopsy" method. Measurements in beef along and across the fibers are consistent with the literature values.

  17. Measuring Local Strain Rates In Ductile Shear Zones: A New Approach From Deformed Syntectonic Dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassier, C.; Leloup, P.; Rubatto, D.; Galland, O.; Yue, Y.; Ding, L.

    2006-12-01

    At the Earth surface, deformation is mostly localized in fault zones in between tectonic plates. In the upper crust, the deformation is brittle and the faults are narrow and produce earthquakes. In contrast, deformation in the lower ductile crust results in larger shear zones. While it is relatively easy to measure in situ deformation rates at the surface using for example GPS data, it is more difficult to determinate in situ values of strain rate in the ductile crust. Such strain rates can only be estimated in paleo-shear zones. Various methods have been used to assess paleo-strain rates in paleo-shear zones. For instance, cooling and/or decompression rates associated with assumptions on geothermic gradients and shear zone geometry can lead to such estimates. Another way to estimate strain rates is the integration of paleo-stress measurements in a power flow law. But these methods are indirect and imply strong assumptions. Dating of helicitic garnets or syntectonic fibres are more direct estimates. However these last techniques have been only applied in zones of low deformation and not in major shear zones. We propose a new direct method to measure local strain rates in major ductile shear zones from syntectonic dykes by coupling quantification of deformation and geochronology. We test our method in a major shear zone in a well constrained tectonic setting: the Ailao-Shan - Red River Shear Zone (ASRRsz) located in SE Asia. For this 10 km wide shear zone, large-scale fault rates, determined in three independent ways, imply strain rates between 1.1710^{-13 s-1 and 1.5210^{-13 s-1 between 35 and 16 Ma. Our study focused on one outcrop where different generations of syntectonic dykes are observed. First, we quantified the minimum shear strain ? for each dyke using several methods: (1) by measuring the stretching of dykes with a surface restoration method (2) by measuring the final angle of the dykes with respect to the shear direction and (3) by combining the two previous methods. From the less to the most deformed dykes, minimum ? values vary between 0.2 to ~10, respectively. Second, we determined the ages of emplacement of each dyke by ion microprobe U-Pb dating of monazites. We obtained three groups of ages at 22Ma, 24-26Ma and 30Ma. Our geochronological data are in good agreement with our structural data, the most deformed dykes being the oldest. The strain rates deduced from these measurements are on the order of 10^{-14}s-1, that is slower than values previously deduced from indirect methods. However, this value only corresponds to a minimum local strain rate. That new method developed to estimate local minimum strain rates in a major ductile shear zone seems to be reliable and could be applied to other shear zones. Such an approach applied at several locations along a single shear zone could also provide new opportunities to understand the evolution of a whole shear system.

  18. An analysis of riverbed shear stress in the context of plugging in bank filtration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbs, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Louisville Water Company (LWC) has investigated the alluvial aquifer upstream of the Falls of the Ohio River since the late 1940's, with an interest in securing an adequate volume of high quality water. A high-yield horizontal bank filtration collection well was put into operation at the B.E.Payne Water Treatment Plant in 1999, with a design capacity of 57,000 cubic meters/day and an initial yield of greater than 87,000 cubic meters/day. In the first 3 years of operation, the yield has decreased to a stable yield of 68,000 cubic meters/day. LWC desired a better understanding of the factors that affect long-term yield from riverbank filtation systems, and initiated a research program to provide data for better modeling and prediction of yield from such systems. Data were assembled from various agencies having information on flow, velocity profiles, slope, and sediment transport on the river, and particle size distribution of riverbed sediments and the aquifer. These data were used to calculate shear velocity, boundary shear stress, and friction slope. Riverbed shear stress was calculated at 7.5 Newtons/square meter at maximum river flow, and less than 1 Newton/square meter under average flow conditions. These data, along with aquifer characteristics and well yield, were used as a baseline for comparison with other river systems. Additional work is planned that will provide a direct measure of flux in the riverbed. This will allow the mapping of riverbed hydraulic conductivity in the vicinity of the well, and allow a spatial and temporal comparison to piezometric and well yield data.

  19. Shear Stress and Turbulence Along a Streambank Due to Changes in Vegetation Canopy Density and Bank Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnomski, N. M.; Tullos, D. D.; Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation along the toe of a streambank can alter the forces applied to the bank surface and can protect banks against erosion, though efforts are still needed to better understand the influence of vegetation on streambank hydraulics. In this study, we investigate the role of vegetation density and bank-toe angle on turbulence and shear stress on the bank-toe. Five flume experiments were used to explore how changes in vegetation density (plant frontal area per unit cross-sectional area) influence boundary shear stress on a 30° and 15° vegetated bank-toe at three discharge rates. Velocity profiles were measured to explore flow patterns around and under the canopy. Turbulent stress measures based on turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress were used to evaluate boundary shear stress. Tensor fields were visualized to further our understanding of vorticity and hydraulics near the boundary. Resistance parameters Cd (drag coefficient) and Manning’s n were also estimated. Overall, we found a trend of increasing Cd with increasing vegetation density, related to low stem Reynolds number. Estimates of Cd and thus Manning’s n were high in comparison to most literature cited values, especially when vegetation density was high and leaves were present. Results demonstrate the strong influence of vegetation density on channel velocity and estimation of resistance. Calculated turbulence statistics indicate that, with increasing vegetation density, turbulence and shear stress decreased along the majority of the bank-toe and increased at the bottom of the bank-toe, thus a greater opportunity for erosion exists at sensitive locations along the bottom of the bank-toe and in the main channel. Reynolds stresses increased under the canopy, resulting in higher shearing forces along the bank-toe, especially on the 30° slope. Generally, we find that while vegetation may reduce shear stress along the bank-toe due to a decrease in velocity, turbulence induced by vegetation may increase erosion at the interface between the main channel and vegetated bank-toe.

  20. Shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis decreases the release of microparticles from endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Seok; Kim, Boa; Lee, Hojun; Thakkar, Sunny; Babbitt, Dianne M; Eguchi, Satoru; Brown, Michael D; Park, Joon-Young

    2015-08-01

    The concept of enhancing structural integrity of mitochondria has emerged as a novel therapeutic option for cardiovascular disease. Flow-induced increase in laminar shear stress is a potent physiological stimulant associated with exercise, which exerts atheroprotective effects in the vasculature. However, the effect of laminar shear stress on mitochondrial remodeling within the vascular endothelium and its related functional consequences remain largely unknown. Using in vitro and in vivo complementary studies, here, we report that aerobic exercise alleviates the release of endothelial microparticles in prehypertensive individuals and that these salutary effects are, in part, mediated by shear stress-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Circulating levels of total (CD31(+)/CD42a(-)) and activated (CD62E(+)) microparticles released by endothelial cells were significantly decreased (?40% for both) after a 6-mo supervised aerobic exercise training program in individuals with prehypertension. In cultured human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress reduced the release of endothelial microparticles, which was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis through a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-dependent mechanism. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, treatment showed similar effects. SIRT1 knockdown using small-interfering RNA completely abolished the protective effect of shear stress. Disruption of mitochondrial integrity by either antimycin A or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? small-interfering RNA significantly increased the number of total, and activated, released endothelial microparticles, and shear stress restored these back to basal levels. Collectively, these data demonstrate a critical role of endothelial mitochondrial integrity in preserving endothelial homeostasis. Moreover, prolonged laminar shear stress, which is systemically elevated during aerobic exercise in the vessel wall, mitigates endothelial dysfunction by promoting mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:26024684

  1. Lateral Stress Measurements in Pure Tungsten during Shock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, J. C. F.; Gray, G. T. III; Bourne, N. K.

    2006-07-28

    Longitudinal and lateral stresses during the shock loading of pure tungsten have been measured using manganin stress gauges. The Hugoniot has been compared to the previous work of others and shown to be in close agreement. Lateral stresses have been shown to increase behind the shock front, implying that the shear strength decreases. Whilst this is similar to results in tantalum, comparison with recovery experiments in the literature suggests that this may be due in part to a brittle failure process.

  2. The limit of stability of a curved plate strip under shear and axial stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kromm, A

    1939-01-01

    For an infinitely long plate strip of constant curvature there is set up the buckling condition for combined shear and axial stresses. Assumptions are made of the vanishing of the moments acting on the longitudinal edges and of the vanishing of the tangential displacements u and the transverse stresses sigma(sub y) (longitudinal stiffeners nonresistant to bending in the circumferential direction). The buckling condition is evaluated for the case of pure shear and an approximate formula is derived for the critical stresses for large curvatures. In connection with the discussion of the methods and results there is defined the range of validity and the buckling condition set up.

  3. Effect of Normal Pressure on the Critical Shear Stress of Curved Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rafel, Norman

    1943-01-01

    In order to determine the critical stresses caused by an outward acting pressure on the upper surface of a wing due to the difference in internal and external pressures, torsional tests were made on two curved-sheet specimens subjected to an outward acting normal pressure. Results show that an outward acting normal pressure appreciable raises the critical shear stress for an unstiffened curved sheet; the absolute increase in critical shear stress is slightly greater for a 30 in. rib spacing than for a 10 in. rib spacing.

  4. Propagation of shear waves in viscoelastic heterogeneous layer overlying an initially stressed half space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Mita; Dhua, Sudarshan; Chattopadhyay, Amares

    2015-12-01

    The present paper is concerned with the propagation of shear waves in an isotropic, viscoelastic, heterogeneous layer lying over a homogeneous half space under initial stress. For the layer the inhomogeneity associated to rigidity, internal friction and density is assumed to be linear function of depth. The dispersion equation of shear waves has been obtained in closed form. The dimensionless phase velocity and damping velocity have been plotted against dimensionless wave number for different values of inhomogeneity parameter and initial stress. The effects of inhomogeneity and initial stress have been shown in the dispersion curves.

  5. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-02-06

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low ({<=}1.5 dyn/cm{sup 2}) or high (25 dyn/cm{sup 2}) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  6. Forsterite to wadsleyite phase transformation under shear stress and consequences for the Earth's mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demouchy, S.; Mainprice, D.; Tommasi, A.; Couvy, H.; Barou, F.; Frost, D. J.; Cordier, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the phase transformation of forsterite to wadsleyite under shear stress at the Earth's transition zone pressure and temperature conditions. Two-step experiments were performed using a multi-anvil press. First, we hot pressed iron-free forsterite at 6 or 11 GPa and 1100 C. Then we deformed a slab of this starting material using a direct simple shear assembly at 16 GPa and 1400 C for 1, 15, 35, 40, or 60 min. Both the starting material and the deformed samples were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy including measurements of crystal preferred orientations (CPO) by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The phase transformation occurs very rapidly, in less than 1 min, and metastable forsterite relics are not observed after deformation. The grain size of wadsleyite is slightly smaller than the forsterite starting material. The water contents obtained from FTIR analyses in forsterite and wadsleyite are 65-124 wt ppm H 2O and 114-736 wt ppm H 2O, respectively, which are well below water solubility at similar conditions in the presence of free water. Wadsleyite aggregates display weak CPO patterns with [1 0 0] axes concentrated at low angle to the shear direction, [0 1 0] axes perpendicular to the shear plane and nearly random [0 0 1] axes. Only a few dislocations were observed in wadsleyite with TEM. This observation is consistent with the assumption that most dislocations formed during the initial high-stress stages of these stress-relaxation experiments, were consumed in the phase transformation, probably enhancing the transformation rate. CPO patterns vary as a function of the water content: with increasing water content the density of [1 0 0] axes parallel to the shear direction decreases, and the density of [0 0 1] axes increases. Viscoplastic self-consistent modeling of CPO evolution using previously reported glide systems for wadsleyite, i.e., [1 0 0]{0 k l} and 1/2 <1 1 1>{1 0 1}, cannot reproduce the measured CPO, unless the [0 0 1](0 1 0) system, for which dislocations have not been observed by TEM, is also activated. In addition, wadsleyite grain growth suggests the participation of diffusion-assisted processes in deformation. Calculated anisotropies for P and S-waves using measured CPO are always below 1%. This very low anisotropy is due to both the low finite strain achieved in the experiments, which leads to weak wadsleyite CPO, and to the diluting effect of added majorite. The present experiments emphasize the importance of stress, grain size evolution and water content in the forsterite to wadsleyite phase transformation and subsequent deformation in the transition zone.

  7. An ultrasonic technique for measuring stress in fasteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, K. J.; Day, P.; Byron, D.

    1999-12-01

    High temperature bolting alloys are extensively used in the thermal power generation industry as for example, reheat ESV and Governor valve studs. Remnant life assessment methodologies and plant maintenance procedures require the monitoring of the operational stress levels in these fasteners. Some conventional ultrasonic techniques require longitudinal wave measurements to be undertaken when the nut on the bolt is loosened and then re-tightened. Other techniques use a combination of shear waves and longitudinal waves. In this paper, the problems and pitfalls associated with various ultrasonic techniques for measuring stress in bolts, is discussed. An ultrasonic technique developed for measuring the stress in Durehete 1055 bolts is presented. Material from a textured rolled bar has been used as a test bed in the development work. The technique uses shear wave birefringence and compression waves at several frequencies to measure texture, fastener length and the average stress. The technique was developed by making ultrasonic measurements on bolts tensioned in universal testing machines and a hydraulic nut. The ultrasonic measurements of residual stress have been checked against strain gauge measurements. The Durehete bolts have a hollow cylinder geometry of restricted dimensions, which significantly alters compression and shear wave velocities from bulk values and introduces hoop stresses which can be measured by rotating the polarization of the shear wave probe. Modelling of the experimental results has been undertaken using theories for the elastic wave propagation through waveguides. The dispersion equations allow the velocity and length of the fastener to be measured ultrasonically in some situations where the length of the fastener can not be measured directly with a vernier caliper or micrometer and/or where it is undesirable to loosen nuts to take calibration readings of the shear and compression wave velocities.

  8. Properties of the shear stress peak radiated ahead of rapidly accelerating rupture fronts that mediate frictional slip.

    PubMed

    Svetlizky, Ilya; Pino Muñoz, Daniel; Radiguet, Mathilde; Kammer, David S; Molinari, Jean-François; Fineberg, Jay

    2016-01-19

    We study rapidly accelerating rupture fronts at the onset of frictional motion by performing high-temporal-resolution measurements of both the real contact area and the strain fields surrounding the propagating rupture tip. We observe large-amplitude and localized shear stress peaks that precede rupture fronts and propagate at the shear-wave speed. These localized stress waves, which retain a well-defined form, are initiated during the rapid rupture acceleration phase. They transport considerable energy and are capable of nucleating a secondary supershear rupture. The amplitude of these localized waves roughly scales with the dynamic stress drop and does not decrease as long as the rupture front driving it continues to propagate. Only upon rupture arrest does decay initiate, although the stress wave both continues to propagate and retains its characteristic form. These experimental results are qualitatively described by a self-similar model: a simplified analytical solution of a suddenly expanding shear crack. Quantitative agreement with experiment is provided by realistic finite-element simulations that demonstrate that the radiated stress waves are strongly focused in the direction of the rupture front propagation and describe both their amplitude growth and spatial scaling. Our results demonstrate the extensive applicability of brittle fracture theory to fundamental understanding of friction. Implications for earthquake dynamics are discussed. PMID:26729877

  9. Nanoscale patterning of extracellular matrix alters endothelial function under shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Karina H.; Surya, Vinay N.; Gole, Monica; Walker, Travis; Yang, Weiguang; Lai, Edwina S.; Ostrowski, Maggie; Fuller, Gerald G.; Dunn, Alexander R.; Huang, Ngan F.

    2016-01-01

    The role of nanotopographical extracellular matrix (ECM) cues on vascular endothelial cell (EC) organization and function is not well-understood, despite the composition of nano- to micro-scale fibrillar ECMs within blood vessels. Instead, the predominant modulator of EC organization and function is traditionally thought to be hemodynamic shear stress, in which uniform shear stress induces parallel-alignment of ECs with anti-inflammatory function, whereas disturbed flow induce pro-inflammatory cells in disorganized configuration. Since shear stress acts on ECs by applying a mechanical force concomitant with inducing spatial patterning of the cells, we sought to decouple the effects of shear stress using parallel-aligned nanofibrillar collagen films that induce parallel EC alignment prior to stimulation with disturbed flow resulting from spatial wall shear stress gradients. Using real time live-cell imaging, we tracked the alignment, migration trajectories, proliferation, and anti-inflammatory behavior of ECs when they were cultured on parallel-aligned or randomly oriented nanofibrillar films. Intriguingly, ECs cultured on aligned nanofibrillar films remained well-aligned and migrated predominantly along the direction of aligned nanofibrils, despite exposure to shear stress orthogonal to the direction of the aligned nanofibrils. Furthermore, in stark contrast to ECs cultured on randomly oriented films, ECs on aligned nanofibrillar films exposed to disturbed flow had significantly reduced inflammation and proliferation, while maintaining intact intercellular junctions. This work reveals fundamental insights into the importance of nanoscale ECM interactions in the maintenance of endothelial function. Importantly, it provides new insight into how ECs respond to opposing cues derived from nanotopography and mechanical shear force, and has strong implications in the design of polymeric conduits and bioengineered tissues. PMID:26670737

  10. Cosmic Shear Measurements with DES Science Verification Data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, M. R.

    2015-07-20

    We present measurements of weak gravitational lensing cosmic shear two-point statistics using Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. We demonstrate that our results are robust to the choice of shear measurement pipeline, either ngmix or im3shape, and robust to the choice of two-point statistic, including both real and Fourier-space statistics. Our results pass a suite of null tests including tests for B-mode contamination and direct tests for any dependence of the two-point functions on a set of 16 observing conditions and galaxy properties, such as seeing, airmass, galaxy color, galaxy magnitude, etc. We use a large suite of simulations to compute the covariance matrix of the cosmic shear measurements and assign statistical significance to our null tests. We find that our covariance matrix is consistent with the halo model prediction, indicating that it has the appropriate level of halo sample variance. We also compare the same jackknife procedure applied to the data and the simulations in order to search for additional sources of noise not captured by the simulations. We find no statistically significant extra sources of noise in the data. The overall detection significance with tomography for our highest source density catalog is 9.7σ. Cosmological constraints from the measurements in this work are presented in a companion paper (DES et al. 2015).

  11. On the expected relationships among apparent stress, static stress drop, effective shear fracture energy, and efficiency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeler, N.M.; Wong, T.-F.; Hickman, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    We consider expected relationships between apparent stress ??a and static stress drop ????s using a standard energy balance and find ??a = ????s (0.5 - ??), where ?? is stress overshoot. A simple implementation of this balance is to assume overshoot is constant; then apparent stress should vary linearly with stress drop, consistent with spectral theories (Brune, 1970) and dynamic crack models (Madariaga, 1976). Normalizing this expression by the static stress drop defines an efficiency ??sw = ??sa/????s as follows from Savage and Wood (1971). We use this measure of efficiency to analyze data from one of a number of observational studies that find apparent stress to increase with seismic moment, namely earthquakes recorded in the Cajon Pass borehole by Abercrombie (1995). Increases in apparent stress with event size could reflect an increase in seismic efficiency; however, ??sw for the Cajon earthquakes shows no such increase and is approximately constant over the entire moment range. Thus, apparent stress and stress drop co-vary, as expected from the energy balance at constant overshoot. The median value of ??sw for the Cajon earthquakes is four times lower than ??sw for laboratory events. Thus, these Cajon-recorded earthquakes have relatively low and approximately constant efficiency. As the energy balance requires ??sw = 0.5 - ??, overshoot can be estimated directly from the Savage-Wood efficiency; overshoot is positive for Cajon Pass earthquakes. Variations in apparent stress with seismic moment for these earthquakes result primarily from systematic variations in static stress drop with seismic moment and do not require a relative decrease in sliding resistance with increasing event size (dynamic weakening). Based on the comparison of field and lab determinations of the Savage-Wood efficiency, we suggest the criterion ??sw > 0.3 as a test for dynamic weakening in excess of that seen in the lab.

  12. Hydrostatic and shear consolidation tests with permeability measurements on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant crushed salt

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-03-01

    Crushed natural rock salt is a primary candidate for use as backfill and barrier material at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and therefore Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been pursuing a laboratory program designed to quantify its consolidation properties and permeability. Variables that influence consolidation rate that have been examined include stress state and moisture content. The experimental results presented in this report complement existing studies and work in progress conducted by SNL. The experiments described in this report were designed to (1) measure permeabilities of consolidated specimens of crushed salt, (2) determine the influence of brine saturation on consolidation under hydrostatic loads, and 3) measure the effects of small applied shear stresses on consolidation properties. The laboratory effort consisted of 18 individual tests: three permeability tests conducted on specimens that had been consolidated at Sandia, six hydrostatic consolidation and permeability tests conducted on specimens of brine-saturated crushed WIPP salt, and nine shear consolidation and permeability tests performed on crushed WIPP salt specimens containing 3 percent brine by weight. For hydrostatic consolidation tests, pressures ranged from 1.72 MPa to 6.90 MPa. For the shear consolidation tests, confining pressures were between 3.45 MPa and 6.90 MPa and applied axial stress differences were between 0.69 and 4.14 MPa. All tests were run under drained conditions at 25{degrees}C.

  13. Localized shear deformation and softening of bulk metallic glass: stress or temperature driven?

    PubMed Central

    Ketov, S. V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    Metallic glasses due to their unique combination of physical and chemical properties have a great potential in various applications: materials for construction, medical, MEMs devices and so on. The deformation mechanism in metallic glasses is very much different from that in conventional crystalline materials and not yet fully understood. Here we are trying to find out what drives shear deformation in metallic glasses. The compression experiments of the bulk metallic glassy (BMG) samples coated with tin, Rose metal and indium were performed. There were no melting sites of the coating observed near individual shear bands. Melting occurred only near fracture surface, near microcracks and in the places of shear band concentrations. The results indicate that shear banding is rather a stress driven process while the temperature rise that was observed takes place due to friction forces in the viscous supercooled liquid thin layer in the shear bands. PMID:24100784

  14. SHEAR STRENGTH MEASURING EQUIPMENT EVALUATION AT THE COLD TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    MEACHAM JE

    2009-09-09

    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  15. Bi-crystallographic lattice structure directs grain boundary motion under shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Liang; Han, Weizhong; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Shear stress driven grain boundary (GB) migration was found to be a ubiquitous phenomenon in small grained polycrystalline materials. Here we show that the GB displacement shift complete (DSC) dislocation mechanism for GB shear coupled migration is still functioning even if the geometry orientation of the GBs deviates a few degrees from the appropriate coincidence site lattice (CSL) GBs. It means that any large angle GB can have a considerable chance to be such a “CSL-related GB” for which the shear coupled GB migration motion can happen by the GB DSC dislocation mechanism. We conclude that the CSL-DSC bi-crystallographic lattice structure in GB is the main reason that GB can migrate under shear stress. PMID:26304553

  16. Nature's rheologists: Lymphatic endothelial cells control migration in response to shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Gerald; Dunn, Alex; Surya, Vinay

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inner surface of blood and lymphatic vessels and are sensitive to fluid flow as part of their physiological function. EC organization, migration and vessel development are profoundly influenced by shear stresses, with important implications in cardiovascular disease and tumor metastasis. How ECs sense fluid flow is a central and unanswered question in cardiovascular biology. We developed a high-throughput live-cell flow chamber that models the gradients in wall shear stress experienced by ECs in vivo. Live-cell imaging allows us to probe cellular responses to flow, most notably EC migration, which has a key role in vessel remodeling. We find that most EC subtypes, including ECs from the venous, arterial, and microvascular systems, migrate in the flow direction. In contrast, human lymphatic microvascular ECs (hLMVECs) migrate against flow and up spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Further experiments reveal that hLMVECs are sensitive to the magnitude, direction, and the local spatial gradients in wall shear stress. Lastly, recent efforts have aimed to link this directional migration to spatial gradients in cell-mediated small molecule emission that may be linked to the gradient in wall shear stress.

  17. Dispersive aortic cannulas reduce aortic wall shear stress affecting atherosclerotic plaque embolization.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Alexander; Gül, Fethi; Benim, Ali Cemal; Joos, Franz; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2015-03-01

    Neurologic complications during on-pump cardiovascular surgery are often induced by mobilization of atherosclerotic plaques, which is directly related to enhanced wall shear stress. In the present study, we numerically evaluated the impact of dispersive aortic cannulas on aortic blood flow characteristics, with special regard to the resulting wall shear stress profiles. An idealized numerical model of the human aorta and its branches was created and used to model straight as well as bent dispersive aortic cannulas with meshlike tips inserted in the distal ascending aorta. Standard cannulas with straight beveled or bent tips served as controls. Using a recently optimized computing method, simulations of pulsatile and nonpulsatile extracorporeal circulation were performed. Dispersive aortic cannulas reduced the maximum and average aortic wall shear stress values to approximately 50% of those with control cannulas, while the difference in local values was even larger. Moreover, under pulsatile circulation, dispersive cannulas shortened the time period during which wall shear stress values were increased. The turbulent kinetic energy was also diminished by utilizing dispersive cannulas, reducing the risk of hemolysis. In summary, dispersive aortic cannulas decrease aortic wall shear stress and turbulence during extracorporeal circulation and may therefore reduce the risk of endothelial and blood cell damage as well as that of neurologic complications caused by atherosclerotic plaque mobilization. PMID:25205180

  18. Cultivation of shear stress sensitive microorganisms in disposable bag reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Jonczyk, Patrick; Takenberg, Meike; Hartwig, Steffen; Beutel, Sascha; Berger, Ralf G; Scheper, Thomas

    2013-09-20

    Technical scale (?5l) cultivations of shear stress sensitive microorganisms are often difficult to perform, as common bioreactors are usually designed to maximize the oxygen input into the culture medium. This is achieved by mechanical stirrers, causing high shear stress. Examples for shear stress sensitive microorganisms, for which no specific cultivation systems exist, are many anaerobic bacteria and fungi, such as basidiomycetes. In this work a disposable bag bioreactor developed for cultivation of mammalian cells was investigated to evaluate its potential to cultivate shear stress sensitive anaerobic Eubacterium ramulus and shear stress sensitive basidiomycetes Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus sapidus. All cultivations were compared with conventional stainless steel stirred tank reactors (STR) cultivations. Good growth of all investigated microorganisms cultivated in the bag reactor was found. E. ramulus showed growth rates of ?=0.56 h? (bag) and ?=0.53 h? (STR). Differences concerning morphology, enzymatic activities and growth in fungal cultivations were observed. In the bag reactor growth in form of small, independent pellets was observed while STR cultivations showed intense aggregation. F. velutipes reached higher biomass concentrations (21.2 g l? DCW vs. 16.8 g l? DCW) and up to 2-fold higher peptidolytic activities in comparison to cell cultivation in stirred tank reactors. PMID:23892193

  19. Field measurements of the linear and nonlinear shear moduli of cemented alluvium using dynamically loaded surface footings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwangsoo

    In this dissertation, a research effort aimed at development and implementation of a direct field test method to evaluate the linear and nonlinear shear modulus of soil is presented. The field method utilizes a surface footing that is dynamically loaded horizontally. The test procedure involves applying static and dynamic loads to the surface footing and measuring the soil response beneath the loaded area using embedded geophones. A wide range in dynamic loads under a constant static load permits measurements of linear and nonlinear shear wave propagation from which shear moduli and associated shearing strains are evaluated. Shear wave velocities in the linear and nonlinear strain ranges are calculated from time delays in waveforms monitored by geophone pairs. Shear moduli are then obtained using the shear wave velocities and the mass density of a soil. Shear strains are determined using particle displacements calculated from particle velocities measured at the geophones by assuming a linear variation between geophone pairs. The field test method was validated by conducting an initial field experiment at sandy site in Austin, Texas. Then, field experiments were performed on cemented alluvium, a complex, hard-to-sample material. Three separate locations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada were tested. The tests successfully measured: (1) the effect of confining pressure on shear and compression moduli in the linear strain range and (2) the effect of strain on shear moduli at various states of stress in the field. The field measurements were first compared with empirical relationships for uncemented gravel. This comparison showed that the alluvium was clearly cemented. The field measurements were then compared to other independent measurements including laboratory resonant column tests and field seismic tests using the spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves method. The results from the field tests were generally in good agreement with the other independent test results, indicating that the proposed method has the ability to directly evaluate complex material like cemented alluvium in the field.

  20. Shear stresses in the adhesive layer under porcelain veneers. A finite element method study.

    PubMed

    Troedson, M; Drand, T

    1998-10-01

    A finite element study was made investigating the shear stresses in the composite cement layer and the enamel bond under loaded porcelain veneers. The maximum shear stresses were calculated under various conditions concerning loading angle, laminating extension, and cervical design. The result of the study was that maximum shear stresses did not exceed the stress level for debonding, but that great differences in maximum shear stress appeared with varying loss of bond and different loading angle. The fully laminated facing showed stress levels in the composite cement only 1/5 of those in the facing with a lack of adhesion in the periphery, and 1/15 in the enamel bond. The maximum stresses increased about 4 times when the load angle was 30 degrees as compared with 0 degrees, and increased about 1.5 times from 30 degrees to 60 degrees. The importance of getting a full lamination of the veneer and avoiding unfavorable loading conditions is emphasized in this study. PMID:9860092

  1. Endothelial mitochondria regulate the intracellular Ca2+ response to fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Scheitlin, Christopher G; Julian, Justin A; Shanmughapriya, Santhanam; Madesh, Muniswamy; Tsoukias, Nikolaos M; Alevriadou, B Rita

    2016-03-15

    Shear stress is known to stimulate an intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) response in vascular endothelial cells (ECs). [Ca(2+)]i is a key second messenger for signaling that leads to vasodilation and EC survival. Although it is accepted that the shear-induced [Ca(2+)]i response is, in part, due to Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the role of mitochondria (second largest Ca(2+) store) is unknown. We hypothesized that the mitochondria play a role in regulating [Ca(2+)]i in sheared ECs. Cultured ECs, loaded with a Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorophore, were exposed to physiological levels of shear stress. Shear stress elicited [Ca(2+)]i transients in a percentage of cells with a fraction of them displaying oscillations. Peak magnitudes, percentage of oscillating ECs, and oscillation frequencies depended on the shear level. [Ca(2+)]i transients/oscillations were present when experiments were conducted in Ca(2+)-free solution (plus lanthanum) but absent when ECs were treated with a phospholipase C inhibitor, suggesting that the ER inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor is responsible for the [Ca(2+)]i response. Either a mitochondrial uncoupler or an electron transport chain inhibitor, but not a mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibitor, prevented the occurrence of transients and especially inhibited the oscillations. Knockdown of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter also inhibited the shear-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients/oscillations compared with controls. Hence, EC mitochondria, through Ca(2+) uptake/release, regulate the temporal profile of shear-induced ER Ca(2+) release. [Ca(2+)]i oscillation frequencies detected were within the range for activation of mechanoresponsive kinases and transcription factors, suggesting that dysfunctional EC mitochondria may contribute to cardiovascular disease by deregulating the shear-induced [Ca(2+)]i response. PMID:26739489

  2. Measuring Environmental Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.; Dahm, Douglas B.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared remote sensors, plus photometric interpretation and digital data analysis are being used to record the stresses on air, water, vegetation and soil. Directly recorded photographic information has been the most effective recording media for remote sensing. (BT)

  3. A novel shear reduction insole effect on the thermal response to walking stress, balance, and gait.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, James S; Ammanath, Peethambaran; Le, Tima; Luring, Christopher; Wensman, Jeffrey; Grewal, Gurtej S; Najafi, Bijan; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2014-11-01

    Shear stresses have been implicated in the formation of diabetes-related foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel shear-reducing insole on the thermal response to walking, balance, and gait. Twenty-seven diabetes peripheral neuropathy patients were enrolled and asked to take 200 steps in both intervention and standard insoles. Thermal foot images of the feet were taken at baseline (1) following a 5-minute temperature acclimatization and (2) after walking. Testing order was randomized, and a 5-minute washout period was used between testing each insole condition. Sudomotor function was also assessed. Gait and balance were measured under single and dual task conditions using a validated body worn sensor system. The mean age was 65.1 years, height was 67.3 inches, weight was 218 pounds, and body mass index was 33.9, 48% were female, and 82% had type 2 diabetes. After walking in both insole conditions, foot temperatures increased significantly in standard insoles. The intervention insole significantly reduced forefoot and midfoot temperature increases (64.1%, P = .008; 48%, P = .046) compared to standard insoles. There were significant negative correlations with sudomotor function and baseline temperatures (r = .53-.57). The intervention demonstrated 10.4% less gait initiation double support time compared to standard insoles (P = .05). There were no differences in static balance measures. We found significantly lower forefoot and midfoot temperature increases following walking with shear-reducing insoles compared to standard insoles. We also found improvements in gait. These findings merit future study for the prevention of foot ulcer. PMID:25107709

  4. A Novel Shear Reduction Insole Effect on the Thermal Response to Walking Stress, Balance, and Gait

    PubMed Central

    Ammanath, Peethambaran; Le, Tima; Luring, Christopher; Wensman, Jeffrey; Grewal, Gurtej S.; Najafi, Bijan; Pop-Busui, Rodica

    2014-01-01

    Shear stresses have been implicated in the formation of diabetes-related foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel shear-reducing insole on the thermal response to walking, balance, and gait. Twenty-seven diabetes peripheral neuropathy patients were enrolled and asked to take 200 steps in both intervention and standard insoles. Thermal foot images of the feet were taken at baseline (1) following a 5-minute temperature acclimatization and (2) after walking. Testing order was randomized, and a 5-minute washout period was used between testing each insole condition. Sudomotor function was also assessed. Gait and balance were measured under single and dual task conditions using a validated body worn sensor system. The mean age was 65.1 years, height was 67.3 inches, weight was 218 pounds, and body mass index was 33.9, 48% were female, and 82% had type 2 diabetes. After walking in both insole conditions, foot temperatures increased significantly in standard insoles. The intervention insole significantly reduced forefoot and midfoot temperature increases (64.1%, P = .008; 48%, P = .046) compared to standard insoles. There were significant negative correlations with sudomotor function and baseline temperatures (r = .53-.57). The intervention demonstrated 10.4% less gait initiation double support time compared to standard insoles (P = .05). There were no differences in static balance measures. We found significantly lower forefoot and midfoot temperature increases following walking with shear-reducing insoles compared to standard insoles. We also found improvements in gait. These findings merit future study for the prevention of foot ulcer. PMID:25107709

  5. Averaging interval selection for the calculation of Reynolds shear stress for studies of boundary layer turbulence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Zoe; Baas, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    It is widely recognised that boundary layer turbulence plays an important role in sediment transport dynamics in aeolian environments. Improvements in the design and affordability of ultrasonic anemometers have provided significant contributions to studies of aeolian turbulence, by facilitating high frequency monitoring of three dimensional wind velocities. Consequently, research has moved beyond studies of mean airflow properties, to investigations into quasi-instantaneous turbulent fluctuations at high spatio-temporal scales. To fully understand, how temporal fluctuations in shear stress drive wind erosivity and sediment transport, research into the best practice for calculating shear stress is necessary. This paper builds upon work published by Lee and Baas (2012) on the influence of streamline correction techniques on Reynolds shear stress, by investigating the time-averaging interval used in the calculation. Concerns relating to the selection of appropriate averaging intervals for turbulence research, where the data are typically non-stationary at all timescales, are well documented in the literature (e.g. Treviño and Andreas, 2000). For example, Finnigan et al. (2003) found that underestimating the required averaging interval can lead to a reduction in the calculated momentum flux, as contributions from turbulent eddies longer than the averaging interval are lost. To avoid the risk of underestimating fluxes, researchers have typically used the total measurement duration as a single averaging period. For non-stationary data, however, using the whole measurement run as a single block average is inadequate for defining turbulent fluctuations. The data presented in this paper were collected in a field study of boundary layer turbulence conducted at Tramore beach near Rosapenna, County Donegal, Ireland. High-frequency (50 Hz) 3D wind velocity measurements were collected using ultrasonic anemometry at thirteen different heights between 0.11 and 1.62 metres above the bed. A technique for determining time-averaging intervals for a series of anemometers stacked in a close vertical array is presented. A minimum timescale is identified using spectral analysis to determine the inertial sub-range, where energy is neither produced nor dissipated but passed down to increasingly smaller scales. An autocorrelation function is then used to derive a scaling pattern between anemometer heights, which defines a series of averaging intervals of increasing length with height above the surface. Results demonstrate the effect of different averaging intervals on the calculation of Reynolds shear stress and highlight the inadequacy of using the total measurement duration as a single block average. Lee, Z. S. & Baas, A. C. W. (2012). Streamline correction for the analysis of boundary layer turbulence. Geomorphology, 171-172, 69-82. Treviño, G. and Andreas, E.L., 2000. Averaging Intervals For Spectral Analysis Of Nonstationary Turbulence. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 95(2): 231-247. Finnigan, J.J., Clement, R., Malhi, Y., Leuning, R. and Cleugh, H.A., 2003. Re-evaluation of long-term flux measurement techniques. Part I: Averaging and coordinate rotation. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 107(1): 1-48.

  6. Influence of thickness and permeability of endothelial surface layer on transmission of shear stress in capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, SongPeng; Zhang, XiangJun; Tian, Yu; Meng, YongGang; Lipowsky, Herbert

    2015-07-01

    The molecular coating on the surface of microvascular endothelium has been identified as a barrier to transvascular exchange of solutes. With a thickness of hundreds of nanometers, this endothelial surface layer (ESL) has been treated as a porous domain within which fluid shear stresses are dissipated and transmitted to the solid matrix to initiate mechanotransduction events. The present study aims to examine the effects of the ESL thickness and permeability on the transmission of shear stress throughout the ESL. Our results indicate that fluid shear stresses rapidly decrease to insignificant levels within a thin transition layer near the outer boundary of the ESL with a thickness on the order of ten nanometers. The thickness of the transition zone between free fluid and the porous layer was found to be proportional to the square root of the Darcy permeability. As the permeability is reduced ten-fold, the interfacial fluid and solid matrix shear stress gradients increase exponentially two-fold. While the interfacial fluid shear stress is positively related to the ESL thickness, the transmitted matrix stress is reduced by about 50% as the ESL thickness is decreased from 500 to 100 nm, which may occur under pathological conditions. Thus, thickness and permeability of the ESL are two main factors that determine flow features and the apportionment of shear stresses between the fluid and solid phases of the ESL. These results may shed light on the mechanisms of force transmission through the ESL and the pathological events caused by alterations in thickness and permeability of the ESL.

  7. Rheological regional properties of brain tissue studied under cyclic creep/ recovery shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjema, F.; Lounis, M.; Khelidj, B.; Bessai, N.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of brain tissue were studied by repeated creep-recovery shear tests under static conditions for different regions. Corpus callosum CC, Thalamus Th and Corona radiata CR. Non-linear viscoelastic model was also proposed to characterize the transient/steady states of shear creep results. From the creep-recovery data it was obvious that the brain tissues show high regional anisotropy. However. the both samples exhibit fluid viscoelastic properties in the first shear stress cycle of 100 Pa, while this behaviour evolutes to solid viscoelastic with cyclic effect.

  8. Migration arising from gradients in shear stress: Particle distributions in Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, D. T., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the existence of shear induced migration processes is reviewed and the mechanism by Leighton and Acrivos (1987b) is described in detail. The proposed mechanism is shown to lead to the existence of an additional shear induced migration in the presence of gradients in shear stress such as would be found in Poiseuille flow, and which may be used to predict the amplitude of the observed short-term viscosity increase. The concentration and velocity profiles which result from such a migration are discussed in detail and are compared to the experimental observations of Karnis, Goldsmith and Mason (1966).

  9. Lamin A/C deficiency reduces circulating tumor cell resistance to fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael J; Denais, Celine; Chan, Maxine F; Wang, Zhexiao; Lammerding, Jan; King, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Metastasis contributes to over 90% of cancer-related deaths and is initiated when cancer cells detach from the primary tumor, invade the basement membrane, and enter the circulation as circulating tumor cells (CTCs). While metastasis is viewed as an inefficient process with most CTCs dying within the bloodstream, it is evident that some CTCs are capable of resisting hemodynamic shear forces to form secondary tumors in distant tissues. We hypothesized that nuclear lamins A and C (A/C) act as key structural components within CTCs necessary to resist destruction from elevated shear forces of the bloodstream. Herein, we show that, compared with nonmalignant epithelial cells, tumor cells are resistant to elevated fluid shear forces in vitro that mimic those within the bloodstream, as evidenced by significant decreases in cellular apoptosis and necrosis. Knockdown of lamin A/C significantly reduced tumor cell resistance to fluid shear stress, with significantly increased cell death compared with parental tumor cell and nontargeting controls. Interestingly, lamin A/C knockdown increased shear stress-induced tumor cell apoptosis, but did not significantly affect cellular necrosis. These data demonstrate that lamin A/C is an important structural component that enables tumor cell resistance to fluid shear stress-mediated death in the bloodstream, and may thus facilitate survival and hematogenous metastasis of CTCs. PMID:26447202

  10. Estimation of in-situ stresses in concrete members using polarized ultrasonic shear waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Andrew; Schumacher, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing is commonly used to detect flaws, estimate geometries, and characterize properties of materials and structures. Acoustoelasticity refers to the dependency of stress wave velocity with applied stresses and is a phenomenon that has been known by geophysicists since the 1960s. A way to capitalize on this effect for concrete applications is by using ultrasonic shear waves which are particularly sensitive to applied stresses when polarized in the direction of the applied stress. The authors conducted an experiment on a 150 mm (6 in.) diameter concrete cylinder specimen with a length of 305 mm (12 in.) that was loaded in discrete load steps to failure. At each load step two ultrasonic shear waves were transmitted through the specimen, one with the polarization perpendicular and the other transverse to the applied stress. The velocity difference between the two sets of polarized shear waves was found to correlate with the applied stress in the specimen. Two potential applications for this methodology include estimation of stresses in pre-stressed concrete bridge girders and investigation of load redistribution in structural support elements after extreme events. This paper introduces the background of the methodology, presents an analysis of the collected data, and discusses the relationship between the recorded signals and the applied stress.

  11. Method for measuring biaxial stress in a body subjected to stress inducing loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clotfelter, W. N. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for measuring stress in test articles including the steps of obtaining for a calibrating specimen a series of transit time differentials between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated through the specimen as it is subjected to known stress load of a series of stress loads for thus establishing a series of indications of the magnitudes for stress loads induced in the specimen, and thereafter obtaining a transit time differential between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated in the planes of the stress axes of a test article and comparing the transit time differential thus obtained to the series of transit time differentials obtained for the specimen to determine the magnitude of biaxial stress in the test article.

  12. Ivabradine Prevents Low Shear Stress Induced Endothelial Inflammation and Oxidative Stress via mTOR/eNOS Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Junxia; Wang, Zhimei; Chen, Shaoliang

    2016-01-01

    Ivabradine not only reduces heart rate but has other cardiac and vascular protective effects including anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation. Since endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial enzyme in maintaining endothelial activity, we aimed to investigate the impact of ivabradine in low shear stress (LSS) induced inflammation and endothelial injury and the role of eNOS played in it. Endothelial cells (ECs) were subjected to LSS at 2dyne/cm2, with 1 hour of ivabradine (0.04μM) or LY294002 (10μM) pre-treatment. The mRNA expression of IL-6, VCAM-1 along with eNOS were measured by QPCR. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) and DCF, and protein phosphorylation was detected by western blot. It demonstrated that ivabradine decreased LSS induced inflammation and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Western blot showed reduced rictor and Akt-Ser473 as well as increased eNOS-Thr495 phosphorylation. However, mTORC1 pathway was only increased when LSS applied within 30 minutes. These effects were reversed by ivabradine. It would appear that ivabradine diminish ROS generation by provoking mTORC2/Akt phosphorylation and repressing mTORC1 induced eNOS-Thr495 activation. These results together suggest that LSS induced endothelial inflammation and oxidative stress are suppressed by ivabradine via mTORC2/Akt activation and mTORC1/eNOS reduction. PMID:26890696

  13. Estimate Interface Shear Stress of Unidirectional C/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites from Hysteresis Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longbiao, Li; Yingdong, Song; Youchao, Sun

    2013-08-01

    The tensile-tensile fatigue behavior of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic matrix composites at room and elevated temperature has been investigated. An approach to estimate the interface shear stress of ceramic matrix composites under fatigue loading has been developed. Based on the damage mechanisms of fiber sliding relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading and subsequent reloading, the unloading interface reverse slip length and reloading interface new slip length are determined by the fracture mechanics approach. The hysteresis loss energy for the strain energy lost per volume during corresponding cycle is formulatd in terms of interface shear stress. By comparing the experimental hysteresis loss energy with the computational values, the interface shear stress of unidirectional C/SiC ceramic composites corresponding to different cycles at room and elevated temperatures has been predicted.

  14. Reynolds number effects on surface shear stress patterns around isolated hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Obstacles projecting into the wind stream alter the shear stress on the surface around them, thus altering the erosion, transportation, and deposition of aeolian sediment. The effect of Reynolds number on the pattern of shear stress on the surface around an isolated hemisphere was investigated. An understanding of Reynolds number effects is necessary if wind tunnel results are to be scaled up to natural situations for meaningful applications. The experiment shows that the surface shear stress pattern is strongly affected by Reynolds number, at least within the range of Re used (1360 to 2977). This is presumably due to a decrease in flow around the sides of the hemisphere and an increase in flow over the object as the Reynolds number increases.

  15. Stress Analysis of Beams with Shear Deformation of the Flanges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Paul

    1937-01-01

    This report discusses the fundamental action of shear deformation of the flanges on the basis of simplifying assumptions. The theory is developed to the point of giving analytical solutions for simple cases of beams and of skin-stringer panels under axial load. Strain-gage tests on a tension panel and on a beam corresponding to these simple cases are described and the results are compared with analytical results. For wing beams, an approximate method of applying the theory is given. As an alternative, the construction of a mechanical analyzer is advocated.

  16. Shear Stress Transmission Model for the Flagellar Rotary Motor

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Toshio; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Most bacteria that swim are propelled by flagellar filaments, which are driven by a rotary motor powered by proton flux. The mechanism of the flagellar motor is discussed by reforming the model proposed by the present authors in 2005. It is shown that the mean strength of Coulomb field produced by a proton passing the channel is very strong in the Mot assembly so that the Mot assembly can be a shear force generator and induce the flagellar rotation. The model gives clear calculation results in agreement with experimental observations, e g., for the charasteristic torque-velocity relationship of the flagellar rotation. PMID:19325821

  17. Theory and Practice of Shear/Stress Strain Gage Hygrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Fenner, Ralph L.

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical hygrometry has progressed during the last several decades from crude hygroscopes to state-of-the art strain-gage sensors. The strain-gage devices vary from different metallic beams to strain-gage sensors using cellulose crystallite elements, held in full shear restraint. This old technique is still in use but several companies are now actively pursuing development of MEMS miniaturized humidity sensors. These new sensors use polyimide thin film for water vapor adsorption and desorption. This paper will provide overview about modern humidity sensors.

  18. Vascular endothelial cell membranes differentiate between stretch and shear stress through transitions in their lipid phases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kimiko; Ando, Joji

    2015-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) respond to the hemodynamic forces stretch and shear stress by altering their morphology, functions, and gene expression. However, how they sense and differentiate between these two forces has remained unknown. Here we report that the plasma membrane itself differentiates between stretch and shear stress by undergoing transitions in its lipid phases. Uniaxial stretching and hypotonic swelling increased the lipid order of human pulmonary artery EC plasma membranes, thereby causing a transition from the liquid-disordered phase to the liquid-ordered phase in some areas, along with a decrease in membrane fluidity. In contrast, shear stress decreased the membrane lipid order and increased membrane fluidity. A similar increase in lipid order occurred when the artificial lipid bilayer membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles were stretched by hypotonic swelling, indicating that this is a physical phenomenon. The cholesterol content of EC plasma membranes significantly increased in response to stretch but clearly decreased in response to shear stress. Blocking these changes in the membrane lipid order by depleting membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin or by adding cholesterol resulted in a marked inhibition of the EC response specific to stretch and shear stress, i.e., phosphorylation of PDGF receptors and phosphorylation of VEGF receptors, respectively. These findings indicate that EC plasma membranes differently respond to stretch and shear stress by changing their lipid order, fluidity, and cholesterol content in opposite directions and that these changes in membrane physical properties are involved in the mechanotransduction that activates membrane receptors specific to each force. PMID:26297225

  19. Quantifying turbulent wall shear stress in a subject specific human aorta using large eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Jonas; Grdhagen, Roland; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-10-01

    In this study, large-eddy simulation (LES) is employed to calculate the disturbed flow field and the wall shear stress (WSS) in a subject specific human aorta. Velocity and geometry measurements using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are taken as input to the model to provide accurate boundary conditions and to assure the physiological relevance. In total, 50 consecutive cardiac cycles were simulated from which a phase average was computed to get a statistically reliable result. A decomposition similar to Reynolds decomposition is introduced, where the WSS signal is divided into a pulsating part (due to the mass flow rate) and a fluctuating part (originating from the disturbed flow). Oscillatory shear index (OSI) is plotted against time-averaged WSS in a novel way, and locations on the aortic wall where elevated values existed could easily be found. In general, high and oscillating WSS values were found in the vicinity of the branches in the aortic arch, while low and oscillating WSS were present in the inner curvature of the descending aorta. The decomposition of WSS into a pulsating and a fluctuating part increases the understanding of how WSS affects the aortic wall, which enables both qualitative and quantitative comparisons. PMID:22209366

  20. Mechanosensitive activation of CFTR by increased cell volume and hydrostatic pressure but not shear stress.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Constanze; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that is essential for electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Preliminary evidence indicates that CFTR is a mechanosensitive channel. In lung epithelia, CFTR is exposed to different mechanical forces such as shear stress (Ss) and membrane distention. The present study questioned whether Ss and/or stretch influence CFTR activity (wild type, ?F508, G551D). Human CFTR (hCFTR) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the response to the mechanical stimulus and forskolin/IBMX (FI) was measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments. Ss had no influence on hCFTR activity. Injection of an intracellular analogous solution to increase cell volume alone did not affect hCFTR activity. However, hCFTR activity was augmented by injection after pre-stimulation with FI. The response to injection was similar in channels carrying the common mutations ?F508 and G551D compared to wild type hCFTR. Stretch-induced CFTR activation was further assessed in Ussing chamber measurements using Xenopus lung preparations. Under control conditions increased hydrostatic pressure (HP) decreased the measured ion current including activation of a Cl(-) secretion that was unmasked by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101. These data demonstrate activation of CFTR in vitro and in a native pulmonary epithelium in response to mechanical stress. Mechanosensitive regulation of CFTR is highly relevant for pulmonary physiology that relies on ion transport processes facilitated by pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID:26357939

  1. Bottom shear stress and SSC control on the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, Julien; Verney, Romaric; Lafite, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The supply and fate of fine-grained suspended sediment is of primary importance to the functioning and evolution of estuaries. Intertidal mudflats are habitats of high ecological value: feeding ground for birds, fish species and other biota. Estuarine intertidal mudflats can also contain buried contaminants that can be potentially released in the estuarine system. Thus physical processes such as erosion and sedimentation are fundamental from both applied and environmental viewpoint. Sedimentation and erosion rates/fluxes are mainly driven by hydrodynamics, particles/sediment properties, bedforms and sediment supply. Few high-frequency field-investigation studies compared tidal scale processes simultaneously in the water column and on the mudflat surface. The aim of this paper is to determine the thresholds values (bottom shear stress and SSC) that control the morphological evolution of estuarine intertidal mudflats (< 10% of sand) on semi-diurnal tidal scale. This field-based study combines high-resolution and high-frequency measurements of turbulence and SSC in the water column (using ADV) and bed height (using altimeter) on intertidal mudflat surface in three macrotidal estuaries. Such approach on semi-diurnal scale permitted to accurately understand relationships between hydrodynamics in the boundary layer and sedimentary processes above intertidal mudflats. Results emphasize the role of waves, sediment supply and consolidation state of surface sediments on sedimentary processes over intertidal mudflats. Bottom shear stresses on studied intertidal mudflats were recorded always sufficiently low (<1N.m-2) to permit settling of fine particles during flood tide and/or high-water slack. Sedimentation occurrence and rate on studied intertidal mudflat was found to be driven by (i) the SSC near the bed (if > 0.1g.l-1) and (ii) the absence of significant waves. Wind-generated waves can prevent sedimentation or induce erosion if the bottom shear stress exceeds 1N.m-2. Further inspections demonstrate that the occurrence and the amplitude of erosion are also governed by consolidation state of the surface sediment and water level on the mudflat.

  2. Representation of turbulent shear stress by a product of mean velocity differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    A quadratic form in the mean velocity for the turbulent shear stress is presented. It is expressed as the product of two velocity differences whose roots are the maximum velocity in the flow and a cutoff velocity below which the turbulent shear stress vanishes. Application to pipe and channel flows yields the centerline velocity as a function of pressure gradient, as well as the velocity profile. The flat plate, boundary-layer problem is solved by a system of integral equations to obtain friction coefficient, displacement thickness, and momentum-loss thickness. Comparisons are made with experiment.

  3. Significance of electrically induced shear stress in drainage of thin aqueous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelaar, Christiaan; Ajaev, Vladimir S.

    2015-05-01

    We develop a novel model of drainage of microscale thin aqueous film separating a gas bubble and a solid wall. In contrast to previous studies, the electrostatic effects are accounted for not only in the normal but also in the shear stress balance at the liquid-gas interface. We show that the action of the tangential component of the electric field leads to potentially strong spatially variable shear stress at the deforming charged interface. This previously overlooked effect turns out to be essential for correctly estimating the long-time drainage rates. Comparison of time-dependent fluid interface shapes predicted by our model with the experimental data is discussed.

  4. Analyses of Failure Mechanisms and Residual Stresses in Graphite/Polyimide Composites Subjected to Shear Dominated Biaxial Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumosa, M.; Predecki, P. K.; Armentrout, D.; Benedikt, B.; Rupnowski, P.; Gentz, M.; Kumosa, L.; Sutter, J. K.

    2002-01-01

    This research contributes to the understanding of macro- and micro-failure mechanisms in woven fabric polyimide matrix composites based on medium and high modulus graphite fibers tested under biaxial, shear dominated stress conditions over a temperature range of -50 C to 315 C. The goal of this research is also to provide a testing methodology for determining residual stress distributions in unidirectional, cross/ply and fabric graphite/polyimide composites using the concept of embedded metallic inclusions and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements.

  5. A Magnetic Needle Rheometer to Measure Langmuir Monolayers Shear Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Coralie; Ding, Junqi; Zasadzinski, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    A magnetic needle viscometer was designed to measure the shear viscosity of thin films spread at the air-liquid interface: a magnetic needle floating at the interface is dragged across the Langmuir trough by application of a constant magnetic field generated by Helhmotz coils. The needle motion is recorded by a camera placed above the experiment and the velocity versus time profile extracted from the digitized images. A simple analysis shows that the needle speed varies exponentially with time. The asymptotic regime, as the needle starts moving, gives the value of the magnetic force Fm, which varies linearly with the current applied in the coils, the proportionality coefficient being specific to one needle. The terminal velocity is Fm/C where C is the drag coefficient of the system. Unless the viscosity m which is a parameter intrinsic to the system, C depends on the probe geometry but for a given needle it is directly proportional to m. Different needles of different sizes can be used to adjust the sensitivity of the experiment. Results obtained for simple surfactants monolayers demonstrate the accuracy of the set-up. For samples undergoing first order transition upon compression, such as a DPPC monolayer, the shear viscosity can be described according to a free-area model as was previously reported. Second order phase transitions can also be detected for fatty acids monolayers for example: the shear viscosity changes drastically at the transition showing a strong dependency on the molecular organization.

  6. Relating accretion and erosion at an exposed tidal wetland to the bottom shear stress of combined current-wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, B. W.; Yang, S. L.; Wang, Y. P.; Bouma, T. J.; Zhu, Q.

    2012-02-01

    Sediment dynamics have an important influence on the morphological evolution of tidal wetlands, which consist of mudflats and salt marshes. To understand the nature of sediment behavior under combined current-wave action at an exposed tidal wetland, we measured the waves, currents, water depths, bed-level changes, and sediment properties at a mudflat-salt marsh transition on the Yangtze Delta, China, during five consecutive tides under onshore winds of ~ 8 m/s, and calculated the bed shear stresses due to currents ( ?c), waves ( ?w), combined current-wave action ( ?cw), and the critical shear stress for erosion of the bottom sediment ( ?ce). The bed shear stresses under combined current-wave action ( ?cw) were approximately five times higher on the mudflat (up to 1.11 N/m 2; average 0.27 N/m 2) than on the salt marsh (up to 0.14 N/m 2; average, 0.06 N/m 2). On the mudflat, ?cw was larger than the critical erosion shear stress ( ?ce = 0.103 N/m 2) for 70% of the period of submergence, whereas ?cw was always lower than ?ce at the salt marsh site ( ?ce = 0.116 N/m 2). This result indicates that the sediment dynamics on the mudflat were dominated by erosion, whereas at the salt marsh they were governed by deposition, which is in agreement with the observed bed-level change during the study period (- 3.3 mm/tide on the mudflat and 3.0 mm/tide on the salt marsh). A comparison of ?cw values calculated using the van Rijn (1993) and Soulsby (1995) models for bed shear stresses under combined current-wave action indicates that both models are applicable to the present case and effectively predict the bottom shear stress under combined current-wave action. Overall, we conclude that ?cw in combination with ?ce is useful in assessing the hydrodynamic mechanisms that underlie the morphological evolution of exposed tidal wetlands.

  7. Shear wave automatic picking and splitting measurements at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellazzi, Claire; Savage, Martha K.; Walsh, Ernestynne; Arnold, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Automatic shear wave picking and shear wave splitting measurement tools (Multiple Filter Automatic Splitting Technique (MFAST)) are combined to build a near-real time application for monitoring local stress around volcanoes. We use an adapted version of Diehl et al. (2009) on seismograms provided by the New Zealand GeoNet network and having an origin time and location based only on P picks. The best automatic picks are processed by MFAST, which computes the corresponding shear wave fast direction ?, and splitting delay time ?t, interpreted, respectively, as the principal direction of stress underneath the station and the amount of anisotropy integrated along the wave raypath. We applied our system to 9 years of local earthquakes recorded at seven stations around Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand. Results are compared against MFAST measurements from manual S picks when available and show less than 10 difference for 90% of ? measurements and less than 0.05 s difference for 95% of ?t measurements. Shear wave splitting from automatic S arrival times are slightly more consistent than those from manual arrival times. At some stations, two populations of delay times occur, which depend upon computed initial polarization. This may be caused in part by cycle skipping, an artifact usually associated with monochromatic signals. However, spatial consistency in the behavior suggests a physical cause as well, such as focal mechanisms varying with earthquake source location or a spatially varying near-source anisotropic region. The numbers of events in each population group vary over time, possibly related to activity at Ruapehu volcano.

  8. Design optimization of scaffold microstructures using wall shear stress criterion towards regulated flow-induced erosion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhang; Schellekens, Michiel; Zhou, Shiwei; Cadman, Joseph; Li, Wei; Appleyard, Richard; Li, Qing

    2011-08-01

    Tissue scaffolds aim to provide a cell-friendly biomechanical environment for facilitating cell growth. Existing studies have shown significant demands for generating a certain level of wall shear stress (WSS) on scaffold microstructural surfaces for promoting cellular response and attachment efficacy. Recently, its role in shear-induced erosion of polymer scaffold has also drawn increasing attention. This paper proposes a bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) approach for design of scaffold microstructure in terms of the WSS uniformity criterion, by downgrading highly-stressed solid elements into fluidic elements and/or upgrading lowly-stressed fluidic elements into solid elements. In addition to this, a computational model is presented to simulate shear-induced erosion process. The effective stiffness and permeability of initial and optimized scaffold microstructures are characterized by the finite element based homogenization technique to quantify the variations of mechanical properties of scaffold during erosion. The illustrative examples show that a uniform WSS is achieved within the optimized scaffold microstructures, and their architectural and biomechanical features are maintained for a longer lifetime during shear-induced erosion process. This study provides a mathematical means to the design optimization of cellular biomaterials in terms of the WSS criterion towards controllable shear-induced erosion. PMID:21950901

  9. Proteolytic Activity Attenuates the Response of Endothelial Cells to Fluid Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Altshuler, Angelina E.; Morgan, Mary J.; Chien, Shu; Schmid-Schnbein, Geert W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that several experimental pathophysiological conditions are associated with elevated protease activity in plasma, which impacts endothelial function. We hypothesize that extracellular structures bound to the endothelial cell (EC) membrane may be degraded by proteolytic activity and cause the cells to respond abnormally to physiological shear stress (12 dyn/cm2). To test this hypothesis, cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) were exposed to low levels of a serine protease, trypsin. Extracellular mechanosensor densities of the glycocalyx and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) were determined. Metabolic dysfunction was tested by examining insulin receptor and glucose uptake levels. Protease treatment impaired the cells ability to align in the direction of fluid flow after 12 hours of shear stress; however, cells realigned after an additional 12 hours of shear stress with protease inhibition. Proteases caused reduction in the densities of glycocalyx, VEGFR-2, and insulin receptor in static and shear conditions, except for static VEGFR-2 cells. Under static conditions, protease-treated endothelial cells had reduced glucose uptake compared to untreated controls. Under shear, however, glucose uptake for protease-treated BAECs was greater than untreated controls. In conclusion, protease activity in plasma alters the exofacial membrane components of ECs and may interfere with mechanotransduction. PMID:22545072

  10. By activating matrix metalloproteinase-7, shear stress promotes chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and lung colonization

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Pei-Pei; Yu, Xin; Guo, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yue; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia-Yi; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Wang, Zhan-You; Wang, Pu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow and associated shear stress are relevant mechanical signals in cartilage and bone (patho)physiology. However, their effects on chondrosarcoma cell motility, invasion and metastasis have yet to be delineated. Using human SW1353, HS.819.T and CH2879 chondrosarcoma cell lines as model systems, we found that fluid shear stress induces the accumulation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn markedly enhance chondrosarcoma cell motility and invasion via the induction of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7). Specifically, shear-induced cAMP and IL-1β activate PI3-K, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, which lead to the synthesis of MMP-7 via transactivating NF-κB and c-Jun in human chondrosarcoma cells. Importantly, MMP-7 upregulation in response to shear stress exposure has the ability to promote lung colonization of chondrosarcomas in vivo. These findings offer a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying MMP-7 activation in shear-stimulated chondrosarcoma cells, and provide insights on designing new therapeutic strategies to interfere with chondrosarcoma invasion and metastasis. PMID:25823818

  11. Proteomic analysis of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm cells grown under physiologically relevant fluid shear stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The biofilm forming bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for maladies ranging from severe skin infection to major diseases such as bacteremia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. A flow displacement system was used to grow S. aureus biofilms in four physiologically relevant fluid shear rates (50, 100, 500 and 1000s-1) to identify proteins that are associated with biofilm. Results Global protein expressions from the membrane and cytosolic fractions of S. aureus biofilm cells grown under the above shear rate conditions are reported. Sixteen proteins in the membrane-enriched fraction and eight proteins in the cytosolic fraction showed significantly altered expression (p?shear. These 24 proteins were identified using nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. They were found to be associated with various metabolic functions such as glycolysis / TCA pathways, protein synthesis and stress tolerance. Increased fluid shear stress did not influence the expression of two important surface binding proteins: fibronectin-binding and collagen-binding proteins. Conclusions The reported data suggest that while the general metabolic function of the sessile bacteria is minimal under high fluid shear stress conditions, they seem to retain the binding capacity to initiate new infections. PMID:24855455

  12. Reactive oxygen species induced by shear stress mediate cell death in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Susmita; Rao, K Krishnamurthy; Suraishkumar, G K

    2006-05-01

    Exposure of Bacillus subtilis to a shear rate of 1,482/s leads to a rapid loss of cell viability after 10 h of growth. Biochemical and molecular evidences provided below strongly suggest that cell death under high shear results from an apoptosis-like process similar to that described in eukaryotes, with activation of a caspase-3-like protease (C(3)LP) followed by DNA fragmentation. Shear stress leads to an increase in specific intracellular reactive oxygen species (siROS), possibly through activation of NADH oxidase (NOX). The formation of siROS precedes the activation of C(3)LP and DNA fragmentation, thus establishing siROS as the molecular link between shear stress and apoptosis-like cell death. A model is proposed in which NOX is viewed as being strategically placed on the plasma membrane of B. subtilis that senses and converts a mechanical force arising from shear stress into a chemical signal leading to activation of C(3)LP, DNA fragmentation, and thus, apoptosis-like cell death. PMID:16570320

  13. LIF measurements of scalar mixing in turbulent shear layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasso, Paris S.; Mungal, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of shear layer flows at high Reynolds numbers remains a very interesting problem. Straight mixing layers have been studied and yielded information on the probability density function (pdf) of a passive scalar across the layer. Konrad and Koochesfahani & Dimotakis measured the pdf of the mixture fraction for mixing layers of moderate Reynolds numbers, each about 25,000 (Re based on velocity difference and visual thickness). Their measurements showed a 'non-marching' pdf (central hump which is invariant from edge to edge across the layer), a result which is linked to the visualizations of the spanwise Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability mode, which is the primary instability for plane shear layer flows. A secondary instability mode, the Taylor-Gortler (T-G) instability, which is associated with streamwise vortical structures, has also been observed in shear layers. Image reconstruction by Jimenez et al. and volume renderings by Karasso & Mungal at low Re numbers have demonstrated that the K-H and the T-G instability modes occur simultaneously in a non-mutually destructive way, evidence that supports the quasi two-dimensional aspect of these flows and the non-marching character of the pdf at low Reynolds numbers. At higher Re numbers though, the interaction of these two instability modes is still unclear and may affect the mixing process. In this study, we perform measurements of the concentration pdf of plane mixing layers for different operating conditions. At a speed ratio of r = U(sub 1)/U(sub 2) = 4:1, we examine three Reynolds number cases: Re = 14,000, Re = 31,000, and Re = 62,000. Some other Re number cases' results, not presented in detail, are invoked to explain the behavior of the pdf of the concentration field. A case of r = 2.6:1 at Re = 20,000 is also considered. The planar laser-induced fluorescence technique is used to yield quantitative measurements. The different Re are obtained by changing the velocity magnitudes of the two streams. The question of resolution of these measurements is addressed. In order to investigate the effects of the initial conditions on the development and the structure of the mixing layer, the boundary layer on the high-speed side of the splitter plate is tripped. The average concentration and the average mixed fluid concentration are also calculated to further understand the changes in the shear layer for the different cases examined.

  14. Perturbation of the yield-stress rheology of polymer thin films by nonlinear shear ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopolds, J.; Conrad, G.; Jia, X.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear response of macromolecular thin films subjected to high-amplitude ultrasonic shear oscillation using a sphere-plane contact geometry. At a film thickness comparable to the radius of gyration, we observe the rheological properties intermediate between bulk and boundary nonlinear regimes. As the driving amplitude is increased, these films progressively exhibit oscillatory linear, microslip, and full slip regimes, which can be explained by the modified Coulomb friction law. At highest oscillation amplitudes, the interfacial adhesive failure takes place, being accompanied by a dewettinglike pattern. Moreover, the steady state sliding is investigated in thicker films with imposed shear stresses beyond the yield point. We find that applying high-amplitude shear ultrasound affects not only the yielding threshold but also the sliding velocity at a given shear load. A possible mechanism for the latter effect is discussed.

  15. Endothelial Cell Membrane Sensitivity to Shear Stress is Lipid Domain Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Tabouillot, Tristan; Muddana, Hari S.; Butler, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Blood flow-associated shear stress causes physiological and pathophysiological biochemical processes in endothelial cells that may be initiated by alterations in plasma membrane lipid domains characterized as liquid-ordered (lo), such as rafts or caveolae, or liquid-disordered (ld). To test for domaindependent shear sensitivity, we used time-correlated single photon counting instrumentation to assess the photophysics and dynamics of the domain-selective lipid analogues DiI-C12 and DiI-C18 in endothelial cells subjected to physiological fluid shear stress. Under static conditions, DiI-C12 fluorescence lifetime was less than DiI-C18 lifetime and the diffusion coefficient of DiI-C12 was greater than the DiI-C18 diffusion coefficient, confirming that DiI-C12 probes ld, a more fluid membrane environment, and DiI-C18 probes the lo phase. Domains probed by DiI-C12 exhibited an early (10 s) and transient decrease of fluorescence lifetime after the onset of shear while domains probed by DiI-C18 exhibited a delayed decrease of fluorescence lifetime that was sustained for the 2 min the cells were subjected to flow. The diffusion coefficient of DiI-C18 increased after shear imposition, while that of DiI-C12 remained constant. Determination of the number of molecules (N) in the control volume suggested that DiI-C12-labeled domains increased in N immediately after step-shear, while N for DiI-C18-stained membrane transiently decreased. These results demonstrate that membrane microdomains are differentially sensitive to fluid shear stress. PMID:22247740

  16. Measuring the force of drag on air sheared sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2012-11-01

    To blow a drop along or off of a surface (i.e. to shed the drop), the drag force on the drop (based on flow conditions, drop shape, and fluid properties) must overcome the adhesion force between the drop and the surface (based on surface tension, drop shape, and contact angle). While the shedding of sessile drops by shear flow has been studied [Milne, A. J. B. & Amirfazli, A. Langmuir 25, 14155 (2009).], no independent measurements of the drag or adhesion forces have been made. Likewise, analytic predictions are limited to hemispherical drops and low air velocities. We present, therefore, measurements of the drag force on sessile drops at air velocities up to the point of incipient motion. Measurements were made using a modified floating element shear sensor in a laminar low speed wind tunnel to record drag force over the surface with the drop absent, and over the combined system of the surface and drop partially immersed in the boundary layer. Surfaces of different wettabilities were used to study the effects of drop shape and contact angles, with drop volume ranged between approximately 10 and 100 microlitres. The drag force for incipient motion (which by definition equals the maximum of the adhesion force) is compared to simplified models for drop adhesion such as that of Furmidge

  17. The effect of shear stress on solitary waves in arteries.

    PubMed

    Demiray, H

    1997-09-01

    In the present work, we study the propagation of solitary waves in a prestressed thick walled elastic tube filled with an incompressible inviscid fluid. In order to include the geometric dispersion in the analysis the wall inertia and shear deformation effects are taken into account for the inner pressure-cross-sectional area relation. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the propagation of weakly non-linear waves in the long-wave approximation is examined. It is shown that, contrary to thin tube theories, the present approach makes it possible to have solitary waves even for a Mooney-Rivlin (M-R) material. Due to dependence of the coefficients of the governing Korteweg-deVries equation on initial deformation, the solution profile changes with inner pressure and the axial stretch. The variation of wave profiles for a class of elastic materials are depicted in graphic forms. As might be seen from these illustrations, with increasing thickness ratio, the profile of solitary wave is steepened for a M-R material but it is broadened for biological tissue. PMID:9281908

  18. Microbial adhesion capacity. Influence of shear and temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Fink, Rok; Oder, Martina; Rangus, Duan; Raspor, Peter; Bohinc, Klemen

    2015-01-01

    Environmental parameters dictate the conditions for both biofilm formation and deconstruction. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic effects on bacterial detachment. Escherichia coli grown on two stainless steel metal surfaces with different roughness (brushed with roughness of 0.05 ?m and electropolished with roughness of 0.29 ?m) are exposed to laminar and turbulent (shower) flows of phosphate buffered saline media at temperatures of 8, 20 and 37 C. Results show that the turbulent flow removes significantly more bacterial cells than laminar flow (p <0.05) on both materials. This indicates that the shear force determines the rate of detached bacteria. It is also observed that detachment of cells is more efficient on brushed than on electropolished contact surfaces because on the latter surface, fewer cells were attached before exposure. Moreover, we demonstrate that the temperature of the washing agent has an impact on bacterial detachment. At the same flow conditions, the exposure to higher temperature results in greater detachment rate. PMID:25693913

  19. Ultrasonic measurement of axial stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S.; Chern, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of acoustic propagation in strained media is examined, with particular emphasis on rod (bolt) geometries. The continuous wave (CW) approach is the basis of the study, and the theory is developed from a frequency domain analysis standpoint in order to obtain an applied stress/normalized frequency shift relationship. CW measurements may be influenced by such factors as propagation effects, mode conversion, frequency, material properties, and geometry. After the first loading cycle, axial stress measurements for a preloading with an initial frequency of 4.995 36 MHz dropped to 4.989 19 MHz, indicating a 6.17 kHz change. CW and pseudo-CW ultrasonic techniques are found to be reliable for axial stress measurements, and acoustic attenuation measurements correlated to residual stress fields may possibly involve transducer phase cancellation. It is thus concluded that signal drop is an artifact of the transducer directivity, rather than an actual acoustic power decrease.

  20. The formation of mixed culture biofilms of oral species along a gradient of shear stress.

    PubMed

    Saunders, K A; Greenman, J

    2000-10-01

    A chemostat mixed culture system was used to produce two distinct ecological states, state-1 (caries-like microcosm) and state-2 (periodontal-like microcosm). Eleven bacterial species (Streptococcus gordonii, Strep. mitis I, Strep. mutans, Strep. oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus casei, Neisseria subflava, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Veillonella dispar) were used to inoculate the planktonic system. A flow cell, designed to produce convergent flow with increasing shear stress, was attached to the chemostat system, and the resultant biofilms developed from the state-1 and state-2 microcosms along the shear stress gradient were examined and compared using image analysis and viable counts. The biofilm produced from state-1 showed a lower shear stress tolerance (0.146 Pa) than the state-2 biofilm (0.236 Pa). The biofilm compositions did not vary along the gradient of shear stress and were dependent on the initial inoculum conditions. Gram-positive species were predominant in the state-1 biofilm, while Gram-negative species were predominant in state-2. PMID:11054158

  1. The effect of roughness elements on wind erosion: The importance of surface shear stress distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representation of surface roughness effects on aeolian sediment transport is a key source of uncertainty in wind erosion models. Drag partitioning schemes are used to account for roughness by scaling the soil entrainment threshold by the ratio of shear stress on roughness elements to that on the veg...

  2. Shear stressinduced changes in atherosclerotic plaque composition are modulated by chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Caroline; Tempel, Dennie; van Haperen, Rien; de Boer, Hetty C.; Segers, Dolf; Huisman, Martin; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; van der Steen, Anton; Serruys, Patrick W.; de Crom, Rini; Krams, Rob

    2007-01-01

    We previously found that low shear stress (LSS) induces atherosclerotic plaques in mice with increased lipid and matrix metalloproteinase content and decreased vascular smooth muscle and collagen content. Here, we evaluated the role of chemokines in this process, using an extravascular device inducing regions of LSS, high shear stress, and oscillatory shear stress (OSS) in the carotid artery. One week of shear stress alterations induced expression of IFN-?inducible protein10 (IP-10) exclusively in the LSS region, whereas monocyte chemoattractant protein1 (MCP-1) and the mouse homolog of growth-regulated oncogene ? (GRO-?) were equally upregulated in both LSS and OSS regions. After 3 weeks, GRO-? and IP-10 were specifically upregulated in LSS regions. After 9 weeks, lesions with thinner fibrous caps and larger necrotic cores were found in the LSS region compared with the OSS region. Equal levels of MCP-1 expression were observed in both regions, while expression of fractalkine was found in the LSS region only. Blockage of fractalkine inhibited plaque growth and resulted in striking differences in plaque composition in the LSS region. We conclude that LSS or OSS triggers expression of chemokines involved in atherogenesis. Fractalkine upregulation is critically important for the composition of LSS-induced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:17304353

  3. POLYACRYLAMIDE EFFECTS ON CRITICAL SHEAR STRESS AND RILL ERODIBILITY FOR A RANGE OF SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of PAM application rate on critical shear stress and erosion was determined for 7 different soils, with a wide range of textural and chemical properties. At least four PAM application rates were tested on each of the soils, ranging from 0.1 to 80 kg ha-1. Flow rates ranging from 4 to 56 L...

  4. Effect of shear stress on cell cultures and other reactor problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schleier, H.

    1981-01-01

    Anchorage dependent cell cultures in fluidized beds are tested. Feasibility calculations indicate the allowed parameters and estimate the shear stresses therein. In addition, the diffusion equation with first order reaction is solved for the spherical shell (double bubble) reactor with various constraints.

  5. Cell-matrix adhesion characterization using multiple shear stress zones in single stepwise microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Doh, Il; Bae, Gab-Yong; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a cell chip capable to characterize cell-matrix adhesion by monitoring cell detachment rate. The proposed cell chip can supply multiple levels of shear stress in single stepwise microchannel. As epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), one of hallmarks of cancer metastasis is closely associated to the interaction with extracelluar matrix (ECM), we took advantage of two lung cancer cell models with different adhesion properties to ECM depending their epithelial or mesenchymal properties, including the pair of lung cancer cells with (A549sh) or without E-cadherin expression (A549sh-Ecad), which would be optimal model to examine the alteration of adhesion properties after EMT induction. The cell-matrix adhesion resisting to shear stress appeared to be remarkably differed between lung cancer cells. The detachment rate of epithelial-like H358 and mesenchymal-like H460 cells was 53%-80% and 25%-66% in the shear stress range of 34-60 dyn/cm2, respectively. A549sh-Ecad cells exhibits lower detachment rate (5%-9%) compared to A549sh cells (14%-40%). By direct comparison of adhesion between A549sh and A549sh-Ecad, we demonstrated that A549shE-cad to mimic EMT were more favorable to the ECM attachment under the various levels of shear stress. The present method can be applied to quantitative analysis of tumor cell-ECM adhesion.

  6. Beneficial effects of low doses of red wine consumption on perturbed shear stress-induced atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Claudio; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Sica, Vincenzo; Lerman, Lilach O; Crimi, Ettore; De Rosa, Gaetano; Schiano, Concetta; Servillo, Luigi; D'Armiento, Francesco P

    2008-03-01

    Moderate wine intake is associated with a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is enhanced in arterial segments exposed to disturbed flow. Perturbed shear stress increases also the endothelial expression of oxidation-sensitive responsive genes (such as ELK-1 and p-JUN). This study evaluates the effects of chronic consumption of red wine on perturbed shear stress-induced atherogenesis. Results indicated that chronic treatment with red wine significantly attenuated the activation of redox-sensitive genes (ELK-1 and p-JUN) and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression (which was decreased by perturbed shear stress) in cultured human coronary endothelial cells (EC) and in atherosclerosis-prone areas of hypercholesterolemic mice. Oral administration of red wine to hypercholesterolemic mice reduced significantly the progression of atherosclerosis. Moreover, short-term supplementation with red wine to C57BL/6J mice significantly increased upregulation of aortic eNOS and SIRT1 expression induced by physical training. These findings establish that administration of low doses of red wine can attenuate the proatherogenic effects induced by perturbed shear stress in vitro and in vivo. This evidence may have implications for the prevention of atherosclerotic lesion progression and its clinical manifestations. PMID:18389338

  7. Microflow-induced shear stress on biomaterial wall by ultrasound-induced encapsulated microbubble oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ji-Wen; Qian, Sheng-You; Sun, Jia-Na; Lü, Yun-Bin; Hu, Ping

    2015-09-01

    A model of an ultrasound-driven encapsulated microbubble (EMB) oscillation near biomaterial wall is presented and used for describing the microflow-induced shear stress on the wall by means of a numerical method. The characteristic of the model lies in the explicit treatment of different types of wall for the EMB responses. The simulation results show that the radius-time change trends obtained by our model are consistent with the existing models and experimental results. In addition, the effect of the elastic wall on the acoustic EMB response is stronger than that of the rigid wall, and the shear stress on the elastic wall is larger than that of the rigid wall. The closer the EMB to the wall, the greater the shear stress on the wall. The substantial shear stress on the wall surface occurs inside a circular zone with a radius about two-thirds of the bubble radius. This paper may be of interest in the study of potential damage mechanisms to the microvessel for drug and gene delivery due to sonoporation. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174077 and 11474090), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 13JJ3076), the Science Research Program of Education Department of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 14A127), and the Doctoral Fund of University of South China (Grant No. 2011XQD46).

  8. Development of a general method for designing microvascular networks using distribution of wall shear stress.

    PubMed

    Sayed Razavi, Mohammad; Shirani, Ebrahim

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, theoretical formulations for calculation of optimal bifurcation angle and relationship between the diameters of mother and daughter vessels using the power law model for non-Newtonian fluids are developed. The method is based on the distribution of wall shear stress in the mother and daughter vessels. Also, the effect of distribution of wall shear stress on the minimization of energy loss and flow resistance is considered. It is shown that constant wall shear stress in the mother and daughter vessels provides the minimum flow resistance and energy loss of biological flows. Moreover, the effects of different wall shear stresses in the mother and daughter branches, different lengths of daughter branches in the asymmetric bifurcations and non-Newtonian effect of biological fluid flows on the bifurcation angle and the relationship between the diameters of mother and daughter branches are considered. Using numerical simulations for non-Newtonian models such as power law and Carreau models, the effects of optimal bifurcation angle on the pressure drop and flow resistance of blood flow in the symmetric bifurcation are investigated. Numerical simulations show that optimal bifurcation angle decreases the pressure drop and flow resistance especially for bifurcations at large Reynolds number. PMID:23891174

  9. Bicuspid aortic valves are associated with increased wall and turbulence shear stress levels compared to trileaflet aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Mirabella, Lucia; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-06-01

    Congenital bicuspid aortic valves (BAVs) are associated with accelerated disease progression, such as leaflet calcification and ascending aorta dilatation. Although common underlying genetic factors have been implicated in accelerated disease in BAV patients, several studies have suggested that altered hemodynamics also play a role in this disease process. The present study compares turbulence and wall shear stress (WSS) measurements between various BAV and trileaflet aortic valve (TAV) models to provide information for mechanobiological models of BAV disease. BAV and TAV models were constructed from excised porcine aortic valves to simulate parametric variations in BAV stenosis, hemodynamics and geometry. Particle image velocimetry experiments were conducted at physiological pressure conditions to characterize velocity fields in the ascending aorta. The velocity fields were post-processed to calculate turbulence, viscous and wall shear stresses in the ascending aorta. Stenosed BAV models showed the presence of eccentric systolic jets, causing increased WSS. Lower cardiac output resulted in a narrower jet, lower turbulence and lower viscous shear stress (VSS). The specific severe stenosis BAV model studied here showed reduced WSS due to reduction in non-fused leaflet mobility. Dilation of the aorta did not affect any turbulence or VSS, but reduced the WSS. In comparison with BAVs, TAVs have similar VSS values, but much smaller WSS and turbulence levels. These increased turbulence and WSS levels in BAVs may play a key role in amplifying the biological responses of the ascending aorta wall and valvular leaflets, and support the hemodynamic underpinnings of BAV disease processes. PMID:25262451

  10. A coupled global-local shell model with continuous interlaminar shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruttmann, F.; Wagner, W.; Knust, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper layered composite shells subjected to static loading are considered. The theory is based on a multi-field functional, where the associated Euler-Lagrange equations include besides the global shell equations formulated in stress resultants, the local in-plane equilibrium in terms of stresses and a constraint which enforces the correct shape of warping through the thickness. Within a four-node element the warping displacements are interpolated with layerwise cubic functions in thickness direction and constant shape throughout the element reference surface. Elimination of stress, warping and Lagrange parameters on element level leads to a mixed hybrid shell element with 5 or 6 nodal degrees of freedom. The implementation in a finite element program is simple. The computed interlaminar shear stresses are automatically continuous at the layer boundaries. Also the stress boundary conditions at the outer surfaces are fulfilled and the integrals of the shear stresses coincide exactly with the independently interpolated shear forces without introduction of further constraints. The essential feature of the element formulation is the fact that it leads to usual shell degrees of freedom, which allows application of standard boundary or symmetry conditions and computation of shell structures with intersections.

  11. A coupled global-local shell model with continuous interlaminar shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruttmann, F.; Wagner, W.; Knust, G.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper layered composite shells subjected to static loading are considered. The theory is based on a multi-field functional, where the associated Euler-Lagrange equations include besides the global shell equations formulated in stress resultants, the local in-plane equilibrium in terms of stresses and a constraint which enforces the correct shape of warping through the thickness. Within a four-node element the warping displacements are interpolated with layerwise cubic functions in thickness direction and constant shape throughout the element reference surface. Elimination of stress, warping and Lagrange parameters on element level leads to a mixed hybrid shell element with 5 or 6 nodal degrees of freedom. The implementation in a finite element program is simple. The computed interlaminar shear stresses are automatically continuous at the layer boundaries. Also the stress boundary conditions at the outer surfaces are fulfilled and the integrals of the shear stresses coincide exactly with the independently interpolated shear forces without introduction of further constraints. The essential feature of the element formulation is the fact that it leads to usual shell degrees of freedom, which allows application of standard boundary or symmetry conditions and computation of shell structures with intersections.

  12. Spatial heterogeneities in tectonic stress in Kyushu, Japan and their relation to a major shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Satoshi; Nakao, Shigeru; Ohkura, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Abe, Yuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Manami; Yoshikawa, Shin; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the spatial variation in the stress fields of Kyushu Island, southwestern Japan. Kyushu Island is characterized by active volcanoes (Aso, Unzen, Kirishima, and Sakurajima) and a shear zone (western extension of the median tectonic line). Shallow earthquakes frequently occur not only along active faults but also in the central region of the island, which is characterized by active volcanoes. We evaluated the focal mechanisms of the shallow earthquakes on Kyushu Island to determine the relative deviatoric stress field. Generally, the stress field was estimated by using the method proposed by Hardebeck and Michael (2006) for the strike-slip regime in this area. The minimum principal compression stress ( ?3), with its near north-south trend, is dominant throughout the entire region. However, the ? 3 axes around the shear zone are rotated normal to the zone. This result is indicative of shear stress reduction at the zone and is consistent with the right-lateral fault behavior along the zone detected by a strain-rate field analysis with global positioning system data. Conversely, the stress field of the normal fault is dominant in the Beppu-Shimabara area, which is located in the central part of the island. This result and the direction of ?3 are consistent with the formation of a graben structure in the area.

  13. Atrial Fibrillation Pacing Decreases Intravascular Shear Stress in a New Zealand White Rabbit Model: Implications in Endothelial Function

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Nelson; Yu, Fei; Lee, Juhyun; Wasmund, Steve; Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Christina; Chawareeyawong, Pai; Yang, Yongmo; Li, Rongsong; Hamdan, Mohamed H.; Hsiai, Tzung

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is characterized by multiple rapid and irregular atrial depolarization leading to rapid ventricular responses exceeding 100 beats per minute (bpm). We hypothesized that rapid and irregular pacing reduced intravascular shear stress (ISS) with implication to modulating endothelial responses. To simulate AF, we paced the left atrial appendage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits (n=4) at rapid and irregular intervals. Surface electrical cardiograms (ECG) were recorded for atrial and ventricular rhythm, and intravascular convective heat transfer was measured by micro thermal sensors, from which ISS was inferred. Rapid and irregular pacing decreased arterial systolic and diastolic pressures (baseline: 99/75 mmHg; rapid regular pacing: 92/73; rapid irregular pacing: 90/68; P < 0.001, n=4), temporal gradients (??/?t from 1275 80 to 1056 180 dyne/cm2s), and reduced ISS (from baseline at 32.0 2.4 to 22.7 3.5 dyne/cm2). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code demonstrated that experimentally inferred ISS provided a close approximation to the computed wall shear stress (WSS) at a given catheter to vessel diameter ratio, shear stress range, and catheter position. In an in vitro flow system in which time-averaged shear stress was maintained at ?avg=23 4 dyncm?2s?1, we further demonstrated that rapid pulse rates at 150 bpm down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide (NO), promoted superoxide (O2?) production, and increased monocyte binding to endothelial cells. These findings suggest that rapid pacing reduces ISS and ??/?t, and rapid pulse rates modulate endothelial responses. PMID:22983703

  14. Evolution of shear stress, protein expression, and vessel area in an animal model of arterial dilatation in hemodialysis grafts

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sanjay; Fu, Alex A.; Misra, Khamal D.; Glockner, James F.; Mukhopadyay, Debabrata

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the wall shear stress, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), -9 (MMP-9), and the inhibitors (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and -2 (TIMP-2)), and vessel area over time in a porcine model for hemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. Materials and methods In 21 pigs, subtotal renal infarction was performed and 28 days later, a PTFE graft was placed to connect the carotid artery to the ipsilateral jugular vein. Phase contrast MR was used to measure blood flow and vessel area at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after graft placement. Wall shear stress was estimated from Poiseuilles law. Animals were sacrificed at day 3 (N=7), day 7 (N=7), and day 14 (N=7) and expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were determined at the grafted and control arteries. Results The mean wall shear stress of the grafted artery was higher than the control artery at all time points (P<0.05). It peaked by day 3 and decreased by days 714 as the vessel area nearly doubled. By days 714, there was a significant increase in active MMP-2 followed by a significant increase in pro and active MMP-9 by day 14 (P<0.05, grafted artery versus control). TIMP-1 expression peaked by day 7 and then decreased while TIMP-2 expression was decreased at days 714. Conclusions The wall shear stress of the grafted artery peaks by day 3 with increased MMP-2 activity by days 714 followed by pro and active MMP-9 by day 14 and the vessel area nearly doubled. PMID:20123196

  15. Quantification of Shear Deformations and Corresponding Stresses in the Biaxially Tested Human Myocardium.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Gerhard; Haspinger, Daniel Ch; Andr, Michaela; Sacherer, Michael; Viertler, Christian; Regitnig, Peter; Holzapfel, Gerhard A

    2015-10-01

    One goal of cardiac research is to perform numerical simulations to describe/reproduce the mechanoelectrical function of the human myocardium in health and disease. Such simulations are based on a complex combination of mathematical models describing the passive mechanical behavior of the myocardium and its electrophysiology, i.e., the activation of cardiac muscle cells. The problem in developing adequate constitutive models is the shortage of experimental data suitable for detailed parameter estimation in specific functional forms. A combination of shear and biaxial extension tests with different loading protocols on different specimen orientations is necessary to capture adequately the direction-dependent (orthotropic) response of the myocardium. In most experimental animal studies, where planar biaxial extension tests on the myocardium have been conducted, the generated shear stresses were neither considered nor discussed. Hence, in this study a method is presented which allows the quantification of shear deformations and related stresses. It demonstrates an approach for experimenters as to how the generation of these shear stresses can be minimized during mechanical testing. Experimental results on 14 passive human myocardial specimens, obtained from nine human hearts, show the efficiency of this newly developed method. Moreover, the influence of the clamping technique of the specimen, i.e., the load transmission between the testing device and the tissue, on the stress response is determined by testing an isotropic material (Latex). We identified that the force transmission between the testing device and the specimen by means of hooks and cords does not influence the performed experiments. We further showed that in-plane shear stresses definitely exist in biaxially tested human ventricular myocardium, but can be reduced to a minimum by preparing the specimens in an appropriate manner. Moreover, we showed whether shear stresses can be neglected when performing planar biaxial extension tests on fiber-reinforced materials. The used method appears to be robust to quantify normal and shear deformations and corresponding stresses in biaxially tested human myocardium. This method can be applied for the mechanical characterization of any fiber-reinforced material using planar biaxial extension tests. PMID:25707595

  16. Effects of wall shear stress and its gradient on tumor cell adhesion in curved microvessels.

    PubMed

    Yan, W W; Cai, B; Liu, Y; Fu, B M

    2012-05-01

    Tumor cell adhesion to vessel walls in the microcirculation is one critical step in cancer metastasis. In this paper, the hypothesis that tumor cells prefer to adhere at the microvessels with localized shear stresses and their gradients, such as in the curved microvessels, was examined both experimentally and computationally. Our in vivo experiments were performed on the microvessels (post-capillary venules, 30-50 ?m diameter) of rat mesentery. A straight or curved microvessel was cannulated and perfused with tumor cells by a glass micropipette at a velocity of ~1mm/s. At less than 10 min after perfusion, there was a significant difference in cell adhesion to the straight and curved vessel walls. In 60 min, the averaged adhesion rate in the curved vessels (n = 14) was ~1.5-fold of that in the straight vessels (n = 19). In 51 curved segments, 45% of cell adhesion was initiated at the inner side, 25% at outer side, and 30% at both sides of the curved vessels. To investigate the mechanical mechanism by which tumor cells prefer adhering at curved sites, we performed a computational study, in which the fluid dynamics was carried out by the lattice Boltzmann method , and the tumor cell dynamics was governed by the Newton's law of translation and rotation. A modified adhesive dynamics model that included the influence of wall shear stress/gradient on the association/dissociation rates of tumor cell adhesion was proposed, in which the positive wall shear stress/gradient jump would enhance tumor cell adhesion while the negative wall shear stress/gradient jump would weaken tumor cell adhesion. It was found that the wall shear stress/gradient, over a threshold, had significant contribution to tumor cell adhesion by activating or inactivating cell adhesion molecules. Our results elucidated why the tumor cell adhesion prefers to occur at the positive curvature of curved microvessels with very low Reynolds number (in the order of 10(-2)) laminar flow. PMID:21818636

  17. Effects of Smad decoy ODN on shear stress-induced atherosclerotic ApoE-/-mouse

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Woo-Ram; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Woon-Hae; Park, Kwan-Kyu; Youn, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease which involves both genetic and environmental factors in its development and progression. Shear stress is the drag force per unit area acting on the endothelium as a result of blood flow, and it plays a critical role in plaque location and progression. TGF-β1 is often regarded to have pro-atherosclerotic effect on vascular disease. TGF-β1 downstream targets Smad, for regulating a set of genes associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, modulation of TGF-β1 and Smad expression may be the important targets for the prevention and treatment of shear stress-induced vascular disease. However, the precise mechanism of the anti-atherosclerotic effects of novel therapeutic approach has not been elucidated by using animal models regarding the shear stress-induced vascular disease. Therefore, we designed to test whether Smad decoy ODN would prevent the development of atherosclerosis in the shear stress-induced ApoE-/-mice on a western diet. We examined the effect of cast placement on the development of atherosclerosis, and the carotid artery was harvested at the sacrifice to observe histological changes. Also, we evaluated the impact of Smad decoy ODN in the regulation of genes expression related to atherosclerosis, including TGF-β1, PAI-1, and α-SMA. Our results showed that western diet with cast placement developed atherosclerosis in ApoE-/-mouse. Also, administration of Smad decoy ODN decreases the expression of TGF-β1, PAI-1, and α-SMA. These results demonstrate the potential of Smad decoy ODN to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/-mouse model with western diet and shear stress. PMID:26097583

  18. Sox18 preserves the pulmonary endothelial barrier under conditions of increased shear stress

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christine M.; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Kumar, Sanjiv; Tian, Jing; Kasa, Anita; Bogatcheva, Natalia; Datar, Sanjeev A.; Verin, Alexander D.; Fineman, Jeffrey R.; Black, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Shear stress secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF) is elevated in some children born with congenital cardiac abnormalities. However, the majority of these patients do not develop pulmonary edema, despite high levels of permeability inducing factors. Previous studies have suggested that laminar fluid shear stress can enhance pulmonary vascular barrier integrity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which this occurs. Using microarray analysis, we have previously shown that Sox18, a transcription factor involved in blood vessel development and endothelial barrier integrity, is up-regulated in an ovine model of congenital heart disease with increased PBF (shunt). By subjecting ovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) to laminar flow (20 dyn/cm2), we identified an increase in trans-endothelial resistance (TER) across the PAEC monolayer that correlated with an increase in Sox18 expression. Further, the TER was also enhanced when Sox18 was over-expressed and attenuated when Sox18 expression was reduced, suggesting that Sox18 maintains the endothelial barrier integrity in response to shear stress. Further, we found that shear stress up-regulates the cellular tight junction protein, Claudin-5, in a Sox18 dependent manner, and Claudin-5 depletion abolished the Sox18 mediated increase in TER in response to shear stress. Finally, utilizing peripheral lung tissue of 4 week old shunt lambs with increased PBF, we found that both Sox18 and Claudin-5 mRNA and protein levels were elevated. In conclusion, these novel findings suggest that increased laminar flow protects endothelial barrier function via Sox18 dependent up-regulation of Claudin-5 expression. PMID:24677020

  19. Application of a Reynolds stress turbulence model to the compressible shear layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, S.; Balakrishnan, L.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretically based turbulence models have had success in predicting many features of incompressible, free shear layers. However, attempts to extend these models to the high-speed, compressible shear layer have been less effective. In the present work, the compressible shear layer was studied with a second-order turbulence closure, which initially used only variable density extensions of incompressible models for the Reynolds stress transport equation and the dissipation rate transport equation. The quasi-incompressible closure was unsuccessful; the predicted effect of the convective Mach number on the shear layer growth rate was significantly smaller than that observed in experiments. Having thus confirmed that compressibility effects have to be explicitly considered, a new model for the compressible dissipation was introduced into the closure. This model is based on a low Mach number, asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations, and on direct numerical simulation of compressible, isotropic turbulence. The use of the new model for the compressible dissipation led to good agreement of the computed growth rates with the experimental data. Both the computations and the experiments indicate a dramatic reduction in the growth rate when the convective Mach number is increased. Experimental data on the normalized maximum turbulence intensities and shear stress also show a reduction with increasing Mach number.

  20. Imaging deformation of adherent cells due to shear stress using quantitative phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Will J; Sheinfeld, Adi; Rinehart, Matthew T; Wax, Adam

    2016-01-15

    We present a platform for detecting cellular deformations from mechanical stimuli, such as fluid shear stress, using rapid quantitative phase imaging. Rapid quantitative phase imaging was used to analyze changes in the optical path length of adherent skin cancer cells during mechanical displacement. Both the whole-cell phase displacement and the resultant shift of the cellular center of mass were calculated over the duration of the stimulus. Whole-cell phase displacement images were found to match expectation. Furthermore, center-of-mass shifts of adherent cells were found to resemble that of a one-dimensional Kelvin-Voigt (KV) viscoelastic solid. Cellular steady-state displacements from step fluid shear stimuli were found to be linearly related to the shear stress. Shear stiffness constants for cells exposed to a cytoskeletal disrupting toxin were found to be significantly lower than unexposed cells. This novel technique allows for elastographic analysis of whole-cell effective shear stiffness without the use of an exogenous force applicator, a specialized culture substrate, or tracking net perimeter movement of the cell. PMID:26766712

  1. Basal shear stress under alpine glaciers: Insights from experiments using the iSOSIA and Elmer/ICE models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brdstrup, C. F.; Egholm, D. L.; Ugelvig, S. V.; Pedersen, V. K.

    2015-10-01

    Shear stress at the base of glaciers controls basal sliding and is therefore immensely important for glacial erosion and landscape evolution in arctic and high-altitude areas. However, the inaccessible nature of glacial beds complicates empirical studies of basal shear stress, and little is therefore known of its spatial and temporal distribution. In this study we seek to improve our understanding of basal shear stress using a higher-order numerical ice model (iSOSIA). In order to test the validity of the higher-order model, we first compare the detailed distribution of basal shear stress in iSOSIA and in a three-dimensional full-Stokes model (Elmer/ICE). We find that iSOSIA and Elmer/ICE predict similar first-order stress and velocity patterns, and that differences are restricted to local variations over length-scales on the order of the grid resolution. In addition, we find that subglacial shear stress is relatively uniform and insensitive to suble changes in local topographic relief. Following these initial stress benchmark experiments, we use iSOSIA to investigate changes in basal shear stress as a result of landscape evolution by glacial erosion. The experiments with landscape evolution show that subglacial shear stress decreases as glacial erosion transforms preglacial V-shaped valleys into U-shaped troughs. These findings support the hypothesis that glacial erosion is most efficient in the early stages of glacial landscape development.

  2. The role of von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen in platelet aggregation under varying shear stress.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y; Handa, M; Kawano, K; Kamata, T; Murata, M; Araki, Y; Anbo, H; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Itagaki, I

    1991-01-01

    Exposure of platelets to shear stress leads to aggregation in the absence of exogenous agonists. We have now found that different adhesive proteins and platelet membrane glycoproteins are involved in aggregation depending on the shear stress conditions and the concentration of divalent cations in the medium. When blood is collected with trisodium citrate as anticoagulant, which causes a decrease in the levels of external ionized calcium ([Ca2+]o), platelet aggregation can be induced under low shear force (12 dyn/cm2) and is mediated by fibrinogen binding to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. Aggregates formed under these conditions are not stable, and when shear force is increased to 68 dyn/cm2, disaggregation results. By contrast, platelets from blood collected with hirudin as anticoagulant, wherein [Ca2+]o is within normal plasma levels, do not undergo low shear-induced aggregation; however, after exposure to a shear force above 80 dyn/cm2, aggregation is observed but only when von Willebrand factor is present and can interact with both its platelet binding sites, glycoprotein Ib-IX and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. Fibrinogen is not involved in high shear-induced aggregation which, in fact, occurs normally in patients with severe afibrinogenemia. Thus, von Willebrand factor in the absence of exogenous agonists can mediate platelet aggregation in experimental conditions that may mimic the hemorheological situation of partially occluded arteries. This pathway of platelet aggregation involving only one adhesive ligand and two membrane adhesion receptors may play a relevant role in thrombogenesis. PMID:2010539

  3. Comparison of erythrocyte dynamics in shear flow under different stress-free configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Yazdani, Alireza; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2014-04-01

    An open question that has persisted for decades is whether the cytoskeleton of a red blood cell is stress-free or under a stress. This question is important in the context of theoretical modeling of cellular motion under a flowing condition where it is necessary to make an assumption about the stress-free state. Here, we present a 3D numerical study to compare the cell dynamics in a simple shear flow under two different stress-free states, a biconcave discocyte representing the resting shape of the cell, and a nearly spherical oblate shape. We find that whether the stress-free states make a significant difference or not depends on the viscosity of the suspending medium. If the viscosity is close to that of blood plasma, the two stress-free states do not show any significant difference in cell dynamics. However, when the suspending medium viscosity is well above that of the physiological range, as in many in vitro studies, the shear rate separating the tank-treading and tumbling dynamics is observed to be higher for the biconcave stress-free state than the spheroidal state. The former shows a strong shape oscillation with repeated departures from the biconcave shape, while the latter shows a nearly stable biconcave shape. It is found that the cell membrane in the biconcave stress-free state is under a compressive stress and a weaker bending force density, leading to a periodic compression of the cell. The shape oscillation then leads to a higher energy barrier against membrane tank-tread leading to an early transition to tumbling. However, if the cells are released with a large off-shear plane angle, the oscillations can be suppressed due to an azimuthal motion of the membrane along the vorticity direction leading to a redistribution of the membrane points and lowering of the energy barrier, which again results in a nearly similar behavior of the cells under the two different stress-free states. A variety of off-shear plane dynamics is observed, namely, rolling, kayaking, precession, and a new dynamics termed "hovering." For the physiological viscosity range, the shear-plane tumbling appears to be relatively less common, while the rolling is observed to be more stable.

  4. Influence of hemodynamic forces on vascular endothelial function. In vitro studies of shear stress and pinocytosis in bovine aortic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P F; Dewey, C F; Bussolari, S R; Gordon, E J; Gimbrone, M A

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between fluid shear stress, a physiologically relevant mechanical force in the circulatory system, and pinocytosis (fluid-phase endocytosis) were investigated in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells using a specially designed apparatus. Continuous exposure to steady shear stresses (1-15 dyn/cm2) in laminar flow stimulated time- and amplitude-dependent increases in pinocytotic rate which returned to control levels after several hours. After 48 h continuous exposure to steady shear stress, removal to static conditions also resulted in a transient increase in pinocytotic rate, suggesting that temporal fluctuations in shear stress may influence endothelial cell function. Endothelial pinocytotic rates remained constant during exposure to rapidly oscillating shear stress at near physiological frequency (1 Hz) in laminar flow. In contrast, however, a sustained elevation of pinocytotic rate occurred when cells were subjected to fluctuations in shear stress amplitude (3-13 dyn/cm2) of longer cycle time (15 min), suggesting that changes in blood flow of slower periodicity may influence pinocytotic vesicle formation. As determined by [3H]thymidine autoradiography, neither steady nor oscillating shear stress stimulated the proliferation of confluent endothelial cells. These observations indicate that: (a) alterations in fluid shear stress can significantly influence the rate of formation of pinocytotic vesicles in vascular endothelial cells, (b) this process is force- and time-dependent and shows accommodation, (c) certain patterns of fluctuation in shear stress result in sustained elevation of pinocytotic rate, and (d) shear stresses can modulate endothelial pinocytosis independent of growth stimulation. These findings are relevant to (i) transendothelial transport and the metabolism of macromolecules in normal endothelium and (ii) the role of hemodynamic factors in the localization of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Images PMID:6707208

  5. IQ Domain GTPase-Activating Protein 1 is Involved in Shear Stress-Induced Progenitor-Derived Endothelial Cell Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Rami, Lila; Auguste, Patrick; Thebaud, Nolie B.; Bareille, Reine; Daculsi, Richard; Ripoche, Jean; Bordenave, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Shear stress is one of mechanical constraints which are exerted by blood flow on endothelial cells (ECs). To adapt to shear stress, ECs align in the direction of flow through adherens junction (AJ) remodeling. However, mechanisms regulating ECs alignment under shear stress are poorly understood. The scaffold protein IQ domain GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) is a scaffold protein which couples cell signaling to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and is involved in cell migration and adhesion. IQGAP1 also plays a role in AJ organization in epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated the potential IQGAP1 involvement in the endothelial cells alignment under shear stress. Progenitor-derived endothelial cells (PDECs), transfected (or not) with IQGAP1 small interfering RNA, were exposed to a laminar shear stress (1.2 N/m2) and AJ proteins (VE-cadherin and ?-catenin) and IQGAP1 were labeled by immunofluorescence. We show that IQGAP1 is essential for ECs alignment under shear stress. We studied the role of IQGAP1 in AJs remodeling of PDECs exposed to shear stress by studying cell localization and IQGAP1 interactions with VE-cadherin and ?-catenin by immunofluorescence and Proximity Ligation Assays. In static conditions, IQGAP1 interacts with VE-cadherin but not with ?-catenin at the cell membrane. Under shear stress, IQGAP1 lost its interaction from VE-cadherin to ?-catenin. This switch was concomitant with the loss of ?-catenin/VE-cadherin interaction at the cell membrane. This work shows that IQGAP1 is essential to ECs alignment under shear stress and that AJ remodeling represents one of the mechanisms involved. These results provide a new approach to understand ECs alignment under to shear stress. PMID:24278215

  6. Mean wall shear stress in the femoral arterial bifurcation is low and independent of age at rest.

    PubMed

    Kornet, L; Hoeks, A P; Lambregts, J; Reneman, R S

    2000-01-01

    In elastic arteries, mean wall shear stress appears to be close to 1. 5 Pa, the value predicted by the theory of minimal energy loss. This finding in elastic arteries does not necessarily represent the situation in muscular arteries. Elastic arteries have to store potential energy, while muscular arteries have mainly a conductive function. Therefore, we determined wall shear stress and its age dependency in the common and superficial femoral arteries, 2-3 cm from the flow divider in 54 presumed healthy volunteers between 21 and 74 years of age, using a non-invasive ultrasound system. Prior to the study, the reliability of this system was determined in terms of intrasubject variation. Mean wall shear stress was significantly lower in the common femoral artery (0.35 +/- 0.18 Pa) than in the superficial femoral artery (0.49 +/- 0.15 Pa). In all age categories, peak systolic wall shear stress and the maximal cyclic change in wall shear stress were not significantly different in the common and the superficial femoral arteries. Peak systolic wall shear stress in the common and the superficial femoral arteries was not significantly different from the value previously determined in the common carotid artery, but mean wall shear stress was lower in the common and superficial femoral arteries than in the common carotid artery by a factor of 2-4. In both the common and the superficial femoral arteries, mean, peak systolic and maximal cyclic change in wall shear stress did not change significantly with age, nor did diameter. We conclude that, as compared to elastic arteries, mean wall shear stress is low in the conductive arteries of a resting leg, due to backflow during the first part of the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle and the absence of flow during the rest of the diastolic phase. Mean wall shear stress is lower in the common than in the superficial femoral artery due to additional reflections from the deep femoral artery. PMID:10754396

  7. Evaluation of shear stress accumulation on blood components in normal and dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves using smoothed particle hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, S; Maleki, H; Hassan, I; Kadem, L

    2012-10-11

    Evaluating shear induced hemodynamic complications is one of the major concerns in design of the mechanical heart valves (MHVs). The monitoring of these events relies on both numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Currently, numerical approaches are mainly based on a combined Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A more straightforward evaluation can be based on the Lagrangian analysis of the whole blood. As a consequence, Lagrangian meshfree methods are more adapted to such evaluation. In this study, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), a fully meshfree particle method originated to simulate compressible astrophysical flows, is applied to study the flow through a normal and a dysfunctional bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs). The SPH results are compared with the reference data. The accumulation of shear stress patterns on blood components illustrates the important role played by non-physiological flow patterns and mainly vortical structures in this issue. The statistical distribution of particles with respect to shear stress loading history provides important information regarding the relative number of blood components that can be damaged. This can be used as a measure of the response of blood components to the presence of the valve implant or any implantable medical device. This work presents the first attempt to simulate pulsatile flow through BMHVs using SPH method. PMID:22980575

  8. Fluid shear stress modulates von Willebrand factor release from human vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Galbusera, M; Zoja, C; Donadelli, R; Paris, S; Morigi, M; Benigni, A; Figliuzzi, M; Remuzzi, G; Remuzzi, A

    1997-08-15

    Fluid shear stress generated by blood flow on arterial wall may play a role in the process of atherosclerosis, not only affecting the mass transport phenomena that take place in blood, but also by modulation of synthesis and secretion of humoral factors released by vascular endothelium that mediate platelet-vessel wall interactions. The present study was designed to investigate whether shear stress, induced by laminar flow, modulates von Willebrand factor (vWF) release from cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and whether this physical stimulation can affect vWF synthesis. Monolayers of HUVEC were exposed to laminar flow of varying magnitude (from 2 to 12 dynes/cm2) using a cone-and-plate device. The release of vWF in cell supernatant and in extracellular matrix by cells exposed to flow or maintained in static conditions was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HUVEC exposed to laminar flow released higher amounts of vWF into the cell supernatant within few hours of exposure and vWF secretion was dependent on shear stress magnitude. vWF released in extracellular matrix was also higher in cell monolayers exposed to shear than in static controls. vWF mRNA expression in HUVEC was not affected by exposure of cells to laminar flow, indicating that shear-induced vWF release reflected enhanced secretion without de novo protein synthesis. Immunofluorescence studies showed that the release of vWF is due to exocytosis from Weibel-Palade bodies, the storage organelles of vWF. These data indicate a novel mechanism by which local hemodynamic shear forces modulate endothelial cell function and may play a role in development of arterial thrombotic events. PMID:9269774

  9. The Role of Pre-stress in Shear Wave Generation from Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, L. A.; Aldridge, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic waves propagating within the Earth are small perturbations in stress and strain superimposed on an existing three-dimensional (3D) stress field. This ambient stress state, commonly referred to as "tectonic stress" or "pre-stress", may be significant in or near zones of active tectonic deformation, such as the Nevada Test Site. The effect of pre-stress on seismic waveforms generated by and propagated from an underground explosion (chemical or nuclear) is poorly understood at present. However, seismologists reasonably speculate that pre-stress may contribute to the anomalously large amount of shear wave energy often observed from such sources. In order to quantitatively investigate the effects of pre-stress, we are developing an explicit, time-domain, finite-difference (FD) algorithm for simulating 3D seismic wave propagation within an isotropic elastic medium subject to an existing static stress state. The usual stress-strain constitutive relations are augmented with additional terms involving both the ambient stress tensor and its gradient. The elastic medium is represented by nine 3D fields (i.e., mass density, two Lam parameters, and six independent pre-stress tensor components). The numerical algorithm is implemented on a conventional 3D staggered grid using centered FD operators that are second-order accurate in time and fourth-order accurate in space. We are also developing mathematical dispersion relations, for both continuous and discrete space-time, characterizing seismic wave propagation within a 3D isotropic elastic medium under pre-stress. In the continuous case, the phase speed(s) of a plane wave propagating within a homogeneous and isotropic elastic body are obtained by extracting the appropriate roots of a cubic polynomial. Although the phase speed is independent of frequency (as in the usual zero-pre-stress situation), it depends on propagation direction, analogous to an anisotropic elastic medium. In the discrete case, phase speed depends on both frequency and direction. Important questions regarding the level of pre-stress required to produce noticeable effects on seismic waveforms need to be investigated. Of particular interest is quantification of the coupling between pure pressure and shear to understand how an ambient stress field generates shear waves from explosions. Although this effect is expected to be small, given the location of many test sites in tectonically active regions, it may be significant. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Effect of shear stress on electromagnetic behaviors in superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Huadong; Zhao, Meng; Jing, Ze; Zhou, Youhe

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the electromagnetic response and shielding behaviour of superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure are studied. The magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnetic materials is also considered. Based on the linear piezomagnetic coupling model and anti-plane shear deformation, the current density and magnetic field in superconducting strip are obtained firstly. The effect of shear stress on the magnetization of strip is discussed. Then, we consider the magnetic cloak for superconductor-ferromagnetic bilayer structure. The magnetic permeability of ferromagnetic material is obtained for perfect cloaking in uniform magnetic field with magnetomechanical coupling in ferromagnet. The simulation results show that the electromagnetic response in superconductors will change by applying the stress only to the ferromagnetic material. In addition, the performance of invisibility of structure for non-uniform field will be affected by mechanical stress. It may provide a method to achieve tunability of superconducting properties with mechanical loadings.

  11. A Wafer-Bonded, Floating Element Shear-Stress Sensor Using a Geometric Moire Optical Transduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Stephen; Chen, Tai-An; Chandrasekaran, Venkataraman; Tedjojuwono, Ken; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a geometric Moir optical-based floating-element shear stress sensor for wind tunnel turbulence measurements. The sensor was fabricated using an aligned wafer-bond/thin-back process producing optical gratings on the backside of a floating element and on the top surface of the support wafer. Measured results indicate a static sensitivity of 0.26 microns/Pa, a resonant frequency of 1.7 kHz, and a noise floor of 6.2 mPa/(square root)Hz.

  12. A microfluidic device to apply shear stresses to polarizing ciliated airway epithelium using air flow.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-11-01

    Organization of airway epithelium determines ciliary beat direction and coordination for proper mucociliary clearance. Fluidic shear stresses have the potential to influence ciliary organization. Here, an in vitro fluidic flow system was developed for inducing long-term airflow shear stresses on airway epithelium with a view to influencing epithelial organization. Our system consists of a fluidic device for cell culture, integrated into a humidified airflow circuit. The fluidic device has a modular design and is made from a combination of polystyrene and adhesive components incorporated into a 6-well filter membrane insert. We demonstrate the system operates within physiologically relevant shear and pressure ranges and estimate the shear stress exerted on the epithelial cell layer as a result of air flow using a computational model. For both the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS2B and primary human tracheal airway epithelial cells, we demonstrate that cells remain viable within the device when exposed to airflow for 24?h and that normal differentiation and cilia formation occurs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of our device for exploring the impact of exposing cells to airflow: our tool enables quantification of cytoskeletal organization, and is compatible with in situ bead assays to assess the orientation of cilia beating. PMID:25553181

  13. A microfluidic device to apply shear stresses to polarizing ciliated airway epithelium using air flow

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K.; McGuigan, Alison P.

    2014-01-01

    Organization of airway epithelium determines ciliary beat direction and coordination for proper mucociliary clearance. Fluidic shear stresses have the potential to influence ciliary organization. Here, an in vitro fluidic flow system was developed for inducing long-term airflow shear stresses on airway epithelium with a view to influencing epithelial organization. Our system consists of a fluidic device for cell culture, integrated into a humidified airflow circuit. The fluidic device has a modular design and is made from a combination of polystyrene and adhesive components incorporated into a 6-well filter membrane insert. We demonstrate the system operates within physiologically relevant shear and pressure ranges and estimate the shear stress exerted on the epithelial cell layer as a result of air flow using a computational model. For both the bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS2B and primary human tracheal airway epithelial cells, we demonstrate that cells remain viable within the device when exposed to airflow for 24 h and that normal differentiation and cilia formation occurs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of our device for exploring the impact of exposing cells to airflow: our tool enables quantification of cytoskeletal organization, and is compatible with in situ bead assays to assess the orientation of cilia beating. PMID:25553181

  14. Effect of simulated microgravity on osteocytes responding to fluid shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Sun, Lian-Wen; Wu, Xin-Tong; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2013-03-01

    Osteocytes, as most abundant cells and major mechanical sensor in bone, play an important role in the mechanism of microgravity-induced bone loss. The response of osteocytes to fluid flow stress under simulated microgravity was investigated in this study. MLO-Y4, an osteocyte-like cell line, was cultured under simulated microgravity condition for 5 days. Then cells were sheared at 15 dyn/cm2 in flow chamber. After 15 min shear, nitric oxide (NO) was examined by Griess Reagent and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by ELISA. After 6 h shear, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was examined by PNPP, osteocalcin (OC) and procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) by ELISA. Cells were divided into four groups: CON (1 G with no shear), CON-S (1 G with shear), SM (simulated microgravity with no shear) and SM-S (simulated microgravity with shear). The results showed that (1) NO, ALP activity, OC and PINP increased significantly while PGE2 showed no change in SM compared with CON. (2) NO, PGE2, ALP activity and PINP increased significantly while OC decreased significantly in CON-S compared with CON. (3) NO in SM-S had no significant difference compared to SM, PGE2 and OC increased while ALP activity and PINP decreased significantly in SM-S compared with SM. (4) The increasing amplitude of PGE2 and OC, the decreasing amplitude of ALP activity in SM-S to SM was lower than that in CON-S to CON. In addition, some changes of F-actin cytoskeleton were observed by confocal microscopy. All results indicated that the response induced by fluid shear in osteocytes could be inhibited by simulated microgravity, namely the mechanosensibility of osteocytes decreased under simulated microgravity. This may partly contribute to the mechanism of microgravity-induced osteoporosis and will be helpful to find out effective description.

  15. Minimizing shear and compressive stress during pancreaticojejunostomy: rationale of a new technical modification.

    PubMed

    Neychev, Vladimir K; Saldinger, Pierre F; Sladinger, Pierre F

    2014-02-01

    The failure of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis remains an important and potentially lethal postoperative complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy. During the pancreaticojejunostomy, creation of compressive and shear forces during suture placement and knot tying may cause deformation of and cutting through the fragile pancreatic parenchyma. We sought to understand the mechanics of needle-pancreas interaction and make adjustments to our pancreaticojejunostomy technique so that the creation of shear and compressive stress could be minimized. We provide a detailed description, a mathematical model, and analysis of the outcomes of our new technical modifications. PMID:24369374

  16. Separating Fluid Shear Stress from Acceleration during Vibrations in Vitro: Identification of Mechanical Signals Modulating the Cellular Response

    PubMed Central

    Uzer, Gunes; Manske, Sarah L; Chan, M Ete; Chiang, Fu-Pen; Rubin, Clinton T; Frame, Mary D; Judex, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The identification of the physical mechanism(s) by which cells can sense vibrations requires the determination of the cellular mechanical environment. Here, we quantified vibration-induced fluid shear stresses in vitro and tested whether this system allows for the separation of two mechanical parameters previously proposed to drive the cellular response to vibration fluid shear and peak accelerations. When peak accelerations of the oscillatory horizontal motions were set at 1g and 60Hz, peak fluid shear stresses acting on the cell layer reached 0.5Pa. A 3.5-fold increase in fluid viscosity increased peak fluid shear stresses 2.6-fold while doubling fluid volume in the well caused a 2-fold decrease in fluid shear. Fluid shear was positively related to peak acceleration magnitude and inversely related to vibration frequency. These data demonstrated that peak shear stress can be effectively separated from peak acceleration by controlling specific levels of vibration frequency, acceleration, and/or fluid viscosity. As an example for exploiting these relations, we tested the relevance of shear stress in promoting COX-2 expression in osteoblast like cells. Across different vibration frequencies and fluid viscosities, neither the level of generated fluid shear nor the frequency of the signal were able to consistently account for differences in the relative increase in COX-2 expression between groups, emphasizing that the eventual identification of the physical mechanism(s) requires a detailed quantification of the cellular mechanical environment. PMID:23074384

  17. Shear-wave velocity variation in jointed rock: an attempt to measure tide-induced variations

    SciTech Connect

    Beem, L.I.

    1987-08-01

    The use of the perturbation of seismic wave velocities by solid earth tides as a possible method of exploration for fractured media is discussed. Velocity of compressional seismic waves in fractured homogeneous rock has been observed to vary through solid earth tide cycles by a significant 0.5-0.9%. This variation of seismic velocities may be attributed to the opening and closing of joints by tidal stresses. In an attempt to see if shear-wave velocities show a similar velocity variation, a pneumatic shear-wave generator was used for the source. The 5 receivers, 3-component, 2.0 Hz, moving-coil geophones, were connected to a GEOS digital recorder. The two receivers located 120 m and 110 m from the source showed large shear-to-compression amplitude ratio and a high signal-to-noise ratio. A glaciated valley was chosen for the experiment site, since topography is flat and the granodiorite is jointed by a set of nearly orthogonal vertical joints, with superimposed horizontal sheeting joints. A slight velocity variation was noted in the first 200 consecutive firings; after which, the amplitude of the shear-wave begun to increase. This increase has been attributed to the compacting of the soil beneath the shear-wave generator (SWG). In the future, the soil will be compacted prior to placing the SWG or the SWG will be coupled directly to the rock to alleviate the amplitude fluctuation problem. This research may have application in exploration for fracture permeability in the rock mass between existing wells, by measuring seismic velocities from well to well through the tidal cycle.

  18. Basal shear stress under alpine glaciers: insights from experiments using the iSOSIA and Elmer/Ice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brædstrup, C. F.; Egholm, D. L.; Ugelvig, S. V.; Pedersen, V. K.

    2016-02-01

    Shear stress at the base of glaciers exerts a significant control on basal sliding and hence also glacial erosion in arctic and high-altitude areas. However, the inaccessible nature of glacial beds complicates empirical studies of basal shear stress, and little is therefore known of its spatial and temporal distribution. In this study we seek to improve our understanding of basal shear stress using a higher-order numerical ice model (iSOSIA). In order to test the validity of the higher-order model, we first compare the detailed distribution of basal shear stress in iSOSIA and in a three-dimensional full-Stokes model (Elmer/Ice). We find that iSOSIA and Elmer/Ice predict similar first-order stress and velocity patterns, and that differences are restricted to local variations at length scales of the order of the grid resolution. In addition, we find that subglacial shear stress is relatively uniform and insensitive to subtle changes in local topographic relief. Following the initial comparison studies, we use iSOSIA to investigate changes in basal shear stress as a result of landscape evolution by glacial erosion. The experiments with landscape evolution show that subglacial shear stress decreases as glacial erosion transforms preglacial V-shaped valleys into U-shaped troughs. These findings support the hypothesis that glacial erosion is most efficient in the early stages of glacial landscape development.

  19. Nuclear factor-kappa B interacts functionally with the platelet-derived growth factor B-chain shear-stress response element in vascular endothelial cells exposed to fluid shear stress.

    PubMed Central

    Khachigian, L M; Resnick, N; Gimbrone, M A; Collins, T

    1995-01-01

    Hemodynamic forces, such as fluid shear stress, that act on the endothelial lining of the cardiovascular system can modulate the expression of an expanding number of genes crucial for homeostasis and the pathogenesis of vascular disease. A 6-bp core element (5'-GAGACC-3'), defined previously as a shear-stress response element is present in the promoters of many genes, including the PDGF B-chain, whose expression is modulated by shear stress. The identity of the nuclear protein(s) binding to this element has not yet been elucidated. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and in vitro DNase I footprinting, we demonstrate that nuclear factor-kappa B p50-p65 heterodimers, which accumulate in the nuclei of cultured vascular endothelial cells exposed to fluid shear stress, bind to the PDGF-B shear-stress response element in a specific manner. Mutation of this binding motif abrogated its interaction with p50-p65 and abolished the ability of the promoter to mediate increased gene expression in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress. Transient cotransfection studies indicate that p50-p65 is able to activate PDGF-B shear-stress response element-dependent reporter gene expression in these cells. These findings thus implicate nuclear factor-kappa B in the transactivation of an endothelial gene responding to a defined fluid mechanical force. Images PMID:7635955

  20. Method and apparatus for measuring stress

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R. Bruce (Ames, IA)

    1985-06-11

    A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of micro-structural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnet-electromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring stress

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, R.B.

    1983-07-28

    A method and apparatus for determining stress in a material independent of micro-structural variations and anisotropies. The method comprises comparing the velocities of two horizontally polarized and horizontally propagating ultrasonic shear waves with interchanged directions of propagation and polarization. The apparatus for carrying out the method comprises periodic permanent magnet-electromagnetic acoustic transducers for generating and detecting the shear waves and means for determining the wave velocities.

  2. Pulsed Discharge Through Wetland Vegetation as a Control on Bed Shear Stress and Sediment Transport Affecting Everglades Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, L. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Crimaldi, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    The ridge and slough landscape is a patterned peatland within the Florida Everglades in which elevated ridges of emergent vegetation are regularly interspersed among open-water sloughs with floating and submerged vegetation. Landscape features are aligned parallel to the historic flow direction. Degradation of patterning over the past 100 years coincides with diminished flow resulting from drainage and construction of levees and canals. A goal of restoration is to increase flow velocities and redistribution of particles and solutes in attempt to preserve remnant patterning and restore degraded portions of the ridge and slough landscape. To explore different management strategies that could induce sediment redistribution in the ridge and slough landscape, we simulated velocity profiles and bed shear stresses for different combinations of surface water stage, water surface slope, and vegetation community structure, based on field measurements and laboratory experiments. A mixing length approach, in which the minimum of stem spacing and distance from a solid boundary determined eddy scale, was used to simulate velocity profiles and bed shear stress in vegetated arrays. Simplified velocity profiles based only on vegetation frontal area above the bed and the Karman-Prandtl logarithmic law near the bed closely were used to approximate solutions of the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for large-scale simulation. Estimates of bed shear stress were most sensitive to bed roughness, vegetation community structure, and energy slope. Importantly, our simulations illustrate that velocity and bed shear stress cannot be increased substantially in the Everglades simply by increasing surface-water stage. This result comes directly from the dependence of velocity and shear stress on vegetation frontal area and the fact that emergent vegetation stems protrude through the water column even during times of relatively deep water in the Everglades. Since merely increasing water depth is not likely to increase water velocity and entrainment, it is necessary instead that restoration focus on increasing energy slope as a means to entrain sediment within sloughs and redistribute it to ridges. Surface-water gravity waves caused by hurricanes or pulsed releases of water from impounded areas may be the most effective mechanism for achieving sediment redistribution in the Everglades and other wetland and riparian environments with abundant emergent vegetation.

  3. Beef Longissimus Slice Shear Force Measurement Among Steak Locations and Institutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate slice shear force on every longissimus thoracis et lumborum steak to determine which steaks were appropriate for slice shear force measurement and 2) to train six other institutions to conduct slice shear force and then determine the among and within ...

  4. Turbulence spectra, shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy budgets above two beech forest sites in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, Ivan; Dellwik, Ebba; Jensen, Niels O.

    2008-04-01

    The focus of this study is the combined influence of the roughness sublayer (RSL) found above tall vegetation and the internal boundary layer (IBL) on the near-neutral flow above two forest sites. Measurements of the 3-D wind field from masts about twice the forest height were analysed. For both sites, influence from upwind conditions was detected for a short-fetch sector. For one of the sites, an additional long-fetch sector without significant IBL influence is presented. Spectral analysis, dissipation length scale analysis and evaluation of the most important terms in the turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress budgets, were performed. For all selected sectors, RSL influence was detected close to the canopy top: the dissipation length scale was greater than the height above the displacement height of the forest, and the turbulent transport terms were significant. For the short-fetch sectors, the spectral analysis of measurements taken in the RSL and in the IBL (above the RSL) showed that scaling by fixed length and velocity scales resulted in a good collapse of the spectral peaks. For the long-fetch sector, the RSL influence disappeared at greater heights, and the flow is nearly adjusted with the new surface.

  5. FBG sensor networks for the estimation of boundary shear stress around the novel piers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L, Chengang; Zhang, Ruifeng; Li, Kejia; Wu, Xing; Ge, Chunfeng

    2010-10-01

    The paper reports results obtained from a field test site in structural monitoring-a "test-to-failure," measuring strain using Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) sensor networks on a novel drilled concrete test pier in Huaihe river zone,Anhui province,China. To undertake the study, FBG-based sensors were chosen ,metallic recoated ,steel-tube packaged , and incorporated with steel rebars in this concrete structure. The sensors were interrogated using a compact system based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) and F-P scanning approach. Throughout the test, the FBG sensors were continuously monitored, the incremental increases in the strain caused by boundary shear stress could be seen. The sensors were able to follow the resulting induced changes in load of over a range in excess of 2.5M Newton just prior to failure of the pier and representing extreme levels of strain for such a novel mechanical structure. The measurements made with the FBG-based system were found to be in agreement with the changes expected in the structure, produced by the self-balanced loading applied. The study has demonstrated the successful use of FBG sensor networks used in a test of this root type pier foundation, consequently made assessment about the health and security of the highway bridge.

  6. Effect of Microencapsulation Shear Stress on the Structural Integrity and Biological Activity of a Model Monoclonal Antibody, Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Pabari, Ritesh M.; Ryan, Benedict; McCarthy, Catherine; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of process shear stressors on the stability of a model monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab. Trastuzumab, at concentrations of 0.44.0 mg/mL, was subjected to sonication, freeze-thaw, lyophilisation, spray drying and was encapsulated into micro- and nanoparticles. The stressed samples were analysed for structural integrity by gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, and size exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the conformational integrity was analysed by circular dichroism (CD). Biological activity of the stressed trastuzumab was investigated by measuring the inhibition of cell proliferation of HER-2 expressing cell lines. Results show that trastuzumab was resistant to the process shear stresses applied and to microencapsulation processes. At the lowest concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, a low percent (<9%) of soluble/reversible aggregates may have been formed. No loss of structural integrity, conformation was observed and no significant change in the biological activity of trastuzumab was observed (ANOVA; p > 0.05). The results of this study conclude that trastuzumab may be resistant to various processing stresses. These findings have important implications with respect to pharmaceutical processing of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:24310594

  7. Resolved shear stress intensity coefficient and fatigue crack growth in large crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, QI; Liu, Hao-Wen

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth in large grain Al alloy was studied. Fatigue crack growth is caused primarily by shear decohesion due to dislocation motion in the crack tip region. The crack paths in the large crystals are very irregular and zigzag. The crack planes are often inclined to the loading axis both in the inplane direction and the thickness direction. The stress intensity factors of such inclined cracks are approximated from the two dimensional finite element calculations. The plastic deformation in a large crystal is highly anisotropic, and dislocation motion in such crystals are driven by the resolved shear stress. The resolved shear stress intensity coefficient in a crack solid, RSSIC, is defined, and the coefficients for the slip systems at a crack tip are evaluated from the calculated stress intensity factors. The orientations of the crack planes are closely related to the slip planes with the high RSSIC values. If a single slip system has a much higher RSSIC than all the others, the crack will follow the slip plane, and the slip plane becomes the crack plane. If two or more slip systems have a high RSSIC, the crack plane is the result of the decohesion processes on these active slip planes.

  8. Estimate Interface Shear Stress of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites from Hysteresis Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longbiao; Song, Yingdong

    2013-12-01

    An approach to estimate the fiber/matrix interface shear stress of woven ceramic matrix composites during fatigue loading has been developed in this paper. Based on the analysis of the microstructure, the woven ceramic matrix composites were divided into four elements of 0o warp yarns, 90o weft yarns, matrix outside of the yarns and the open porosity. When matrix cracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur upon first loading to the peak stress, it is assumed that fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region of the 0o warp yarns is the mainly reason for the occurrence of the hysteresis loops of woven ceramic matrix composiets during unloading and subsequent reloading. The unloading interface reverse slip length and reloading interface new slip length are determined by the interface slip mechanisms. The hysteresis loops of three different cases have been derived. The hysteresis loss energy for the strain energy lost per volume during corresponding cycle is formulated in terms of the fiber/matrix interface shear stress. By comparing the experimental hysteresis loss energy with the computational values, the fiber/matrix interface shear stress of woven ceramic matrix composites corresponding to different cycles can then be derived. The theoretical results have been compared with experimental data of two different woven ceramic composites.

  9. Slope measurement of bent plates using double grating shearing interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanotia, Jitendra; Prakash, Shashi; Rana, Santosh; Sasaki, Osami

    2011-06-20

    A grating-based shearing interferometeric setup for slope measurement of bent plates has been proposed. The specimen under test is illuminated by a collimated beam from the laser. Light reflected from the specimen passes through two identical holographic gratings placed in tandem. The grating frequency has been so chosen that the diffracted orders from each grating are separated out distinctly. Two first-order beams diffracted from each of the gratings superpose in space. In the resulting interferogram, the fringes due to slope information of the object are visualized. Mathematical formulation for experimental determination of slope values has been undertaken. Validation of the experimental results with theoretical predictions in case of cantilever beam provides good correlation. The main advantage of the technique has been the realization of very compact geometry without the need for spatial filtering arrangement commonly associated with the grating-based techniques used to date.

  10. Laboratory measurements of compressional and shear wave speeds through methane hydrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waite, W.F.; Helgerud, M.B.; Nur, A.; Pinkston, J.C.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of compressional and shear wave speeds through polycrystalline methane hydrate have been made. Methane hydrate, grown directly in a wave speed measurement chamber, was uniaxially compacted to a final porosity below 2%. At 277 K, the compacted material had a compressional wave speed of 3650 ?? 50 m/s. The shear wave speed, measured simultaneously, was 1890 ?? 30 m/s. From these wave speed measurements, we derive V(p)/V(s), Poisson's ratio, bulk, shear, and Young's moduli.

  11. The mechanism for shear thickening in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Eric; Jaeger, Heinrich

    2009-11-01

    Densely packed suspensions can shear thicken, in which the viscosity increases with shear rate. Video microscopy along with rheology measurements show the shear thickening regime is a transition from negligible particle motion at low stresses to fully developed shear flow at higher stresses. The onset of shear thickening occurs when the shear stress is sufficient to pull particles apart; for example against gravity for large particles, and can be tuned by inducing electric or magnetic dipoles. Dilation can be observed as particles penetrate the fluid surface in the high stress regime. The maximum stress of the shear thickening regime is shown to match, for a wide range of suspensions, the ratio of surface tension divided by a radius of curvature comparable to the particle size. This suggests the large stress associated with shear thickening comes from capillary forces as a consequence of dilation.

  12. Penny-shaped crack in a plate of finite thickness subjected to a uniform shearing stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Doo-Sung

    2013-04-01

    This paper contains an analysis of the stress distribution in a plate of finite thickness of an elastic material containing a penny-shaped crack when it is deformed by the application of a uniform shearing stress on the surface of the plate. The crack lies on the central plane of the plate with its surface parallel to those of the plate and is stress-free. By making a suitable representation of the stress function for the problem, the problem is reduced to the solution of a pair of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. This pair of Fredholm integral equations of the second kind is solved numerically, and the increase in the stress intensity magnification factor due to the effect of the finite thickness of the plate is presented for various values of the thickness.

  13. Study on Stress-Strain Relationship of Loess Based on Twin Shear Unified Damage Constitutive Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Li, Hangzhou; Liao, Hong-Jian; Xiao, Zhenghua

    To investigate the change of loess stress state, a series of triaxial shear tests were performed on normal consolidation and over consolidation loess. From the test results, the stress-strain relationships of loess were obtained and discussed. Based on unified strength theory, the statistical damage constitutive equation was obtained under triaxial stress state assuming distribution statistical probability of micro-units strength. Then the proposed formulation was adopted to study on stress-strain constitutive relationships of loess and to simulate consolidation undrained triaxial test and consolidation drained triaxial test for normal consolidated and over-consolidated specimens. Compared between experimental and theoretical results, it was shown that the proposed constitutive model can well describe stress-strain relationship of loess, whatever the characteristic of strain softening or stain hardening.

  14. Fluid shear stress induces the clustering of heparan sulfate via mobility of glypican-1 in lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ye; Waters, Michele; Andrews, Allison; Honarmandi, Peyman; Ebong, Eno E.; Rizzo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The endothelial glycocalyx plays important roles in mechanotransduction. We recently investigated the distribution and interaction of glycocalyx components on statically cultured endothelial cells. In the present study, we further explored the unknown organization of the glycocalyx during early exposure (first 30 min) to shear stress and tested the hypothesis that proteoglycans with glycosaminoglycans, which are localized in different lipid microdomains, respond distinctly to shear stress. During the initial 30 min of exposure to shear stress, the very early responses of the glycocalyx and membrane rafts were detected using confocal microscopy. We observed that heparan sulfate (HS) and glypican-1 clustered in the cell junctions. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate (CS), bound albumin, and syndecan-1 did not move. The caveolae marker caveolin-1 did not move, indicating that caveolae are anchored sufficiently to resist shear stress during the 30 min of exposure. Shear stress induced significant changes in the distribution of ganglioside GM1 (a marker for membrane rafts labeled with cholera toxin B subunit). These data suggest that fluid shear stress induced the cell junctional clustering of lipid rafts with their anchored glypican-1 and associated HS. In contrast, the mobility of CS, transmembrane bound syndecan-1, and caveolae were constrained during exposure to shear stress. This study illuminates the role of changes in glycocalyx organization that underlie mechanisms of mechanotransduction. PMID:23851278

  15. Endothelial cell activation by hemodynamic shear stress derived from arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Franzoni, Marco; Cattaneo, Irene; Longaretti, Lorena; Figliuzzi, Marina; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Remuzzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia (IH) is the first cause of failure of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects on endothelial cells (ECs) of shear stress waveforms derived from AVF areas prone to develop IH. We used a cone-and-plate device to obtain real-time control of shear stress acting on EC cultures. We exposed human umbilical vein ECs for 48 h to different shear stimulations calculated in a side-to-end AVF model. Pulsatile unidirectional flow, representative of low-risk stenosis areas, induced alignment of ECs and actin fiber orientation with flow. Shear stress patterns of reciprocating flow, derived from high-risk stenosis areas, did not affect EC shape or cytoskeleton organization, which remained similar to static cultures. We also evaluated flow-induced EC expression of genes known to be involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and expression of cell adhesion molecules. Unidirectional flow induced a significant increase in Kruppel-like factor 2 mRNA expression, whereas it significantly reduced phospholipase D1, ?4-integrin, and Ras p21 protein activator 1 mRNA expression. Reciprocating flow did not increase Kruppel-like factor 2 mRNA expression compared with static controls but significantly increased mRNA expression of phospholipase D1, ?4-integrin, and Ras p21 protein activator 1. Reciprocating flow selectively increased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and IL-8 production. Furthermore, culture medium conditioned by ECs exposed to reciprocating flows selectively increased smooth muscle cell proliferation compared with unidirectional flow. Our results indicate that protective vascular effects induced in ECs by unidirectional pulsatile flow are not induced by reciprocating shear forces, suggesting a mechanism by which oscillating flow conditions may induce the development of IH in AVF and vascular access dysfunction. PMID:26497959

  16. Interfibrillar shear stress is the loading mechanism of collagen fibrils in tendon

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Spencer E.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role tendons play in transmitting loads throughout the musculoskeletal system, little is known about the microstructural mechanisms underlying their mechanical function. Of particular interest is whether collagen fibrils in tendon fascicles bear load independently or if load is transferred between fibrils through interfibrillar shear forces. We conducted multiscale experimental testing and developed a microstructural shear lag model to explicitly test whether interfibrillar shear load transfer is indeed the fibrillar loading mechanism in tendon. Experimental correlations between fascicle macroscale mechanics and microscale interfibrillar sliding suggest that fibrils are discontinuous and share load. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrate that a shear lag model can replicate the fascicle macroscale mechanics as well as predict the microscale fibrillar deformations. Since interfibrillar shear stress is the fundamental loading mechanism assumed in the model, this result provides strong evidence that load is transferred between fibrils in tendon and possibly other aligned collagenous tissues. Conclusively establishing this fibrillar loading mechanism and identifying the involved structural components should help develop repair strategies for tissue degeneration and guide the design of tissue engineered replacements. PMID:24530560

  17. Probing the adhesion of particles to responsive polymer coatings with hydrodynamic shear stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, Ryan; Efe, Gulnur

    2015-03-01

    Lower critical solution temperature (LCST) polymers in confined geometries have found success in applications that benefit from reversible modulation of surface properties, including drug delivery, separations, tissue cultures, and chromatography. In this talk, we present the adhesion of polystyrene microspheres to cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), or poly(NIPAAm) coatings, as studied with a spinning disk method. This method applies a linear range of hydrodynamic shear forces to physically adsorbed microspheres along the radius of a coated disk. Quantification of detachment is accomplished by optical microscopy to evaluate the minimum shear stress to remove adherent particles. Experiments were performed to assess the relationship between the surface chemistry of the microsphere, the thickness and cross-link density of the poly(NIPAAm) coating, the adsorption (or incubation) time, and the temperature on the detachment profiles of the microspheres. Results show that both the shear modulus and slow dynamic processes in the poly(NIPAAm) films strongly influence the detachment shear stresses. Moreover, whether an adsorbed microsphere can be released (through a modulation in the swelling of the poly(NIPAAm) coating by temperature) depends on both the surface chemistry of the microsphere and the extent of the adsorption time. Finally, the results show that the structure of the poly(NIPAAm) coating can significantly affect performance, which may explain several of the conflicting findings that have been reported in the literature.

  18. Characterizing wave- and current- induced bottom shear stress: U.S. middle Atlantic continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Butman, Bradford; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Signell, Richard P.; Wilkin, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Waves and currents create bottom shear stress, a force at the seabed that influences sediment texture distribution, micro-topography, habitat, and anthropogenic use. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the magnitude, variability, and driving mechanisms of bottom stress and resultant sediment mobility on regional scales using numerical model output. The analysis was applied to the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), off the U.S. East Coast, and identified a tidally-dominated shallow region with relatively high stress southeast of Massachusetts over Nantucket Shoals, where sediment mobility thresholds are exceeded over 50% of the time; a coastal band extending offshore to about 30 m water depth dominated by waves, where mobility occurs more than 20% of the time; and a quiescent low stress region southeast of Long Island, approximately coincident with an area of fine-grained sediments called the “Mud Patch”. The regional high in stress and mobility over Nantucket Shoals supports the hypothesis that fine grain sediment winnowed away in this region maintains the Mud Patch to the southwest. The analysis identified waves as the driving mechanism for stress throughout most of the MAB, excluding Nantucket Shoals and sheltered coastal bays where tides dominate; however, the relative dominance of low-frequency events varied regionally, and increased southward toward Cape Hatteras. The correlation between wave stress and local wind stress was lowest in the central MAB, indicating a relatively high contribution of swell to bottom stress in this area, rather than locally generated waves. Accurate prediction of the wave energy spectrum was critical to produce good estimates of bottom shear stress, which was sensitive to energy in the long period waves.

  19. Friction of polymer hydrogels studied by resonance shear measurements.

    PubMed

    Ren, Huai-Yin; Mizukami, Masashi; Tanabe, Tadao; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-08-21

    The friction between an elastomer and a hard surface typically has two contributors, i.e., the interfacial and deformation components. The friction of viscoelastic hydrogel materials has been extensively studied between planar gel and planar substrate surfaces from the viewpoint of an interfacial interaction. However, the geometry of the contact in practical applications is much more complex. The contribution of geometric and elastic deformation terms of a gel to friction could not be neglected. In this study, we used resonance shear measurements (RSMs) for characterizing the shear response of a glass sphere on a flat polymer hydrogel, a double network (DN) gel of 2-acrylamide-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid and N,N-dimethylacrylamide. The contact mechanics conformed to the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts theory. The observed resonance curves exhibited rather sharp peaks when the DN gel and the silica sphere were brought into contact, and their intensity and frequency increased with the increase in the normal load. We proposed a simple physical model of the shearing system, and the elastic (k2) and viscous (b2) parameters of the interface between a silica sphere and a flat DN gel were obtained. The friction force from elastic deformation and viscous dissipation terms was then estimated using the obtained parameters. It was revealed that the elastic parameter (k2) increased up to 1780 N m(-1) at a normal load of 524 mN, while the viscous parameter (b2) was zero or quite low (<0.1 N s m(-1)) for a silica sphere (radius of 18.4 mm). Thus, the friction force between a flat DN gel and a silica sphere in air was dominated by the elastic term due to the local deformation by contact with the silica sphere. By adding water, the elastic parameter (k2) remained the same, while the viscous parameter (b2) slightly increased. However, the viscous term fviscous was still much smaller than felastic. To the best of our knowledge, this study was the first quantitative estimation of the contribution of the elastic deformation term to the friction in the case when deformation of non-flat contact regions occurs. The obtained results can be basic knowledge for designing gels for applications such as artificial cartilages and sliding bearings. PMID:26098710

  20. In Vivo Measures of Shear Wave Speed as a Predictor of Tendon Elasticity and Strength.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jack A; Biedrzycki, Adam H; Lee, Kenneth S; DeWall, Ryan J; Brounts, Sabrina H; Murphy, William L; Markel, Mark D; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) to measure tissue elasticity and ultimate stress in both intact and healing tendons. The lateral gastrocnemius (Achilles) tendons of 41 New Zealand white rabbits were surgically severed and repaired with growth factor coated sutures. SWE imaging was used to measure shear wave speed (SWS) in both the medial and lateral tendons pre-surgery, and at 2 and 4 wk post-surgery. Rabbits were euthanized at 4 wk, and both medial and lateral tendons underwent mechanical testing to failure. SWS significantly (p < 0.001) decreased an average of 17% between the intact and post-surgical state across all tendons. SWS was significantly (p < 0.001) correlated with both the tendon elastic modulus (r = 0.52) and ultimate stress (r = 0.58). Thus, ultrasound SWE is a potentially promising non-invasive technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical integrity of pre-operative and post-operative tendons. PMID:26215492

  1. Relationship between Magnetic Domain Structures and Shear Stress in Magnetic Minerals of Geological Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, E.; Kanamaru, T.; Takemura, T.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic properties of rocks are affected by geomagnetic fields, heat and shearing stresses after formation. The shear stress associated with tectonic stress, for example, from a fault, can cause magnetic domain­-wall displacement. The wall displacement is thought to reflect the magnetic domain structure. Therefore, the hysteresis of strain, which rocks are subjected to in fault movements, can be used to estimate the structural disturbances of the magnetic domain. Previous studies have shown that the stress effect on magnetic domains can be observed by using industrial and synthetic materials, such as Si-Fe alloys (Chikazumi & Suzuki, 1995). However, few studies have used natural geological materials to study the effect of stress on magnetic domains. This study's objective is to verify the shear stress history of rocks by observing the magnetic domain structures via the Bitter method and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Here, the Bitter method is the powder pattern method, whereby a colloidal suspension of the magnetic powder is prepared from magnetic materials, and the patterns of the domain wall produced by ferromagnetic particles are observed under a microscope. On observing the domain structures of industrial and synthetic materials, the remnant stress on the surface layer is removed after mechanical polishing (Hoffmann et al., 1987) because the remnant stress influences the domain structures. There are several technical problems during the observation of rocks compared with those during observation of industrial and synthetic materials. Electrolytical polishing does not work because the electrical conductivity is very low (e.g., Hoffmann et al., 1987). In previous studies of the observation of magnetic domains of rock minerals, the surface strain layer was removed by polishing with colloidal silica (Ozdemir, 1995,etc). In this study, we will attempt to conduct a verification experiment and observations of the magnetic domain structures in natural minerals of rocks, and would like to discuss the relationship between the shear stress and magnetic domain structures. Here, the polishing method was according to Hoffmann et al. (1987), and the magnetic domain was observed by the Bitter method and MFM. As a result, we can observe the magnetic domain walls, and each domain wall has a spacing of 3-5 μm.

  2. Membrane stress and internal pressure in a red blood cell freely suspended in a shear flow.

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Son-Tay, R; Sutera, S P; Zahalak, G I; Rao, P R

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an algorithm for the approximate calculation of the membrane stress distribution and the internal pressure of a steadily tank-treading red cell. The algorithm is based on an idealized ellipsoidal model of the tank-treading cell (Keller, S.R., and R. Skalak, 1982, J. Fluid Mech., 120:27-47) joined with experimental observations of projected length, width, and tank-treading frequency. The results are inexact because the membrane shape and velocity are assumed a priori, rather than being determined via appropriate material constitutive relations for the membrane; these results are, nevertheless, believed to be approximately correct, and show that internal pressure builds up slowly as cell elongation increases, rising more rapidly as the deformed cell approaches the limiting geometry of a prolate ellipsoid. The maximum shear stress resultant in the membrane was found to be below but approaching the yield point range at the highest shear rate applied. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3607212

  3. Normal and shear impact of layered composite with a crack - Dynamic stress intensification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sih, G. C.; Chen, E. P.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamic response of a layered composite under normal and shear impact is analyzed by assuming that the composite contains an initial flaw in the matrix material. One of the objectives was to develop an analytical method for determining dynamic stress solutions which should lead to a numerical method which utilizes Fourier transform for the space variable and Laplace transform for the time variable. The time-dependent angle loading is separated into two parts: a symmetric and a skew-symmetric with reference to the crack plane. By superposition, the transient boundary conditions consist of applying normal and shear tractions to a crack embedded in a layered composite; one phase of the composite could represent the fiber while the other could be the matrix. Mathematically, these conditions reduce the problem to a system of dual integral equations solved in the transform plane for the transform of the dynamic stress-intensity factor.

  4. Dependence of fungal characteristics on seed morphology and shear stress in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongzhong; Li, Chao; Tang, Wenjun; Wang, Zejian; Xia, Jianye; Zhang, Siliang; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Noorman, Henk

    2015-05-01

    The fungal morphology during submerged cultivations has a profound influence on the overall performance of bioreactors. In this research, glucoamylase production by Aspergillus niger has been taken as a model to improve more insights. The morphology engineering could be conducted effectively by changing the seed morphology, as well as specific power input. During the fed-batch cultivations, pellet formation under milder shear stress field helped to reduce the broth viscosity, thus relieving oxygen limitation and promoting the enzyme production. Furthermore, we found that the relation between the shear stress field, which was characterized by energy dissipation rate/circulation function (EDCF), and enzyme activity was consistent with quadratic parabola, which threw light on the process optimization and scale-up for industrial enzyme production. PMID:25552347

  5. Propose a Wall Shear Stress Divergence to Estimate the Risks of Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Takao, H.; Murayama, Y.; Qian, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Although wall shear stress (WSS) has long been considered a critical indicator of intracranial aneurysm rupture, there is still no definite conclusion as to whether a high or a low WSS results in aneurysm rupture. The reason may be that the effect of WSS direction has not been fully considered. The objectives of this study are to investigate the magnitude of WSS (|WSS|) and its divergence on the aneurysm surface and to test the significance of both in relation to the aneurysm rupture. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to compute WSS and wall shear stress divergence (WSSD) on the aneurysm surface for nineteen patients. Our results revealed that if high |WSS| is stretching aneurysm luminal surface, and the stretching region is concentrated, the aneurysm is under a high risk of rupture. It seems that, by considering both direction and magnitude of WSS, WSSD may be a better indicator for the risk estimation of aneurysm rupture (154). PMID:24191140

  6. Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

    PubMed

    Blaeser, Andreas; Duarte Campos, Daniela Filipa; Puster, Uta; Richtering, Walter; Stevens, Molly M; Fischer, Horst

    2016-02-01

    A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future. PMID:26626828

  7. Investigations of the wall-shearing stress in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwieg, Hubert; Tillmann, W

    1950-01-01

    Because of the unsatisfactory state of knowledge concerning the surface shearing stress of boundary layers with pressure gradients, the problem is re-examined. It is found that for general turbulent boundary layers in wall proximity, that is, in the laminar sublayer, in the transition zone and in the part of the completely turbulent zone near the wall, the same universal law applies as for the plate flow.

  8. On the problem of the critical resolved shear stress saturation at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Galligan, J.M. ); Gumen, L.N. . Inst. for Radiophysics and Electronics); Krokhin, A.A. . Inst. de Fisica)

    1995-02-15

    At low temperatures the critical resolved shear stress in alkali halides and metals is temperature independent. This paper offers an explanation for this behavior which utilizes the inertial properties of dislocations. This model appears to be consistent with the deformation mechanisms for these materials. The crux of this explanation concerns the temperature dependence of the viscosity that moving dislocations experience. This model is widely used to explain the mechanical behavior of superconductors and normal state metals at low temperatures.

  9. Notch1 inhibition reduces low shear stress-induced plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Fan; Qin, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Juan; Meng, Xiao; Wang, Hao; Guo, Hai-Peng; Wu, Qun-Zheng; Wu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    Low shear stress (LSS) contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Notch1 is a type I transmembrane receptor that critically determines the growth, differentiation, and survival of various cell types, but its role and mechanism in LSS-induced inflammatory response remains undetermined. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed with high fat diet and administered intraperitoneally with DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor). Perivascular shear stress modifiers were placed around the right carotid arteries to induce LSS. The left carotid arteries with undisturbed shear stress (USS) were used as the control. LSS increased Delta-like 1 (DLL-1) protein expression and the expression of Notch1 and NICD, while DAPT administration reduced NICD expression. Compared with the LSS group, DAPT reduced LSS-induced plaque formation and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposure to undisturbed shear stress (USS, 1Pa) or LSS (0.4Pa). Notch1 was inhibited by siRNA or DAPT. RT-PCR and western blotting analysis showed that LSS upregulated the expression of Notch1 in a time-dependent manner. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) inhibition by siRNA could reduce Notch1 and NICD expression. Compared with USS, LSS increased inflammatory response, including IL-1β and IL-6 secretion, ICAM-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and THP-1 cells adhesion. Notch1 inhibition by siRNA or DAPT could reduce these inflammatory responses by reduction of NF-κB phosphorylation, upregulation of IkBα expression, and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-κB, while Notch1 activation by DLL-4 had an adverse effect. The Notch signaling system is therefore a potential target for modulating LSS-induced inflammation response during atherosclerosis. PMID:26783939

  10. Imaging the cellular response to transient shear stress using time-resolved digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Yoshihiko; Antkowiak, Maciej; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-02-01

    Shear stress has been recognized as one of the biophysical methods by which to permeabilize plasma membranes of cells. In particular, high pressure transient hydrodynamic flows created by laser-induced cavitation have been shown to lead to the uptake of fluorophores and plasmid DNA. While the mechanism and dynamics of cavitation have been extensively studied using a variety of time-resolved imaging techniques, the cellular response to the cavitation bubble and cavitation induced transient hydrodynamic flows has never been shown in detail. We use time-resolved quantitative phase microscopy to study cellular response to laser-induced cavitation bubbles. Laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped polystyrene nanoparticle (500nm in diameter) irradiated with a single nanosecond laser pulse at 532nm creates transient shear stress to surrounding cells without causing cell lysis. A bi-directional transient displacement of cytoplasm is observed during expansion and collapse of the cavitation bubble. In some cases, cell deformation is only observable at the microsecond time scale without any permanent change in cell shape or optical thickness. On a time scale of seconds, the cellular response to shear stress and cytoplasm deformation typically leads to retraction of the cellular edge most exposed to the flow, rounding of the cell body and, in some cases, loss of cellular dry mass. These results give a new insight into the cellular response to laser-induced shear stress and related plasma membrane permeabilization. This study also demonstrates that laser-induced breakdown of an optically trapped nanoparticle offers localized cavitation (70 ?m in diameter), which interacts with a single cell.

  11. Measuring Daily Stress in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfenoff, Sheila H.; Jose, Paul E.

    A study of school-age children was designed to: (1) identify hassles that children experience in their families, among peers, and at school; (2) determine the ability of hassles to predict unhealthy psychological and physical functioning; and (3) explore the effect of daily hassles on school behavior. A measure of children's daily stress that used

  12. Association of Early Atherosclerosis with Vascular Wall Shear Stress in Hypercholesterolemic Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Joon; Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop

    2015-01-01

    Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic information has become more important. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) that changes its direction is associated with the early stage of atherosclerosis. Several in vitro and in vivo models were proposed to reveal the relation between the WSS and the early atherosclerosis. However, these models possess technical limitations in mimicking real physiological conditions and monitoring the developmental course of the early atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model is proposed as a novel experimental model to resolve these limitations. Zebrafish larvae are optically transparent, which enables temporal observation of pathological variations under in vivo condition. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, and spatial distribution of lipid deposition inside the model was quantitatively investigated after feeding high cholesterol diet for 10 days. Lipids were mainly deposited in blood vessel of low WSS. The oscillating WSS was not induced by the blood flows in zebrafish models. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish would be used as a potentially useful model for in vivo study about the effects of low WSS in the early atherosclerosis. PMID:26561854

  13. Mathematical model for shear stress dependent NO and adenine nucleotide production from endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Patrick L; Buerk, Donald G; Parikh, Jaimit; Barbee, Kenneth A; Jaron, Dov

    2016-01-30

    We developed a mass transport model for a parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus to predict the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP) produced by cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and investigated how the net rates of production, degradation, and mass transport for these three chemical species vary with changes in wall shear stress (?w). These simulations provide an improved understanding of experimental results obtained with parallel-plate flow chambers and allows quantitative analysis of the relationship between ?w, adenine nucleotide concentrations, and NO produced by ECs. Experimental data obtained after altering ATP and ADP concentrations with apyrase were analyzed to quantify changes in the rate of NO production (RNO). The effects of different isoforms of apyrase on ATP and ADP concentrations and nucleotide-dependent changes in RNO could be predicted with the model. A decrease in ATP was predicted with apyrase, but an increase in ADP was simulated due to degradation of ATP. We found that a simple proportional relationship relating a component of RNO to the sum of ATP and ADP provided a close match to the fitted curve for experimentally measured changes in RNO with apyrase. Estimates for the proportionality constant ranged from 0.0067 to 0.0321?M/s increase in RNO per nM nucleotide concentration, depending on which isoform of apyrase was modeled, with the largest effect of nucleotides on RNO at low ?w (<6dyn/cm(2)). PMID:26529478

  14. Change of shear modulus and yield stress with pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that the shear modulus (G) and yield stress (Y) of metals increase with pressure (P) and decrease with temperature (T). Steinberg, in his popular compendium of dynamic material properties, assumes for Y/Y0(P,T) = G/G 0(P,T) linear relations based on derivatives determined experimentally at ambient conditions. But recent tests of certain metals found, although with some scatter, that G(P) along the principal Hugoniot is higher than what follows from Steinberg's relations. Here we use a different approach to estimate G/G 0 (P,T). As a first approximation we let G(P,T) follow from assuming a constant Poisson (?) ratio, which leads to G/G0 = K/K0, where K is the isentropic bulk modulus. With this assumption we compute the longitudinal sound speed of tantalum along its principal Hugoniot, and compare to recent measurements. There is slight disagreement, which we correct by assuming (second approximation) that Poisson's ratio increases with temperature to 0.5 at melting. We calibrate this increase to fit the data for tantalum along the Hugoniot, and get that Y/Y 0 = G/G 0 = K/K0[1 +a(T-T0) ]. As K = ? c2 is always available in a hydrocode run, so are G/G0 and Y/Y0.

  15. Association of Early Atherosclerosis with Vascular Wall Shear Stress in Hypercholesterolemic Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Joon; Choi, Woorak; Seo, Eunseok; Yeom, Eunseop

    2015-01-01

    Although atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, the role of hemodynamic information has become more important. Low and oscillating wall shear stress (WSS) that changes its direction is associated with the early stage of atherosclerosis. Several in vitro and in vivo models were proposed to reveal the relation between the WSS and the early atherosclerosis. However, these models possess technical limitations in mimicking real physiological conditions and monitoring the developmental course of the early atherosclerosis. In this study, a hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish model is proposed as a novel experimental model to resolve these limitations. Zebrafish larvae are optically transparent, which enables temporal observation of pathological variations under in vivo condition. WSS in blood vessels of 15 days post-fertilisation zebrafish was measured using a micro particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique, and spatial distribution of lipid deposition inside the model was quantitatively investigated after feeding high cholesterol diet for 10 days. Lipids were mainly deposited in blood vessel of low WSS. The oscillating WSS was not induced by the blood flows in zebrafish models. The present hypercholesterolaemic zebrafish would be used as a potentially useful model for in vivo study about the effects of low WSS in the early atherosclerosis. PMID:26561854

  16. Different Effects of Orbital Shear Stress on Vascular Endothelial Cells: Comparison with the Results of In Vivo Study with Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyosoo; Yang, Keun Ho; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Park, Sun Cheol; Kim, Ji Il; Yun, Sang Seob; Moon, In Sung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: An attempt was made to characterize the orbital shear stress by comparing the effects of orbital shear stress on vascular endothelial cells (ECs) with the results of animal experiments. Materials and Methods: In the laboratory study, cultured ECs of well were distinguished by center and periphery then exposed to orbital shear stress using an orbital shaker. In the animal study, arteriovenous (AV) fistulas were made at the right femoral arteries of Sprague-Dawley rats to increase the effect of the laminar flow. The condition of the stenosis was given on the left femoral arteries. The protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Akt phosphorylation were observed and compared. Results: Under orbital shear stress, ECs showed an increase in iNOS protein expression and phosphorylation of Akt but most of the protein expressions derived from the periphery. When compared to the animal study, the increased expression of iNOS protein and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in the sample of AV fistula conditions and the iNOS protein expression was decreased in the stenosis conditions. Conclusion: Orbital shear stress did not show the characteristics of a pure turbulent shear force. By comparing the observation with the morphological changes of vascular ECs and site-specific protein expression on the results of animal experiments, uniform directional lamina shear stress forces were expressed at the periphery. PMID:26217642

  17. Steady and transient fluid shear stress stimulate NO release in osteoblasts through distinct biochemical pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, T. N.; Frangos, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Fluid flow has been shown to be a potent stimulus in osteoblasts and osteocytes and may therefore play an important role in load-induced bone remodeling. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of flow-activated pathways. Previously we reported that fluid flow stimulates rapid and continuous release of nitric oxide (NO) in primary rat calvarial osteoblasts. Here we demonstrate that flow-induced NO release is mediated by shear stress and that this response is distinctly biphasic. Transients in shear stress associated with the onset of flow stimulated a burst in NO production (8.2 nmol/mg of protein/h), while steady flow stimulated sustained NO production (2.2 nmol/mg of protein/h). Both G-protein inhibition and calcium chelation abolished the burst phase but had no effect on sustained production. Activation of G-proteins stimulated dose-dependent NO release in static cultures of both calvarial osteoblasts and UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells. Pertussis toxin had no effect on NO release. Calcium ionophore stimulated low levels of NO production within 15 minutes but had no effect on sustained production. Taken together, these data suggest that fluid shear stress stimulates NO release by two distinct pathways: a G-protein and calcium-dependent phase sensitive to flow transients, and a G-protein and calcium-independent pathway stimulated by sustained flow.

  18. Computational models for wall shear stress estimation in scaffolds: a comparative study of two complete geometries.

    PubMed

    Maes, F; Claessens, T; Moesen, M; Van Oosterwyck, H; Van Ransbeeck, P; Verdonck, P

    2012-06-01

    Fluid mechanical stimuli are known to upregulate cell differentiation and matrix formation. Since wall shear stress plays an important role various studies tried to estimate the scaffold fluid dynamic environment. However, because of the geometrical complexity, nearly all studies created their CFD model based on a submodel of the entire scaffold assuming that the model covers heterogeneity sufficiently. However to the authors' knowledge no study exist providing guidelines in this matter. In a previous study we demonstrated that submodels are influenced by the boundary conditions, inevitable when flow channels are chopped off. For the current study we therefore developed μCT based models of two complete scaffold geometries (one titanium and one hydroxyapatite). Imposing a 0.04 ml/min flow rate resulted in a surface area averaged wall shear stress of 1.41 mPa for titanium and 1.09 mPa for hydroxyapatite. In order to get insight in required model size we subdivided the domain in regions of different size. From our results we propose a model size between 6 and 10 times the average pore size. The wall shears stress should be calculated on a region at least one pore size away from the boundaries. These guidelines could be of use for computationally more costly simulations where it is not possible to simulate the complete scaffold domain. PMID:22541942

  19. Shear stress upregulates IL-1β secretion by Chlamydia pneumoniae- infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheeniyil, Aswathi; Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2015-04-01

    Infectious agents are increasingly implicated in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that the common intracellular respiratory pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the well-established risk factors of atherosclerosis but the exact mechanism is not well understood. It is believed that C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes travel from the lung to the atherosclerotic foci, during which the cells experience mechanical stimuli due to blood flow. In this work, we characterized the effect of physiological levels of shear stress on C. pneumoniae-infected human monocytes in an in vitro flow model. We found that a shear stress of 5 dyn/cm(2) enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β only in infected, but not in uninfected, monocytes. We also found that this enhancement is due to the upregulation of IL-1β gene expression due to shear stress. Our results demonstrate that mechanotransduction is an important, heretofore unaddressed, determinant of inflammatory response to an infection. PMID:25336058

  20. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Dallo, Shatha F.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation. PMID:24505240

  1. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm(2) for 1 h on C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation. PMID:24505240

  2. Low-Shear modeled microgravity alters the Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium stress response in an RpoS-independent manner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James W.; Ott, C. Mark; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Porwollik, Steffen; McClelland, Michael; Pierson, Duane L.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low-shear modeled microgravity (low-shear MMG) serves to enhance the virulence of a bacterial pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Salmonella response to low-shear MMG involves a signaling pathway that we have termed the low-shear MMG stimulon, though the identities of the low-shear MMG stimulon genes and regulatory factors are not known. RpoS is the primary sigma factor required for the expression of genes that are induced upon exposure to different environmental-stress signals and is essential for virulence in mice. Since low-shear MMG induces a Salmonella acid stress response and enhances Salmonella virulence, we reasoned that RpoS would be a likely regulator of the Salmonella low-shear MMG response. Our results demonstrate that low-shear MMG provides cross-resistance to several environmental stresses in both wild-type and isogenic rpoS mutant strains. Growth under low-shear MMG decreased the generation time of both strains in minimal medium and increased the ability of both strains to survive in J774 macrophages. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found no evidence of induction of the RpoS regulon by low-shear MMG but did find that other genes were altered in expression under these conditions in both the wild-type and rpoS mutant strains. Our results indicate that, under the conditions of these studies, RpoS is not required for transmission of the signal that induces the low-shear MMG stimulon. Moreover, our studies also indicate that low-shear MMG can be added to a short list of growth conditions that can serve to preadapt an rpoS mutant for resistance to multiple environmental stresses.

  3. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1979-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks is considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem is solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses are calculated. For finite cracks the problem is reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results are obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  4. Stress intensity factors in bonded half planes containing inclined cracks and subjected to antiplane shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, J. L.; Erdogan, F.

    1978-01-01

    The antiplane shear problem for two bonded dissimilar half planes containing a semi-infinite crack or two arbitrarily located collinear cracks was considered. For the semi-infinite crack the problem was solved for a concentrated wedge load and the stress intensity factor and the angular distribution of stresses were calculated. For finite cracks the problem was reduced to a pair of integral equations. Numerical results were obtained for cracks fully imbedded in a homogeneous medium, one crack tip touching the interface, and a crack crossing the interface for various crack angles.

  5. Hydraulic fracturing in situ stress measurements to 2.1 km depth at Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Stress measurements to 2.1 km reveal stress changes with depth that cannot be explained by an elastic response to uniform crustal strain. The data at about 1 km depth suggest that the stress is limited by the frictional strength of rock and is perturbed at greater depths by faults which intersect the borehole. The stress data indicate that there is little or no right-lateral shear stress acting on planes parallel to the San Andreas Fault. -Authors

  6. Quantification of Hemodynamic Wall Shear Stress in Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve Using Phase-Contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Alex J.; Lanning, Craig; Shandas, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is often concomitant with aortic dilatation, aneurysm, and dissection. This valve lesion and its complications may affect positional and temporal wall shear stress (WSS), a parameter reported to regulate transcriptional events in vascular remodeling. Thus, this pilot study seeks to determine if the WSS in the ascending aorta (AAo) of BAV patients differs from control patients. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) was used to perform flow analysis at the level of the AAo in 15 BAV and 15 control patients. Measurement of the aorta dimensions, flow rates, regurgitant fraction (RF), flow reversal ratio (FRR), temporal and spatial WSS, and shear range indices (SRI) were performed. The BAV and control group showed a significant difference between the circumferentially averaged WSS (p = 0.03) and positional WSS at systole (minimum p<0.001). Regressions found that SRI (r = 0.77, p<0.001), RF (r = 0.68, p<0.001), and WSS at systole (r = 0.66, p<0.001) were correlated to AAo size. The spatial distribution and magnitude of systolic WSS in BAV patients (−6.7 ± 4.3 dynes/cm2) differed significantly from control patients (−11.5 ± 6.6 dynes/cm2, p = 0.03). The SRI metric, a measure of shear symmetry along the lumen circumference, was also significantly different (p = 0.006) and indicated a heterogenic pattern of dilatation in the BAV patients. PMID:19953319

  7. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  8. The 1994-1995 seismicity and deformation at the Hengill triple junction, Iceland: Triggering of earthquakes by minor magma injection in a zone of horizontal shear stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Einarsson, PLl; RGnvaldsson, Sigurdur Th.; Foulger, G. R.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Thorbergsson, Gunnar

    1997-07-01

    Since July 1994 an unusually persistent swarm of earthquakes (M<4.0) has been in progress at the Hengill triple junction, SW Iceland. Activity is clustered around the center of the Hrmundartindur volcanic system. Geodetic measurements indicate a few centimeters uplift and expansion of the area, consistent with a pressure source at 6.53 km depth beneath the center of the volcanic system. The system is within the stress field of the south Iceland transform zone, and the majority of the recorded earthquakes represent strike-slip faulting on subvertical planes. We show that the secondary effects of a pressure source, modeled as a point source in an elastic half-space, include horizontal shear that perturbs the regional stress. Near the surface, shear stress is enhanced in quadrants around the direction of maximum regional horizontal stress and diminished in quadrants around the direction of minimum regional stress. The recorded earthquakes show spatial correlation with areas of enhanced shear. The maximum amount of shear near the surface caused by the expanding pressure source exceeds 1 ?strain, sufficient to trigger earthquakes if the crust in the area was previously close to failure.

  9. Deformation in the Rutford ice stream, West Antarctica: measuring shear-wave anisotropy from icequakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Harland, Sophie; Stuart, Graham; Baird, Alan; Lloyd, Geoff; Smith, Andy; Pritchard, Hamish; Brisbourne, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Ice streams provide major drainage pathways for the Antarctic ice sheet. The stress distribution and style of flow in such ice streams produces elastic and rheological anisotropy, which informs ice flow modelling as to how ice masses respond to external changes such as global warming. Here we analyse elastic anisotropy in the Rutford ice stream, West Antarctica, using observations of shear wave splitting from three-component icequake seismograms to characterise ice deformation via crystal preferred orientation. Over 110 high quality measurements are made on 41 events recorded at five stations temporarily deployed near the ice stream grounding line. To the best of our knowledge this is the first well-documented observation of shear wave splitting from Antarctic icequakes. The magnitude of the splitting ranges from 2ms to 80ms and suggest a maximum of 6% shear wave splitting. The fast shear wave polarisation direction is roughly perpendicular to ice flow direction. We consider three mechanisms for ice anisotropy: a cluster model (VTI model); a girdle model (and HTI model); and crack-induced anisotropy (an HTI model). Based on the data we can rule out a VTI mechanism as the sole cause of anisotropy - an HTI component is needed, which may be due to ice crystal a-axis alignment in the direction of flow or the alignment of cracks or ice-films in the plane perpendicular to the flow direction. The results may suggest a combination of mechanisms are at play, which represent vertical variations in the symmetry of ice-crystal anisotropy in an ice stream, as predicted by ice fabric models.

  10. Fatigue surviving, fracture resistance, shear stress and finite element analysis of glass fiber posts with different diameters.

    PubMed

    Wandscher, Vincius Felipe; Bergoli, Csar Dalmolin; de Oliveira, Ariele Freitas; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Souto Borges, Alexandre Luiz; Limberguer, Incio da Fontoura; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the shear stress presented in glass fiber posts with parallel fiber (0) and different coronal diameters under fatigue, fracture resistance and FEA. 160 glass-fiber posts (N=160) with eight different coronal diameters were used (DT=double tapered, number of the post=coronal diameter and W=Wider - fiber post with coronal diameter wider than the conventional): DT1.4; DT1.8W; DT1.6; DT2W; DT1.8; DT2.2W; DT2; DT2.2. Eighty posts were submitted to mechanical cycling (310(6) cycles; inclination: 45; load: 50N; frequency: 4Hz; temperature: 37C) to assess the surviving under intermittent loading and other eighty posts were submitted to fracture resistance testing (resistance [N] and shear-stress [MPa] values were obtained). The eight posts types were 3D modeled (Rhinoceros 4.0) and the shear-stress (MPa) evaluated using FEA (Ansys 13.0). One-way ANOVA showed statistically differences to fracture resistance (DT2.2W and DT2.2 showed higher values) and shear stress values (DT1.4 showed lower values). Only the DT1.4 fiber posts failed after mechanical cycling. FEA showed similar values of shear stress between the groups and these values were similar to those obtained by shear stress testing. The failure analysis showed that 95% of specimens failed by shear. Posts with parallel fiber (0) may suffer fractures when an oblique shear load is applied on the structure; except the thinner group, greater coronal diameters promoted the same shear stresses. PMID:25553557

  11. Characterizaton of the Vessel Geometry, Flow Mechanics and Wall Shear Stress in the Great Arteries of Wildtype Prenatal Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Choon Hwai; Liu, Xiaoqin; Pekkan, Kerem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal fluid mechanical environment in the pre-natal cardiovascular system is hypothesized to play a significant role in causing structural heart malformations. It is thus important to improve our understanding of the prenatal cardiovascular fluid mechanical environment at multiple developmental time-points and vascular morphologies. We present such a study on fetal great arteries on the wildtype mouse from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to near-term (E18.5). Methods Ultrasound bio-microscopy (UBM) was used to measure blood velocity of the great arteries. Subsequently, specimens were cryo-embedded and sectioned using episcopic fluorescent image capture (EFIC) to obtain high-resolution 2D serial image stacks, which were used for 3D reconstructions and quantitative measurement of great artery and aortic arch dimensions. EFIC and UBM data were input into subject-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for modeling hemodynamics. Results In normal mouse fetuses between E14.518.5, ultrasound imaging showed gradual but statistically significant increase in blood velocity in the aorta, pulmonary trunk (with the ductus arteriosus), and descending aorta. Measurement by EFIC imaging displayed a similar increase in cross sectional area of these vessels. However, CFD modeling showed great artery average wall shear stress and wall shear rate remain relatively constant with age and with vessel size, indicating that hemodynamic shear had a relative constancy over gestational period considered here. Conclusion Our EFIC-UBM-CFD method allowed reasonably detailed characterization of fetal mouse vascular geometry and fluid mechanics. Our results suggest that a homeostatic mechanism for restoring vascular wall shear magnitudes may exist during normal embryonic development. We speculate that this mechanism regulates the growth of the great vessels. PMID:24475188

  12. On the yielding behaviour in magnetorheology using ultrasounds, shear and normal stresses, and optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrguez-Lpez, Jaime; Castro Blzquez, Pedro; Elvira, Luis; Montero de Espinosa, Francisco; Ramrez, Javier; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-11-01

    The yielding behaviour of magnetorheological fluids has been investigated by videomicroscopy, ultrasonic and rheometry techniques simultaneously. Particularly, the effect of different factors such as, the magnetic field strength, particle size, surface chemistry of the particles, particle concentration and carrier fluid viscosity has been studied. Special attention has been paid to correlate the yielding information obtained by acoustical, optical and mechanical techniques. As a general trend, independently of the particular field strength and suspension formulation, the steady shear flow curve exhibits three well differentiated regions. In the first region, at small stresses, field-induced structures remain quasistatic and all magnitudes remain constant. For larger stresses the number of aggregates decreases but their size increases. This is identified with the onset of flow, and corresponds to the classical static yield stress and a decrease in time-of-flight and normal stresses. For even larger stress values, the suspensions fully flow. This stress value corresponds to the classical dynamic yield stress and is associated to a minimum in the time-of-flight and normal stresses.

  13. Improvement of Infusion Process in Cell Transplantation: Effect of Shear Stress on Hepatocyte Viability Under Horizontal and Vertical Syringe Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Sufiandi, Sandi; Obara, Hiromichi; Enosawa, Shin; Hsu, Huai-Che; Matsuno, Naoto; Mizunuma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Improving cell viability and function are important for enhancing the clinical results of cell transplantation. The relationship between cell viability and shear stress remains unexplained, and sedimentation effects during the infusion process are important to the hepatocyte transplantation process. In the present study, the relationship between cell viability and shear stress in the presence of sedimentation effect was investigated using a microchannel simulating the cell transplantation process under several shear stress conditions. Horizontal and vertical syringe orientations were employed to investigate the sedimentation effect. The vertical syringe orientation resulted in lower viability loss than the horizontal orientation. In summary, removing a sedimentation effect is important to improving cell viability by preventing high shear stress. PMID:26858894

  14. Effect of shear stress on intrinsic CHO culture state and glycosylation of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator protein.

    PubMed

    Senger, Ryan S; Karim, M Nazmul

    2003-01-01

    Shear stress in suspension culture was investigated as a possible manipulative parameter for the control of glycosylation of the recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator protein (r-tPA) produced by recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture, grown in protein-free media. Resulting fractions of partially glycosylated, Type II, and fully glycosylated, Type I, r-tPA protein were monitored as a direct function of the shear characteristics of the culture environment. The shear-induced response of CHO culture to levels of low shear stress, where exponential growth was not obtained, and to higher levels of shear stress, which resulted in extensive cell death, were examined through manipulation of the bioreactor stirring velocity. Both apparent and intrinsic cell growth, metabolite consumption, byproduct and r-tPA production, and r-tPA glycosylation, from a variable site-occupancy standpoint, were monitored throughout. Kinetic analyses revealed a shear-stress-induced alteration of cellular homeostasis resulting in a nonlinear dependency of metabolic yield coefficients and an intrinsic cell lysis kinetic constant on shear stress. Damaging levels of shear stress were used to investigate the shear dependence of cell death and lysis, as well as the effects on the intrinsic growth rate of the culture. Kinetic models were also developed on the basis of the intrinsic state of the culture and compared to traditional models. Total r-tPA production was maximized under moderate shear conditions, as was the viable CHO cell density of the culture. However, Type II r-tPA production and the fraction of Type II glycoform production ratio was maximized under damaging levels of shear stress. Analyses of biomass production yield coefficients coupled with a plug-flow reactor model of glycan addition in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) were used to propose an overall mechanism of decreased r-tPA protein site-occupancy glycosylation with increasing shear stress. Decreased residence time of r-tPA in the ER as a result of increased protein synthesis related to shear protection mechanisms is proposed to limit contact of site Asn184 with the membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase enzyme in the ER. PMID:12892482

  15. Measuring stress: Uses and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Suter, G.W. II

    1994-12-31

    The topic of the uses and limitations of measuring stress in the oceans is addressed. The use of the term stress in this context is ambiguous. Rather than assuming that stress is an actual measurable property of oceans, one may assume that the term refers to the complex of harmful things that is going on in the oceans. that is, it is a cover term for a complex of processes and states, many of which are unknown or undefined. The appeal of the term stress used in that way is very tempting. Considerable complexity results from the fact that the ocean consists of numerous and diverse species and ecosystems each of which have various properties that have some claim to protection. Another source of complexity is the diversity of factors which constitute threats to the environment. In evaluating the concepts of ecological risk assessment, there are sources of hazardous agents, there are receptors that are affected, and there is a process by which these interact termed exposure. As a result of exposure there is some probability that the actions of the sources have caused or will cause some effect on the receptor, the risk. Assessments may be source driven; they may attempt to determine the risks associated with a waste outfall. Assessments may also be effects driven; they may attempt to determine the cause of a die-off of marine mammals or determine the likelihood of a particular rise in sea-level. Finally, they may be exposure driven. Each of these components of the causal chain might serve as measures of stress.

  16. Predicting equilibrium states with Reynolds stress closures in channel flow and homogeneous shear flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abid, R.; Speziale, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Turbulent channel flow and homogeneous shear flow have served as basic building block flows for the testing and calibration of Reynolds stress models. A direct theoretical connection is made between homogeneous shear flow in equilibrium and the log-layer of fully-developed turbulent channel flow. It is shown that if a second-order closure model is calibrated to yield good equilibrium values for homogeneous shear flow it will also yield good results for the log-layer of channel flow provided that the Rotta coefficient is not too far removed from one. Most of the commonly used second-order closure models introduce an ad hoc wall reflection term in order to mask deficient predictions for the log-layer of channel flow that arise either from an inaccurate calibration of homogeneous shear flow or from the use of a Rotta coefficient that is too large. Illustrative model calculations are presented to demonstrate this point which has important implications for turbulence modeling.

  17. Evaluation of bioprosthetic heart valve failure using a matrix-fibril shear stress transfer approach.

    PubMed

    Anssari-Benam, Afshin; Barber, Asa H; Bucchi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    A matrix-fibril shear stress transfer approach is devised and developed in this paper to analyse the primary biomechanical factors which initiate the structural degeneration of the bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs). Using this approach, the critical length of the collagen fibrils l c and the interface shear acting on the fibrils in both BHV and natural aortic valve (AV) tissues under physiological loading conditions are calculated and presented. It is shown that the required critical fibril length to provide effective reinforcement to the natural AV and the BHV tissue is l c =25.36m and l c =66.81m, respectively. Furthermore, the magnitude of the required shear force acting on fibril interface to break a cross-linked fibril in the BHV tissue is shown to be 38N, while the required interfacial force to break the bonds between the fibril and the surrounding extracellular matrix is 31N. Direct correlations are underpinned between these values and the ultimate failure strength and the failure mode of the BHV tissue compared with the natural AV, and are verified against the existing experimental data. The analyses presented in this paper explain the role of fibril interface shear and critical length in regulating the biomechanics of the structural failure of the BHVs, for the first time. This insight facilitates further understanding into the underlying causes of the structural degeneration of the BHVs in vivo. PMID:26715134

  18. The turbulent structures around clusters formed under a range of armoring shear stresses and grain size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, J. C.; Tan, L.

    2011-12-01

    In gravel bed rivers, low flows generate shear stresses less than what is needed to entrain the largest particles but large enough to transport the fines. During sustained low flows, fine sediment winnows from the bed surface and an armored surface layer forms. As the surface armor forms, a surface structure develops that increases bed roughness and flow resistance and can be characterized by the presence of clusters. Individual clusters are known to exert a significant influence over the spatial and temporal flow processes acting in the vicinity of the bed. A series of flume experiments investigated the turbulent structures formed around clusters naturally developed during bed armoring. The series of experiments created armored beds using four different flow rates and four different bulk grain size distributions which progressively increased in the percent sand in the bed sediment. Following an initial run segment that established equilibrium sediment transport and full bed mobility, the flow rate in the flume was reduced and the bed surface fully armored. Once armored, clusters were identified using a combination of bed DEM, vertical profile, and visual analysis. Instantaneous three-dimensional flow velocities were measured around the clusters using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, and these values were used to calculate Reynolds shear stresses, turbulence intensities, and turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. Results show a significant change in the flow profiles over a cluster when compared to an open area of the armored bed. Reynolds shear stresses doubled over the cluster and turbulence intensity reached a peak value right above the single cluster. The results also suggest the effects of the single cluster on the surrounding flow dynamics are quite localized and limited to 30cm in lateral orientation. Quadrant analysis showing large ejection and sweep events around clusters indicates vortex formation at the cluster crest. The magnitude of the coherent structures is compared across the flow rates.

  19. Parallel-plate Flow Chamber and Continuous Flow Circuit to Evaluate Endothelial Progenitor Cells under Laminar Flow Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Whitney O.; Jantzen, Alexandra E.; Carlon, Tim A.; Jamiolkowski, Ryan M.; Grenet, Justin E.; Ley, Melissa M.; Haseltine, Justin M.; Galinat, Lauren J.; Lin, Fu-Hsiung; Allen, Jason D.; Truskey, George A.; Achneck, Hardean E.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this method is to describe a technique to subject adherent cells to laminar flow conditions and evaluate their response to well quantifiable fluid shear stresses1. Our flow chamber design and flow circuit (Fig. 1) contains a transparent viewing region that enables testing of cell adhesion and imaging of cell morphology immediately before flow (Fig. 11A, B), at various time points during flow (Fig. 11C), and after flow (Fig. 11D). These experiments are illustrated with human umbilical cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and porcine EPCs2,3. This method is also applicable to other adherent cell types, e.g. smooth muscle cells (SMCs) or fibroblasts. The chamber and all parts of the circuit are easily sterilized with steam autoclaving. In contrast to other chambers, e.g. microfluidic chambers, large numbers of cells (> 1 million depending on cell size) can be recovered after the flow experiment under sterile conditions for cell culture or other experiments, e.g. DNA or RNA extraction, or immunohistochemistry (Fig. 11E), or scanning electron microscopy5. The shear stress can be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the perfusate, the fluid viscosity, or the channel height and width. The latter can reduce fluid volume or cell needs while ensuring that one-dimensional flow is maintained. It is not necessary to measure chamber height between experiments, since the chamber height does not depend on the use of gaskets, which greatly increases the ease of multiple experiments. Furthermore, the circuit design easily enables the collection of perfusate samples for analysis and/or quantification of metabolites secreted by cells under fluid shear stress exposure, e.g. nitric oxide (Fig. 12)6. PMID:22297325

  20. Differential regulation of protease activated receptor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator expression by shear stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadaki, M.; Ruef, J.; Nguyen, K. T.; Li, F.; Patterson, C.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.; Runge, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells are responsive to changes in their local hemodynamic environment. The effects of shear stress on the expression of human protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) mRNA and protein were investigated in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). Under conditions of low shear stress (5 dyn/cm2), PAR-1 mRNA expression was increased transiently at 2 hours compared with stationary control values, whereas at high shear stress (25 dyn/cm2), mRNA expression was decreased (to 29% of stationary control; P<0.05) at all examined time points (2 to 24 hours). mRNA half-life studies showed that this response was not due to increased mRNA instability. tPA mRNA expression was decreased (to 10% of stationary control; P<0.05) by low shear stress after 12 hours of exposure and was increased (to 250% of stationary control; P<0.05) after 24 hours at high shear stress. The same trends in PAR-1 mRNA levels were observed in rat smooth muscle cells, indicating that the effects of shear stress on human PAR-1 were not species-specific. Flow cytometry and ELISA techniques using rat smooth muscle cells and HASMCs, respectively, provided evidence that shear stress exerted similar effects on cell surface-associated PAR-1 and tPA protein released into the conditioned media. The decrease in PAR-1 mRNA and protein had functional consequences for HASMCs, such as inhibition of [Ca2+] mobilization in response to thrombin stimulation. These data indicate that human PAR-1 and tPA gene expression are regulated differentially by shear stress, in a pattern consistent with their putative roles in several arterial vascular pathologies.

  1. On the Effect of Apex Geometry on Wall Shear Stress and Pressure in a 2-D Arterial Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Anne; Haljasmaa, Igor; Galdi, Giovanni

    2000-11-01

    There is strong evidence to support the hypothesis that vascular geometry plays an important role in the initiation and development of cerebral aneurysms as well as other vascular diseases through its influence